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Sample records for pregnant women quantitative

  1. [Species and quantitative characteristics of pharyngeal mucosa microflora in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheriakova, A K; Kostinov, M P; Magarshak, O O; Zaĭtseva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Species and quantitative characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosa microflora in women at gestation period. The results of a bacteriological study of 68 samples of mucus from posterior pharyngeal wall in women at gestation period (from 14 weeks), 52 of those--from pregnant women with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms and 16--from women without signs of disease, are presented. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora was studied by a generally accepted bacteriological method. During primary bacteriological study 111 microorganism cultures were isolated. 88 (79.3%) of strains belonged to Gram-positive flora, 20 (18.0%)--to Gram-negative, and Candida genus fungi constituted 3 (2.7%) isolates. Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from pregnant women with ARI signs at 23.1% and 5.8% frequency of occurrence, respectively. A higher detectability of Staphylococcus aureus--in 31.3% and Candida spp.--in 6.3% of women who did not complain as opposed to patients with URT lesions (in 21.2 and 3.9%, respectively) was determined. In patients without ARI signs the amount of bacteria did not exceed 10(5)--10(6) CFU/ml, in pregnant women with ARI diagnosis in 8 of 52 cases semination of pharyngeal mucuswas observed--10(7)--10(8) CFU/ml. Prevalence of S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans in composition of pharyngeal mucus microflora of pregnant women both with URT lesion signs and without them was shown, however the degree of semination by pathogens in the groups was different that determined the severity of disease manifestations.

  2. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum from pregnant women carrying a fetus with conotruncal heart defect using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD fetus, using proteomic analysis.The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14-18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot.A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot.The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of pregnant women delivery status’ records in Akure, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale O. Adejumo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, monthly records (datasets of total delivery, normal delivery, delivery through Caesarean section and number of still births from pregnant women in Akure, the capital city of Ondo state Nigeria, for a period of ten years, between January 2007 and December 2016 were considered. Correlational and time series analyses were conducted on the monthly records of total delivery, normal delivery (delivery through woman virginal, delivery through Caesarean section, and number of still births, in order to observe the patterns each of these indicators follows and to recommend appropriate model for forecasting their future values. The data were obtained in raw form from State Specialist Hospital (SSH, Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. A clear description and variation in each of these indicators (total delivery, normal delivery, caesarean section, and still births were considered separately using descriptive statistics and box plots. Different models were also proposed for each of these indicators using time series models. Keywords: ARIMA, Caesarean section, Normal delivery, Data, Still birth, Time series, Akure

  5. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  6. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  7. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  8. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  9. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  10. Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M

    2017-08-01

    Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  12. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alexia; Cornette, Jerome; Johnson, Mark R; Karamermer, Yusuf; Springeling, Tirza; Opic, Petra; Moelker, Adriaan; Krestin, Gabriel P; Steegers, Eric; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M

    2011-06-27

    There are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the enlarged uterus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural changes on cardiac dimensions and function during mid and late pregnancy using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Healthy non-pregnant women, pregnant women at 20th week of gestation and at 32nd week of gestation without history of cardiac disease were recruited to the study and underwent CMR in supine and left lateral positions. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions were measured and compared between both positions. Five non-pregnant women, 6 healthy pregnant women at mid pregnancy and 8 healthy pregnant women at late pregnancy were enrolled in the study. In the group of non-pregnant women left ventricular (LV) cardiac output (CO) significantly decreased by 9% (p=0.043) and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) significantly increased by 5% (p=0.043) from the supine to the left lateral position. During mid pregnancy LV ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), left atrium lateral diameter and left atrial supero-inferior diameter increased significantly from the supine position to the left lateral position: 8%, 27%, 5% and 11%, respectively (ppregnancy a significant increment of LV EF, EDV, SV and CO was observed in the left lateral position: 11%, 21%, 35% and 24% (ppregnancy positional changes affect significantly cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions. Pregnant women who need serial studies by CMR should be imaged in a consistent position. From as early as 20 weeks the left lateral position should be preferred on the supine position because it positively affects venous return, SV and CO.

  13. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moelker Adriaan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the enlarged uterus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural changes on cardiac dimensions and function during mid and late pregnancy using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Healthy non-pregnant women, pregnant women at 20th week of gestation and at 32nd week of gestation without history of cardiac disease were recruited to the study and underwent CMR in supine and left lateral positions. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions were measured and compared between both positions. Results Five non-pregnant women, 6 healthy pregnant women at mid pregnancy and 8 healthy pregnant women at late pregnancy were enrolled in the study. In the group of non-pregnant women left ventricular (LV cardiac output (CO significantly decreased by 9% (p = 0.043 and right ventricular (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV significantly increased by 5% (p = 0.043 from the supine to the left lateral position. During mid pregnancy LV ejection fraction (EF, stroke volume (SV, left atrium lateral diameter and left atrial supero-inferior diameter increased significantly from the supine position to the left lateral position: 8%, 27%, 5% and 11%, respectively (p Conclusions During pregnancy positional changes affect significantly cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions. Pregnant women who need serial studies by CMR should be imaged in a consistent position. From as early as 20 weeks the left lateral position should be preferred on the supine position because it positively affects venous return, SV and CO.

  14. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  15. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  16. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  17. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...

  18. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

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    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  19. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  20. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Rossi (Adriano); J.M.J. Cornette (Jérôme); M.R. Johnson (Mark); Y. Karamermer (Yusuf); T. Springeling (Tirza); P. Opic (Petra); A. Moelker (Adriaan); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the

  1. [An innovative policy for supporting pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stéphanie

    2015-04-01

    Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...

  3. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  4. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  5. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  6. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  7. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  8. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  9. Peculiarities of the colon microflora condition in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Vasylivna Rynzhuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation deals with studying of species content and population level of the colon microflora in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in comparison with practically healthy pregnant women. A significant disorder of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the colon microflora content has been found to occur in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, which in combination with physiological factors associated with pregnancy may result in the development of asymptomatic bacteriuria.

  10. Anxiety during pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many women suffer psychological symptoms during pregnancy but few studies have examined anxiety among pregnant ladies in relation to the level of education, previous bad obstetrical history and female circumcision. Aims: To determine frequency of anxiety among Sudanese women as related to pregnancy and ...

  11. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened in a qualitative study using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Results: Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive.

  12. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.

  13. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  14. Pregnant women's choice of birthing hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS: Women made their hospital choice decision independently......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized...

  15. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  16. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  17. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...

  18. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence.One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected.Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in pregnant women in poor countries

  19. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  20. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  1. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  2. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  3. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  4. Hematologic features among anemic Cameroonian pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. Methods: this cross ...

  5. Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.

  6. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Gordovskaya; I. V. Korotchaeva

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  7. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Gordovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  8. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  9. Correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann

    2017-06-01

    to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  11. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  13. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  14. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131...

  15. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  16. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

  17. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  18. Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A

    2017-09-01

    Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  20. Epidemiological overview of HIV/AIDS in pregnant women from a state of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claúdia Mendes da; Alves, Regina de Souza; Santos, Tâmyssa Simões dos; Bragagnollo, Gabriela Rodrigues; Tavares, Clodis Maria; Santos, Amuzza Aylla Pereira dos

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To learn the epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in pregnant women. Method: Descriptive study with quantitative approach. The study population was composed of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS residing in the state of Alagoas. Data were organized into variables and analyzed according to the measures of dispersion parameter relevant to the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (X ± S). Results: Between 2007 and 2015, 773 cases of HIV/AIDS were recorded in pregna...

  1. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Griglio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  2. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  3. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  4. A comparison of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant and non pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.

  5. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  6. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  7. Local treatment of chloasma in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shperling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the efficacy and safety of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration for the treatment of chloasma in pregnant women. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 pregnant women aged 18-36 (mean age: 24.7 with a normal course of pregnancy. The patients consulted a doctor in the spring, summer or fall complaining of focal skin hyperpigmentation on the face, chin and chest area. Ten patients (35.7% developed hyperpigmentation prior to their pregnancy and 18 women (64.3% - during the pregnancy. As of the consultation date, the pregnancy terms in all of the patients were 18-20 weeks. Chloasma was diagnosed by using dermatoscopy and skin examination with the Wood’s lamp. The patients were informed about the content and procedure of the study and gave their consent to take part in the study. Thin layers of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration were applied to the hyperpigmented skin of the patients and gently rubbed twice a day (in the morning and evening as topical treatment for four months. The treatment results were assessed taking into consideration the patient’s subjective assessment, study group structure depending on the clinical efficacy, percentage of adverse events, and survey results based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. To reveal any potential general toxicological effects of the treatment, hepatic samples, total blood count and coagulogram results were analyzed as a part of obstetrical and gynecologic care for pregnant women. Key findings. Positive dynamics of the following characteristics was revealed: subjective assessment of treatment results by the patients, clinical efficacy of treatment and life quality index. Therapeutic results were observed as early as after one month but not later than three months after the treatment began. The therapeutic efficacy was recorded in 92.9-96.4% of all cases after four months of treatment: pigment spots disappeared or

  8. Breastfeeding knowledge among working pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Pregnant women's attitudes toward influenza vaccination while breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Pregnant women and postpartum women who are breastfeeding could benefit from receiving information and recommendations specific to vaccination from their healthcare providers, with a focus on discussing known risks and benefits to the baby's health.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women towards antenatal care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to explore pregnant women`s knowledge ... A qualitative, exploratory approach was used. ... Trustworthiness was ensured by considering the criteria of credibility, dependability, applicability and transferability.

  11. Oral health Knowledge and behavior among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...

  12. Evaluation of oral health among pregnant women in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...

  13. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...

  14. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  15. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in relation to exposure to infection risk, age and pregnancy-related risk factors. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 294 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Accra who consented to participate. Personal and Toxoplasma ...

  16. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...

  17. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  18. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  19. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...

  20. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  1. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  2. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same

  3. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  4. Mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara

    2018-03-21

    The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate:• the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and• the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs). We have presented all

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella in school girls and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.

  6. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  7. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  9. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  10. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  11. Use of herbal medicine among pregnant women on antenatal care at nekemte hospital, Western ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

  12. Submicroscopic malaria infections in pregnant women from six departments in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Raccurt, Christian P; Lemoine, Jean F; Existe, Alexandre; Boncy, Jacques; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A

    2017-08-01

    To describe the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in Haiti. Cross-sectional study among pregnant women in six departments of Haiti. After obtaining informed consent, whole blood samples and demographic surveys were collected to investigate malaria prevalence, anaemia and socio-behavioural risk factors for infection, respectively. A total of 311 pregnant women were screened for Plasmodium falciparum infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and a novel, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). Overall, 1.2% (4/311) of pregnant women were tested positive for malaria infection by both microscopy and RDT. However, using the qRT-PCR, 16.4% (51/311) of pregnant women were positive. The prevalence of malaria infection varied with geographical locations ranging between 0% and 46.4%. Additionally, 53% of pregnant women had some form of anaemia; however, no significant association was found between anaemia and submicroscopic malaria infection. The socio-behavioural risk factors identified to be protective of malaria infection were marital status (P < 0.05) and travel within one month prior to screening (P < 0.05). This study is the first to document the high prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infections among pregnant women in Haiti and identify social and behavioural risk factors for disease transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  14. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  15. [Frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) for pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.

  16. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aguilar-Cordero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.

  17. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  18. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  19. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  20. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  1. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  2. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  3. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  5. Designing a Pregnancy Care Network for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Khanum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All pregnant women need easy access to pregnancy-related personalized information, on-time quality healthcare services and effective communication links with healthcare providers. Smartphone-based devices, communication systems and eHealth applications can play an important role in facilitating some of these services to pregnant women in a fast and efficient way and can thus prevent most of the pregnancy-related complications. The objective of this work is to propose and design a pregnancy care network for pregnant women and healthcare providers. The network model, an eHealth application based on smartphone-based devices and communication systems, is designed to strengthen communication links between health professionals and pregnant women and increase education, awareness and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

  6. CARDIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gaisin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of specialized management of pregnant women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the Udmurt Republic (UR of Russia.Material and methods. In prospective and retrospective study we investigated pregnancy outcomes in all 17948 women in management system created for pregnant patients with CVD in the UR from 2000 to 2007. The system comprises specialized outpatient and inpatient departments and an obstetric hospital within the regional cardiological centre. Pregnant women had different CVD including hypertension, congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, noncoronary myocardial disease, disorders and autoimmune diseases of connective tissue, etc.Results. Perinatal mortality decreased by 41,1% from 11,2‰ in 2000 to 6,6‰ in 2007. During 8 years, no one woman died.Conclusion. The management system for pregnant women with CVD within the regional cardiological clinic makes it possible to reduce of maternal and perinatal mortality rates significantly. 

  7. prevalence of malarial parasites in pregnant women attending sir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keyword: Prevalence, Malarial Parasite, Pregnant Women, Kano. INTRODUCTION ... protective semi-immunity against plasmodium falciparum is acquired during the first 10-. 15 years of life and .... hiding place for the mosquito? It is therefore ...

  8. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... of pregnant women in General Hospital Kiru, Kiru. Local Government .... AACC, American Association for Clinical Chemistry,. 2012. ... Animal. Reproductive Science. 72: pp. 235. Das, S. C. and Isechei, U. P. (1996). Serum ...

  9. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is still a major health problem during pregnancy in Ihiala Local Government Area ... Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of pregnant women on malaria, ... Oral interviews and observations were used to retrieve information from the ...

  10. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    making, and practices among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at ... HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health challenge, as it directly and ..... Community groups conduct nutrition education for HIV- positive people.

  11. Falls among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... Key words: Enugu, falls, Nigeria, pregnant women, prevalence, risk factors .... in which someone is paid some wages (salary) at specific intervals, for example .... initiated the process of filling the existing gap on falls during.

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal ... Majigo Mtebe, Nyambura Moremi, Jeremiah Seni, Stephen E. Mshana. Abstract. In developing countries there is no routine screening of hepatitis B virus ...

  13. determinants of first antenatal care visit by pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... Subjects: Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care ... convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to ... identifying maternal education, employment, age,.

  14. Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women. ... Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress and anxiety, as well as the association that exists between stress/anxiety and ... from 32 Countries:.

  15. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  16. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.

  17. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes at a ... Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2017) > ... in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the duration of hospital stay between the two groups.

  18. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  19. Medicinal Plants used during Antenatal Care by Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. ... Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Antenatal, Traditional Birth Attendants, Uganda. Résumé ..... phenomenon, possibly due to their availability and.

  20. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  1. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, S.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  2. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  3. Pattern of vitamin D among Pakistani pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, J.A.; Zaidi, S.A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women. Five studies were included for the final analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was common and highly prevalent among Pakistani pregnant women and their neonates. The main reasons for this were found to be avoiding sun exposure, quality of diet, and lower intake of calcium. Maternal vitamin D supplementation was found to be a key intervention to improve the maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. These review findings can be emerging in ensuring the adequate vitamin D level for Pakistani pregnant women during pregnancy, ultimately to achieve positive maternal and neonate's health outcomes. (author)

  4. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  6. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  7. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Balzan, S.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Fruzzetti, F.; Bernardini, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3 H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p 3 Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  8. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  9. IMMUNOGENICITY OF ADJUVANT INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Kostinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against

  10. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Apr 27, 2018 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  11. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  12. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  13. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  14. Tuberculosis care for pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.

  15. Serum markers thrombophilia in pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.

  16. Mental status in pregnant women with brain injury sequels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Volynkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473. 

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  18. A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and maternity staff regarding the presence of birth companions during labour and delivery. ... Conclusion: The involvement of birth companions supporting women during childbirth could be promoted as a low cost preventive intervention to improve maternal and ...

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    98) and gentamicin 100% (98/98) for HbAS and HbAA women respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB in pregnant women with HbAS in Enugu, Nigeria was high and did not vary significantly from that of woman with HbAA.

  20. Anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a common problem affecting women in northern Nigeria. It is associated with several adverse consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko/Besse local government area of ...

  1. a study of nevirapine toxicity in hiv infected pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    HIV infected women commenced on nevirapine-based regimen in the current pregnancy with CD4 counts up to. 3. 350 cells/mm at the University Teaching Hospital,. Lusaka, Zambia. Design: Longitudinal observational study with 2 arms. Group 1 (low CD4 count arm): HIV infected pregnant. 3 women with CD4 counts less ...

  2. Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Pregnant Women with Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methos: Glucose, insulin and lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoproteins) were measured at 26 to 32 weeks of pregnancy in fasting blood samples obtained from 75 pregnant non diabetic women (Twenty five with a history of first degree relative with DM and fifty women without ...

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  4. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  5. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  6. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  7. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    María José Aguilar-Cordero; Tania Rivero-Blanco; Norma Mur-Villar; Raquel Rodríguez-Blanque; María Dolores Moraleda-Hurtado; Luis Emilio Fernández-Curbero; Antonio Manuel Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth...

  8. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin F in plasma of pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, P.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to determine quantitatively prostaglandin-F in the plasma of pregnant women in order to obtain further knowledge on changes in PG-F during pregnancy, in particular during the last three months. The plasma of women with clinically normal pregnancies was taken. Prior to radioimmunoassay the plasma was extracted (separation of PG from other plasma components) and chromatography carried out (group separation of PG). The efficiency of this process, as measured by the recovery rate of 3 H-PGF, lies between 60.99% and 93.01% for extraction and between 80.58% and 92.16% for chromatography. The plasma was extracted and analysed chromatographically for the assay. The radioimmunoassay was carried out according to the procedure recommended by the manufacturer. A calibration curve was produced without difficulty. The results of the examination of plasma samples were unsatisfactory because of the low sensitivity of the assay; PG-F values of the same order were obtained for all weeks of pregnancy. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  11. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  12. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  13. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P dream-associated behaviors (P dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation

  14. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, S.; Farasat, T.; Fazal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  15. Vitamin D levels among pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha

    2013-12-01

    To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.

  16. Pilates workouts can reduce pain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviani, Ika

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises for a decreasing pain in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women were divided into two groups, a control group (followed a standard pregnancy exercise regimen) and a Pilates group (completed a Pilates exercise regimen). A pain assessment was carried out after exercise, using a visual analog scale. The Pilates group workout program lasted 70-80 min per day, once a week, for 8 weeks. The reduction in the level of pain was found to be significantly greater in the group of pregnant women who completed the Pilates workout (p Pilates is an effective, healthy, and feasible method of reducing pain in pregnancy, and is therefore a beneficial alternative workout for the suppression of pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Internet use by pregnant women seeking pregnancy-related information: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-03-28

    The Internet has become one of the most popular sources of information for health consumers and pregnant women are no exception. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the ways in which pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. We conducted a systematic review to answer this question. In November 2014, electronic databases: Scopus, Medline, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for papers with the terms "Internet"; "pregnancy"; "health information seeking", in the title, abstract or as keywords. Restrictions were placed on publication to within 10 years and language of publication was restricted to English. Quantitative studies were sought, that reported original research and described Internet use by pregnant women. Seven publications met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sample size ranged from 182 - 1347 pregnant women. The majority of papers reported that women used the Internet as a source of information about pregnancy. Most women searched for information at least once a month. Fetal development and nutrition in pregnancy were the most often mentioned topics of interest. One paper included in this review found that women with higher education were three times more likely to seek advice than women with less than a high school education, and also that single and multiparous women were less likely to seek advice than married and nulliparous women. The majority of women found health information on the Internet to be reliable and useful. Most women did not discuss the information they retrieved from the Internet with their health providers. Thus, health providers may not be aware of potentially inaccurate information or mistaken beliefs about pregnancy, reported on the Internet. Future research is needed to address this issue of potentially unreliable information.

  18. Health-related behaviors among pregnant women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The healthy and unhealthy behaviors of a pregnant woman influence both her own health and that of her unborn child, affecting its future development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension.   Material i method. The study was performed between November 2011 and February 2012 and included 80 hypertensive pregnant women hospitalized in a high risk pregnancy ward. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Results. Statistical analyses showed a correlation between the respondents’ health-related behaviors and their socio-demographic characteristics: exercise was correlated with age (p=0.01, and rest during the day was correlated with support in everyday responsibilities (p<0.00001, and with the respondents’ socio-economic standing (p=0.03. Correlations were also found between healthy eating habits and residence (0.006, education (p=0.05, and sodium intake (p=0.0003, as well as between education and substance use (p=0.0003. Conclusion. Health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension are influenced by their education, support they receive in daily responsibilities, and their socio-economic standing. The diagnosis of hypertension in pregnant women does not necessarily prompt them to discontinue all unhealthy behaviors.

  19. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous...... abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women...... who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non...

  20. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. [Eating habits of pregnant and non-pregnant women: are there differences?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2015-07-01

    To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.

  2. Examining the safety of dental treatment in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowicz, Bryan S; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Novak, M John; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N; Mitchell, Dennis A; Curran, Alice E; Lupo, Virginia R; Ferguson, James E; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Deinard, Amos S; Rogers, Tyson B

    2008-06-01

    Although clinicians generally consider it safe to provide dental care for pregnant women, supporting clinical trial evidence is lacking. This study compares safety outcomes from a trial in which pregnant women received scaling and root planing and other dental treatments. The authors randomly assigned 823 women with periodontitis to receive scaling and root planing, either at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation or up to three months after delivery. They evaluated all subjects for essential dental treatment (EDT) needs, defined as the presence of moderate-to-severe caries or fractured or abscessed teeth; 351 women received complete EDT at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation. The authors used Fisher exact test and a propensity-score adjustment to compare rates of serious adverse events, spontaneous abortions/stillbirths, fetal/congenital anomalies and preterm deliveries ( .05) between women who received EDT and those who did not require this treatment, or between groups that received both EDT and periodontal treatment, either EDT or periodontal treatment alone, or no treatment. Use of topical or local anesthetics during root planing also was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. EDT in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing serious medical adverse events or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data from larger studies and from groups with other treatment needs are needed to confirm the safety of dental care in pregnant women. This study provides evidence that EDT and use of topical and local anesthetics are safe in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation.

  3. Cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant women: obstetrical and therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidova Iu.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study the effectiveness and safety of the use of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy in pregnant women with cholestatic hepatosis. Patients and methods. A total of 42 pregnant women, who were under outpatient and inpatient treatment in the department of obstetric problems of extragenital pathology for the period of 2013–2015 years were comprehensively examined. All pregnant at the time of observation were at the end of the II and III trimester of pregnancy. All 42 pregnant were divided into three groups. Results. For the end of the treatment by Ursonost preparation in the first and second group of pregnant was marked a general improvement of well-being such as reduction of fatigue, weakness, dyspepsia and pruritus. Also, was noted a normalization of blood biochemical parameters. Conclusions. As a result of the inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy was observed a significant improvement in overall well-being and normalization of blood biochemical parameters in women of the first and second test groups. Application of the proposed medical complex in the present groups of pregnant women allowed to seize the results of the pregnancy outcomes and almost avoiding premature delivery. Effectiveness and safety of the use of preparation during the pregnancy allow recommend inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy to the treatment regimen of cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant.

  4. Studies of dental and oral changes of pregnant diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G

    1987-01-01

    The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women.

  5. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  6. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral G. Nogayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  7. Missed Opportunities For Immunization In Children And Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A I

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of immunization in reducing childhood mortality cannot be over-emphasised, yet many opportunities for immunization are missed when children and pregnant women visit a health facility. Reducing missed opportunities is the cheapest way to increase immunization coverage. The present study discusses the extent of the problem of missed opportunities for immunization in children and pregnant women and the factors contributing to the problem, in spatiality and community outreach clinics of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Recommendations are made regarding ways and means of reducing missed opportunities.

  8. First Trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  9. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  10. Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 μSv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units [fr

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  12. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  13. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  14. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  16. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  17. Examination of the reliability and validity of the Mindful Eating Questionnaire in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolzan, John W; Myers, Candice A; Cowley, Amanda D; Brady, Heather; Hsia, Daniel S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Redman, Leanne M; Martin, Corby K

    2016-05-01

    Mindfulness is theorized to affect the eating behavior and weight of pregnant women, yet no measure has been validated during pregnancy. This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the reliability and validity of the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) in overweight and obese pregnant women. Participants completed focus groups and cognitive interviews. The MEQ was administered twice to measure test-retest reliability. The Eating Inventory (EI) and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were administered to assess convergent validity, and the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) assessed discriminant validity. Participants were 20 ± 8 weeks gestation (mean ± SD), 30 ± 2 years old, and 55% were obese. The MEQ total score had good test-retest reliability (r = .85). The total score internal consistency reliability was poor (Cronbach's α = .56). The external cues subscale (ECS) was not internally consistent (α = .31). Other subscales ranged from α = .59-.68. When the ECS was excluded, the MEQ total score internal consistency was acceptable (α = .62). Convergent validity was supported by the MEQ total score (with and without ECS) correlating significantly with the MAAS and the EI disinhibition and hunger subscales. Discriminant validity of the MEQ was supported by the MEQ and NEWS total scores and subscales not being significantly correlated. The quantitative results were supported by the qualitative context and content analysis. With the exception of the ECS, the MEQ's reliability and validity was supported in pregnant women, and most of the subscales were more robust in pregnant women than in the original sample of healthy adults. The MEQ's use with overweight and obese pregnant women is supported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I J; Jun, J; Kim, E M; Lee, K Y; Kim, N; Chung, M H; Choi, Y R; Choi, E M

    2018-05-01

    This study set out to compare the onset and duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women receiving general anesthesia. Forty-seven pregnant (Group P) and forty-seven non-pregnant (Group C) women were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and neuromuscular blockade was assessed with an accelerometric sensor using train-of-four stimulation (TOF-Watch® SX). Tracheal intubation was performed at maximum depression of the first twitch (T1) and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2.5% and 50% oxygen in air. We recorded the times to maximum T1 depression and 5% and 25% T1 recovery, as well as the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at baseline, injection of rocuronium, intubation, and 5% and 25% T1 recovery. The onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (time to maximum T1 depression) did not differ significantly between the groups. The duration (time to 25% T1 recovery) was significantly longer in Group P than in Group C (45.7 ± 12.9 min vs 40.6 ± 10.4 min, P rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade did not significantly differ in onset but lasted significantly longer in second trimester pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  20. Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  2. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  3. Sero-epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and ... Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have been exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, with the ..... observation that food-borne transmission of T. gondii is increasingly recognized as a potentially.

  4. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. An underestimated threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Feuchter, Germán; Robles-Torres, Rosa Evangelina; Ruelas-Morán, Andrés; Gómez-Alcalá, Alejandro V

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pregnancy complication. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can trigger the development of serious complications affecting both the mother and the fetus. Determine the frequency of AB among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at the family medicine clinic number 1 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, located in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. A longitudinal study was carried out from September to December 2004. Seventy-two 72 pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or less were followed up during four months. All pregnant women were selected by a non-probabilistic method. Every patient had a monthly urine culture during the follow up period. Among the 72 pregnant women, 16.7% developed symptomatic urinary infections during the follow-up and 25% had at least one positive urine culture without urinary symptoms, being classified as AB, thus receiving treatment. Frequency of positive urine cultures was common at first and fourth months of follow-up. Urine culture is an important component of prenatal care, and helps in identifying a significant number of urinary tract infections that would go otherwise undetected.

  5. Periodontal Status and Some Variables among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the frequency of periodontitis among pregnant women, ranging from 35% to ... Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Abstract .... by the stress and anxiety during pregnancy, which may lead to a neglect of .... Khader YA, Al‑shishani L, Obeidat B, Khassawneh M,.

  6. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  7. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...

  8. Prevalence and Pattern of Back Pain among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr S.B. OLALEYE

    Back pain is (BP) is recognized as an important problem in pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of back pain. (BP) in pregnancy. A survey of 2,187 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in selected Medical facilities in Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Nigeria was carried out ...

  9. Knowledge and attitude towards smoking of pregnant women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Diamanti

    2017-05-01

    Having not being informed and helped adequately, a significant percentage of pregnant women continued to smoke throughout their pregnancy. The failure in imposing the clean indoor air law in public places in Greece has also contributed to the increased passive smoking exposure.

  10. Should Ultrasonography be Done Routinely for all Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positive findings on ultrasound were significantly greater in the group with specific indications for scanning, P< 0.001. Conclusion: Our suggestion is that ultrasound examination in pregnant women should be performed only when there are clear obstetric reasons, established clinically. Key Words: obstetric ultrasound scan, ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical protozoan disease of public health importance. This study estimated the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ...

  12. Patterns and predictors of physical activity among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns and predictors of physical activity (PA) in pregnant women is poorly understood. This study described the patterns of physical activity (PA) in specific domains (home, occupation, transport and exercise/sport) and intensities (light, moderate and vigorous), and determined the factors associated with achieving ...

  13. Geophagy and parasitic infections in pregnant women attending an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Geophagy, a regular and deliberate habit of eating non-food substances is practiced worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa. ... was not associated with parasitic infections in pregnant women, geophagy was found to have a significant association with education, history of geophagy and the feeding problems.

  14. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.

  15. Trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Ifako Ijaiye, Shomolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred pregnant women between ages 15-60 years and attending antenatal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria were screened for trichomoniasis in 2015. High vaginal swab samples obtained from the participants were examined by direct wet mount microscopy to determine prevalence of infection. Questionnaires were ...

  16. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Ordinioha and Brisibe: Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in South‑South Nigeria. 14. Nigerian Journal ... that they may have, and social and family supports for .... through the mass media, 21 (18.42%) read it in the internet, while 13 .... while all the Muslim respondents and Christians of the. 7th Day ...

  17. Rhesus negative pregnant women in a traditional birth home in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of 200 pregnant women (mean age 24 years) attending a traditional birth home (TBH) in Abeokuta, Nigeria, 19 (9.5%) were found to be rhesus negative, 8 (42.1%) of which were primigravidae while 11 (57.9%) were multigravidae. 87.5% of the Rhesus negative primigravidae delivered at the TBH without being ...

  18. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...

  19. Select toxic metals status of pregnant women with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic metals are part of the most important groups of environmental pollutants that can bind to vital cellular components and interfere with their functions via inhalation, foods, water etc. The serum levels of toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic) in pregnant women with history of pregnancy complications, ...

  20. Prevalence of falciparum malaria amongst pregnant women in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially an infection with Plasmodium falciparum. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of falciparum malaria among pregnant women in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State, south-east Nigeria. Blood samples from 432 ...

  1. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  2. Malaria Parasitemia and Anaemia among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia and Nwachinemere Maternity and Child-Care (NMCCD) Ihie in Umuahia metropolis in Abia State Nigeria was carried out between April and October 2010. Blood samples were ...

  3. Heparin and Aspirin in Pregnant Sudanese women with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prophylaxis against pregnancy loss in 58 pregnant Sudanese women with recurrent (>3) miscarriages associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Three (5.1%) patients had early miscarriages, three (5.1%) patients developed pre-eclamptic toxaemia and forty-seven (81%) of the 58 patients had cesarean delivery.

  4. HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: a 5-year ... trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in ... Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and its ...

  5. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study determined the prevalence and socio‑demographic characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge. Study Design: Descriptive cross‑sectional study. Setting: University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swab samples ...

  6. The Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60.4%) were asymptomatic. There were 92 out of 250 pregnant women (36.8%) that had three or more of the Amsel's criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The associated risk factors for developing bacterial vaginosis in the study ...

  7. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...

  8. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...

  9. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women ...

  10. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molatelo Elisa Shikwane

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...

  11. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

  12. Prevalence Of Malaria Parasitaemia In Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were ...

  13. Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of ... ours, it is a common cause of anaemia in pregnancy in both immune and non-immune ... Apart from the use of nets, drugs and vector control, the prevention of malaria in ...

  14. Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Massey, Katie E; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B; Lorenz, Carol

    2010-05-01

    Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors' objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used chi2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n=497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n=141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, Pdental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, Pdental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services.

  15. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  16. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-29

    Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to

  18. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  19. Serum urea and uric acid concentration in pregnant women in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant blackAfrican women. Uric acid levels for the pregnant women were significantly raised, and the relationship between uric acid elevation and gestational proteinuric hypertensionwas discussed. In conclusion, we recommend that uric acid ...

  20. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contaminate. For example, after cutting meat, wash the knife before using it to cut vegetables. COOK: Cook ... Adults Men and Women Moms/ Moms-to-Be Making Healthy Choices in Each Food Group MyPlate Plan ...

  1. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  2. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  3. Plantar pressure during gait in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background: During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Methods: Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpa...

  4. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  5. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  6. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Gaszyńska; Justyna Klepacz-Szewczyk; Elżbieta Trafalska; Anna Garus-Pakowska; Franciszek Szatko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Det...

  7. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  8. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial: a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolment

  9. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  10. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific

  11. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...... during pregnancy, we compared prescription data from the North Jutland Prescription Database with information on drug use provided by pregnant women to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which is a health interview survey. We used the North Jutland Prescription Database to identify all prescription...... drugs dispensed during pregnancy for the 2,041 women who were enrolled in the DNBC in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. Compliance was defined as the probability of reporting drug use in DNBC after purchasing a dispensed prescription drug. The overall compliance to drugs purchased within 120 days...

  12. Mobile Application for Pregnant Women: What Do Mothers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Janine; Daus, Mariana; Smith, María; Luna, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Today, health information technologies are constantly expanding and changing, allowing more and more people to use different mobile applications to receive information and control their health condition. Based on the need to implement an application for pregnant women in the Personal Health Record (PHR) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA), an Australian survey was carried out to measure the use and utility of a pregnancy application (pregnancy app). Our results were broadly in agreement with the reference values. The survey was distributed through social networks (Facebook and Twitter) during September 2016. We obtained 235 responses from Spanish-speaking women, mostly Argentinian. In conclusion, it could be observed that a pregnancy app offers the possibility of a greater follow-up and provides reassurance to the pregnant women who use it.

  13. Effect of physical activity on anxiety levels in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Janik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a very important period in a woman's life, but it is often associated not only with positive emotions, but also with negative emotions such as anxiety, stress or depression. Women most often fear birth and various medical complications during pregnancy. Very often their unpleasant experiences at the beginning such as nausea, fatigue and strong anxiety cause them to give up their physical activity. Numerous studies show that the physical activity of pregnant women has a positive impact on mother and child health. First and foremost, it is a powerful preventive agent in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, but also has a beneficial effect on the well-being of future mothers, including lowering anxiety and lowering the incidence of postpartum depression. That is why it is so important to educate pregnant women what exercises are most beneficial for them.

  14. Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaöz, Semra; Talas, Melek S; Atabekoğlu, Cem S

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the related risk factors as well as to assess its influence on the quality of life. Although urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and can have a substantial impact on quality of life, women rarely seek help for this symptom. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. A total of 393 pregnant women participated in the study between March and June 2007. The data was collected using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Wagner's quality of life scale. Potential risk factors were investigated through logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27% (106/393). Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, urinary incontinence in mother and sister, previous urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. According to the results of our study, urinary incontinence is common in women during pregnancy. The quality of life of pregnant women was found to be either unaffected or affected very little by urinary incontinence. This study reveals that the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy is very high. The findings will help increase the awareness of health care workers involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence and aid the design of more intensive education programmes directed towards the prevention of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Espinola, Janice A; Moss, Kevin; Beck, Jim; Offenbacher, Steven; Camargo, Carlos A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is found in pregnancy outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease and tooth loss, and insufficient vitamin D status is common among pregnant women. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and periodontal disease. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were defined as pregnant women with clinical moderate to severe periodontal disease; controls were pregnant women who were periodontally healthy. Maternal data were chart abstracted and serum was collected between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Median serum 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (defined as periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal race, season of blood draw, and other potential confounders. A total of 117 cases were compared to 118 controls. Cases had lower median 25(OH)D levels than controls (59 versus 100 nmol/l; P periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was 2.1 (0.99 to 4.5). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D periodontal disease during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplementation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to improve maternal oral health.

  16. The management of HCV-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  18. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM PE AND PI BETWEEN PREGNANT AND NO-PROGNANT WOMEN AND PREGNANT OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Graziele Dias de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had how his objectives to investigate if there is difference between the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant women and no-pregnant women of period different of pregnancy. To get the informations necessary, we use the machine manuvacuômetro MVD 500 Mycrohard Globalmed , how the instrument to have the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant and no- pregnant women that have similar age. We use how criterion to select the informer this research to be pregnant in one group and not to be pregnant in another group. The women that participate of this research were choose aleatorialy through of the indications of the another persons. We went to their houses to collect data of the insp. and exp. maxim pressure and afterward, we organize, understand, pass to the category and, finely, to find the medium of the value. The value of the insp. and exp. maxim pressures that were found in the pregnant group was the follow: PE Max= 51,3 cm H20 and PIMax= 48,3 cm H20; the averages found in the not- pregnant were: PEMax= 73 cm H20, PIMax = 69,2 cm H20. The pregnants that were in the subgroup of the 1o to 5o month had a average of PE= 56 cm H20 and PI= 60 cm H20, while the pregnant of subgroup above the 6o month had the averages of PE and PI = 56 cm H20 and 43 cm H20, respective. Based in the results we conclude that have difference between the insp. and exp. pressures between pregnant and no-pregnant women, as well as in the pregnant of different period of pregnance.

  1. Immunisation Status Of Pregnant Women In Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav R. J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.

  2. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... and 106/114(93.0%) were seropositive among women in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. .... transient depression of CMV- specific cellular immu- nity can be .... Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2007;3:23–8 ...

  3. Upholding pregnant women's right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2012-04-01

    Recent decisions of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the High Court of Delhi have shown how the pregnancy-related deaths of individual women have been bases on which these authoritative tribunals have held Brazil, Paraguay, and India respectively accountable for avoidable maternal mortality not only in these cases, but also among their populations more generally. The right to life is the most fundamental of women's human rights, recognized in international human rights treaties and national laws. Failure of governments to apply their resources adequately to address, respect, and protect this right violates the law of human rights. These cases show, however, that governments may fail to allocate adequate resources to women's survival of pregnancy. Tribunals can build on the failures in individual cases to set standards of performance to which governments will legally be held to achieve safe motherhood. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  5. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  6. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal......BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case......-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted...

  7. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3......INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women...... delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from...

  8. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83...

  9. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  10. Iron status in pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie M W; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J

    2010-03-01

    To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. A prospective study. Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0.001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks' gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.

  11. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Batista Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby–Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients’ age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  12. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)

  13. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  14. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  15. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lyoshenko

    2016-05-01

    Abstract Purpose. To determine the state of various stages of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion as a risk factor for premature detachment of the placenta. Results. There was investigated the state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion by low piezoelectric thromboelastography (LPTEG and standard coagulogram. According to the LPTEG results this group of women was found to have increased plasma coagulation potential manifested in elevated constant thrombin activity (TAC by 76.8%, the intensity of coagulation drive (ICD by 74.9%, maximum clot density (MA by 16.8%, shortening of coagulation time (T3 by 7.8% and inhibition of fibrinolysis manifested by decrease in retraction intensity and clot lysis (RICL by 67.7% (p<0.05. Conclusions. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion is characterized by increased plasma coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis potential that are factors of preparing the woman’s body for the upcoming birth to control and minimize blood loss.   Keywords: pregnancy, hydramnion, hemostasis, thromboelastography.

  16. The use of radioisotopes in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, A.

    1984-01-01

    This outline review concludes that pregnancy is a major contra-indication for any diagnostic procedures. The only exception is a perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs, when a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Accidental exposures of the embryo should be guarded against by implementing the ten day rule for diagnostic examinations of fertile women at risk of pregnancy. In the event of clinical emergencies resulting in radiation of an early developing embryo, reconstruction of the received dose is essential. A foetal dose of 10 rads or more is usually considered as an indication of a therapeutic abortion, while doses below 1 rad can probably be neglected. (U.K.)

  17. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no

  18. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND HABITS OF LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN FOR CONDUCTING THE PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC MONITORING OF A PREGNANT WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly Perfil de gestantes e acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care.

  19. Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care

  20. Case control study of Electrocardiographic changes in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharddha Singh

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant haemodynamic changes and imposes stress on the cardiovascular system. Many healthy women develop signs and symptoms of cardiovascular overload during pregnancy. Knowledge of established normal changes in EKG during normal pregnancy is important. The aim of our study was to detect any early damage to myocardium during pregnancy with the help of electrocardiography. Total of 20 pregnant and 20 non pregnant women were studied. The most significant change observed in ECG was T wave inversion with odds ratio 7.43 (95%. Cl = 1.49 to 41.00. P= 0.005. Stratified analysis showed that there was no confounding role of age in the relationship of T wave inversion and ECG findings. Moreover, a significant relationship between anaemia and T wave inversion was also observed. (0=1.74 ■ 1101.06; P= 0.007.

  1. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Kashani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Although pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy

  3. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in pregnant women with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mevlüt; Sarı, Oktay; Aydoğan, Umit; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Semiz, Altuğ; Yılanlıoğlu, Necip Cihangir; Keskin, Uğur

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease which is estimated to be undiagnosed to a large extent. Hence, the prevalence of OSAS in pregnant women is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant women with chronic diseases. In the study, 97 pregnant women with chronic diseases and 160 healthy pregnant women were included. A form questioning socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy characteristics, Epworth scale and the Berlin questionnaire to evaluate the risk of OSAS were applied to participants. It has been determined that 10-12.5% of healthy pregnant women, 34-45.4% of pregnants with chronic diseases and 20.6-23.3% of all pregnant women had a high risk of OSAS, the pregnants with chronic disease compared to healthy pregnant women had statistically significant higher risk of OSAS. The risk of OSAS was found to be significantly higher especially in pregnant women with hypertension and diabetes. OSAS can lead to the adverse consequences in pregnancy, should be questioned for all pregnants especially those with chronic diseases. Pregnant women with OSAS should be monitored more carefully in terms of diabetes and hypertension in antenatal care.

  5. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  6. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  7. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  8. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  9. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  10. Internal maternal position of women who became pregnant using IVF

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    Vera A. Yakupova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in vitro fertilization procedure is widespread. Due to improvements in medical technology parenting has become possible for couples who were doomed to childlessness. Practical request for psychological support couples who have decided to take part in the IVF program has been raised. Shaping the internal position of the IVF parent takes place in special psychological conditions. The IVF procedure is preceded by a period of infertility, the procedure is often the last chance to have a baby alone. Participation in the IVF program involves regular contact with doctors, medical personnel access to the intimate sphere of life couples. The paper analyzes the attitude of women participating in the IVF pregnancy program, the unborn baby and parenting - the elements constituting the parent position. The study which was attended by 224 pregnant women, 62 participants of IVF program and 162 women with physiological pregnancy was carried out on the basis of Kulakov Scientific Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology. When analyzing the data obtained we were able to identify features of the internal position of women who became pregnant using IVF. In comparison with a group of women with physiological pregnancy, the IVF program participants tend to romanticize the role of parent and child. IVF program participants demonstrate unwillingness to take on the role of parent. The main motivation of mothers in the IVF group concentrated on the very fact of pregnancy and childbirth, proper parenting, while care and support for children is not appealing to women who became pregnant using IVF. Important conditions for becoming a parent are the experience of motherhood and the time of pregnancy expectation.

  11. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

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    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  12. Induction of labour in postdates pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.N.; Ahsan, S.; Sher, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)

  13. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  14. Epidemiological profile of pregnant women in a basic health unit in Sinop-MT

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    D. M. Trevisanutto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the epidemiological profile of the pregnant women attending the Basic Health Unit (BHU of the Jardim Botânico in Sinop Mato Grosso, who presented the probable date of delivery until January 2017. Tracing the epidemiological profile of pregnant women, we hope to obtain pertinent information to identify possible gestational problems, to list their social conditions that may negatively influence pregnancy, to identify possible gestational risk factors and to identify the main complaints of this population. The research has a descriptive profile, with quantitative and qualitative approach. Twenty women, aged 18 years and over, regardless of their obstetric history, were treated at BHU Jardim Botânico, who were registered at Sispré-natal and who agreed to participate in the study. Pregnant women under the age of 18 years, who are not registered in Sispré-natal, and those who are not willing to participate in the survey were excluded. Data collection was done through a structured questionnaire with closed and open questions, being performed individually or with the companion's company during pre-scheduled interviews that were performed at the health unit or at a place indicated by the pregnant woman. The quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed, structured in spreadsheets and graphs through the programs Microsoft Office Excel and Word 2010, and the qualitative data were analyzed and distributed in categories according to Bardin method. To begin the data collection, the Ethics Committee of the Institution was requested in accordance with Resolution 466/2012 of the National Health Council. Participants signed the Free and Informed Consent Form, ensuring anonymity, confidentiality of data collected, right to withdraw from the study without any prejudice and authorization of access to the researcher and the results of the study.

  15. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

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    Wang Yao

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  16. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Gan, Yu; Myers, Kristin M; Vink, Joy Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Hendon, Christine P

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.

  18. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank.

  19. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  20. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

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    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  1. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  2. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study

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    Stek Alice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions

  4. Perception of male gender preference among pregnant igbo women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohagwu, Cc; Eze, Cu; Eze, Jc; Odo, Mc; Abu, Po; Ohagwu, Ci

    2014-03-01

    Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands' hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound.

  5. Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Butt, R.W.; Masoud, R; Umar, M.; Shakil, U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women

  6. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2018-07-01

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregna...

  8. Falls among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, T C; Ugwu, E O; Ikeako, L C; Adiri, C O; Ezenyeaku, C C T; Ekwuazi, K E; Okoro, O S

    2014-01-01

    Falls during pregnancy are major public health issues and a common cause of maternal injury during pregnancy. There is paucity of data on prevalence and risk factors of falls during pregnancy in African population including Nigeria. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with falls during pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study of 332 consecutive pregnant women presenting in labor for delivery at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria between 1(st) May and 31(st) December, 2012. The mean age of the women was 32.2 ± 2.7 (range: 20-42) years. One hundred and eight women (32.5%) reported falling at least once during the index pregnancy. Women aged ≤ 30 years had twofold risk of falling during pregnancy than women aged > 30 years [41.1% (69/168) vs. 23.8% (39/164); odds ratio (OR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-3.58; P women ≥ 160 cm in height had significantly higher risk of falling during pregnancy than women risk of falling during pregnancy than multigravidae [45.3% (63/139) vs. 23.3% (45/193); OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.70-4.37; P Falls during pregnancy is common in Enugu, Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that women should be counseled during pregnancy on this public health problem and the above-identified risk factors emphasized in order to reduce the prevalence and morbidity.

  9. Occurrence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Young Pregnant Women

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    Juliane Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15-17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.

  10. Integrated wireless sensor network for monitoring pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niţulescu, Adina; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated monitoring system for pregnant women in the third trimester using a mobile cardiotocograph and body sensors. The medical staff has a useful tool to detect abnormalities and prevent unfortunate events in time. The mobile cardiotocograph sends data in real time to a Smartphone that communicates the information in a cloud. The physician accesses the data using the hospital ObgGyn application. The advantage of using this system is that the pregnant woman can follow her pregnancy status evolution from home, and the physician receives alarms from the system if the data is not in normal range and has available information about the health status at any time and location.

  11. [Assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in Brazilian pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima E Silva, Janiny; Ferreira, Elizângela da Fonseca; Medeiros, Marcielle; Araújo, Maristela Lopes; Silva, Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho

    2011-08-01

    to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ) was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical status of the pregnant women (n=36). Statistical analysis consisted of the determination of the mean and standard deviation (SD) and of absolute and relative frequency. the statistical test used for the analysis of internal consistency was Cronbach's alpha coefficient, using SPSS version 17.0. the volunteers were of low socioeconomic status, aged on average 25.1 years ( 5.5), and had an average gestational age of 25.9 weeks ( 8.1). 58.3% of these volunteers had not planned their current pregnancy. the pretest showed that 75% of the pregnant women found the questionnaire easy to understand. Regarding the PSeQ instrument, the identification with the maternal role was the subcategory which showed the highest average, 24.8 ( 5.6), while the relationship with the mother had the lowest average 15.4 ( 7.7). the internal consistency ranged from 0.52 to 0.89. the assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in pregnant women is very important during the progress of pregnancy and permits intervention through obstetric-neonatal actions of promotion and prevention regarding the well-being of mother and child.

  12. Prevalence of Arbovirus Infections among Pregnant Women at a Maternity Hospital School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Neves Figueiroa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survey the prevalence of arbovirus infections among pregnant women provided with care at a maternity hospital school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study, carried out with data collected from the notification forms filled in during obstetric screening between August 2015 and July 2016. Results: Positive serology was found for arboviruses in 40.2% of the 103 suspected cases. Serology was not performed or it showed inconclusive results in 59.8% of the cases. Dengue fever occurred in 44% of the cases, chikungunya in 34%, and zika fever in 22%. Infections were more frequent among pregnant women over 20 years old, with low income and low schooling levels, living in Recife (48.5% and Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil (24.3%. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were arthralgia (94%, exanthema (82%, and fever (78%. Infections occurred within the first trimester of pregnancy (54.5%, 63.3% of the pregnant women had to be hospitalized, and 45.4% of them did not undergo morphological ultrasonography. Most babies were born full-term and they had adequate weight. The prevalence of microcephaly was 9.7% when considering cases of arbovirose and 62.5% when considering specific cases of zika fever. Conclusion: The prevalence and repercussions of arboviruses justify the consolidation of actions to fight Aedes aegypti, as well as the effective deployment of clinical protocols and recommendations aimed at the mother and child care.

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  14. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A. C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J. Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels throughout pregnancy: a longitudinal study in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Agudelo-Zapata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide there is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency and has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Objective: This is a nested, case–control study in a longitudinal cohort to compare the serum 25OHD levels and other biomarkers throughout pregnancy in a group of 20 preeclamptic women and 61 healthy pregnant women. An additional group of 29 healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Mean 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were 31.9 ng/mL and 34.9 ng/mL during follicular and luteal phase, respectively (P < 0.01. Mean serum 25OHD levels in healthy pregnant women were 26.5, 30.1 and 31.9 ng/mL, at first, second and third trimester, respectively (P < 0.001. The first trimester levels of 25OHD were lower than those of healthy non-pregnant women (P < 0.001, showing a significant recovery at third trimester. In the group of healthy pregnant women, the 25OHD levels were 25.7 ng/mL and 27.2 ng/mL at 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively; both values were lower than those observed in the non-pregnant women (P < 0.001. In preeclamptic women, 25OHD serum levels were similar to those of healthy pregnant women; nevertheless, they remained almost unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women in terms of 25OHD levels throughout the pregnancy. Serum 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were higher during luteal phase compared with follicular phase. The 25OHD levels of non-pregnant women tended to be higher than those of pregnant women.

  16. Obstetric outcome in pregnant women subjected to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, N; Shittu, S O; Abdul, M A

    2009-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship to adverse obstetric outcomes amongst pregnant women who deliver at a tertiary level hospital in Zaria, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 310 women who delivered at the labour ward. Questionnaires were administered to parturient women. Details of their socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric outcome were compiled and the relationship to experiences of domestic violence studied. The prevalence of domestic violence was 28.4%. There was positive relationship between domestic violence during pregnancy, non-supervision of pregnancy and poor attendances to antenatal clinic (pviolence, and complications of labour and neonatal outcome (p>0.05). The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy is high in this environment. Poor attendances to the antenatal clinic is a significant association.

  17. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...... developed LGA. LGA was associated with lower mean glucose (7.0 vs. 7.1 mmol/L; P FDA showed that glucose was significantly lower midmorning (0900-1100 h) and early...... evening (1900-2130 h) in trimester 1, significantly higher early morning (0330-0630 h) and throughout the afternoon (1130-1700 h) in trimester 2, and significantly higher during the evening (2030-2330 h) in trimester 3 in women whose infants were LGA. CONCLUSIONS: FDA of CGM data identified specific times...

  18. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous......-planners with accepting planners and by comparing rejecting planners with rejecting non-planners. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economic situation and contraceptives. RESULTS: The characteristics of accepting non-planners and accepting planners were...... in accordance and in contrast to those of rejecting planners and in particular of rejecting non-planners. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was 15%. Among rejecting non-planners the same figure was 51%. CONCLUSION: Accepting non-planners seemed to be in a situation which could...

  19. Nutritional status among women with pre-eclampsia and healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura; Garcia, Ronald; Ruiz, Silvia; Dehghan, Mahshid; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2012-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The average age of women was 26.6 ± 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development. Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. [Exposure of smoking pregnant women to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Ligocka, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter. The most common sources of PAHs are cigarette smoke, coal-fired utilities, steel plants, coke-oven plants, graphite electrode manufacturing plant, Söderberg aluminum electrolysis plant, vehicle exhaust, wood-burning ovens and fireplaces, and charcoal-grilled and smoked food. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of smoking pregnant women to PAHs. The study population consisted of 189 pregnant women from the Lódź voivodeship (province). Smoking status was assessed based on saliva cotinine level analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The cutoff point 10 ng/ml was adopted for saliva cotinine level. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration in urine sample was chosen as the biomarker of exposure to PAHs. The mean concentration of 1-HP in urine of nonsmoking woman was 0.60 microg/g creatinine, whereas in smoking one 1.35 microg/g creatinine. Among the women with saliva cotinine level higher than 10 ng/ml, the mean concentration of 1-HP in urine was over twofold higher than that in women with cotinine level lower than 10 ng/ml after adjustment for the day of urine ample collection (ratio of geometric mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0). The study confirmed a higher risk of exposure to PAHs in the group of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy as compared to nonsmoking women. It should be stressed that cigarette smoking is not the only source of exposure to PAHs.

  1. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  2. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  3. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  4. Amniocentesis in HIV Pregnant Women: 16 Years of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A—women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B—women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population. PMID:23970821

  5. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  6. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  7. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  8. Sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical, hormonal and psychological changes during pregnancy can affect a woman’s sexuality as well as a couple’s sexual relationship. The aim of this study was to examine sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: The data of descriptive and cross-sectional study was collected via a questionnaire form and Female Sexual Function Index. A score ≤ 26.55 is classified as female sexual dysfunction. A total of 125 volunteer healthy and married pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy who admitted to the antenatal policlinics were included in this study. Results: The determined that 92% of participants had sexual dysfunction. The Female Sexual Function Index and domains scores in the 28th-31st, 32nd-35th and 36th and higher gestational weeks of pregnancy were as follows: sexual desire scores, 2.50, 2.77 and 2.40; sexual arousal scores, 2.26, 2.72 and 1.69; lubrication scores, 2.61, 3.42 and 1.97; orgasm scores, 2.51, 2.85 and 1.78; sexual satisfaction scores, 3.17, 3.77 and 2.66; pain scores, 2.44, 2.72 and 1.66, and total Female Sexual Function Index scores were 15.51, 18.29, 12.26, respectively. Sexual arousal (p = 0.008, lubrication (p = 0.001, orgasm (p = 0.031, sexual satisfaction (p = 0.005, pain (p = 0.049 and total Female Sexual Function Index score (p = 0.004 were the lowest in 36th and higher gestational weeks, and only sexual desire did not differ (p = 0.191. Conclusions: Sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester were negatively effected. Health professionals should be trained to evaluate sexual difficulties in pregnant women and to recommend possible solutions. Keywords: Pregnancy, Sexuality, Third trimester, Female sexual function index

  9. Descriptiveness of vaginal secretions pH in the vaginal microbiota assessment in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Nagornaya

    2016-07-01

    2 KU maternity hospital №7, Odessa           Summary 143 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant women have been examined. The objective: to determine the information content of  the vaginal fluid pH.  Methods used: Cytological, standard microbiological,  real time PCR, the measurement of vaginal fluid pH. Results: five types  of vaginal microbiota have been revealed, as well as a clear link of pH and the quantitative characteristic of microflora, high inverse correlation with  estradiol content was shown,  and correspondence to the number of gestation complications and the number of inflammatory diseases of the somatic plan was proved. The authors recommend to use pH of the vaginal fluid as an indicator of the state of vaginal biotope in the course of pregnancy.       Keywords: pH of the vaginal secretion, vaginal biotope pregnancy.

  10. Willingness among obese pregnant women to accept MRI scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, H; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83% and 61...

  11. Optimal weight gain in obese and overweight pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka-Nakama, Junko; Enomoto, Kimiko; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Miyagi, Etsuko; Aoki, Shigeru

    2018-03-20

    We aimed to determine the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Japanese women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . The present retrospective study investigated singleton pregnancies in 6,781 Japanese women registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology system in 2013. We divided overweight and obese women into four GWG categories based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended: weight loss, small weight gain, within IOM criteria, and above IOM criteria. The adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of maternal and neonatal outcomes of interest with weight change were calculated. In overweight women, GWG was associated with neonatal birth weight. In the loss and small gain subgroups, there was a significant increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight neonates (LBW). Predicted probabilities showed the lowest risk was observed in a weight gain of 0 kg; the risk sharply increased at a gain of 11.5 kg. In obese women, weight gain increased the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates; however; SGA was not associated with GWG. Predicted probabilities showed an increase in the risk with weight gain. The observed optimal GWG was 0 to 11.5 kg in overweight, and weight loss in obese, pregnant Japanese women.

  12. [Illicit drug use by pregnant women infected with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Victor Hugo; Botelho, Ana Paula Machado; Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Correa, Mário Dias; Pinto, Jorge Andrade

    2014-12-01

    To determine if illicit drug use increases the vertical transmission of HIV, to identify the risk factors involved in mother and child health and the prevalence of illicit drug use among these pregnant women. Sixty-four (7.6%) of 845 pregnant women from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, attended in the service between October 1997 and February 2012 reported the use of illicit drugs. Cases were HIV-positive drug users (n=64) and controls were women who did not use drugs (n=192). Three controls were selected for each case. Several conditions of exposure were considered in the control group such as tobacco use, alcohol use, alcohol and tobacco use, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and marital status. Problems during the prenatal period, delivery and postpartum, vertical HIV transmission and neonatal outcomes were also investigated. Univariate analysis showed as significant variables: maternal age, tobacco use, number of prenatal care visits, antiretroviral therapy, mode of infection, and viral load at delivery. Logistic regression revealed as significant variables: maternal age (less than 25 years); tobacco use, and number of prenatal care visits (less than 6). The vertical transmission of HIV was 4,8% (95%CI 1.7-13.3) among drug users and 2,1% (95%CI 0.8-5.2) in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Neonatal complications were more frequent among drug users, but also with no statistically significant difference between groups. The use of illicit drug is frequent during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. The approach to illicit drug use should be routine during prenatal care visits. These women are more discriminated against and tend to deny their habits or do not seek prenatal care. There was no difference in vertical virus transmission between groups, probably indicating adherence to antiretroviral use for antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.

  13. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main object...

  14. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  15. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were m...

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...

  17. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  18. The Prevalence of Pleural Effusion in Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    DİKENSOY, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusions are very common in general population. There are more than 50 reasons for the etiology. There is limited data on the prevalence of pleural effusions in a population of pregnant women. We prospectively screened 45 pregnant women between May and October 2006. All the pregnant women underwent thoracic ultrasonography during their routine check. Five out of 45 subjects (11%) had minimal and bilateral pleural effusion. None of the subjects was symptomatic. All of the effusions re...

  19. Trends and consequences of consumption of food and non-food items (pica by pregnant women in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kariuki

    2016-12-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica practices should be assessed in antenatal care of pregnant women. Attention should be paid to pregnant women who have had a history of child death and women with low education level.

  20. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS ‎molecular capsular serotype ‎and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier ‎women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.‎. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would ‎be ‎relevant ‎for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine.

  2. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-11

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  4. Characteristics of pregnant and lactating women with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sacha Frota Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of women who conceive during leprosy and the association between leprosy and pregnancy are not well known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 49 pregnant or lactating women diagnosed with leprosy in 2011. RESULTS: The patients had a clinical dimorphous form of leprosy (44.9%, no physical incapacity at diagnosis (87.5%, and no complications in either the patient or infant (33.4%. In 36.3% of cases, leprosy symptoms were presented in the last trimester of pregnancy, and in 31.9% of patients were in the first trimester of lactation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between leprosy and pregnancy should be routinely investigated, particularly in endemic areas.

  5. Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. (c) 2007 APA

  6. Frequency of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S. I.; Waheed, K.; Khanum, A.; Iqbal, R.; Eusaph, A. Z.; Hanif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of Group B Streptococci (GBS) in pregnant patients in third trimester in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Cross-sectional, prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore, from October 2014 to March 2015. Methodology: Sterile lower vaginal swabs were taken from 200 women aged 20 years and over, in third trimester, with no history of vaginal bleeding, ruptured membrane, recent intake of antibiotics or chronic illness. These swabs were cultured for detection of GBS. The risk factors of GBS and its frequency were noted in the pregnant population. Quantitative and qualitative data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was applied to see association between diagnosis of GBS and other categorical variables. P-value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In this study, the mean age of all the females was 26.36 ±4.32 years and mean duration of pregnancy was 35.54 ±2.65 weeks. Frequency of GBS in pregnant women was found as 14 percentage. We observed significant association of GBS with parity and previous history of miscarriage (p-value = 0.033 and 0.010 respectively). Moreover, significant association between vaginal discharge and GBS was also found (p = 0.027). Conclusion: GBS is present in a small but significant number of pregnant women in our setting and it has association with multiparity, vaginal discharge during pregnancy, and previous history of miscarriage. (author)

  7. Pregorexia – anorexia of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Harasim-Piszczatowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders represent a serious and complex health and social problem which is encountered by many medical professionals in their practice, including by family doctors. An increasing number of individuals are affected by these disorders. The media, which promote slim figure as fashionable or perfect, are a contributing factor. Pregnant women are a group which is especially vulnerable to eating disorders. Their bodies are subject to dynamic changes; as a result, these are often far from the widely promoted ideal. Malnutrition in women planning to conceive a child and in pregnant women is a risk factor for abnormal course of pregnancy and poor health status of the newborn child. Therefore, it is important for women who are planning pregnancy to change their lifestyle and follow the rules of appropriate, balanced diet. The aim of the paper was to review the available publications on pregorexia, i.e. an eating disorder which involves self-starvation and/or inducing vomiting during pregnancy. The article presents the current recommendations concerning body mass of a woman during pregnancy and the consequences of pregorexia for the mother and the unborn child as well as discussing the role of medical professionals regarding this non-specific eating disorder. Based on the available sources it may be concluded that there is a need for wider education concerning diet and physical activity provided by medical professionals to higher-risk groups. Early intervention by an interdisciplinary therapeutic team contributes to better treatment results with appropriate health education being of key importance.

  8. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkoska Nakova, V; Krstevska, B; Dimitrovski, Ch; Simeonova, S; Hadzi-Lega, M; Serafimoski, V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies during pregnancy in women with diabetes type 1 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study group included 83 pregnant women who attended the Outpatient Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Clinic in the period from 05.2009 to 11.2009. The one hundred-g. oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on the pregnant women except for women with diabetes type 1. Thyroid functions were evaluated in all the pregnant women. After routine screening for GDM, thirty of the pregnant women were healthy and GDM was diagnosed in forty of them. The rest, thirteen women, had diabetes type 1. The women who developed GDM showed a mean free thyroxin concentration (fT4) significantly lower than that observed in the healthy pregnant women and women with diabetes type 1. Among the pregnant women with GDM, 10 women or 25% had fT4 concentrations below the lower cut-off with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (TSH). A statistically significant difference was found in the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO) between the (30%) women with diabetes type 1 and (10%) healthy pregnant women (p<0.05). In the women positive for anti-TPO, TSH was significantly higher (p<0.05). The significantly higher prevalence of hypothyroxinemia in GDM pregnancies and anti-TPO titres in pregnancies with diabetes type 1, than in healthy pregnant women warrants routine screening for thyroid abnormalities in these groups of pregnant women.

  9. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sensitivity to ionizing radiation is greater during intrauterine stages of development than at other stages in the life of the mammalian organism. For this reason, the NCRP recommends special care in patient selection in certain cases of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. For women of child-bearing capacity, the physician requesting a radiological or nuclear medicine examination involving the lower abdominal or pelvic region should ascertain whether the patient is, or could be, pregnant. Further, the NCRP recommends that physicians tell their premenopausal patients that, if they are likely to have nuclear medicine studies or x-ray examinations of the lower abdomen, it is generally advisable that they not run a risk of pregnancy until two months after the studies are carried out. Modification of an examination for dose reduction is warranted only if it reasonably can be done without significant jeopardy to the medical care of the patient and/or her unborn child

  10. Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F I Buseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of epidemiological data on infectious diseases among antenatal mothers in Bayelsa State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the serological markers Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody (HIV-Ab, Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg, Hepatitis C virus antibody(HCV-Aand antibodies to T.pallidum among pregnant women in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in Yenagoa city, the heart of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies were detected by using "Determine" HIV-1/2 test strip (Abbott Laboratories, Japan; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and antibodies to T. pallidum were carried out using ACON rapid test strips (ACON Laboratories, USA. All positive samples for HIV, HBV and HCV were confirmed using the Clinotech diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kits (Clinotech Laboratories, USA, while all reactive samples to Treponema pallidum antibodies were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA test (Lorne Laboratories Ltd., UK. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data generated were coded, entered, validated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 12.0, and Epi info. The seroprevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV and HIV was expressed for the entire study group by age, sex and other demographic features using Pearson chi-square analysis. Values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,000 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 15 and 44 years with a mean of 27.34΁5.43 years were screened. In terms of percentage, 89.4% of the subjects were married, and 10.6% were without formal husbands. The overall

  11. Analysis of Health Behaviors and Personal Values of Childless Women, Pregnant Women and Women Who Recently Delivered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Grzegorz Józef; Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Ślusarska, Barbara; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur

    2018-02-27

    Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered ( n = 235), pregnant women ( n = 121) and childless women ( n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices", in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviors. Positioning "health" in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed.

  12. Maternal predictors related to quality of life in pregnant women in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calou, Cinthia Gondim Pereira; de Oliveira, Mirna Fontenele; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Soares, Paula Renata Amorim Lessa; Bezerra, Raylla Araújo; de Lima, Sâmua Kelen Mendes; Antezana, Franz Janco; de Souza Aquino, Priscila; Castro, Régia Christina Moura Barbosa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2018-05-31

    Gestation is a period that can positively or negatively influence the life of a woman in the pregnancy-puerperal cycle. Thus, evaluating the quality of life of this population can redirect the implementation of innovative practices, with the goal of making them more effective and practical or the promotion of humanized care. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictors that influence the health-related quality of life of low-risk pregnant women, as well as to describe the main areas affected in the quality of life of pregnant women. A correlational, quantitative and cross-sectional study was carried out in two public units that provide prenatal care services and a private unit in the city of Fortaleza, a municipality in the Northeast of Brazil. The sample consisted of 261 pregnant women who were interviewed from September to November 2014. The collection instruments were a questionnaire covering sociodemographic, obstetric and quality of life variables, in addition to the Brazilian version of the Mother-Generated Index (MGI). The data were compiled and analyzed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0. A descriptive analysis was performed through the application of Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and one-way ANOVA. Maternal predictors for the quality of life of pregnant woman were identified through a multivariate analysis/multiple regression. The response rate was 100%, corresponding to 261 respondents. Occupation, parity, partner support, marital status and persons with whom the women live were the predictors that positively interfered in the quality of life of pregnant women. In contrast, gestational age, type of housing, occupation, use of illicit drugs, non-receipt of partner support and maternal age were the predictors that negatively influenced quality of life. Our results indicate that happiness to become a mother and body image were areas with the greatest positive and negative influence on

  13. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  14. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  15. Potential unintended consequences of smoke-free policies in public places on pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2009-08-01

    Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (ppolicies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.

  16. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J. Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  17. Analysis of Health Behaviors and Personal Values of Childless Women, Pregnant Women and Women Who Recently Delivered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal-Okońska, Patrycja; Rudnicka-Drożak, Ewa; Młynarska, Magdalena; Czekierdowski, Artur

    2018-01-01

    Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into three groups: women who had recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviors, and also, they rated higher on the subscales values “positive mental attitude” and “health practices”, in comparison to women who had recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups, the highest rated personal value was “a successful family life”, while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was “love and friendship”. Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women’s health behaviors. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate the introduction of healthy behaviors. This, in turn, could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlight areas where new research is needed. PMID:29495488

  18. Assessment of iron status of Sudanese pregnant women by serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A.; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2004-03-01

    Eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester. Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured. The weights of the subjects were under iron-supplementation throughout the gestation period. Sixty four normal non-parentage women were included in the study to serve as controls. Iron status was assessed for the groups with following parameters, haemoglobin (Hb), packed corpuscular volume (PCV), red blood cells count, peripheral blood film, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH C), serum iron (Si), total iron binding capacity (T IBC), serum transferrin saturation (Ts) and serum ferritin (Sf). No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). MCV, MCH and MCH C values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the of the pregnant at different stages of gestation (p<0.05). Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women, this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16-18) and (22-24) (p<0.05). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continuously during the pregnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter that could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementation s corrected for haemoglobin but not for iron status, but more studies were needed to cover this issue using different parameters.(Author)

  19. Diabetic Nephropathy and Microalbuminuria in Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Julie Agner; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Callesen, Nicoline Foged

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol....

  20. Depression in perinatally HIV-infected pregnant women compared to non-perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, Ruth C; Sperling, Rhoda; Roccobono, Kinga; Osborne, Lauren M; Jao, Jennifer

    2018-05-18

    "Depression (as noted in chart by a physician)" was compared between HIV infected pregnant women and controls. Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV), non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV), and HIV-uninfected (HIV-U) pregnant women were all compared using a logistic regression model. Overall, HIV-infected women had higher rates of depression than HIV-U, with PHIV women demonstrating a clinically and statistically significant increased risk compared to HIV-U women [adjusted OR: 15.9, 95% CI = 1.8-143.8]. Future studies in larger populations are warranted to confirm these findings and further elucidate mental health outcomes of PHIV and NPHIV pregnant women.

  1. Abnormal vaginal flora in symptomatic non-pregnant and pregnant women in a Greek hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.

  2. Effect of a gymnastics program on sleep characteristics in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Kocsis

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The 10-week training program designed for pregnant women has an overall beneficial effect on sleep characteristics, not by improving them but by attenuating their general deterioration related to the progression of pregnancy. Our data strengthen the general recommendation regarding participation of pregnant women in specific exercise programs, mainly for maintaining their psycho-emotional and general well-being.

  3. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S. E.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  4. Health providers' compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mirlohi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that the health providers' compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals.

  5. Dietary assessment of vitamin A and iron among pregnant women at

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chege

    Consumption Report indicated that 30% of pregnant women in Nyanza do not meet ... Poverty, lack of nutrition knowledge and poor attendance to MCH by ... Sixty-five percent (64.8%) pregnant women had iron consumption levels of 25cm. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70.

  6. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Dube

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

  7. Haematological effects of multimicronutrient supplementation in non-pregnant Gambian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.; Bailey, R.; Prentice, A. M.; Brabin, B. J.; Owens, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The use of multimicronutrient (MMN) supplementation to reduce the burden of anaemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age has been little studied, particularly in Africa. The objective of the study was to evaluate haematological outcomes in non-pregnant, rural Gambian women

  8. Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ara, G.; Boonstra, A.; Roy, S.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh.F.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly

  9. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, MS; Hesse, D; Ekbom, P

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  10. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  11. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials : an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  12. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Leon, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Riedijk, Martiene; Matute, Armando J; Hak, Eelko; Delgado, Edgar; Alonso, Rosa E; Benavides, Maria D; van Loon, Anton M; Hoepelman, Ilja M

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis and to identify risk factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics in León, Nicaragua. During February to April 2004, blood samples from pregnant women were collected after written consent had been obtained.

  13. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ...

  14. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in pregnant women with and without diabetes: Cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Ott, Alewijn; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) or gestational DM (GDM). We performed a cohort study in five hospitals and two midwifery clinics in the Netherlands. Pregnant women

  16. Are pregnant and postpartum women: at increased risk for violent death? Suicide and homicide findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.

  17. Perception and understanding of dental practitioners in provision of dental treatment to pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to that assess the perceptions and understanding of dental practitioners in the provision of dental treatment to pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The study was a quantitative, cross-sectional type. A sample size of 200 dental practitioners were included in the study between the period of 6 months, i.e. June–December. A cluster sampling technique was employed covering four different dental institutes. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess the perception and understanding of dental practitioners in providing treatment to the pregnant women. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Chi-square test was done to analyze the association of perception of dental practitioners in treating pregnant women in relation to gender. Results: A total of 200 dental practitioners filled the questionnaire out of which 43% (86 were males and 57% (114 were females. Eighty-two percent of the total participants said that it is safe to provide dental treatment during pregnancy, almost 90.4% of the total dentist interviewed was aware of the special position in which to place a pregnant woman on a dental chair. 85.5% of the study population do not prefer taking radiographs of a pregnant woman, 63% of the entire dentist surveyed prefers to use local anesthesia before any dental procedure on a pregnant patient. 96.5% care to educate their pregnant patient about improving dental health care. 59.5% of the dental practitioners said that they would consult the patient's gynecologist as a mandatory requirement before treating the patient. 57% of the dental practitioners answered with gingivitis. 70.5% agreed on scaling. The majority of the dentists prescribed paracetamol 85.5%. Conclusion: Little is known about the perception and utilization of dental practitioners in providing dental treatment to pregnant women in Pakistan. The present survey concluded that dental practitioners lack

  18. Epidemiology of Dysglycemia in Pregnant Oklahoma American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Madona; Stoner, Julie A; Dao, Hanh Dung; Stephens, Lancer; Goodman, Jean R; Maynard, John; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    Minority communities are disproportionately affected by diabetes, and minority women are at an increased risk for glucose intolerance (dysglycemia) during pregnancy. In pregnant American Indian women, the objectives of the study were to use current criteria to estimate the prevalence of first-trimester (Tr1) dysglycemia and second-trimester (Tr2) incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to explore new candidate measures and identify associated clinical factors. This was a prospective cohort study. In Tr1 we performed a 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the following: fasting insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol; noninvasive skin autofluorescence (SCOUT). We defined dysglycemia by American Diabetes Association and Endocrine Society criteria and as HbA1c of 5.7% or greater. In Tr2 in an available subset, we performed a repeat OGTT and SCOUT. Pregnant American Indian women (n = 244 at Tr1; n = 114 at Tr2) participated in the study. The prevalence of dysglycemia at Tr1 and incidence of GDM at Tr2 were measured. At Tr1, one woman had overt diabetes; 36 (15%) had impaired glucose tolerance (American Diabetes Association criteria and/or abnormal HbA1c) and 59 (24%) had GDM-Tr1 (Endocrine Society criteria). Overall, 74 (30%) had some form of dysglycemia. Associated factors were body mass index, hypertension, waist/hip circumferences, SCOUT score, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At Tr2, 114 of the Tr1 cohort underwent a repeat OGTT and SCOUT, and 26 (23%) had GDM. GDM-Tr2 was associated with increased SCOUT scores (P = .029) and Tr1 body mass index, waist/hip circumferences, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels. Overall, dysglycemia at Tr1 and/or Tr2 affected 38% of the women. Dysglycemia at some point during pregnancy was common among American Indian women. It was associated with

  19. Metformin versus Placebo in Obese Pregnant Women without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Steve; Akolekar, Ranjit; Kotecha, Reena; Pastides, Alice; Shehata, Hassan

    2016-02-04

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Lifestyle-intervention studies have not shown improved outcomes. Metformin improves insulin sensitivity and in pregnant patients with gestational diabetes it leads to less weight gain than occurs in those who do not take metformin. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women without diabetes who had a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 35 to receive metformin, at a dose of 3.0 g per day, or placebo (225 women in each group) from 12 to 18 weeks of gestation until delivery. The BMI was calculated at the time of study entry (12 to 18 weeks of gestation). The primary outcome was a reduction in the median neonatal birth-weight z score by 0.3 SD (equivalent to a 50% reduction, from 20% to 10%, in the incidence of large-for-gestational-age neonates). Secondary outcomes included maternal gestational weight gain and the incidence of gestational diabetes and of preeclampsia, as well as the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes. Randomization was performed with the use of computer-generated random numbers. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 50 women withdrew consent during the trial, which left 202 women in the metformin group and 198 in the placebo group. There was no significant between-group difference in the median neonatal birth-weight z score (0.05 in the metformin group [interquartile range, -0.71 to 0.92] and 0.17 in the placebo group [interquartile range, -0.62 to 0.89], P=0.66). The median maternal gestational weight gain was lower in the metformin group than in the placebo group (4.6 kg [interquartile range, 1.3 to 7.2] vs. 6.3 kg [interquartile range, 2.9 to 9.2], Pmetformin group than in the placebo group. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of gestational diabetes, large

  20. Clinical Features of the Ophthalmic Status in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmologist consultation has an important role in the examination of pregnant women. In some cases, his conclusion can play a decisive role in choice of delivery method. Obstetricians-gynecologists rely on ophthalmologist opinion for determining the severity of preeclampsia; it affects the treatment tactics and the life of mother and child. Examination of a pregnant woman has a number of characteristics, with regard to them, 3 groups of patients, which can be identified: the first group — Physiological pregnancywithout ophthalmological pathology. The second group: Physiological pregnancy with eye pathology in the anamnesis: myopia, peripheral choriovitreoretinal dystrophy; retinal detachment, vitreous body, vascular membrane, etc. Third group — Pathologically flowing pregnancy with pathology resulting from pregnancy: pre-eclampsia, anemia, diabetes and others pregnant. In physiological pregnancy without ophthalmological pathology, the most common physiological changes are increased pigmentation around the eyes, ptosis, a decrease of conjunctival capillaries, changes of cornea sensitivity and thickness, and, consequently, a change in refraction with a myopic shift, a decrease of tolerance to contact lenses, a decrease intraocular pressure, hemeralopia. It is necessary to differentiate the physiological feature of pregnancy, which include, in particular, the shift of refraction to the myopia, from pathological manifestations such as retinal angiopathy, macular edema, central serous chorioretinopathy and others. An important aspect is the  identification of potentially dangerous conditions of laser retina coagulation no later than 34 weeks of gestation with considering thepossibility of rheumatogenic retinal detachment and dystrophic changes in the delivery. This procedure can allow avoiding operativedelivery in the second group of patients. Timely detection of angiospasm on fundus in patients with pre-eclampsia from the third

  1. Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa

    2008-11-01

    The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents.

  2. Treatment of dermatophytosis in elderly, children, and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subuhi Kaul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytic infection of the skin and its appendages is a common occurrence. Though usually straightforward, treatment of dermatophytosis becomes notably challenging in certain population groups – pregnant women, children, and elderly. Treatment with topical azoles/allylamines alone is effective in limited cutaneous disease in all three groups. Terbinafine is the preferred oral agent in elderly population for treatment of extensive cutaneous disease and onychomycosis due to its lack of cardiac complications and lower propensity for drug interactions. If required, additional physical/mechanical modalities can be employed for symptomatic onychomycosis. Data for systemic therapy in children mainly pertains to the treatment of tinea capitis. At present, very little data exists regarding the safety of systemic antifungals in pregnancy and there is an effort to restrict treatment to topical therapies because of their negligible systemic absorption.

  3. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Exposure to active and passive smoking among Greek pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria G. Vivilaki

    2016-04-01

    Of 300 women recruited to the study 48 % reported tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amongst participants who were tobacco users, 83.3 % reported making an attempt to quit but less than half (45.1 % were successful. Among women who continued to smoke during pregnancy the majority (55.8 % reported that they felt unable to quit, and 9.3 % reported that they considered smoking cessation was not an important health issue for them. Participants who continued to smoke during pregnancy were more likely to report fetal (χ2 = 11.41; df = 5; p < 0.05 and newborn complications (χ2 = 6.41; df = 2; p < 0.05, including preterm birth and low birth weight. Participants who reported that their partners were smokers were more likely to smoke throughout their pregnancy (χ2 = 14.62; df = 1; p < 0.001. High rates of second-hand smoke exposure were reported among both smoking and non-smoking women. Pregnant smokers had significantly higher levels of postnatal depressive and anxiety symptomatology, as measured using the EPDS, than non-smokers.

  5. Assessment of iron status of Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Madriaga, J R; Perlas, L A; Desnacido, J A

    1989-09-01

    Plasma ferritin (PF), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and hemoglobin (Hb) were used to assess the iron status of 158 Filipino pregnant women included as subjects in the third national nutrition survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute in 1987. The prevalence of iron depletion was 39.9% based on PF (less than 12 ng/ml). Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 36.1% based on EP of greater than 28 micrograms/dl whole blood and 40.5% based on EP/Hb ratio of greater than 2.4. When the criterion of iron deficiency was that both PF and EP were abnormal, the prevalence of deficiency was lower and only 16.4%. Iron deficiency anemia was present in 14.6% based on Hb less than 11 g/dl in addition to abnormal PF and EP. Significantly lower mean values for PF were obtained in women on the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy indicating decreasing iron stores and the need for iron therapy to prevent anemia during those periods. The iron status of 38 women who reported taking iron supplements was not significantly different from those who did not take supplements.

  6. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  7. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  8. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, L C Y; Kametas, N; Strobl, I; Pachoumi, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of blood pressure inter-arm difference (IAD) in early pregnancy and to investigate its possible association with maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional observational study. Routine antenatal visit in a university hospital. A total of 5435 pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Blood pressure was taken from both arms simultaneously with a validated automated device. The presence of inter-arm blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more. The IAD in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10 mmHg or more in 8.3 and 2.3% of the women, respectively. Systolic IAD was found to be significantly related to systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and diastolic IAD was found to be significantly related to maternal age, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The systolic and diastolic IAD were higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group and absolute IAD increased with increasing blood pressure. About 31.0 and 23.9% of cases of hypertension would have been underreported if the left arm and the right arm were used, respectively, in measuring the blood pressure. There is a blood pressure IAD in a significant proportion of the pregnant population, and its prevalence increases with increasing blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure only on one arm, there is a one in three chance of underreporting hypertension. Therefore, it would be prudent that during the booking visit blood pressure should be taken in both arms and thus provide guidance for subsequent blood pressure measurements during the course of pregnancy.

  9. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  10. Development of stria gravidarum in pregnant women and associated factors

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    Arzu Kılıç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both

  11. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.

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    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A qualitative study on acceptable levels of risk for pregnant women in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Indira S E; van der Graaf, Rieke; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-05-15

    There is ambiguity with regard to what counts as an acceptable level of risk in clinical research in pregnant women and there is no input from stakeholders relative to such research risks. The aim of our paper was to explore what stakeholders who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women deem an acceptable level of risk for pregnant women in clinical research. Accordingly, we used the APOSTEL VI study, a low-risk obstetrical randomised controlled trial, as a case-study. We conducted a prospective qualitative study using 35 in-depth semi-structured interviews and one focus group. We interviewed healthcare professionals, Research Ethics Committee members (RECs) and regulators who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women, in addition to pregnant women recruited for the APOSTEL VI case-study in the Netherlands. Three themes characterise the way stakeholders view risks in clinical research in pregnant women in general. Additionally, one theme characterises the way healthcare professionals and pregnant women view risks with respect to the case-study specifically. First, ideas on what constitutes an acceptable level of risk in general ranged from a preference for zero risk for the foetus up to minimal risk. Second, the desirability of clinical research in pregnant women in general was questioned altogether. Third, stakeholders proposed to establish an upper limit of risk in potentially beneficial clinical research in pregnant women in order to protect the foetus and the pregnant woman from harm. Fourth and finally, the case-study illustrates that healthcare professionals' individual perception of risk may influence recruitment. Healthcare professionals, RECs, regulators and pregnant women are all risk adverse in practice, possibly explaining the continuing underrepresentation of pregnant women in clinical research. Determining the acceptable levels of risk on a universal level alone is insufficient

  13. Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe

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    Marnoch Gordon J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

  14. [The influencing factors of anemia for pregnant women between 2010-2012 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Duan, Y F; Bi, Y; Wang, J; Yin, S A; Yang, L C; Yang, Z Y

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of anemia and related risk factors for pregnant women in China. Method: Based on Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012, a total of 3 501 pregnant women were investigated from 150 counties of 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, using a multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. General information of pregnant women, health status, and food intake during the gestation, was collected through a questionnaire investigation. 6 ml fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of hemoglobin concentration. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to investigate the prevalence of anemia and the related influencing factors. Results: The 605 of 3 501 pregnant women had anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 17.2%; and mild anemia accounted for about 61.0% (369/605). Compared with the pregnant women living in the large cities, the OR (95% CI ) of those living in the poor rural areas was 1.46 (1.08-1.98). Compared with the pregnant women living in the south area of China, the OR (95% CI ) of those living in the north area of China was 1.39 (1.15-1.68); Compared with the pregnant women in the first trimester, the OR (95% CI ) of those in the second trimester and the third trimester were 1.79 (1.33-2.43) and 2.11 (1.56-2.85), respectively. The OR (95% CI ) of pregnant women who had used folic acid supplementation within the 6 months prior to gestation was 0.76 (0.63-0.93) compared with those who had not used. Conclusion: From 2010 to 2012, the epidemic characteristics of anemia was mild for the pregnant women in China, and pregnant women residential areas, periods of pregnancy and whether to take folic acid were related to anemia.

  15. Dental caries status and its associated factors in pregnant women, Shiraz, Iran, 2014

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    Soheila Shaghaghian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dental caries is a common problem in pregnant women which has negative impacts on their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnant women’s dental caries status and its associated risk factors in Shiraz, Iran, in 2014. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 423 pregnant women attending Shiraz governmental health centers for routine obstetric examinations by randomized cluster sampling. The women's dental caries status was assessed using decayed, missed, and filled tooth (DMFT index. The women’s demographic characteristics and their oral hygiene habits were evaluated using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The relationship between women's DMFT index and their demographic and oral hygiene characteristics was evaluated using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, independent sample t-tests, and multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean DMFT index was 5.8 ± 3.6. We found lower scores of DMFT index in women who were younger (P < 0.001, brushed their teeth more (P = 0.014, and used home preventive measures such as mouthwash (P = 0.003 and toothpick (P = 0.006. CONCLUSION: Dental caries status of the pregnant women was unacceptably lower than optimal. Interventions focusing on holding educational programs and taking office-based preventive measures for pregnant women or women who intend to be pregnant are recommended. The interventions are more necessary for older pregnant women and those who use fewer home preventive measures.

  16. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified

  17. Predominant Lactobacillus species types of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women: quantification of the five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes.

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    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Seung Min; Sohn, Yong Hak; Jin, Chan Hee; Yang, Yun Suk; Hwang, In Taek; Oh, Kwan Young

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the predominant Lactobacillus species types (LSTs) of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women by quantifying five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. In all, 168 pregnant Korean women under antenatal care at Eulji University Hospital and local clinics were enrolled in the prospective cohort study during pregnancy (10-14 weeks). Vaginal samples were collected with Eswab for Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and stored in a -80 °C freezer. qPCR was performed for five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. To identify the predominant LSTs, quantifications were analyzed by the Cluster and Tree View programs of Eisen Lab. Also the quantifications were compared among classified groups. L. crispatus and L. iners were most commonly found in pregnant Korean women, followed by L. gasseri and L. jensenii; L. vaginalis was nearly absent. Five types (four predominant LSTs and one predominant anaerobe type without predominant Lactobacillus species) were classified. Five predominant LSTs were identified in vaginal microbiota of pregnant Korean women. L. crispatus and L. iners predominant types comprised a large proportion.

  18. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women.

  19. The Fate of Motherhood, Fetuses and Neonates in Drug Addicted Pregnant Women

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    M Jahanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction causes many complications for mother and fetus. Preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, prenatal mortality, placental abruption, preeclampsia, PROM, cesarean delivery and congenital anomalies among the newborns of addicted mothers are increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the final of maternal, fetal and neonatal of drugs addicted pregnant women. Methods: The study is a Cross-Sectional study was done on 236 pregnant women 19-40 years old addicted to drugs and 236 pregnant women non-addicted that referred for delivery to maternity hospitals of Imam Reza(as and Imam Sajjad(as during 2008-2010. Measuring instruments were: observing and checklist includes various sections were related on the aims. Data Analysis was done using SPSS. After ensuring that these values followed the normal distribution, chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare qualitative variables of two groups and for quantitative variables T test was used. Confidence coefficient of 95% was considered. Results: The results showed complication such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, neonatal death in the first three days of birth, weight loss, low circumference head size among infants were born of mothers addicted compared with the control group had shown significant increase. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes serious complications for mother, fetus and newborn.

  20. Prevalence of violence against pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, O I; Abass, L W A; Fawole, A O

    2010-12-01

    Women are at risk of violence at all stages of their life, including during pregnancy. Using a interviewer-administered questionnaire, 306 pregnant women were interviewed in two public secondary health facilities in Ibadan to compare prevalence and risk factors of VAW before and during pregnancy. Prevalence ofVAW a year before current pregnancy was 41.5% compared to 17.7% during pregnancy. Perpetrators before pregnancy were mostly relatives (22%), while during pregnancy, partners (64%). Major reasons for violence were "not obeying instructions" (33.3%) and "misbehaving" (26%). Education (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83) and polygamous union (OR 9.56; 95% CI 3.71-24.63) and consumption of alcohol (OR 7.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.53) were statistically significant a year before pregnancy. Mothers occupation (OR 0.19; 95% CI 1.05-4.49); type of union (OR14.13; 95% CI 6.13-32.59), alcohol consumption by partner (OR 6.06; 95% CI 0.05-0.54); and not wanting pregnancy (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.20-9.30) were statistically significant in the index pregnancy. Hemorrhage (7.4% vs. 4.8%), abortion (1.9% vs. 1.2%), intrauterine death (3.7% vs. 1.2%) and premature labour (9.3% vs. 3.2%) were more often found in women who experienced VAW than those who did not, the latter was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Violence avoidance strategies included 'playing along' (51.3%) and 'praying' (21%). Pregnancy was protective against VAW. Empowerment of women through education and employment is crucial. Counselling on planning of families is also necessary. Screening for violence in pregnancy and close monitoring of the abused to ensure good obstetric outcome is recommended.

  1. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in pregnant women with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstündağ, Yasemin; Demirci, Hakan; Balık, Rifat; Erel, Ozcan; Özaydın, Fahri; Kücük, Bilgen; Ertaş, Dilber; Ustunyurt, Emin

    2017-11-27

    Repetitive episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) resemble an ischemia-reperfusion injury. We aimed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in pregnant women with OSAS. We also aimed to compare thiol/disulfide homeostasis with ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as markers of ischemia-reperfusion injury in pregnant women with and without OSAS and healthy control. This study included 29 pregnant women with OSAS, 30 women without OSAS in the third trimester applying for periodic examinations, and 30 healthy women. Serum IMA and TAC (using the ferric reducing power of plasma method) were measured. Serum thiol/disulfide homeostasis was determined by a novel automated method. The mean age of the pregnant women with OSAS was 31.0 ± 4.7 years with a mean gestational age of 36.5 ± 3.0 weeks. The mean age of pregnant women without OSAS was 29.8 ± 4.9 years with a mean gestational age of 36.9 ± 2.7 weeks. The mean age of the nonpregnant control group was 29.7 ± 6.4 years. Both native thiol (291 ± 29 μmol/L versus 314 ± 30 μmol/L; p = .018) and total thiol (325 ± 32 versus 350 ± 32, p = .025) levels were lower in pregnant women with OSAS compared to pregnant women without OSAS, respectively (p total thiol levels were lower in pregnant women with OSAS compared to those without OSAS. However, dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis parameters cannot provide valuable information to discriminate OSAS in pregnant women.

  2. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Rehle, Thomas M; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-11-01

    National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15-49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0-8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9-8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI -9-38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P>0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15-24 years while increasing significantly among women 35-49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility.

  3. Soluble CD30 in normotensive pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a comparison with preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the serum concentration of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction, in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without accompanying intrauterine growth restriction, and in normotensive healthy pregnant controls. Lower serum concentrations of sCD30 were observed in the group of normotensive pregnant women with a growth-restricted fetus in comparison with the group of healthy pregnant controls, and also in comparison with both preeclamptic groups of pregnant women with and without fetal growth restriction. The concentration of sCD30 in maternal serum from preeclamptic women did not differ in comparison with values from healthy controls or pregnancies complicated by isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics on Physical Activity of Pregnant Women at Referral Hospital in Riyadh, KSA

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    Shaffi Ahamed Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.

  5. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  6. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... individuals who are single parents, displaced homemakers, or single pregnant women only to— (a) Provide...

  7. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

  8. Smoking Cessation Following Text Message Intervention in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail; Chamness, Danielle; Koerner, Jamie; Inteso, Christina; Miller, Collin; Gross, Gilad; Mathews, Katherine

    2018-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on mother and fetus. Text messaging has been utilized to improve patient care. To evaluate the impact of text messaging on smoking cessation rates among pregnant women in addition to standard of care (SOC) smoking cessation services. Our SOC includes pharmacist-driven education with or without nicotine patch or bupropion. This randomized, open-label, prospective trial was conducted at a maternal fetal care center from May 2014 to January 2016. Pregnant patients in the preparation stage of change were randomized to text messaging or SOC. The primary outcome was smoking cessation verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (eCO) 2 weeks from quit date. All received clinical pharmacist weekly calls for 3 weeks and biweekly visits until pharmacotherapy completion. The text messaging group also received predetermined motivational messages. Of 49 randomized patients, 13 withdrew, and 6 were lost to follow-up. The remaining included 14 texting and 16 SOC patients. eCO-verified cessation was achieved by 57.1% in the texting group versus 31.3% in the control ( P = 0.153). Overall, 64.3% of the texting group achieved an eCO below 8 ppm at ≥1 visit versus 37.5% in the control group ( P = 0.143). No difference was found in birth outcomes. The study was underpowered because of slow enrollment and high drop-out rates. Text messaging had minimal impact on improving smoking cessation rates in the obstetric population. However, further research is warranted because of the underpowered nature of this trial. Given the detrimental effects of smoking in pregnancy, more comprehensive cessation strategies are warranted.

  9. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  10. An analysis of the feelings of pregnant women at risk of preterm labour.

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    Sulima, Magdalena; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Lewicka, Magdalena; Wiktor, Krzysztof; Kanadys, Katarzyna; Wiktor, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was an analysis of the feelings of pregnant women at risk ofpreterm labour. 313 expectant mothers aged between 18 to 44 years (ranges: 18-25, 26-30 and 31-44 years) with no psychological disorders, hospitalized and treated due to the risk of preterm labour were surveyed. All the examined pregnant women expressed voluntary and informed consent for the participation in the survey. Each of the questionnaires given to the examined pregnant women contained: a questionnaire form devised by the authors, to establish the characteristics of the surveyed expectant mothers, and the following research standardized tool - Negative and Positive Feelings Scale by P. Brzozowski. The value of the mean level of positive feel- ings state in the group of patients aged 31-44 years with higher education was significantly higher (p feelings as a condition of pregnant women in the study group (p > 0.05). There were no significant statistical differences (p > 0.05) between the level of negative feel- ings trait and age. It was found, however, that the level of negative feelings trait was significantly lower (p = 0.0009) in pregnant women with higher education than in pregnant women who had completed secondary education. 1. Among pregnant women at risk of pre- term labour, higher levels of positive feelings were found in pregnant women aged 31-44 years with higher education, being married and residents of a provincial city. 2. In order to reduce negative feelings in pregnant women at risk of preterm labour it seems important to implement appropriate psychological and prophylactic management, provide adequate care in the pregnancy pathology department, as well as support from the medical staff and the family. These activities should be targeted particularly at younger women with primary education or vocational training, not being married and living in rural areas.

  11. Hamatological parameters and malaria parasite infection among pregnant women in Northwest Nigeria

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    Anigo Kola Matthew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate some hematological and anthropometric parameters, malaria infection at different trimesters in pregnancy. Methods: Fifty pregnant women (6 in first trimester, 28 in second trimester and 16 in third trimester between ages of 15-40 years with ten age-matched non-pregnant women used as control were enrolled in the study. Consent were obtained from the subjects after which semi-structured questionnaires were administered to obtain data on demographic and socio-economic variables, reproductive and medical history. Anthropometric variables, and hematology were carried out using standard procedures. Results: Anthropometric characteristics showed no significant difference in weight, height and BMI when compared with non-pregnant control. Hematological values indicated higher values for non-pregnant women but not statistically significant. Prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women showed that 40% of pregnant women examined were infected compared to 30% non-pregnant with those with first pregnancy (primagravid recording the highest infection (47.62% with pregnant women within age 15-18 years least infected (16.7%. Pregnant women in the third trimester had the highest (50% malaria infection and there was increase in prevalence with increase education status and those with first pregnancy (primagravid recorded the highest infection (47.62%. Treatment used when infected showed 36.8% and 42.9% used malaria drug and both drug/herbs respectively. Conclusions: Higher prevalence rate of malaria infection in pregnant women with the highest prevalence recorded in those with first conception (primigravidae. There is a need for continuous monitoring of hematological parameters and malaria parasite infection for better outcome of pregnancy.

  12. Life's pregnant pause of pain: pregnant women's experiences of pelvic girdle pain related to daily life: a Swedish interview study.

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    Elden, Helen; Lundgren, Ingela; Robertson, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a universally disabling condition affecting three of 10 pregnant women. Qualitative studies on the subject are lacking. To describe pregnant women's experiences of PGP as related to daily life. In all, 27 women with PGP participating in a randomised controlled study were interviewed during 2010-2011. Qualitative content analysis was used. Five main categories emerged: PGP affects the ability to cope with everyday life; Coping with motherhood; Relationships between partners often reached the breaking point; Questioning one's identity as defined by profession and work, and Lessons learned from living with PGP. The categories illustrate how women's everyday lives were interrupted. Their inability to meet their own and others' expectations put a strain on their lives causing disappointment, sadness and frustration. It made them question and doubt their roles and identities as mothers, partners and professionals, and kept them from looking forward to future pregnancies, in the absence of effective treatment for PGP. Knowledge gained was that women with PGP should seek help immediately, listen to their bodies, and acknowledge their limitations. PGP severely affects pregnant women's everyday lives. There appears to be a lack of knowledge and awareness in general, as well as among caregivers and employers of PGP that needs to be highlighted and rectified. There is also a great need to learn how to support those suffering from it. Appropriate support during this important and rare phase in a woman's life is highly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety

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    V. G. Syusyuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research – to determine level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety. Group of examined women and methods of research. 90 Pregnant women were examined in ІІ and ІІІ trimester of pregnancy. The main group includes 58 pregnant women with the medium and high level of state anxiety and 32 pregnant women with anxiety level of 30 points and less that indicates the low level of SA (control group. For estimation of the state anxiety and trait anxiety the scale of Spielberger-Hanin was used. Level of serotonin and melatonin was measured with fluorometric method in blood hemolysate of pregnant women. Results. According to the obtained results of biochemical research of hemolysate of packed red cells of blood of examined women it was stated that increase of state anxiety was accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin level and decrease of melatonin level. Thus, special features have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index. Pregnant women of the main group have the index which was 2.5 times higher than the same index in women of the control group. Conclusions. Results of performed research among pregnant women have indicated that increase of state anxiety is accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin content in blood and statistically reliable (p < 0.05 decrease of melatonin. Such results have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index in pregnant women with medium and high levels of state anxiety comparing to the certain index in women with the low level of anxiety.

  14. Social justice and equal treatment for pregnant women in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    LL.D. This thesis critically evaluates the position of pregnant women (and women who have recently given birth) in the context of South African Labour Law and social security law, from both a comparative and a South African perspective. The fact that women fall pregnant and give birth to children, while men do not, raises issues of theoretical and practical importance in regard to equality issues. Pregnancy has historically been both the cause of and the occasion for the exclusion of many ...

  15. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its associated risk factors in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.; Martina, S. J.; Syarifah, S.

    2018-03-01

    The gestation period is the period that determines the quality of human resources in the future because the development of the child is determined from the time of the fetus in utero. The most common nutrition problems suffered by pregnant women in Indonesia is Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and anemia. The aim of this research to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and the risk factors associated with anemia in urban and rural areas of North Sumatera Province. This research is as descriptive analyticwith cross-sectional approach. Total sample 140 pregnant women from the Medan City, Langkat District and South Labuhan Batu District, and was from June to October 2016. Data collected by using interviews, hemoglobinometer tool and analyzed with Chi-square test. Anemia was in 40.7% of pregnant women, and the incidence of anemia is more common in pregnant women in urban areas than in rural areas. The factors associated with anemia in pregnant women is parity, knowledge of nutrition, diet and the risk of chronic energy deficiency (p anemia in pregnant women in North Sumatra was higher than the national prevalence.

  16. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics In HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

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    Nikki Mulligan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12 or 24 hour pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 mcg/mL and 0.026 mcg/mL. Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily dosing and one took 400 mg once-daily. Etravirine AUC0-12 was significantly higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 45% (median 8.3 mcg*hr/mL versus 5.7 mcg*hr/mL, p = 0.086. Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data (median 24 L/h versus 35 L/h, p = 0.038. The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.56 (range: 0.19 - 4.25 and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929.

  17. Red blood cell distribution width and iron deficiency anemia among pregnant Sudanese women

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    Abdelrahman Esam G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is a major health problem during pregnancy and it has adverse effects on the mother and the newborn. Red cell distribution width (RDW, which is a quantitative measure for red cell size variation (anisocytosis, is a predictor of IDA. Little is known regarding RDW and IDA during pregnancy. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Khartoum Hospital, Sudan, to determine the performance of RDW in the diagnosis of IDA using serum ferritin as a gold standard. Results Among 194 pregnant women with a gestational period of 21.4 ± 6.5 weeks, 57 (29.4% had IDA according to serum ferritin levels (14.5. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RDW where serum ferritin was the gold standard were 43.8% (95% CI: 31.4–57.0%, 73.7% (95% CI: 65.8–80.5%, 41.0% (95% CI: 29.2–53.6%, and 76.0% (95% CI: 68.1–82.6%, respectively. Conclusions In this study, we found that RDW has a poor performance in diagnosing IDA among pregnant women compared with serum ferritin as the gold standard. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1721072967826303

  18. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Cherane, Matodzi

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women. The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements. High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.

  19. Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-05-13

    Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants' iodine status. This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups.

  20. A Pilot Quality Improvement Collaborative to Improve Safety Net Dental Access for Pregnant Women and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schaaf, Emily B; Quinonez, Rocio B; Cornett, Amanda C; Randolph, Greg D; Boggess, Kim; Flower, Kori B

    2018-02-01

    Objectives To determine acceptability and feasibility of a quality improvement (QI) collaborative in safety net dental practices, and evaluate its effects on financial stability, access, efficiency, and care for pregnant women and young children. Methods Five safety net dental practices participated in a 15-month learning collaborative utilizing business assessments, QI training, early childhood oral health training, and prenatal oral health training. Practices collected monthly data on: net revenue, no-show rates, total encounters, and number of encounters for young children and pregnant women. We analyzed quantitative data using paired t-tests before and after the collaborative and collected supplemental qualitative feedback from clinic staff through focus groups and directed email. Results All mean measures improved, including: higher monthly revenue ($28,380-$33,102, p = 0.37), decreased no-show rate (17.7-14.3%, p = 0.11), higher monthly dental health encounters (283-328, p = 0.08), and higher monthly encounters for young children (8.8-10.5, p = 0.65), and pregnant women (2.8-9.7, p = 0.29). Results varied by practice, with some demonstrating largest increases in encounters for young children and others pregnant women. Focus group participants reported that the collaborative improved access for pregnant women and young children, and that QI methods were often new and difficult. Conclusion for practice Participation by safety net dental practices in a QI collaborative is feasible and acceptable. Individual sites saw greater improvements in different outcomes areas, based on their own structures and needs. Future efforts should focus on specific needs of each dental practice and should offer additional QI training.

  1. Risk factors related to heartburn in pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic, Rajavithi Hospital.

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    Kovavisarach, Ekachai; Phromsila, Raweewan

    2012-08-01

    To determine the risk factors related to heartburn in pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic, Rajavithi Hospital. Self-reporting questionnaire about demographic data and risk factors related to heartburn in those pregnant women between May 1 and July 31, 2010. Heartburn was found in 55 out of 452 pregnant women (12.2%). There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and risk factors between the heartburn and non-heartburn groups. Consumption of alcoholic drinks was a reversely significant risk factor of heartburn (OR 0.11, CI 0.01 to 0.78) (p = 0.005). Heartburn was not uncommon, and no associated factors were demonstrated.

  2. The second wave: Toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medication, and the broader issues of justice and access to benefits of research participation. Going forward requires shifting the burden of justification from inclusion to exclusion and developing an adequate ethical framework that specifies suitable justifications for excluding pregnant women from research.

  3. In-Country Migration and Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition among Pregnant Women in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria R; Spector, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    To compare HIV prevalence and HIV acquisition risk behaviors between pregnant women residents and migrants. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women of unknown HIV status seeking care at Tijuana General Hospital, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the labor and delivery unit or the prenatal clinic had a rapid HIV test drawn, with positive results confirmed by Western blot. Migrants were defined as women who had resided in Tijuana for less than 5 years. Between 2007 and 2008, a total of 3331 pregnant women consented to participate. The HIV seroprevalence did not differ between Tijuana residents (18 of 2502, 0.72%) and migrants (3 of 829, 0.36%, P = .32). In multivariate regression analyses, HIV acquisition risk behaviors included methamphetamine use (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 6.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-15.8, P Tijuana residents and migrants. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Zulfiya Raisovna Alimetova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus depending on gestational ageand albuminuria level. Materials and methods. A total of 60 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were examined. Proximal and distal tubular function was estimatedfrom daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia respectively. Results. Daily excretion of amine nitrogen and ammonia in urine of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus was lower than in healthycontrols in the 2nd trimester regardless of albuminuria and in the 3rd trimester in patients with microalbuminuria (MAU and proteinuria (PU.Ammonia excretion was twice lower than normal in the 2nd trimester in women with MAU and PU, and in the 3rd trimester in patients with PU.Healthy pregnant women showed significant correlation between ammonia and amine nitrogen excretion throughout pregnancy (r?0.833,p

  5. Effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of pregnant women in Western iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Farnoush; Pourabbas, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 100) attending urban health centers in Ilam city (western Iran) during the year 2011 for prenatal care. A nutritional education program containing two to four lessons was undertaken for small groups of between six to ten women. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before intervention (pretest) and followed by two posttests within three weeks interval. The awareness level of pregnant women about healthy nutrition was significantly increased from 3% before intervention to 31% after the nutritional education intervention (P nutritional education intervention will have a positive effect on nutritional awareness of pregnant women.

  6. Distribution of HIV among pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Manish Rijal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the distribution of HIV among the pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu. Methods: A total of 1 440 blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for antiHIV antibodies using rapid screening assay kits and ELISA in Paropakar Maternity and Women ’s Hospital during May to November, 2011. Results: The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.62%, the prevalence being highest (1.4% in age group 35-39 years old, and during second trimester of gestation (0.75%. Similarly, it was found to be highest among the illiterates (1.92%, commercial sex worker (10.00% and those having multiple sexual partners (30.00%. Conclusions: Sero-prevalence of HIV infection was higher among the pregnant women of Kathmandu.

  7. Pregnant Women’s View on Their Relationship: A Comparison With Nonpregnant Women

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    Karlijn Massar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive effects of partner support on pregnancy outcomes and maternal (mental health are well established in the literature. Less is known about pregnant women’s perceptions of their partner and relationship, and whether these differ from those of nonpregnant women. Therefore, in the current study, data were collected through an online questionnaire among pregnant (n = 66 and nonpregnant (n = 59 women with similar demographic profiles. The results show that pregnant women reported feeling significantly more happy with both their partner and their relationship than nonpregnant women. Importantly, we did not find any differences in self-esteem or mate value between groups. Although the present study is mainly exploratory, we suggest that pregnant women may show a positive bias in the way they view their partner and their relationship, which in turn may be beneficial to her own as well as her child’s mental and physical health.

  8. Challenges in preventing pyelonephritis in pregnant women in Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookallil, M; Chalmers, E; Andrew, B

    2005-01-01

    To measure the quality of antenatal care in rural and remote regions of the Northern Territory, using asymptomatic bacteruria as an indicator. Indigenous Australian women and their babies have a greater frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. It is well established that asymptomatic bacteriuria may have serious outcomes in pregnancy, including an increased risk of pyelonephritis and a strong association with preterm and low birth weight delivery. Ensuring good quality antenatal care can reduce the individual risks of pregnancy for mothers and their babies. In the Northern Territory there are well established guidelines for antenatal care in rural and remote Indigenous communities. These are documented in the Women's Business Manual. Audit and feedback is one method that has been shown to have a small to moderate effect in changing clinician behaviour, in this case improving compliance with guidelines. A retrospective chart audit of antenatal clients was conducted at 10 rural and remote primary health care clinics in the Northern Territory, Australia. The audit reviewed all the available charts (n = 268) of pregnant women, from the participating communities, who gave birth in 2002 or 2003. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria was chosen as the indicator of quality antenatal care, as it is one of five areas of antenatal care where there is evidence that appropriate management improves outcomes. The quality of care was measured against the local guidelines, the Women's Business Manual. Women frequently had urine tests with where the dipstick showed an abnormal result, with 75% (95% CI [0.70,0.80]) of women having at least one episode of abnormal urinalysis during pregnancy. Six hundred and twenty episodes of abnormal urinalysis in pregnancy were identified. The incidence of bacteriuria at first visit was 16%, (95%-confidence interval = 95% CI [0.10, 0.21]). Compliance with the guidelines was poor. Fifty

  9. Skewed risk perceptions in pregnant women: the case of influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Birte; Betsch, Cornelia; Wichmann, Ole

    2015-12-29

    Pregnant women and their newborns have an increased risk of developing severe influenza and influenza-related complications. In Germany, seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women since 2010. However, little is known about pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes, as well as their risk perceptions. This study therefore assessed pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge, risk perceptions related to influenza disease and influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and aimed to identify determinants of influenza vaccination uptake during pregnancy in Germany. Between 2012 and 2014, a nationwide web-based prospective cohort study with follow-up interviews was conducted in initially pregnant women who gave birth over the study period. Control groups were set up in a cross-sectional fashion during the follow-up interviews. Women who participated in both, the baseline interview before giving birth and in the 1st interview after giving birth were included in the analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between influenza vaccination uptake and sociodemographic characteristics as well as items assessing attitude and knowledge. In total, 838 women were included in the analyses. Pregnant women had a positive attitude towards vaccination in general, but only modest vaccination knowledge. Overall, 10.9 % of women were vaccinated against seasonal influenza during pregnancy. While pregnant women perceived classical childhood diseases to be more risky than the respective vaccinations, this relation reversed for influenza: The risk of vaccination was perceived higher than the risk of the disease. These two types of risk perceptions independently determined influenza vaccination uptake-higher perception of disease risk and lower perceptions of vaccination-related risks increased uptake. Additionally, knowledge about the vaccination recommendation for pregnant women and a positive gynaecologist

  10. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

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    Ali Salah K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  11. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Ziad, Abdel Haliem M; Ali, Salah K; Adam, Ishag

    2011-01-18

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0%) were symptomatic and 169 (71.9%) asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%), and (14.7%) respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596), and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%). In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4%) and S. aureus (39.3%) were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively. Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  12. Use of Over-the-Counter Medication among Pregnant Women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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    Abduelmula R. Abduelkarem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over-the-counter medications are widely available in pharmacies Their safety profile, however, does not extend to pregnant women. Accordingly, there should be educational programs developed for pregnant women to protect them from the harms of the side effects. Aim. This study was planned and designed with the aim of exploring the awareness and assessing the usage of OTC medications among pregnant women in Sharjah, UAE. Method. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. More than three-quarters (75.7% reported that they are familiar with the term “over-the-counter drugs.” Interestingly, 40% of the respondents reported that they took OTC drugs during pregnancy, and the majority (94.2% agreed with the survey statement “not all OTC medications are safe to be taken during pregnancy.” Constipation was the most frequent side effect that most of the participants reported during the study period. Folic acid (36%, calcium (28.6%, and iron (35.1% were the most common supplements used by the pregnant women responding. Conclusion. The reported 40% usage of OTC medications among pregnant women in this study is worrisome and calls for the need to educate, counsel, and increase awareness among pregnant women regarding the dangers of OTC drugs usage while pregnant in Sharjah, UAE.

  13. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  14. Systemic alterations and their oral manifestations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Araujo Figueiredo, Camilla; Gonçalves Carvalho Rosalem, Cíntia; Costa Cantanhede, Andre Luis; Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Érika Bárbara; Fontoura Nogueira da Cruz, Maria Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this literature review are: to depict the main oral diseases that are related to pregnancy; to clarify some of the possible systemic mechanisms that are associated with these changes; and to address issues about oral care during pregnancy. A woman's organs undergo various physiological, neurological, and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Such changes occur gradually and are essential for the development of the fetus, providing what is needed for tissue formation and establishment of reserves for uterine and fetal life. In turn, the oral cavity shows some events during this period. Among the changes most frequently cited in the literature are pyogenic granuloma, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The inflammation of the periodontal tissues due to the formation of the biofilm increases dramatically in size and severity during the course of a normal pregnancy, even without changes in the amount of biofilm present. In addition, a decrease in salivary pH is observed in pregnant women and may lead to an increased incidence of dental caries in this period. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Coping Strategies Among Brazilian Pregnant Women Living With HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Rigoni de Faria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women living with HIV (PWLH face tremendous challenges in order to prevent their babies’ infection. Coping is a potential buffer against negative outcomes from these challenges. This study aims to describe coping strategies of PWLH. This cross-sectional survey involved 77 PWLH from a public health care center in Brazil. Coping was measured for three types of strategies: Problem-focused, Emotion-focused, and Relationship support. Multivariate analyses identified some coping predictors. Being employed, reporting religious practice and higher CD4/immunity were associated with Problem-focused coping. Lower educational level was associated with Emotion-focused strategies. Relationship support strategies were more likely to be reported by PWLH who had good social support, who had disclosed HIV status to the baby’s father, and who knew their infection before pregnancy. Findings underline the need for HIV interventions focused on social support and participation by the baby’s father, with particular attention to those PWLH who were recently diagnosed and economically vulnerable.

  16. Increased prevalence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and its implications for malaria control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, F. H.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, C. A.; Chimsuku, L.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    To examine in pregnant women the relationship between HIV infection and malaria prevalence and to determine, in relation to HIV infection, the effectiveness of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in clearing P. falciparum infection. Descriptive cross-sectional analysis of P. falciparum prevalence in pregnant

  17. cd4 changes in haart-naïve hiv positive pregnant women on haart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study thus attempt an assessment of the pattern of immunologic (CD4) changes in naïve. HIV positive pregnant women, in the first two months of commencing HAART, with a view to possibly postulate CD4 response rate and recommend the ideal time to initiate HAARTin HIV positive pregnant patients. METHODOLOGY.

  18. Exploring a self-help coping intervention for pregnant women with a miscarriage history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockhuijsen, Henrietta D L; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Boivin, Jacky; Macklon, Nicholas S.; de Boer, Fijgje

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women with a history of miscarriages experience symptoms of anxiety and depression in a subsequent pregnancy and are in need of support in the period after miscarriage, when trying to get pregnant again and during the first phase of pregnancy.The aim of this study was to investigate whether

  19. Targeted social care for highly vulnerable pregnant women: Protocol of the Mothers of Rotterdam cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Van Der Hulst (Marije); M.W. de Groot (Marjolein); J.P. de Graaf (Hanneke); R. Kok (Rianne); P.J. Prinzie (Peter); A. Burdorf (Alex); L.C.M. Bertens (Loes C.M.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction: Social vulnerability is known to be related to ill health. When a pregnant woman is socially vulnerable, the ill health does not only affect herself, but also the health and development of her (unborn) child. To optimise care for highly vulnerable pregnant women, in

  20. Healthcare utilisation of pregnant women who experience sciatica, leg cramps and/or varicose veins: A cross-sectional survey of 1835 pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen; Lauche, Romy; Adams, Jon; Steel, Amie; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David

    2016-02-01

    Common discomforts of pregnancy experienced in the lower extremity include sciatica, leg cramps and varicose veins. Whilst research attention has focused on aetiology and outcomes, the health service utilisation of pregnant women suffering from these complaints has been largely overlooked. To examine the health status and health service utilisation profile of pregnant women experiencing sciatica, leg cramps or varicose veins. Linear and logistic regression was applied to a cross-sectional survey of a pregnant women drawn from the 1973 to 1978 cohort (aged 31-36 years in 2009), of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n=1835). Participant's demographics, health status and health service utilisation were compared for all three complaints based upon three subgroups (yes, sought help; yes, did not seek help; no). A number of women experienced sciatica (22.1%), leg cramps (18.2%) or varicose veins (9.4%). Of these, a greater proportion of women with sciatica (79.3%) or varicose veins (71.5%) sought help for their condition compared with women with leg cramps (46.7%). Comparisons between women with the conditions of interest who did seek help and those who did not only found that women with a university degree were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.85) times less likely to seek help for their condition compared to women with a school only education. Further research examining all health seeking behaviour and treatment use of pregnant women who experience lower extremity problems is required in order to facilitate safe, effective and coordinated maternity care to further support these women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CHANGING TRENDS IN HIV SEROPREVALENCE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bama Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Routine antenatal screening for HIV combined with advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to increased detection and effective treatment in pregnancy. AIM To know effectiveness of screening in antenatal mother and their husband for HIV status, seroprevalence rate among them and among their infants from a tertiary care hospital. We aim to outline key interventions which can influence the rate of mother to child transmission and how these are best incorporated into care of pregnant women and her baby including antenatal testing use of antiretroviral medication, management of labour and of breast-feeding. METHOD Retrospective analysis of Data over a period of six years available in Integrated counselling and Testing centre attached to Tertiary Care Government Medical College and Hospital Trichy, from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 Dec 2015. Data of Antenatal mothers screened and diagnosed as HIV Seropositive and its various outcomes related to these pregnancies were analysed. RESULTS Among 29215 women who were screened, 104 were found to be HIV seropositive. Declining seroprevalence rate from 0.66% in 2010 to 0.16% in 2015 noted. Among seropositive mothers, majority were in 25-34 years of age. Maximum incidence was in second gravida during initial years followed by primigravida, In subsequent years, declining seroprevalence rate in spouse and declining mother to child transmission rate were analysed. CONCLUSION Decreasing seroprevalence rate indicates effective counselling and intensive screening of HIV status of Antenatal mothers and their Husbands & their infants with effective Implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission programme and also effective treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  2. Subtle differences in selective pressures applied on the envelope gene of HIV-1 in pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, Doris G; Lord, Etienne; Caty, Martine; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc; Diallo, Abdoulaye Baniré; Soudeyns, Hugo

    2018-04-17

    Pregnancy is associated with modulations of maternal immunity that contribute to foeto-maternal tolerance. To understand whether and how these alterations impact antiviral immunity, a detailed cross-sectional analysis of selective pressures exerted on HIV-1 envelope amino-acid sequences was performed in a group of pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 44) HIV-infected women in absence of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Independent of HIV-1 subtype, p-distance, dN and dS were all strongly correlated with one another but were not significantly different in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant patients. Differential levels of selective pressure applied on different Env subdomains displayed similar yet non-identical patterns between the two groups, with pressure applied on C1 being significantly lower in constant regions C1 and C2 than in V1, V2, V3 and C3. To draw a general picture of the selection applied on the envelope and compensate for inter-individual variations, we performed a binomial test on selection frequency data pooled from pregnant and non-pregnant women. This analysis uncovered 42 positions, present in both groups, exhibiting statistically-significant frequency of selection that invariably mapped to the surface of the Env protein, with the great majority located within epitopes recognized by Env-specific antibodies or sites associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity. The median frequency of occurrence of positive selection per site was significantly lower in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Furthermore, examination of the distribution of positively selected sites using a hypergeometric test revealed that only 2 positions (D137 and S142) significantly differed between the 2 groups. Taken together, these result indicate that pregnancy is associated with subtle yet distinctive changes in selective pressures exerted on the HIV-1 Env protein that are compatible with transient modulations of maternal

  3. Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

  4. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

  5. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-01-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy

  6. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  7. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women's eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Adrienne V; Mumtaz, Zubia; Faiz Rashid, Sabina; Willows, Noreen

    2013-09-26

    Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos' and a patriarchal gender order that limits women's mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women's access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women's access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are

  8. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal teas for infants, pregnant or lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädge, Inga; Cramer, Luise; Rahaus, Ines; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2015-11-15

    A general contamination of tea with pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) has just become known. Here, we report the application and modification of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate PA content of herbal teas intended for infants, pregnant and lactating women. Using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate for derivatization and a stable isotope labeled internal standard, the total retronecine-/heliotridine-type PA content of the samples is expressed in form of a single sum parameter (retronecine equivalents: RE). The new methods were applied to analyze 44 tea samples for such consumer groups. Thirty eight products (86%) were tested PA positive showing PA concentrations ranging from 0 to 391 μg RE/kg (average: 50 μg RE/kg). The dataset is discussed in the view of the current discussion on PA in the food chain with special focus on those particular vulnerable consumer groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  10. Safety and pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in HIV-positive pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Clayden, Polly; Thorne, Claire; Christie, Rachel; Zash, Rebecca

    2018-04-01

    The integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) is being introduced into low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as an alternative to first-line treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, DTG is not yet widely recommended for use in pregnant women. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all available data on birth outcomes and congenital anomalies in the infants of pregnant women treated with DTG. A PubMed and Embase search was conducted using the terms "dolutegravir" or "DTG" and "pregnancy" or "pregnant" from the earliest available date on the database to 26 July 2017. Any reports involving women who were pregnant, HIV positive and taking DTG were included. The percentage of pregnant women with adverse birth outcomes or congenital anomalies in their infants after taking dolutegravir was compared with five historical control databases. There were six databases included in the main analysis of birth outcomes and congenital anomalies, with a total of 1200 pregnant women. The percentage of pregnant women taking DTG with adverse birth outcomes and congenital abnormalities was similar to results from historical control studies of HIV-positive women. However, there was significant heterogeneity among the six databases - the percentage of infants with congenital anomalies ranged from 0.0% in Botswana (0/116 infants) to 13.3% in IMPAACT P1026S (2/15 infants). Up to 15 million people could be on treatment with DTG in LMICs within the next 5 years, of whom a substantial percentage is likely to be women of child-bearing potential. In many countries with large HIV epidemics, unplanned pregnancies are common and access to antenatal clinic facilities may be limited. Continued pharmacovigilance is essential, but it is reassuring that no clear safety signals have been detected, to date, for pregnant women treated with DTG in terms of birth outcomes or congenital anomalies.

  11. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  12. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge and perceptions on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and nurses who provide prenatal in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jayra Adrianna da Silva; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women's care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child's life. This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary - prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women's guidance. The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.

  14. Nigerian dentists and oral health-care of pregnant women: Knowledge, attitude and belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes O Umoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women seek preventive, interventional and rehabilitative oral health-care for their oral health and protection of their fetus and babies after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the Nigerian Dentist′s knowledge, attitude and belief pertaining to the oral health-care of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional of Nigerian dentist was conducted between June and December, 2011 using Huebner et al., modified dentist′s attitude to the pregnant women questionnaire Results: The overall response rate of 92.5% (149/160. Receipt of continuing medical education (CME was reported among the participants on periodontal disease of pregnant patients (22.1%, oral hygiene of pregnant patients (20.1%, early childhood caries (35.6% and general dental problem (51.0%. The majority (92.6% agreed that Dentists have the skill to counsel pregnant patients, But only 73.8% of them provided oral hygiene instruction frequently to pregnant patients and even fewer (6.0% were involved in educational advice on oral health for young women. Many of the participants agreed that counseling pregnant patients about periodontal disease and its effect on the developing baby is of utmost importance. Participants also dominantly agreed that dental treatment should be part of prenatal care and 97.3% of them opined that physician recommendation will increase the likelihood of pregnant seeking dental care. More than half (56.4% of the participants reported that Dentists should be concerned about being sued if something goes wrong with the pregnancy. The recommended ways to improve oral health-care of pregnant women among the participants were through CME (92.6%, provision of educational materials on oral health-care of pregnant women (93.3% and information on ways to counsel pregnant women (98.0%. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed high preparedness, positive attitude and favorable disposition in dental care provision for

  15. Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huan Yu; Feng, Dan; Wei, Dong Mei; Mei, Ling; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xun; Fang, Fang

    2017-11-23

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is estimated to be the second most common form of infection after bacterial vaginosis. The ability of probiotics in maintaining and recovering the normal vaginal microbiota, and their potential ability to resist Candidas give rise to the concept of using probiotics for the treatment of VVC. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women. We searched the following databases to October 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections Cochrane Review Group's Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and eight other databases. We searched in following international resources: World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science and OpenGrey. We checked specialty journals, reference lists of published articles and conference proceedings. We collected information from pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) using probiotics, alone or as adjuvants to conventional antifungal drugs, to treat VVC in non-pregnant women. Trials recruiting women with recurrent VVC, coinfection with other vulvovaginal infections, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressive disorders or taking immunosuppressant medication were ineligible for inclusion. Probiotics were included if they were made from single or multiple species and in any preparation type/dosage/route of administration. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and quality and extracted data. We resolved any disagreements through consensus. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Ten RCTs (1656 participants) met our inclusion criteria, and pharmaceutical industry funded none of these trials. All trials used probiotics as adjuvant therapy to antifungal drugs. Probiotics increased the rate of short-term clinical cure (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 1.24, 695

  16. Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Handberg, A.; Kühl, C.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the decreased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance found in normal and gestational diabetic pregnancy might be associated with changes in insulin receptor function. METHODS: Eight nonpregnant healthy women (nonpregnant controls), eight healthy pregnant women...... (pregnant controls), and eight women with gestational diabetes were investigated. All were non-obese. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle, and insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activities in partially purified skeletal muscle insulin receptors were studied. The pregnant controls...... with gestational diabetes compared to nonpregnant controls (P pregnant women did not differ from the other two groups. Postpartum, no differences in insulin binding were found between the groups. Basal and maximal tyrosine kinase activities toward the exogenous substrate poly(Glu4Tyr1) were...

  17. Pregnant and breastfeeding women: A priority population for HIV viral load monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Essajee, Shaffiq; Broyles, Laura N; Watts, D Heather; Lesosky, Maia; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-08-01

    Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.

  18. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (pmutans CFU in the saliva of high-caries-risk pregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service.

  19. Music Therapy on Anxiety, Stress and Maternal-fetal Attachment in Pregnant Women During Transvaginal Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The finding provides evidence for use of nursing intervention in prenatal care unit to reduce pregnant women's anxiety. Further research is necessary to test the benefits of music therapy with different frequency and duration.

  20. A Discourse Analysis of Denmark´s Public Health Policy Concerning Overweight among Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg

    2017-01-01

    . Health care professionals’ approach to governing overweight pregnant women is affected by this breach in the discursive field. Thus, overweight pregnant women have become an issue for medical experts, who are encouraged to use stricter rhetoric when addressing them. This shift also renders pregnant women......A recent Danish public health report classified being overweight during pregnancy as a chronic disease, marking a discursive shift from its previous classification as a risk factor for complications in maternal and foetal health. This discursive shift is considered a breach in the discursive field...... subject to interventions by medical experts. The aim of this article is to critically analyse recommendations for how health professionals should govern these highrisk individuals and to discuss the implications of such governance for overweight pregnant women. In this study, overweight is classified...

  1. Attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity in pregnant women: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Harrison

    2018-01-01

    Registration: PROSPERO CRD42016037643. [Harrison AL, Taylor NF, Shields N, Frawley HC (2018 Attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity in pregnant women: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 24–32

  2. Preventive measures to reduce the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from pregnant women to their babies†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Güler

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Streptococcus mutans is commonly transferred from mothers to their babies, and the preventive program applied to the pregnant women reduced both the amount of plaque and S. mutans colonization and thus had a positive effect.

  3. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  4. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macr...

  5. prevalence and immune status of hiv/hbv co-infected pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    occurrence of HBV antibodies in HIV-1 positive pregnant women and the relationship to Ante-retroviral therapy (ART) and other demographic ... the potential benefits of interferon use during ... infection and does not influence HIV suppression.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guitard, Juliette; Andersen, Pernille; Ermont, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women acquire protective antibodies that cross-react with geographically diverse placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates, suggesting that surface molecules expressed on infected erythrocytes by pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) parasites have conserved epitopes and, that de...

  7. Pregnant substance-abusing women in involuntary treatment: Attachment experiences with the unborn child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Siv Merete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Use of coercion against pregnant women who misuse substances was legalised in Norway in 1996. The background for the law was that substance abuse during pregnancy represents a significant health problem for the child.

  8. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  9. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Joly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45 of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61 of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.

  10. Serodiscordance and disclosure among HIV-positive pregnant women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacius, Lori A; Levison, Judy; Minard, Charles G; Fasser, Carl; Davila, Jessica A

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women in relationships with HIV-negative men in the United States is unclear. The purpose of this study was to calculate the prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women with a serodiscordant (HIV-negative) partner within a single clinic population, assess disclosure of their HIV status, and examine factors associated with disclosure. All HIV-positive pregnant women who received prenatal care at the Harris County Hospital District Women's Program at Northwest Health Center in Houston TX between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011 were identified. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure was calculated, and predictors of disclosure were evaluated. We identified 212 HIV-positive pregnant women. About 40% had a serodiscordant partner, and 34% had a partner with an unknown HIV status. Disclosure occurred in over 90% of women with a serodiscordant partner and in 68% of women with partners whose HIV status was unknown. Among pregnant women who knew their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and had a serodiscordant partner, 92% reported disclosing their status prior to conception. Our data indicated that serodiscordant relationships are common in our clinic population. Suboptimal disclosure rates were observed, especially among women who have a partner with an unknown HIV status. Further research is needed to evaluate the prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure in other United States populations.

  11. Measurement of Gallbladder Volume with Ultrasonography in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Kapicioglu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and postprandial gallbladder volumes were investigated using ultrasonography in three groups (10 subjects in each of healthy women: third trimester pregnant women, postpartum women up to 10 days after giving birth and nonpregnant controls. The scans were performed at 09:00 after a 12 h fast. After the basal measurement was taken, gallbladder volumes were rescanned in 15 min intervals for 60 mins. At the end of this period, all volunteers received a standard liquid test meal, and scans were performed again for 1 h. The mean basal gallbladder volume was 22.2±4.2 mL in the nonpregnant (control group. In the third trimester group, the basal volume was 37.8±10.5 mL – 70.5% higher than in the nonpregnant group (P<0.001. In the postpartum group, the mean basal volume was 37.9% lower (27.4±6.5 mL than that of the third trimester group (P<0.02. This basal volume was 23.6% greater than that of the control group (P<0.05. After administration of a test meal, the postprandial gallbladder volumes decreased during the first few minutes compared with baseline values. The volumes decreased by 10.2% to 39.8% (23.5±7.3 to 34.0±10.2; P<0.01 in the third trimester group, by 14.9% to 43.2% (16.6±4.3 to 23.3±5.5; P<0.01, 0.001 in the postpartum group and by 19.2% to 51.6% (11.9±3.5 to 17.9±3.6; P<0.02, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001 in the control group. Postprandial mean gallbladder volumes of the third trimester (P<0.02 and postpartum groups (P<0.02 to 0.01 were significantly different from those of the control group. In conclusion, incomplete emptying of the gallbladder after eating during the third trimester of pregnancy may contribute to cholesterol-gallstone formation, and pregnancy may thus increase the risk of gallstones.

  12. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  13. Vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women: implications for protection of their young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Nunes, Marta C; Kwatra, Gaurav; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers. This could be mitigated by vaccinating pregnant women to boost antibody levels; although vaccine responses among HIV-infected pregnant women might differ compared to HIV-uninfected women. We reviewed studies that compared natural and vaccine-induced antibody levels to different epitopes between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Most studies reported lower baseline/pre-vaccination antibody levels in HIV-infected pregnant women, which may not be reversed by antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. There were only few studies on vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women, mainly on influenza virus and group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines. Immunogenicity studies on influenza vaccines indicated that HIV-infected pregnant women had lower vaccine induced hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers and a decreased likelihood of seroconversion compared to HIV-uninfected women; and while higher CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels were associated with better immune responses to vaccination, HIV viral load was not associated with responses. Furthermore, infants born to influenza vaccinated HIV-infected pregnant women also had lower antibody levels and a lower proportion of HIV-exposed infants had titers above the putative correlate of protection compared to HIV-unexposed infants. The immunogenicity of a CRM 197 -conjugated trivalent GBS vaccine was also lower in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to HIV-uninfected women, irrespective of CD4+ T

  14. Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa Rasaq; Fakeye Titilayo O; Musa Ismail E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. De...

  15. Intimate Partner Violence Against Pregnant Women: Study About The Repercussions On The Obstetric And Neonatal Results

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Driéli Pacheco; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Stefanelo, Juliana; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    This observational, descriptive and analytic study aimed to identify the prevalence of IPV cases among pregnant women and classify them according to the type and frequency; identify the obstetric and neonatal results and their associations with the intimate partner violence (IPV) occurrence in the current pregnancy. It was developed with 232 pregnant women who had prenatal care at a public maternity hospital. Data were collected via structured interview and in the patients’ charts and analyze...

  16. Low back pain in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic: The Aminu Kano teaching hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Mustapha Ibrahim; Abubakar, Muhammad Kabir; Muhammad, Shamsuddeen; Rabiu, Ayyuba; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The profound physiologic effects of pregnancy affect the musculoskeletal system. Pregnant women are at increased risks of low back/pelvic girdle pains. To determine the incidence of low back/pelvic girdle pains among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May 1 to June 30, 2016, among consenting pregnant women at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained from the Hospital Ethics Committee. Information was obtained in a questionnaire on consecutive pregnant women. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2012). Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 309 pregnant women were recruited from May 1 to June 30, 2016. The mean age ± standard deviation was 28.4 ± 5.86 years. The incidence of low back pains (LBPs) and pelvic girdle pains among the pregnant women was 106 (34.3%) and 178 (57.6%), respectively. The pain was severe among 26 (9.2%) pregnant women, which warranted analgesic usage. Pain radiation was reported in> 50% of cases. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence in 36 (12.6%) cases. Low back/pelvic girdle pain was not associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.390). The incidence of LBPs and pelvic girdle pains was high and found to be 34.3% and 57.6%, respectively. Analgesics were used especially among those with severe pains. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence among pregnant women with complaints of low back/pelvic girdle pains. There was no statistically significant association between LBPs and maternal BMI.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Against Pregnant Women: Study About The Repercussions On The Obstetric And Neonatal Results

    OpenAIRE

    Driéli Pacheco Rodrigues; Flávia Azevedo Gomes-Sponholz; Juliana Stefanelo; Ana Márcia Spanó Nakano; Juliana Cristina dos Santos Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This observational, descriptive and analytic study aimed to identify the prevalence of IPV cases among pregnant women and classify them according to the type and frequency; identify the obstetric and neonatal results and their associations with the intimate partner violence (IPV) occurrence in the current pregnancy. It was developed with 232 pregnant women who had prenatal care at a public maternity hospital. Data were collected via structured interview and in the patients’ charts and a...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in pregnant women during late third trimester

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Ayesha Ahmad; Diksha Gaur; Arifa A. Elahi; Swaraj Batra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary urinary leakage by the International continence society (ICS). The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in pregnant women in late third trimester. Methods: A questionnaire based survey done on 400 pregnant women in third trimester beyond 34 weeks of gestation. A pretested, semi structured questionnaire was used to enquire about demographic and personal information r...

  19. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Bozkurt; Aydan Biri; Ümit Korucuoglu; Nur Aksakal; Tuncay Nas; Onur Karabacak; Özdemir Himmetoglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. METHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS: Mean age of the ...

  20. Physical activity of pregnant women in the light of scientific research - a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sass

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity during pregnancy is very important due to health benefits for women and fetus. Undoubtedly, physical activity should be adapted to the current psychophysical abilities of pregnant women. During that time, the physical effort should be taken by appropriate intensity, also the forms of physical activity should be general aimed in current pregnancy state. Undoubtedly the simplest form of physical activity for pregnant women is walk, as well as swimming, gymnastics, yoga and pilates. Exercises should have wide impact on her body and muscles. The aim of the study is to identify the physical activity of pregnant women in available scientific publications. Further goal is the assessment of the knowledge about the physical activity of pregnant women based on the current review of the literature. Research Methods: The following databases and scientific browsers were used and tracked for the purpose of the research objective: Pub Med, Retina Medical Search, Medline Plus, Europe PMC, POPLINE, Google Scholar. During searching for a results the keywords phrases were written in English: physical activity in pregnancy, pregnancy exercises, fitness, yoga, pilates, swimming and pelvic floor exercises during pregnancy. Conclusions: The current researches among the population of pregnant women are methodologically differentiated and not coherent in the subject. The implication of unexplored issues about pregnant women is the differentiation in directions of researches about the physical activity of pregnant women. It seems that is important to design and program an prospective research by using objective techniques to explore the pregnant women’s behavior, lifestyle and physical activity.

  1. Impact of maternal obesity on the metabolic profiles of pregnant women and their offspring at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Desert , Romain; Canlet , Cécile; Costet , Nathalie; Cordier , Sylvaine; Bonvallot , Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Obesity is currently an increasing public health problem. The intra-uterine environment plays a critical role in foetal development. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of obesity with modifications in the metabolic profiles of pregnant women, and their new-borns. Based on the PELAGIE cohort (Brittany, France), a sample of 321 pregnant women was divided into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI) (normal, over-weight and obese)....

  2. Occupational violence in pregnant women in Brazil: a sample of cases in the Labor Court

    OpenAIRE

    Turatti, B?rbara de Oliveira; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Ot?vio

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian women are still a recurring target of discrimination in the workplace, facing violence related to gender relations and moral harassment, especially when they are pregnant. When the worker perceives discriminatory acts and attitudes or any violation of the rights guaranteed by law, she may appeal to the Labor Court to initiate legal action. This in turn exposes the worker to a number of issues, such as workplace persecution and future dismissal. The rights of pregnant women to tempor...

  3. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at a secondary level hospital in Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Kant; Ayush Lohiya; Arti Kapil; Sanjeev Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is frequently associated with complications. Currently, in India, there is no regular screening for UTI, and facility for diagnosis of UTI is not available at peripheral government health centers. Objective: To estimate the proportion of pregnant women with UTI among antenatal clinic attendees in rural Haryana. Methods: Eligible participants were pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of secondary care center of rural Haryana from ...

  4. A practical guideline for examining a uterine niche using ultrasonography in non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordans, I P M; de Leeuw, R; Stegwee, S I

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To generate a uniform, internationally recognized guideline for detailed uterine niche evaluation by ultrasonography in non-pregnant women using a modified Delphi method amongst international experts. METHODS: Fifteen international gynecological experts were recruited...... definitions, relevance, method of measurement and tips for visualization of the niche. All experts agreed on the proposed guideline for niche evaluation in non-pregnant women as presented in this paper. CONCLUSION: Consensus between niche experts was achieved on all items regarding ultrasonographic niche...

  5. Endoscopic management and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: a nationwide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Dinani, Amreen M; Pivovarov, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    Upper GI endoscopy has an important diagnostic and therapeutic role in the management of nonvariceal upper GI bleeding (NVUGB). To characterize nationwide patterns of utilization of upper GI endoscopy in pregnant women with NVUGB and to assess health outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Participating hospitals from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2007. Pregnant and age-matched nonpregnant women admitted for NVUGB. The study population was classified as pregnant women with NVUGB (n = 1210) and nonpregnant women with NVUGB (n = 6050). Rate of upper GI endoscopy, maternal mortality, fetal death/complications, and premature delivery. Pregnant women were less likely than nonpregnant women to undergo upper GI endoscopy (26% vs 69%; P < .0001) even after adjustment for comorbidities, transfusion requirement, and the presence of hypovolemic shock (adjusted odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.22). Among those who underwent endoscopy, pregnant women were less likely to undergo the procedure within 24 hours of admission (50% vs 57%; P = .02). Mortality was lower among pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women (0% vs 0.6%; P = .006). In comparing outcomes between those who did and did not undergo endoscopy, there was no difference in fetal loss (0.2% vs 0.6%), fetal distress/complications (2.7% vs 2.6%), or premature delivery (7.3% vs 6.4%). The study was based on administrative data. A conservative nonendoscopic approach is common in the management of pregnant women with NVUGB and is not associated with worse maternal or fetal outcomes. Upper GI endoscopy is, however, safe when judiciously implemented in the actively bleeding patient. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Mbituyumuremyi, Aimable; Remera, Eric; Malamba, Samuel S; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-02-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a pandemic causing disease; more than 185 million people are infected worldwide. An HCV antibody (Ab) prevalence of 6.0% was estimated in Central African countries. The study aimed at providing HCV prevalence estimates among pregnant women in Rwanda. HCV surveillance through antibody screening test among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was performed in 30 HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Rwanda. Among 12,903 pregnant women tested at antenatal clinics, 335 (2.6% [95% Confidence Interval 2.32-2.87]) tested positive for HCV Ab. The prevalence of HCV Ab in women aged 25-49 years was 2.8% compared to 2.4% in women aged 15-24 years (aOR = 1.3; [1.05-1.59]); This proportion was 2.7% [2.37-2.94] in pregnant women in engaged in non-salaried employment compared to 1.2% [0.24-2.14] in those engaged in salaried employment (aOR = 3.2; [1.60-6.58]). The proportion of HCV Ab-positive co-infected with HIV was estimated at 3.9% (13 cases). Women in urban residence were more likely to be associated with HCV-infection (OR = 1.3; 95%CI [1.0-1.6]) compared to those living in rural setting. HCV is a public health problem in pregnant women in Rwanda. Few pregnant women were co-infected with HCV and HIV. Living in urban setting was more likely to associate pregnant women with HCV infection.

  7. [Pregnancy-related and work-related sick leave of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophøj, A; Mortensen, J T

    1999-09-06

    Pregnant women are allowed sick leave (SL) due to obstetrical or occupational risk factors. The aim was to describe reasons for SL during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish county applying for SL were consecutively included in the study during 12 months in 1991-92. Data were obtained by questionnaires mailed to the women and their medical doctors. Of 1483 pregnant women on SL, 994 participated. Approximately 96% were on SL due to obstetrical risk factors. Occupational factors contributed to SL in at least 50% of the cases, mainly when working in a standing or walking position or when lifting. The women were rarely replaced in other jobs before leaving work. On average the women were absent for 83 days before official pregnancy leave started. Although SL during pregnancy is overwhelmingly due to obstetrical risk factors, occupational factors often contribute. Occupational Health and Safety Organizations are rarely involved at the workplace before issuing a sick leave certificate.

  8. Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrong; Yang, Liu; Kong, Jinwang

    2014-01-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively. The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China. The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing. Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services. Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively. Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated, which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively. This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM). The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%. Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (ORm) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-5.06), more knowledge for HIV (ORm = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women. To prevent HIV mother to children transmission, it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV, change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.

  9. Study of peripheral circulation in non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women using applied potential tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Badreldeen

    2004-08-01

    Profound changes are known to occur in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, involving an increase in cardiac output and a fall in peripheral resistance. In some women these adaptations may be inappropriate and this may result in pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The aims of the study were to evaluate the relatively new, non-invasive technique of applied potential tomography (APT) in measurements of peripheral blood flow, to study peripheral blood flow in a sample of non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women, and to investigate whether the adaptive changes in the peripheral circulation are different in pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Applied potential tomography was used to assess peripheral vascular reactivity, by monitoring fluid distribution in calf muscles during postural change. The APT technique was able to detect peripheral vasoconstriction in response to an increase in intramural pressure brought about by passive lowering of the leg (peripheral mechanisms). The peripheral vasoconstriction response was found to be more prominent in woman with pre-eclampsia. The presence of a local reflex in the lower limb had been postulated and the effect of this reflex on the peripheral circulation could be detected using APT, regardless of how it was initiated. In normal pregnant women this reflex was diminished when compared to non-pregnant women, which might contribute to the reduction in peripheral vascular resistance seen in normal pregnancy. This reflex was defective in pre-eclampsia and this lack of adaptation may be a local reflex contributing to the raised peripheral resistance, which in turn may be a factor in high blood pressure in pre-eclampsia.

  10. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  11. Validity and reliability of a brief self-reported questionnaire assessing fruit and vegetable consumption among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short instruments measuring frequency of specific foods, such as fruit and vegetable (FV, are increasingly used in interventions. The objective of the study was to verify the validity and test-retest reliability of such an instrument among pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women from the region of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were recruited through e-mails sent to female students and employees of the local university from October 2014 to April 2015. To assess the validity of the fruit and vegetable questionnaire (FVQ developed by Godin et al. (Can J Public Health 99: 494-498, 2008, pregnant women were asked in a first mailing to complete the FVQ assessing FV intake over the past 7 days and a 3-day estimated food record. A subsample (n = 33 also gave a fasting blood sample and completed a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered by a trained registered dietitian during a visit at the research center. FV intakes for all instruments were calculated in terms of servings of FV based on Canada’s Food Guide definition of a serving of fruit or vegetable. In order to assess its test-retest reliability, respondents were asked to complete the FVQ 14 days later in a second mailing. Results Forty-eight pregnant women from all three trimesters completed the questionnaires in the first mailing. FV intake assessed using the FVQ was correlated to FV consumption measured using the food record (r = 0.34, p = 0.0180 and the FFQ (r = 0.61, p = 0.0002. Results were similar when controlling for energy intake and the experience of nausea in the past month. Only β-cryptoxanthin was significantly correlated to FV intake assessed by the FFQ when adjusted for the presence of nausea (r = 0.35, p = 0.0471. Data on the test-retest reliability was available for 44 women and the intra-class coefficient for the FVQ was 0.72 at a mean 28-day interval. Conclusions The FVQ has acceptable validity and test-retest reliability

  12. Validity and reliability of a brief self-reported questionnaire assessing fruit and vegetable consumption among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Godin, Gaston; Couillard, Charles; Perron, Julie; Lemieux, Simone; Robitaille, Julie

    2016-09-15

    Short instruments measuring frequency of specific foods, such as fruit and vegetable (FV), are increasingly used in interventions. The objective of the study was to verify the validity and test-retest reliability of such an instrument among pregnant women. Pregnant women from the region of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were recruited through e-mails sent to female students and employees of the local university from October 2014 to April 2015. To assess the validity of the fruit and vegetable questionnaire (FVQ) developed by Godin et al. (Can J Public Health 99: 494-498, 2008), pregnant women were asked in a first mailing to complete the FVQ assessing FV intake over the past 7 days and a 3-day estimated food record. A subsample (n = 33) also gave a fasting blood sample and completed a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered by a trained registered dietitian during a visit at the research center. FV intakes for all instruments were calculated in terms of servings of FV based on Canada's Food Guide definition of a serving of fruit or vegetable. In order to assess its test-retest reliability, respondents were asked to complete the FVQ 14 days later in a second mailing. Forty-eight pregnant women from all three trimesters completed the questionnaires in the first mailing. FV intake assessed using the FVQ was correlated to FV consumption measured using the food record (r = 0.34, p = 0.0180) and the FFQ (r = 0.61, p = 0.0002). Results were similar when controlling for energy intake and the experience of nausea in the past month. Only β-cryptoxanthin was significantly correlated to FV intake assessed by the FFQ when adjusted for the presence of nausea (r = 0.35, p = 0.0471). Data on the test-retest reliability was available for 44 women and the intra-class coefficient for the FVQ was 0.72 at a mean 28-day interval. The FVQ has acceptable validity and test-retest reliability values, but seems to underestimate FV servings in pregnant women

  13. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  14. Seatbelt use by pregnant women: a survey of knowledge and practice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W C; To, W Wk; Ma, E Sk

    2016-10-01

    The use of motor vehicles is common during pregnancy. Correct seatbelt use during pregnancy has been shown to protect both the pregnant woman and her fetus. This survey aimed to evaluate the practices, beliefs, and knowledge of Hong Kong pregnant women of correct seatbelt use, and identify factors leading to reduced compliance and inadequate knowledge. A self-administered survey was completed by postpartum women in the postnatal ward at the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong, from January to April 2015. Eligible surveys were available from 495 women. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women who maintained or reduced seatbelt use during pregnancy. Secondary outcomes were analysed and included knowledge of correct seatbelt use, as well as contributing factors to non-compliance and inadequate knowledge. There was decreased compliance with seatbelt use during pregnancy and the decrease was in line with increasing gestation. Pregnant women's knowledge about seatbelt use was inadequate and only a minority had received relevant information. Women who held a driving licence and had a higher education level were more likely to wear a seatbelt before and during pregnancy. Women with tertiary education or above knew more about seatbelt use. Public health education for pregnant women in Hong Kong about road safety is advisable, and targeting the lower-compliant groups may be more effective and successful.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Nigerian pregnant women and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Inherited thrombophilia in pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriu, Letitia; Copaciu, Elena; Tulbure, Dan; Talmaci, Rodica; Secara, Diana; Coriu, Daniel; Cirstoiu, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The role of mutation in the factor V gene, prothrombin gene, MTHFR gene, as risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction during pregnancy, is not very well known so far. This is a retrospective study of 151 pregnant women with a history of complicated pregnancy: intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss or maternal venous thromboembolism, who were admitted in Bucharest Emergency University Hospital, during the period January 2010 to July 2014. Genetic testing was performed for all the cases to detect: factor V Leiden mutation, G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, C677T mutation and A1298C mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Blood samples were obtained as soon as the diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction was established with ultrasonography. The following gene mutations were associated with increased risk of IUGR: G20210A prothrombin gene mutation (OR 4.81, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.22, p= 0.043), G1691A factor V gene mutation (factor V Leiden) (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.61 - 4.080, p= 0.347), C677T MTHFR gene mutation (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.79 to 3.26, p= 0.186), compound heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C (OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.81- 3.42, p= 0.169). Particularly, for G20210A prothrombin gene mutation we found statistically significant risk (p≤0.05) of IUGR.

  17. ANEMIA PREVALANCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ADMITTED TO STATE HOSPITAL

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    Riza Citil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to determine the prevalance of anemia and related nutrition and other risk factors in pregnant women who admitted to the hospital for prenatal care. Material and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study to receive prenatal care to the hospital admitted 311 women participated. The data on socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women, pregnancy information and dietary habits using a questionnaire that was collected using face to face interviews. To determine anemia in pregnant women in the hospital laboratory records made during routine pregnancy examination hemoglobin (Hb values were used. Hb values of 0.05. Similarly, pregnancy, abortion and curettage with the numbers there is no significant difference between the prevalance of anemia (p> 0.05. Using iron-multivitamin preparations in pregnant women (32.9% than those using (20.4% were seen significantly more anemia, and anemia among pregnants who drank dark tea was more prevalent than pregnants who drank light tea and the difference was significant (33,9% vs 17,2% (p<0,05. Conclusion: As a conclusion, admitted to the hospital for routine prenatal care, anemia seen in one of every four pregnant women, and not taking iron-multivitamin preparations regularly and consumption of dark tea seemed to be related with gestational anemia. Thus, anemia should be diagnosed earlier in pregnant and iron and vitamin supplements must be started; and women must be informed about the risk factors of anemia by the health stuff. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 76-83

  18. Psychosocial Adaptation and Depressive Manifestations in High-Risk Pregnant Women: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskin, Gamze; Kaydirak, Meltem Mecdi; Oskay, Umran Yesiltepe

    2017-02-01

    High-risk pregnancy research has focused primarily on psychological well-being. The aim is to determine psychosocial adaptation and depression levels of pregnant women who were admitted to hospital with diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy. This study was descriptive. Sampling was composed of 122 high-risk pregnant women who were hospitalized in the perinatology service of Istanbul University Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between January 1, 2014, and May 31, 2014, and met the study criteria. The Pregnant Introduction Form, Psychosocial Adjustment of Illness Scale-Self Report, and CES Depression Scale were used. Of high-risk pregnant women, 47% were found to have a poor level of psychosocial adaptation and 57% presented with depressive symptoms. There were statistically significant difference found between the levels of psychosocial adaptation and status of depressive manifestations. The difference between the average scores increased as the adaptation levels weaken and the pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. The results of this study indicate that, depending on the high-risk pregnancy status, pregnant women experience difficulty in adaptation to their current status and pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. Nurses should deliver care in high-risk pregnancies with the awareness of physiological needs as well the psychosocial needs of pregnant women, and information meetings should be held in order to increase the psychosocial support of their families and decrease their tendency toward depression. Nursing initiatives should be developed with further studies for the psychosocial adaptation of high-risk pregnancy and reduction of the depressive manifestations. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, in Uganda.

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boarder were treated with a standard fixed oral 3-day treatment, and venous plasma concentrations of both drugs were measured frequently for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The main pharmacokinetic finding was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but reduced exposure to dihydroartemisinin in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Piperaquine was best described by a three-compartment disposition model with a 45% higher elimination clearance and a 47% increase in relative bioavailability in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Dihydroartemisinin was best described by a one-compartment disposition model with a 38% lower relative bioavailability in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was a decreased total exposure to dihydroartemisinin. The shorter terminal elimination half-life of piperaquine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin will shorten the posttreatment prophylactic effect and might affect cure rates. The clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic findings in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria needs to be evaluated in larger series.

  1. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  2. Environmental exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke and selected socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Study results indicate the problem of exposure of pregnant women to smoke. Studied socio-economic factors affect the degree of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a need to implement systematic activities in the field of social education about the influence of tobacco smoke on intrauterine development of the fetus. For this purpose it would be useful to develop a health program for women of child-bearing age with focus on the most vulnerable social groups of women. It is also necessary to provide people actively smoking from pregnant women, in particular of home environment, with health education.

  3. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  4. Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border

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    Moo Yoe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/μL was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/μL were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt

  5. Differences in food intake and genetic variability in taste receptors between Czech pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartáková, Vendula; Kuricová, Katarína; Zlámal, Filip; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Katetřina

    2018-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Since dietary intake plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes development, it is likely to be for the susceptibility to GDM too. Food preferences, driving partly the diet composition, are changing during pregnancy. Taste and genetic variability in taste receptors is an important factor in determining food preferences. Aims of our study were (1) to characterize dietary habits of pregnant women and to find possible differences in food preferences between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and (2) to ascertain possible association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptor (TR) genes with GDM. A total of 363 pregnant women (293 with GDM and 70 with physiologic pregnancy) were included in the study. Dietary pattern spanning the period of approx. 6 months preceding the time of GDM screening was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of five SNPs in TR genes were selected for genotyping based on their functionality or previous associations. Women with GDM exhibited significantly more frequent meat consumption (esp. poultry, pork and smoked meat), dairy products and sweet beverages consumption. The legumes consumption was found to be inversely correlated with fasting glycaemia (P = 0.007, Spearman). CC genotype in TAS2R9 gene (SNP rs3741845) was significantly associated with GDM (P = 0.0087, Chi-square test). Our study showed differences in dietary intake of selected food items between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and genetic association of bitter taste receptor allele with GDM.

  6. Pregnant women of South Asian ethnicity in Canada have substantially lower vitamin B12 status compared with pregnant women of European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.

  7. "It's like a puzzle": Pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Caroline A; Mårtensson, Lena B; Golsäter, Marie H; Thorstensson, Stina A

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant women are not always satisfied with the professional support they receive during their midwifery care. More knowledge is needed to understand what professional support pregnant women need for childbirth and parenting. Childbearing and the transition to becoming a parent is a sensitive period in one's life during which one should have the opportunity to receive professional support. Professional support does not always correspond to pregnant women's needs. To understand pregnant women's needs for professional support within midwifery care, it is crucial to further illuminate women's experiences of this support. To explore pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Fifteen women were interviewed during gestational weeks 36-38. Data was analysed using phenomenography. The women perceived professional support in midwifery care to be reassuring and emotional, to consist of reliable information, and to be mediated with pedagogical creativity. The professional support facilitated new social contacts, partner involvement and contributed to mental preparedness. The findings of the study were presented in six categories and the category Professional support contributes to mental preparedness was influenced by the five other categories. Pregnant women prepare for childbirth and parenting by using several different types of professional support in midwifery care: a strategy that could be described as piecing together a puzzle. When the women put the puzzle together, each type of professional support works as a valuable piece in the whole puzzle. Through this, professional support could contribute to women's mental preparedness for childbirth and parenting. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychopharmacology decision-making among pregnant and postpartum women and health providers: informing compassionate and collaborative care women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah Kye; Bentley, Kia J

    2013-01-01

    Psychopharmaceutical use by pregnant and postpartum women is complicated by the complexity of prescribing as well as the sociocultural context in which medication-related decisions are made. This study sought to advance understanding of decision-making processes and communication experiences regarding use of psychopharmaceuticals during pregnancy by considering both provider and consumer perspectives. An electronic survey was conducted with health care providers (N = 88) and women consumers (N = 83) from July 2010 through October 2011 regarding the perceived costs and benefits of taking mental health medication during and around the time of pregnancy. Descriptive analysis compared and contrasted experiences between the two groups regarding consumer-provider communication, critical incidents and triggers in decision-making, and response to case scenarios crafted around hypothetical client experiences. Both similarities and differences were evident among health care provider and women consumer responses regarding costs, benefits, communication experiences, and case scenario responses. Both quantitative and qualitative survey results indicated the need for more accurate, unbiased, and complete information exchange around mental health and medication. Study results suggested the centrality of the client-provider milieu to guide decision-making and emphasized the expressed need within both groups to create a shared decision-making practice environment characterized by authenticity, non-judgmental decision-making, compassion, humaneness, and reciprocity.

  9. Vaccines in pregnancy: The dual benefit for pregnant women and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H; McMillan, M; Andrews, R M; Macartney, K; Edwards, K

    2016-04-02

    Maternal immunization has the potential to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the pregnant woman and her infant. Many countries now recommend immunization against influenza at any stage of pregnancy and against pertussis in the third trimester. Despite evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy, uptake generally remains low for influenza and moderate for pertussis vaccine. Enhancing confidence in both immunization providers and pregnant women by increasing the evidence-base for the safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy, improving communication and access by incorporating immunization into standard models of antenatal care are likely to improve uptake. Developing a framework for implementation of vaccines for pregnant women which is cognizant of local and national cultural, epidemiological, behavioral and societal factors will enable a smooth transition and high uptake for new vaccines currently in development for pregnant women.

  10. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-09-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban

  11. Research with Pregnant Women: New Insights on Legal Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Anna C; Henry, Leslie Meltzer; Robinson, David; Bailey, Theodore; Faden, Ruth R; Little, Margaret O; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2017-05-01

    U.S. researchers and scholars often point to two legal factors as significant obstacles to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research: the Department of Health and Human Services' regulatory limitations specific to pregnant women's research participation and the fear of liability for potential harm to children born following a pregnant woman's research participation. This article offers a more nuanced view of the potential legal complexities that can impede research with pregnant women than has previously been reflected in the literature. It reveals new insights into the role of legal professionals throughout the research pathway, from product conception to market, and it highlights a variety of legal factors influencing decision-making that may slow or halt research involving pregnant women. Our conclusion is that closing the evidence gap created by the underrepresentation and exclusion of pregnant women in research will require targeted attention to the role of legal professionals and the legal factors that influence their decisions. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  12. [The ten-year retrospect of nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C X; Yin, S A

    2018-01-06

    Improvement of the nutrition and health status of pregnant women should be one of the top priority strategies of improving the physical fitness of next generation and reserve of talented person for national sustainable development. This paper reviews the nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China over the recent ten years and discusses the underlying factors and changing trends. The most popular nutrition-related problem is dietary imbalance, and many micronutrient intakes are lower than the recommended dietary intakes or adequate intakes, and some of nutrient intakes are still at a very low level for a long time such as vitamin D and calcium. The nutrition-related health problems are mainly anemia, vitamin D and vitamin A deficiencies; iodine intake is not in optimal state with a large proportion of inadequate and individual cases facing excessive intake risk. Overweight and obesity, pregnancy complications such as gastrocnemius muscle spasms, pregnancy hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes were prevalent among pregnant women. We should address both malnutrition and nutrition imbalance in the same time in order to improve the nutrition and health status of pregnant women, by developing and implementing relevant laws and regulations, giving higher attention to pregnant women with advanced age, which in turns prevent a variety of micronutrient deficiencies, reduce adverse pregnant outcomes, and improve nutrition and health status of maternal and child.

  13. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS, which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4% were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7% were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens.

  14. [Interventions on the exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ting-ting; Chen, Xue-yun; Hu, De-wei; Mao, Zheng-zhong

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the extent of exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking; to undertake interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those women toward passive smoking; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 128 non-smoking pregnant women participated in the survey. Their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards passive smoking were measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A sixteen-week intervention was undertaken. The knowledge and attitudes of the non-smoking pregnant women towards passive smoking improved significantly, as well as their attempts to avoid exposure to the passive smoking brought by their smoking husbands or other family members. Telephone counseling, booklets and doctors' advices were the most acceptable approaches of health education. The comprehensive interventions are effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of non-smoking women toward passive smoking.

  15. Preventing abuse to pregnant women: implementation of a "mentor mother" advocacy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Wiist, W

    1997-01-01

    Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.

  16. "It's Just Not Very Realistic": Perceptions of Media Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Toni; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D

    2018-07-01

    Although research has documented a connection between media and body image for women, little research has explored this connection among pregnant or postpartum women. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of media and body image during the perinatal period. Fredrickson's objectification theory provided a theoretical framework for the study. Data collection involved semi-structured in-depth interviews with 50 pregnant or postpartum women in which they were asked to describe their perceptions of media depictions of pregnant or postpartum women and its impact on their body image. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Four major themes emerged: (1) participants questioned the realism of media depictions of pregnant and postpartum women, (2) participants described complex reactions to media messages including negative impacts on body image and strategies for mitigating negative impacts, (3) participants desired changes in media messages to be more realistic and to depict a more complex portrayal of the life stage, and (4) participants discussed the unique and complex role of social media including both negative and positive impacts. Implications of the findings for pregnant and postpartum women, communication scholars, and healthcare professionals are discussed.

  17. Health information needs of pregnant women: information sources, motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Sudabeh; Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant women should be provided with relevant and useful information to manage this specific period of their lives. Assessing information needs of this group is a prerequisite for providing this information. The aim of this study was to assess the information needs of pregnant women during their pregnancy and childbirth. This descriptive study was conducted on the pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics and obstetricians/gynaecologists' offices in Kerman, Iran, in 2015. Data were collected using a self-administered, valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 400 women participated in the study. Most pregnant women needed information about care of the foetus (n = 344, 86%), physical and psychological complications after delivery (n = 333, 83%), development and growth of the foetus (n = 330, 82.5%), pregnancy nutrition (n = 327, 82%) and special tests during pregnancy (n = 326, 81.5%). They mostly (n = 195, 49%) looked for information when they were suffering from a disease or pregnancy complications. As pregnant women need extensive information to be able to take care of themselves and their babies, their information needs should be identified and taken into consideration when planning educational programmes for this group of women. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Oral changes in pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The numerous changes occurring during pregnancy affect every body system, resulting in localized physical alterations in almost all parts of the body, including the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to find the incidence of oral conditions seen particularly in the pregnant women than in the nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: The oral health condition of 120 pregnant women referred to the outpatient department of Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital from a gynecology clinic were examined and compared with 120 nonpregnant women. The pregnant women were divided in a 3 groups of 40 each, according to the stage of pregnancy. The common oral conditions seen during pregnancy were assessed. Results: Pregnant women had a higher incidence of gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma. Gingivitis and erosion of teeth due to vomiting was seen commonly in the 3 rd trimester. The results indicated that pregnancy had an effect on the oral condition, which was mainly due to the hormonal changes seen during this period rather than other factors. Conclusion: Women planning a pregnancy or those already pregnant should be informed about the role of oral health during pregnancy and the possible outcomes of these conditions for the welfare of their foetus. They should be referred to the dental clinician for necessary counselling for preventive oral self-care and treatment, if required.

  19. [Analysis on iodine nutritional status and thyroid function in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Wang, Yanling; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yancai; Huang, Dahong; Liang, Liping; Ren, Xudong; Dou, Yugui; Zhu, Xiaonan

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 90 pregnant women in Wuwei City from April 2009 to January 2010. The morning blood samples and random urine samples were collected, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), thyroid microsomal antibodies (TMAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. The medians of urinary iodine were 231.49, 158.25 and 328.35 microg/L for women in early, middle and late period of pregnancy, The ratio of urinary iodine below 150 microg/L were 39.29%, 45.16% and 25.81%, respectively. The FT3, FT4 levels in the first trimester were higher than those in the third trimester (P 0.05). The positive rate of TGAb and TMAb antibody of pregnant women in different period of time were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The incidence of thyroid function disorder was significantly different in different gestation periods. Generally, the iodine nutritional status of these pregnant women was appropriate, but there was a tendency towards hypothyroid in some women. Monitoring urinary iodine and thyroid function in pregnant women should be carried out regularly.

  20. Validity of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease Questionnaire among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, a multifaceted implementation of the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the validity of a self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women and asked them for subjective descriptions of symptoms of periodontitis both in the first and the second half of their pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from August 2012 to January 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with depths of ≥4 mm were catecogorized as having periodontitis. The results were the scores of the self-questionnaire for periodontal disease prepared by the Japan Dental Association. Of the 9,527 pregnant women who received periodontal check- ups during the first half of pregnancy, 32 percent were diagnosed as having periodontitis. The self-questionnaire had a sensitivity of 51.2% and a specificity of 62.9% for pregnant women to predict their periodontal disease. Then, we evaluated the importance of each question by logistic regression analysis and extracted the useful items. An increased sensitivity (79.9%) was obtained with the best of the modified questionnaire. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the evaluation of the usefulness of the self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire for pregnant women. The current self-questonnaire used for the general adult population was less sensitive for pregnant women. Our modified questionnaire showed an improved sensitivity for diagnosing periodontitis, but its specificity remained low. A specialized self-questionnaire for periodontal disease in pregnant women should be designed.