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Sample records for pregnant women estimates

  1. Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Younes (Layla); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention c

  2. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Naithani; Vartika Saxena; Anissa Atif Mirza; Ranjeeta Kumari; Kapil Sharma; Jyoti Bharadwaj

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated usi...

  3. PREGNANT WOMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women attending an antenatal clinic and gynaeco- logical clinic ... Other observa- tions are less specific and may be part of the gen- .... be due to the high levels of corticosteroids though there is no direct proof ... Scully C, Cawson RA. Medical ...

  4. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Renström, Frida; Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  5. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. METHODS: Non-pregnant (N = 73 and pregnant (N = 35 Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10 and 9(7-10, respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  6. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Naithani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p=0.790. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  7. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  8. Gut Estimates: Pregnant women adapt to changing possibilities for squeezing through doorways

    OpenAIRE

    Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities for action depend on the fit between the body and the environment. Perceiving what actions are possible is challenging because the body and the environment are always changing. How do people adapt to changes in body size and compression? In Experiment 1, we tested pregnant women monthly over the course of pregnancy to determine whether they adapted to changing possibilities for squeezing through doorways. As women gained belly girth and weight, previously passable doorways were ...

  9. Development and validation of an iodine-specific FFQ to estimate iodine intake in Australian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condo, Dominique; Makrides, Maria; Skeaff, Sheila; Zhou, Shao J

    2015-03-28

    Adequate iodine is important during pregnancy to ensure optimal growth and development of the offspring. We validated an iodine-specific FFQ (I-FFQ) for use in Australian pregnant women. A forty-four-item I-FFQ was developed to assess iodine intake from food and was administered to 122 pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation. Iodine supplement use was captured separately at 28 weeks gestation. Correlation between iodine intake from food estimated using the I-FFQ and a 4 d weighed food record as well as correlation between total iodine intake and 24 h urinary iodine excretion (UIE), 24 h urinary iodine concentration (UIC), spot UIC and thyroid function were assessed at 28 weeks gestation. A moderate correlation between the two dietary methods was shown (r 0·349, Pwomen as receiving adequate (≥160 μg/d) or inadequate (women and can be used to screen women who are at risk of inadequate intake.

  10. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed.

  11. Estimating coverage of a women’s group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Layla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1 direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2 direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group

  12. Estimation of single-year-of-age counts of live births, fetal losses, abortions, and pregnant women for counties of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bismark; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-05-08

    We provide a methodology for estimating counts of single-year-of-age live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women from aggregated age-group counts. As a case study, we estimate counts for the 254 counties of Texas for the year 2010. We use interpolation to estimate counts of live-births, fetal-losses, and abortions by women of each single-year-of-age for all Texas counties. We then use these counts to estimate the numbers of pregnant women for each single-year-of-age, which were previously available only in aggregate. To support public health policy and planning, we provide single-year-of-age estimates of live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women for all Texas counties in the year 2010, as well as the estimation method source code.

  13. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  14. Percentile distribution for anthropometric variables used to estimate body composition in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached-Sosa, Ingrid; Henríquez-Pérez, Gladys

    2015-09-01

    Anthropometric indicators of body composition, reflective of fat and lean compartments in pregnant women, undergo changes throughout gestation. The adequate interpretation of these indicators requires the availability of percentile distribution values for each week of gestational age. The objective was to determine the percentile distribution for subcutaneous skin-fold thicknesses: biceps, triceps, subscapular, mid-thigh, and both arm fat and arm muscle areas for each week of gestational age. This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 4,481 measurements of anthropometric variables obtained from 745 pregnancies out of 719 subjects aged between 19 and 39 years, well-nourished, healthy, without clinical edema, single pregnancy, and validated gestational age. Evaluations were conducted at the Centro de Atencion Nutricional Infantil Antimano, between 1998 and 2012. The anthropometric measurements were performed by standardized anthropometrists. Descriptive statistics, bivariant correlations, and percentiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 97 were calculated for each week of pregnancy between weeks 8 thru 37. The number of measurements performed for each variable studied at each week of gestation ranged between 100 and 236. The behavior of the variables reflecting the fat component showed increases as the gestational age advanced (1.86 cm2), whereas the muscle area showed decreases (-0.02 cm2). The most noticeable variations were seen in the subscapular and mid-thigh skin-fold thicknesses 2.90 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. The availability of percentile distributions of the anthropometric variables used in the evaluation of body composition for pregnant women per gestational age, contributes to optimizing the nutritional categorization in this population group.

  15. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

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    Joanna Stragierowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000 ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000 ng/mL. The mean recoveries were 3.7±7.6% for urine and 99.1±2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12 ng/mL and for urine 0.05 ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9 ng/mL and urine 42.3 ng/mL or 53.1 μg/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting.

  16. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  17. Cluster sampling with referral to improve the efficiency of estimating unmet needs among pregnant and postpartum women after disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer; Zotti, Marianne E; Williams, Amy; Hsia, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Women of reproductive age, in particular women who are pregnant or fewer than 6 months postpartum, are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, which may create stressors for caregivers, limit access to prenatal/postpartum care, or interrupt contraception. Traditional approaches (e.g., newborn records, community surveys) to survey women of reproductive age about unmet needs may not be practical after disasters. Finding pregnant or postpartum women is especially challenging because fewer than 5% of women of reproductive age are pregnant or postpartum at any time. From 2009 to 2011, we conducted three pilots of a sampling strategy that aimed to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women of reproductive age who were included in postdisaster reproductive health assessments in Johnston County, North Carolina, after tornadoes, Cobb/Douglas Counties, Georgia, after flooding, and Bertie County, North Carolina, after hurricane-related flooding. Using this method, the percentage of pregnant and postpartum women interviewed in each pilot increased from 0.06% to 21%, 8% to 19%, and 9% to 17%, respectively. Two-stage cluster sampling with referral can be used to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women included in a postdisaster assessment. This strategy may be a promising way to assess unmet needs of pregnant and postpartum women in disaster-affected communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term.

  19. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  20. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  1. Relationship Between Ultrasound Estimated Amniotic Fluid Index and Fetal Weight in Healthy Pregnant African Women

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    Ademola A Adeyekun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fetal weight (FW estimation in late pregnancy is an important guide in obstetric care. Amniotic fluid protects the fetus against traumatic and infective insults. There possibly exists a relationship between FW and amniotic fluid index (AFI that can be estimated by ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-eight low-risk pregnancies were prospectively studied by means of ultrasound over a 12-month period. FW was estimated using a combination of fetal parameters; bi-parietal diameter, fetal trunk cross sectional area, and femur length. AFI was assessed using the 4-quadrant method. Spearman′s correlation was used to test possible relationship between amniotic fluid indices and estimated FW pairs. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean AF1 and estimated fetal weight (EFW pairs were as follows: at 27-29 weeks the values were 172.1 mm and 1,250.2 g; at 30-32 weeks AF1 and EFW values were 170.3 mm and 1,648.0 g; at 33-35 weeks values were 162.3 mm and 2,273.5 g; at 36-38 weeks values were 144.09 mm and 2,906.1 g; at 39-40 weeks AF1 and EFW values were 125.0 mm and 3,222.6 g. Overall, there was no statistically significant relationship between AFI and EFW ( P > 0.05; r = 0.241. Conclusion: While FW calculations and amniotic index showed variations in value in late pregnancy, there does not appear to be a linear relationship between ultrasound estimate of FW and amniotic index. The implication of this is that fetal size need not be taken into cognizance when alterations in amniotic fluid values are noted.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  3. Estimating rate of insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia using HOMA-IR index and comparison with nonpreeclampsia pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  4. Estimation of iodine nutrition and thyroid function status in late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Development and application of a population-based pregnancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumen, A; George, N I

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a deterministic biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) pregnancy model was developed to evaluate moderate thyroid axis disturbances with and without thyroid-active chemical exposure in a near-term pregnant woman and fetus. In the current study, the existing BBDR model was adapted to include a wider functional range of iodine nutrition, including more severe iodine deficiency conditions, and to incorporate empirically the effects of homeostatic mechanisms. The extended model was further developed into a population-based model and was constructed using a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic framework. In order to characterize total (T4) and free (fT4) thyroxine levels for a given iodine status at the population-level, the distribution of iodine intake for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S was reconstructed using various reverse dosimetry methods and available biomonitoring data. The range of median (mean) iodine intake values resulting from three different methods of reverse dosimetry tested was 196.5-219.9μg of iodine/day (228.2-392.9μg of iodine/day). There was minimal variation in model-predicted maternal serum T4 and ft4 thyroxine levels from use of the three reconstructed distributions of iodine intake; the range of geometric mean for T4 and fT4, was 138-151.7nmol/L and 7.9-8.7pmol/L, respectively. The average value of the ratio of the 97.5th percentile to the 2.5th percentile equaled 3.1 and agreed well with similar estimates from recent observations in third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. In addition, the reconstructed distributions of iodine intake allowed us to estimate nutrient inadequacy for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. via the probability approach. The prevalence of iodine inadequacy for third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. was estimated to be between 21% and 44%. Taken together, the current work provides an improved tool for evaluating iodine nutritional status and the corresponding thyroid function status in

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  6. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  10. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Rezaei Abhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021. Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  11. Validity and reproducibility of folate and vitamin B(12) intakes estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire in Japanese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-03-15

    No validated dietary questionnaire for assessing folate and vitamin B(12) intakes during pregnancy is available in Japan. We evaluated the validity and reproducibility of intakes of folate and vitamin B(12) estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in Japanese pregnant women. A sample of 167 healthy subjects with singleton pregnancies in the second trimester was recruited at a private obstetric hospital in metropolitan Tokyo from June to October 2008 (n = 76), and at a university hospital in Tokyo from June 2010 to June 2011 (n = 91). The dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B(12) were assessed using the DHQ. The serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B(12) were measured as reference values in the validation study. To assess the reproducibility of the results, 58 pregnant women completed the DHQ twice within 4-5 week interval. Significantly positive correlations were found between energy-adjusted intakes and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B(12) (r = 0.286, p Japanese pregnant women.

  12. Estimating Benzathine Penicillin Need for the Treatment of Pregnant Women Diagnosed with Syphilis during Antenatal Care in High-Morbidity Countries.

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    Melanie M Taylor

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis continues to be a preventable cause of global stillbirth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Shortages of injectable penicillin, the only recommended treatment for pregnant women and infants with syphilis, have been reported by high-morbidity countries. We sought to estimate current and projected annual needs for benzathine penicillin in antenatal care settings for 30 high morbidity countries that account for approximately 33% of the global burden of congenital syphilis.Proportions of antenatal care attendance, syphilis screening coverage in pregnancy, syphilis prevalence among pregnant women, and adverse pregnancy outcomes due to untreated maternal syphilis reported to WHO were applied to 2012 birth estimates for 30 high syphilis burden countries to estimate current and projected benzathine penicillin need for prevention of congenital syphilis.Using current antenatal care syphilis screening coverage and seroprevalence, we estimated the total number of women requiring treatment with at least one injection of 2.4 MU of benzathine penicillin in these 30 countries to be 351,016. Syphilis screening coverage at or above 95% for all 30 countries would increase the number of women requiring treatment with benzathine penicillin to 712,030. Based on WHO management guidelines, 351,016 doses of weight-based benzathine penicillin would also be needed for the live-born infants of mothers who test positive and are treated for syphilis in pregnancy. Assuming availability of penicillin and provision of treatment for all mothers diagnosed with syphilis, an estimated 95,938 adverse birth outcomes overall would be prevented including 37,822 stillbirths, 15,814 neonatal deaths, and 34,088 other congenital syphilis cases.Penicillin need for maternal and infant syphilis treatment is high among this group of syphilis burdened countries. Initiatives to ensure a stable and adequate supply of benzathine penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis

  13. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods) and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from f...

  14. Estimation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes in pregnant Japanese women without nausea by using a self-administered diet history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Yatsuki, Yuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes during pregnancy affect fetal development and maternal mental health; therefore, an accurate assessment of EPA and DHA intakes is required. We hypothesized that a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed for non-pregnant adults could be used for estimating EPA and DHA intakes in pregnant Japanese women; thus, we evaluated the validity and reproducibility of the DHQ during pregnancy. We recruited 262 healthy participants with singleton pregnancies during their second trimester at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were measured as reference values. Fifty-eight women completed the DHQ twice, within a 4- to 5-week period to assess the reproducibility of the results. Among the participants without pregnancy-associated nausea (n = 180), significantly positive correlations were observed between energy-adjusted intakes and plasma concentrations of EPA (r(s) = 0.388), DHA (r(s) = 0.264), and EPA + DHA (r(s) = 0.328). More than 60% of the participants without nausea fell into the same or adjacent quintiles according to energy-adjusted intakes and plasma concentrations of EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA. Meanwhile, among the participants with nausea, a low correlation for EPA and no correlation for DHA and EPA + DHA were found. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the 2-time DHQ measurements were 0.691 (EPA) and 0.663 (DHA). The results indicate that the DHQ has an acceptable level of validity and reproducibility for assessing EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA intakes in pregnant Japanese women without nausea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validity and reproducibility of folate and vitamin B12 intakes estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire in Japanese pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Mie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No validated dietary questionnaire for assessing folate and vitamin B12 intakes during pregnancy is available in Japan. We evaluated the validity and reproducibility of intakes of folate and vitamin B12 estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ in Japanese pregnant women. Methods A sample of 167 healthy subjects with singleton pregnancies in the second trimester was recruited at a private obstetric hospital in metropolitan Tokyo from June to October 2008 (n = 76, and at a university hospital in Tokyo from June 2010 to June 2011 (n = 91. The dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 were assessed using the DHQ. The serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were measured as reference values in the validation study. To assess the reproducibility of the results, 58 pregnant women completed the DHQ twice within 4-5 week interval. Results Significantly positive correlations were found between energy-adjusted intakes and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 (r = 0.286, p p = 0.004, respectively. After excluding the participants with nausea (n = 121, the correlation coefficient for vitamin B12 increased to 0.313 (p = 0.001. When participants were classified into quintiles based on intakes and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 , approximately 60% were classified in the same or adjacent quintile. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the two-time DHQ were 0.725 for folate and 0.512 for vitamin B12 . Conclusion The present study indicated that the DHQ had acceptable validity and reproducibility for assessing folate and vitamin B12 intakes in Japanese pregnant women.

  16. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  17. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  18. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  19. Risk estimates for children and pregnant women exposed to mercury-contaminated Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus in Lake Albert Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Irene, Naigaga; Jesca, Nakavuma; Ocaido, Micheal; Drago, Kato; Celsus, Sente; Deborah, Amulen; Rumbeiha, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to mercury contaminated fish predisposes populations particularly children and pregnant women to various health hazards including neurotoxicity, reproductive abnormalities and cognitive disorders. Earlier studies in the Lake Albert community have demonstrated the presence of mercury in Nile tilapia and Nile perch. However, the risk estimates for vulnerable groups such as Children and pregnant women is not well documented. Secondary data-set from previous studies were employed comprising family household size and fish consumption history, fish consumption quantity and frequency and mercury levels in fish species in comparison with FAO/WHO guidelines. Data collected was used to establish the hazard quotients (HQs) for the vulnerable group and the general population. A risk model was developed using iRISK to demonstrate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for eating different parts of the fish (muscle and bellyfat). HQ values (HQ = 2.05) above one for the vulnerable group were realized especially with Nile perch muscle. The highest DALYs (0.111) was obtained with tilapia muscle consumption. The study outcome reveals that vulnerable populations are at risk of non-carcinogenic complications. Therefore, there is a need for sensitization of the community especially the vulnerable groups about risks associated with consuming mercury-contaminated fish.

  20. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  1. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  2. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

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    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  3. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  4. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Micronutrient Intakes in an Urban US Sample of Multi-Ethnic Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Ni, Yu-Ming; Gennings, Chris; Ganguri, Harish B.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s) To validate the Block98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating antioxidant, methyl-nutrient and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intakes in a pregnant sample of ethnic/racial minority women in the United States (US). Methods Participants (n = 42) were from the Programming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms study. Total micronutrient intakes from food and supplements was ascertained using the modified Block98 FFQ and two 24-h dietary recalls collected at random on nonconsecutive days subsequent to completion of the FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Correlation coefficients (r) corrected for attenuation from within-person variation in the recalls were calculated for antioxidants (n = 7), methyl-nutrients (n = 8), and PUFAs (n = 2). Result(s) The sample was largely ethnic minorities (38 % Black, 33 % Hispanic) with 21 % being foreign born and 41 % having less than or equal to a high school degree. Significant and adequate deattenuated correlations (r ≥ 0.40) for total dietary intakes of antioxidants were observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, and zinc. Reasonable deattenuated correlations were also observed for methyl-nutrient intakes of vitamin B6, betaine, iron, and n:6 PUFAs; however, they did not reach significance. Most women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles (≥70 %) for total (dietary + supplements) estimates of antioxidants (5 out of 7) and methyl-nutrients (4 out of 5). Conclusions The Block98 FFQ is an appropriate dietary method for evaluating antioxidants in pregnant ethnic/minorities in the US; it may be less efficient in measuring methyl-nutrient and PUFA intakes. PMID:26511128

  5. ESTIMATES OF WATER INGESTION FOR WOMEN IN PREGNANT, LACTATING AND NON-PREGNANT AND NON-LACTATING CHILD BEARING AGE GROUPS BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKE BY INDIVIDUALS (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  6. Estimates of Water Ingestion for Women in Pregnant, Lactating and Non-Pregnant and Non-Lactating Child Bearing Age Groups Based on USDA's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  7. [Methodology for Estimating the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Pregnant Women: Analysis of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takamasa; Ohtsu, Fumiko; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Mori, Chiyo; Sakata, Hiroshi; Goto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Safety information regarding drug use during pregnancy is insufficient. The present study aimed to establish an optimal signal detection method to identify adverse drug reactions in pregnant women and to evaluate information in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database between April 2004 and November 2014. We identified reports on pregnant women using the Standardised MedDRA Queries. We calculated the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and reporting odds ratio (ROR) of the risk factors for the two known risks of antithyroid drugs and methimazole (MMI) embryopathy, and ritodrine and fetal/infant cardiovascular events. The PRR and ROR values differed between all reports in the JADER database and those on pregnant women, affecting whether signal detection criteria were met. Therefore we considered that reports on pregnant women should be used when risks associated with pregnancy were determined using signal detection. Analyses of MMI embryopathy revealed MMI signals [PRR, 159.7; ROR, 669.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 282.4-1588.7] but no propylthiouracil signals (PRR, 1.98; ROR, 2.0; 95%CI, 0.3-15.4). These findings were consistent with those of reported risks. Analyses of fetal/infant cardiovascular events revealed ritodrine signals (PRR, 2.1; ROR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.3). These findings were also consistent with reported risks. Mining the JADER database was helpful for analyzing adverse drug reactions in pregnant women.

  8. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  9. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  10. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  12. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  13. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  14. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  15. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  16. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  17. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  18. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...

  19. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It is estimated that iodine intake from salt is between 113 to 225 mg per day assuming salt iodization levels of 20 to ...

  20. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. METHODS: Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. FINDINGS: One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with

  1. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  2. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  3. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Can...

  4. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  5. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  6. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  7. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  8. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  9. The effect of dietary estimates calculated using food frequency questionnaires on micronuclei formation in European pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vande Loock, Kim; Botsivali, Maria; Zangogianni, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers of early genetic effects, predictive for cancer, such as micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes, may help to investigate the association between diet and cancer. We hypothesised that the presence of mutagens in the diet may increase MN formation. A 'pooled' standardised analysis......) and the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index using a semi-automated image analysis system. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to estimate intake of fatty acids and a broad range of immunotoxic and genotoxic/carcinogenic compounds through the diet. Pooled difference based on delivery type revealed...

  10. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  11. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2008-01-30

    There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown

  12. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be

  13. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  14. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  15. [Concentration of heavy metals in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyszyn, K; Walas, J; Malinowski, A; Latkowski, T; Cwynar, L

    1982-01-01

    Copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured in two groups 72 pregnant women. Twenty-one of them, making up the control group, lived and worked in Wrocław. The other 51 women, the second group, had lived more than five years in Lubin-Polkowice and worked in the local non-ferrous metal plants. They were particularly endangered by their exposure to copper, zinc, and lead concentrations. Pregnancy was normal in all cases. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placenta homogenate, and amniotic fluid were examined by techniques of atom-absorption spectrometry. The metals tested were conspicuously absorbed by placental tissue, but no danger to the pregnant women could be established.

  16. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  18. Contamination Rates of Three Urine-Sampling Methods to Assess Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare contamination rates of three different urine-sampling methods in pregnant women to assess bacteriuria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 pregnant women collected three different midstream urine samples consecutively: morning (first void); midstream (void

  19. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  20. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  1. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Domestic violence against pregnant women in iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

  3. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  4. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  5. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  6. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  7. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  8. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...

  9. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  10. Physical activity of pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristine E; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penny; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized. To assess patterns and correlates of physical activity among 1355 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. Household/caregiving activity was the primary mode of pregnancy activity ranging from 56% to 60% of total activity while sports/exercise contributed the least (<10%). Compared to nulliparous women, women with two or more children were 85% less likely to become inactive at any time during pregnancy (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04, 0.56, p-trend <0.01). Women with one or more children increased their total physical activity on average 9.73±2.04 MET-hours/week and 12.04±2.39 MET-hours/week, respectively, with the onset of pregnancy (p<0.01). Those with the highest levels of total physical activity prior to pregnancy were 87% less likely to become inactive with the onset of pregnancy than those who were inactive prior to pregnancy (OR=0.13, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.29). Findings can inform culturally appropriate interventions designed to reduce pregnancy complications through the promotion of physical activity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  12. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ausilia Grassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  13. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  14. Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Hee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05 whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84, between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81, and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85. CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  16. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  17. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  18. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Verly Junior, Eliseu

    2014-06-02

    Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan.

  19. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  20. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osime, Odaburhine E; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U; Kolade, Samson O

    2015-02-01

    To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13 g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia.

  1. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  2. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (Pchanges associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  3. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247. The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 - 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006. Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004 affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

  4. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  5. Comparison of the efficiency of two commercial kits - ELFA and Western blot in estimating the phase of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Karamon, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-12-23

    Sera of 89 pregnant women were selected according to the results of ELFA IgM, IgG and avidity IgG, and tested with commercial tests IgM, IgG and avidity IgG Western Blot (WB) to compare the efficacy of both techniques in determining the phase of T. gondii infection. In total, 81 of 89 tested sera (91.0%) were classified as positive, both in the ELFA and WB tests for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies of class IgG, indicating a past infection, while the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma positive reactions associated with the antibodies of class IgM indicating a recent infection was much lower - 31.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Sera of 81 women were also tested in the ELFA and WB tests for avidity, e.g. ability of forming high-molecular IgG antibody complexes. Low or medium results in these tests (in this study all classified as low), indicating a recent infection, were detected by ELFA and WB in 22.2% and 45.7% of the total examined samples, respectively. The Spearman's rank test for correlation, performed for recognition of quantitative data of the ELFA and WB tests (index, units or points), revealed a highly significant correlation between the ELFA and WB tests for homologous classes of antibodies, both for IgM and IgG (p0.05), except for the WB test for IgM antibodies, which showed a significant correlation with the ELFA test for IgG antibodies (p<0.01). A highly significant negative correlation between the ELFA and WB test for IgM antibodies and ELFA and WB tests for IgG avidity was demonstrated (p<0.01), except for a relationship between the WB test for IgM and WB for avidity, which was not significant. Such negative correlations are theoretically expected, as strong complexes with the participation of IgG antibodies are absent in the early phase of toxoplasmosis when early antibodies of IgM class are present. Summarizing, this study indicates the high usefulness of the commercial ELFA and WB tests in serodiagnostics of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women

  6. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  7. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... parity and is significantly higher in pregnant women who are in their first or .... highly educated women with tertiary education and the others. ... albicans is highly sensitive; there is considerable maternal disability and neonatal ...

  8. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic at a health centre in Balaka, Malawi. Methods. This was a ... pregnant women enroled in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. A sample size of thirty-five ..... Some women reported suffering the physical and psychological ...

  9. Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease Multiple specialists may be needed to care for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many more American women with heart disease are choosing to have babies, a new study ...

  10. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  11. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  12. Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Vivette

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10 were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks, together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. Results The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one Conclusions This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother.

  13. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  14. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Paciorek, Christopher J; Flaxman, Seth R; Branca, Francesco; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    .... We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011...

  15. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  16. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  17. Estimativa da prevalência de HIV em gestantes por análise espacial, Porto Alegre, RS Estimate of HIV prevalence in pregnant women by means of spatial analysis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovam Barcellos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de técnicas de análise espacial foram estimados os diferenciais intra-urbanos da prevalência de HIV entre gestantes no município de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. As estimativas foram obtidas por meio da suavização espacial dos pontos referentes às residências de nascidos vivos e gestantes HIV positivas para o ano de 2003. Foi identificada a sobreposição de áreas de alta prevalência com favelas da cidade, o que ratifica o processo de pauperização da Aids e aponta locais onde estratégias de atenção primária e educação devem ser reforçadas.Spatial analysis techniques were used to estimate the interurban differential HIV prevalence among pregnant women in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. The estimates were produced through the spatial smoothing of residence pinpoints with live newborns and HIV infected pregnant women for the year of 2003. The overlay of high prevalence areas in city slums was identified. This finding confirms the intensification of AIDS epidemic among poor urban populations, and indicates areas where basic care and educational strategies should be reinforced.

  18. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  19. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  20. Uso de modelos epidemiológicos para estimar la incidencia de caries dental y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas Use of epidemiological models to estimate the incidence of dental caries and periodontal disease in Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Corsini Muñoz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de caries y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas mediante un modelo de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad (IPM. Material y Método: Se construyó un modelo IPM con la prevalencia estimada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud del año 2003 y los datos del Estudio de Carga de Enfermedad en Chile en el año 2007. Para efectos de estimar la población de mujeres embarazadas, se utilizó como variable de aproximación, los partos por edad de las mujeres según la información de los nacimientos registrado por el Instituto de Nacional de Estadística (INE. Los datos fueron ingresados en el programa DisMod para determinar las incidencias y comprobar la consistencia interna del modelo. Resultados: La incidencia de caries estimada por el modelo fue de 86.870 nuevos casos y de 7.983 casos incidentes al año para la enfermedad periodontal, en un universo estimado de 230.831 mujeres embarazadas. Conclusión: Los modelos epidemiológicos son una herramienta útil para determinar la epidemiología de cualquier enfermedad, en donde la estimación de la incidencia constituye un problema y estudios de investigación en campo serían muy costoso, de larga duración y/o en donde la problemática ética del estudio sería inaceptable.Objectives: To determine the incidence of caries and periodontal disease in pregnant Chilean women through an incidence, prevalence and mortality model (IPM. Material and Methods: An IPM model was constructed with the prevalence estimated the National Health Survey 2003 and data from the Burden of Disease study in Chile in 2007. The childbirths by age of women, according to the information from the National Statistics Institute, were used to estimate the population of pregnant women. Data were entered into the DisMod program to determine the incidence and check the internal consistency of the model. Results: The estimated incidence of caries by the model was of 86.870 new cases and 7

  1. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  2. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  3. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  4. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, pchange during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (pchanges, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship.

  6. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for 12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  7. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  8. Maternity perception by pregnant women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the perceptions of pregnant women living with HIV about motherhood and understand the expectations and feelings experienced by these women. Methodology. Study with descriptive design and qualitative approach, carried out with 10 pregnant women living with HIV who attend the prenatal service of a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The participants answered a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results. Pregnant women in their descriptions revealed that motherhood gives them different perspectives on the present and future. They see it as a good thing, a responsibility to care for the child, and consider bearing a child to be a gift. Conclusion. For pregnant women living with HIV, motherhood is a positive experience in their lives. Nurses must be sensitive to the needs of this group and aware of their role in health care and preventing any possible complications that may affect the mother and her baby.

  9. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  10. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Oluwatayo Ajibola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 10 [9] /L. [3],[4] Counts from 100 to 150 × 10 [9] /L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 10 [9] /L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 10 [9] /L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5% pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3% non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82. Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78% had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth.

  11. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  12. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  13. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  14. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  15. Central sleep apnea in pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjeily, Ghada; Sharkey, Katherine M; Mazer, Jeffrey; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan; Millman, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Physiologic changes in the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems in pregnancy likely impact ventilatory control. Though obstructive sleep apnea and snoring are common in the pregnant population, the predisposition to central respiratory events during sleep and the prevalence of such events is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of central apneas during sleep in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls suspected of sleep disordered breathing. Twenty-five pregnant women referred for polysomnography for sleep disordered breathing were compared with non-pregnant controls matched for age, body mass index, gender, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Central apnea index was defined as the number of central apneas per hour of sleep, and mixed apnea index was defined as the number of mixed apneas per hour of sleep. Sixty-four percent of pregnant women had a respiratory disturbance index >5 events per hour of sleep. Mean body mass index was 44.1 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) pregnant compared to 44.0 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) in controls. The total number of central apneas observed during sleep in the pregnant group consisted of two central apneas in one patient, and of 98 central apneas in 11 patients in the control group (p = 0.05). Median central apnea index was low in both groups (pregnant 0, interquartile range (IQR) 0, 0 vs. non-pregnant 0, IQR 0, 0.2, p = 0.04). Mixed apnea index was similarly low in both groups. Despite some physiologic changes of pregnancy that impact ventilatory control, the prevalence of central sleep apnea was low in our sample of overweight pregnant women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  16. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  17. Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state, nigeria. ... instrument was ensured through constructive criticisms of seven health professionals. ... safe motherhood and family life education concepts that would sensitize the ...

  18. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...

  19. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... settings, and 15 - 34% of indirect obstetric maternal mortality.10. In SA between 2008 and ... TB prevention, diagnosis and treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women should be ..... Bothamley G. Drug treatment for tuberculosis.

  20. RESEARCH Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 SAMJ. In January 2005, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration ... therapy (ART) for pregnant women with CD4 ≤350 cells/µl,7 based on their ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand and.

  1. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y. Y. Nikulina; I. E. Sokolova; A. I. Vinnikov

    2012-01-01

    .... The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration...

  2. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively ... due to the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. ... by bacteria species that are part of the normal body.

  3. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under ... agency news release. She is director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Parents and ...

  4. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi, Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical. Student. Research. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi,. Namibia ... Julia Thomson, medk:aJ student. In recognition of this ..... College of General Practitioners, the Commonwealth ... Maternal nutritional status in pregnancy.

  5. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather: Wildfires Ready.gov (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) Are You Ready? (FEMA) American Red Cross Family Preparedness Guide (Florida Department of Health) Preparedness Information for Pregnant Women Pregnancy and Disaster Information from ...

  6. Breastfeeding intention among pregnant Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2010-09-01

    This study set out to (1) estimate the prevalence of three forms of feeding intention among 2,178 pregnant women in six of Hong Kong's regional hospitals and (2) identify the associated demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and relational correlates. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The Chinese version of a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the demographic, socio-economic, and obstetric characteristics of the women. Couples' relationships were investigated using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. All women in the second trimester of their pregnancies who attended the target antenatal clinics within the data collection period of December 2004 to December 2006 were recruited. The prevalence rates of breastfeeding, mixed feeding and artificial feeding were 53.9%, 14.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. Women who had been born in Hong Kong, lived in accommodation that was > or = 300 feet(2) (approximately 30 m(2)), had made an early antenatal booking, had a planned pregnancy, were experiencing their first pregnancy, and had a lower level of conflict with their partners were significantly more likely to opt for breastfeeding. Women who had been born in Hong Kong and already had children were significantly more likely to choose mixed feeding, compared with the artificial group in a multinomial logistic regression model. These findings suggest that effective promotion of breastfeeding during the prenatal period must target the correlates of feeding intention.

  7. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  8. Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England : cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Beck, E J; Mandalia, S; Sherr, L; Walters, M D; Houweling, H; Jager, Johannes C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital

  9. Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England : cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Beck, E J; Mandalia, S; Sherr, L; Walters, M D; Houweling, H; Jager, Johannes C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital

  10. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  11. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Annaba, Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ventricular dyssynchrony in pregnant women: A tissue Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; El-Awady, Waleed S; Dewedar, Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the left ventricular (LV) synchronicity in pregnant women and to identify the main determinants of LV dyssynchrony in asymptomatic pregnant women. One hundred sixty-seven pregnant women consecutively and 48 age-matched nonpregnant controls were enrolled. For the assessment of LV systolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic (Tps-LV- standard deviation [SD]) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic velocity (Tps-LV) from 12 segments at the apical views. For the LV diastolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic (Tpe-LV-SD) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic velocity (Tpe-LV) were calculated. Both systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony indexes were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the normal controls (Tps-LV; Ppregnant women had a dyssynchrony index above the accepted value for LV dyssynchrony (>34.4 msec). There was a significant correlation between LV dyssynchrony indexes with, multiparty, multifetal pregnancies, systolic blood pressure in pregnant women with LV dyssynchrony. Additionally LV dyssynchrony was significantly associated with elevated E/e" and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both systolic synchronicity and diastolic synchronicity were affected in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. LV dyssynchrony was significantly correlated with age, multiparity, and BNP level. Early detectable changes in systolic and diastolic synchrony may be present in pregnant women at higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  16. Intraocular Pressure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Nigerian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    hormones are steroids and steroids have an effect on salt and water ... antenatal clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology of the ... women were part of the study. One hundred .... Castro-Mesa C, Castilla-López-Madridejos F and.

  17. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  18. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  19. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman’s body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%, low back pain (42%, and pelvic girdle pain (37%. Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  20. Prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions among Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Preetha; Maiya, Arun G; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  1. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  2. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  3. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  4. Clostridium difficile carriage in healthy pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guang-yong; Li, Na; Chen, Yun-Bo; Lv, Tao; Shen, Ping; Gu, Si-Lan; Fang, Yun-Hui; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile has been shown to have particularly poor outcomes for pregnant women, including an increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypic distribution, and characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant women without diarrhea in China. As part of this study, 3.7% (37 out of 1009) of samples acquired from pregnant females tested positive for C. difficile. Of these positive samples, 27.0% (10) were toxigenic isolates containing both toxin A and toxin B genes (A+B+), 13.5% (5) of the variant strains contained the toxin B gene (A-B+) only, while the rest were non-toxigenic isolates (59.5%, 22 isolates). Among the non-pregnant women without diarrhea tested, 1.4% (9 of 651) contained toxigenic isolates (all of which were A+B+). Sixteen different sequence types (STs) were isolated during the course of this study. ST-37 (ribotype 017) and ST-54 (ribotype 012) were the most frequent toxigenic types observed in pregnant women. All strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics metronidazole and vancomycin. The resistance rates of toxigenic C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant females to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and rifampicin were 20%, 46.7%, 13.6%, 46.7% and 13.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between resistance rates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains with respect to their susceptibility to these antibiotics. However, when compared with the same data from non-pregnant women, toxigenic strains from pregnant women showed lower resistance rates to clindamycin (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  6. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  7. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...... be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one....

  8. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  10. Zika virus and pregnant women: A psychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus presents risk of physical harm to pregnant women, but the fear of infection is also affecting women around the world. There is a gap in the research on Zika virus in the areas involving the impact on the psychosocial well-being of pregnant women. Therefore, this study is aimed at the investigation of the psychosocial adjustment of pregnant women to the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We investigated 14 pregnant women who were classified in three different groups: six in the first trimester, five in the second trimester and three in the third trimester, aged from 28 to 40 years (33.43 ± 3.76 years). Content analysis was used to interpret data. Our results show that the psychosocial adjustment of participants was significantly negative and included five aspects: (1) negative feelings, (2) changes in family planning, (3) adopting new customs (avoiding places of risk, use of specific clothes and use of repellent), (4) changed attitudes regarding body image and (5) feeling of external demand regarding prevention. The fear of Zika virus infection and all its associated risks have a negative biopsychosocial impact on the pregnant women in this study.

  11. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  12. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Iodine Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Troshina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimate the influence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA on efficiency of the iodine prophylaxis for pregnant women, and also to offer the optimal levels of daily iodine intake during pregnancy and lactation. Materials and methods: serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxin (fT4, AT-TPO concentrations, urine excretion of iodine, levels of hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, red blood cell (RBC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, serum iron levels and serum ferritin were measured. The volume of thyroid gland was defined by ultrasonography. The pregnant women were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 111 – KI (200 micro# grams/day and Group 2 (n = 109 – KI (300 micrograms/day. Results: Median urinary iodine was 140,8 μg/l. During pregnancy there was an authentic rising of a median urinary iodine to 259,6 μg/l in group 2 (p = 0,0000 and in group 1 the iodine excretion in urine was more low than at a stage of screening and has compounded 96,9 μg/l (p = 0,002. During lactation there was an insufficient concentration of iodide in urine in group 1 and in group 2 there were normal indexes of a median urinary iodine – 88,6 and 123,2μg/l in groups 1st and 2nd accordingly (p = 0,004. In the third trimester 21,5% of women had a latent deficiency of iron. Authentic correlation between indexes of an iron deficiency anemia and iodine deficiency has not been detected. Conclusion: The median level of urinary iodine indicate optimal iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation and the requirement of iodine is at least 300 μg/day. In our research the negative influence of iron deficiency anemia on the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy has not been detected.

  13. Urinary antibiotics of pregnant women in Eastern China and cumulative health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Qian, Junhua; Hu, Lingyun; Huang, Peixin; Su, Meifang; Yu, Xin; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Haijiang; He, Gengsheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-02-23

    Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few bio-monitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urines by using the isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry. Hazard index (HI) was calculated based on estimated daily exposure dose and acceptable daily intakes. Sixteen antibiotics were found in urines with detection frequencies between 0.2% and 16.0%. Antibiotics were overall detected in 41.6% of urines, and two or more antibiotics were detected in 13.1% of urines. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in urine with detection frequencies between 10% and 20%. The majority of the antibiotics tested had an estimated daily exposure dose less than 1μg/kg/day and 4.3% of pregnant women had a HI value more than one. These findings indicated that pregnant women were frequently exposed to antibiotics and some individuals were in the potential risk of adverse microbiological effects induced by antibiotics.

  14. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  15. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  16. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  17. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers, A.; Best, B.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Wang, J; Stek, A.; Tenorio, C.H.; Hawkins, D.; Taylor, G.; Kreitchmann, R.; Burchett, S.; Haberl, A.; Kabeya, K.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Smith, E.; Capparelli, E.; Burger, D.M.; Mirochnick, M.; Ven, A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and post partum. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed

  18. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, N.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Best, B.M.; Colbers, A.; Wang, J; Capparelli, E.V.; Molto, J.; Stek, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Smith, E.; Tenorio, C.H.; Chakhtoura, N.; Kasteren, M. van; Fletcher, C.V.; Mirochnick, M.; Burger, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. METHODS: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women.

  19. [Prevalence of malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Comparative study of the plasmodial indices in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Ndir, O; Dieng, Y; Ba, F D; Bah, I B; Diop, B M; Gaye, O; Dieng, T

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of the prevalence of malaria in pregnant and non pregnant women living in Dakar has interested 1819 women among whom 950 pregnant and 869 non pregnant. For all the examined women, the global plasmoidic index was 2.6% and the gametocytic index 0.1%. Plasmodium falciparum was the only observed species. According to the obtained results, pregnant women, with a plasmoidic index of 4.5% are more often parasited than the non pregnant women, only affected in a proportion of 0.5% Whatever the age, the number of previous pregnancy, the place of residence, the duration of the stay in Dakar may be, the pregnant women are always more often parasited than the non pregnant women and the registered differences are statistically significant. That situation could come from a greater receptivity of the pregnant women what is admitted by some authors. But a more important proportion of natives from rural area was observed among the pregnant women, from where a difference in the exposure to the risk of impaludation between the two groups that could explain the registered results. The global plasmoidic index of 2.6% obtained in the examined women, reflects well the present situation of the malaria endemy in Dakar, a weak hypo-endemic area.

  20. Hemoglobin values for pregnant women residing at middle altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Jatziri Gaitán-González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal hemoglobin behavior during pregnancy for middle altitude residents and to compare it with that reported in other populations with or without iron supplementation. Materials and methods. Hematological values from 227 pregnant women residing at 2 240 m altitude (Mexico City, with low obstetric and perinatal risk, and receiving supplementary iron, were compared with reference values obtained from other populations of pregnant women residing at different altitudes, after correcting for altitude. Results. While the hemoglobin values for the first and second trimester of pregnancy in our studied population were similar to those reported for iron-supplemented populations (p mayor que 0.05, the third trimester values were similar to those reported for a population without this supplement (p mayor que 0.05. Conclusions. Despite receiving supplementary iron, hemoglobin values during pregnancy from women residing at middle altitude show similar behavior to that reported for pregnant women without iron supplementation.

  1. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P < 0.05). The results of multivariate analysis indicate that age ≥35 years and anaemia were significantly associated with being infected with Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. CORRELATION OF PROGRESSION RISK OF FETOPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY WITH VEGETATIVE STATUS DISTURBANCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkova E.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Research Goal was to compare probability of risk progression of chronic fetoplacental insuffciency with various disturbances of vegetative nervous system (VNS in pregnant women. Materials. Basic group consisted of 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; control group included 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Status of VNS was determined with the purpose to estimate initial vegetative tone in various functional systems and forming concept of general vegetative status in the sample. Results. Presence of fetoplacental insuffciency in pregnant women was extensively associated with increase of sympathetic section tone and VNS lability. Occurrence frequency of critical indices of hemodynamics disturbances in the system mother- placenta-fetus revealed reliable correlation dependence on VNS lability and index of vegetative supply of activity. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency had 25 – 30 % increased tone and lability indices of VNS sympathetic section in contrast to physiological course of pregnancy. Progression of fetoplacental insuffciency was more often revealed in pregnant women in case of replacement of sympathicotonia by vagotonia, and against a background of high VNS lability and reactivity.

  3. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  4. Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress in pregnant women of South East Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uchenna Ifeanyi Nwagha; Tochukwu Christopher Okeke; Theresa Ukamaka Nwagha; FidelisEbeleEjezie; SylvesterOgbonnaOgbodo; CyrilChukwudiDim; BondUgochukwuAnyaehie

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and some oxidative stress parameters in pregnant Nigerian women. Methods:This is a cross-sectional study involving 130 normal pregnant women at various trimesters, who were attending antenatal clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and Kenechukwu Specialist Hospital in Enugu. A comparable group (control), made of 30 non pregnant women was also recruited. After a 24 hour dietary recall, serum levels of vitamin A, C and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by colorimetric method, while vitamin E was determined by absorptiometric method. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, parity, estimated calorie, vitamins A, C and E intake between the pregnant and non pregnant groups (P>0.05). The serum level of the vitamins (umol/L) and MDA (umol/L) in control, 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively were:(1)Vitamin A:1.6±0.36 vs 0.6±0.26 vs 0.62±0.33 vs 0.46±0.21 (P0.05). Conclusions:Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress on pregnant women in Nigeria. The enormity of acute and complicated attack should be further investigated.

  5. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  6. High uptake of HIV testing in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Remis

    Full Text Available In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an anonymous, unlinked study, we determined the HIV rate in pregnant women not tested. Prenatal HIV test uptake in Ontario increased dramatically, from 33% in the first quarter of 1999 to 96% in 2010. Test uptake was highest in younger women but increased in all age groups. All health regions improved and experienced similar test uptake in recent years. The HIV rate among pregnant women tested in 2010 was 0.13/1,000; in Toronto, the rate was 0.28 per 1,000. In the 2002 unlinked study, the HIV rate was 0.62/1,000 among women not tested in pregnancy compared to 0.31/1,000 among tested women. HIV incidence among women who tested more than once was 0.05/1,000 person-years. In response to the new policy in Ontario, prenatal HIV testing uptake improved dramatically among women in all age groups and health regions. A reminder to physicians who had not ordered a prenatal HIV test appeared to be very effective. In 2002, the HIV rate in women who were not tested was twice that of tested women: though 77% of pregnant women had been tested, only 63% of HIV-infected women were tested. HIV testing uptake was estimated at 98% in 2010.

  7. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

  8. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  9. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  10. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  11. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  12. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.

  13. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithia...

  14. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  15. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  16. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

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    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  17. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  18. Evaluation of sexual functions of the pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun Güleroğlu, Funda; Gördeles Beşer, Nalan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women may avoid sexual intercourse or may unavoidably undergo problems in their sexual lives because of various complaints they suffer from. The study aims to evaluate sexual functions of the pregnant women and to determine the factors that negatively affect their sexual health. This is a descriptive research study conducted to evaluate sexual functions of pregnant women. Three hundred six pregnant women admitted to the Women Birth Polyclinics within the Women Birth and Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were included in the study. The data were gathered using a personal information form and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Kruskall-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analysis. The main outcome is an assessment of the FSFI domains in pregnancy and relationships between pregnancy complaints and sexual functions. The results indicated that the mean age of the pregnant women was 25.6 ± 5.4 and their length of marriage was 5.93 ± 5.4 years. The study revealed that 88.9% of the pregnant women had sexual desire disorders, 86.9% had sexual arousal disorder, 42.8% had lubrication disorders, 69.6% had orgasm disorders, and 48% had sexual satisfaction disorders. Statistically significant differences were found in correlations between FSFI medians and the characteristics of the pregnant women in terms of age, educational level, length and type of marriage, and gestational week. There were also statistically significant differences in correlations between the pregnancy characteristics in terms of backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache, and cramp problems (P sexual lives of the pregnant women were negatively affected not only by factors such as old age, low educational status, arranged marriages lasting for more than 10 years, undesired pregnancy, and gestational week but also by health problems such as backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache

  19. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  20. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p

  1. Medicaid Coverage of Smoking Cessation Counseling and Medication Is Underutilized for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Jacobson, Lisette T; Shireman, Theresa I

    2017-05-01

    Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013. We analyzed the number of pregnant women who received physician-provided smoking cessation counseling indicated by procedure billing codes (ie, G0436 and G0437) and medication (ie, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline) located in outpatient managed care encounter and fee-for-service claims data. We estimated the number of Medicaid-insured pregnant smokers using the national smoking prevalence (14%) in this population and the number of live births reported in Kansas. Annually from 2010 to 2013, approximately 27.2%-31.6% of pregnant smokers had claims for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Excluding claims for bupropion, a medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, claims ranged from 9.3% to 11.1%. Following implementation of Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation counseling, less than 1% of estimated smokers had claims for counseling. This low claims rate suggests that simply changing policy is not sufficient to ensure use of newly implemented benefits, and that there probably remain critical gaps in smoking cessation treatment. This study evaluates the use of Medicaid reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling among low-income pregnant women in Kansas. We describe the Medicaid claims rates of physician-provided smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women, an evidence-based and

  2. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...... subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish...

  3. Airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydas, A D; Basaranoglu, G; Ozdemir, H; Dooply, S L S; Muhammedoglu, N; Kucuk, S; Saidoglu, L

    2015-06-01

    High incidence of difficult or failed intubation in obstetric patients is still a major problem to challenge anaesthesiologists. Although the probability of difficult intubation is impossible to predict preoperatively, some simple, practical bedside tests may help. This study used five simple tests in an attempt to better evaluate airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery. Pregnant women from the ASA I-II group who were planning to undergo a normal vaginal delivery were evaluated as to the possibility of experiencing difficult intubation. Mallampati scores, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension were recorded just before delivery and 24 h after delivery. Significant differences were seen in the pre- and post-delivery measurements (p changed in one-third (n 21, 36.6%) of the patients. Significant differences between the two measurements of thyromental and sternomental distances, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension confirm difficult airway management in pregnant women.

  4. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Ghafari

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women.Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI.From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17. The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16, respectively.Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary.

  5. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  6. Pathophysiological Aspects of the Development of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Bakhtina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and to define the main biochemical parameters characterizing the severity of preeclampsia in pregnant women. Subjects and methods. The study was conducted in 117 pregnant women aged 18 to 42 years with varying preeclampsia at 36—38 weeks of gestation. Results. According to the severity of preeclampsia in pregnant women, there was an increase in the rate of free radical oxidation that caused direct damage to the vascular endothelium, by inhibiting the total antioxidant activity of plasma, which largely depended on the state of the nitroxidergic system. There was an inverse correlation between nitrite levels and hemodynamic parameters and a functional relationship between systemic hemodynamic disorders and nitrite levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia. There was a reduction in the count of platelets and a significant increase in platelet aggregation in stages III and IV ARDS. Conclusion. Varying interstitial lung edemas develop in relation to the severity of preeclampsia. The maximum impairment of lipid peroxidation processes and lower nitrate levels were noted in severe preeclampsia. There was a progressive platelet count fall in Stages III and IV ARDS. In the authors’ opinion, the magnitude of involvement of platelets in aggregates and free radical damage to the pulmonary vascular endothelium play a significant role in the development of ARDS in pregnant women with preeclampsia. However, impairments in the thrombocytic link are likely to be regarded as a direct cause of lung dysfunction. Key words: preeclampsia, respiratory distress syndrome, nitrites, lipid peroxidation.

  7. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  8. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Calcium deficit in diet as risk factor for osteopenic syndrome in pregnant women of young age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Kabylova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study features of bone tissue mineral density and their correlation with bloodlevels of calcium, magnesium and non-organic phosphorus in young pregnantwomen. Clinical and ambulatory examination of 120 pregnant women of ages 16-25 was made. Estimation of bone tissue mineral density and blood levels ofcalcium, phosphorus and magnesium was performed during the pregnancy stageof 12 to 28 weeks. Among young pregnant women during II trimester, rate ofosteopenic syndrome amounts to 17.5%, including osteoporosis of 1.7%.Development of osteopenic syndrome is attributed to general blood calciumdeficiency. Development of osteopenic syndrome in young pregnant women isassociated with decreased dietary consumption of calcium (owing to exclusion ofmilk products. Bone tissue mineral density is directly correlated with bloodplasma levels of calcium.

  10. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women....... We therefore studied current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in 200 healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between weeks 8-30 of pregnancy and analysed for 10 phenols, 7 parabens and 16 phthalate metabolites by LC...... daily intake (TDI) and with Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the individual estimated DI of phthalates and BPA was below TDI, our results...

  11. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  12. Sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Tao; Lin, Chao Ling; Wan, Gwo Hwa; Liang, Ching Chung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The results showed that coital frequency decreased from the first to third trimester (p sexual position for pregnant women (67.6%) was man on top, face-to-face. Sexual position did not change significantly by trimester. More women with more sexual satisfaction than women with poor sexual satisfaction tended to adopt the woman-on-top, face-to-face, and abdominal-supportive sexual positions.

  13. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  14. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  15. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  16. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  17. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  18. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  19. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryan Wessells

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anemia and micronutrient (MN deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88 were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770 were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, zinc (pZn, retinol binding protein (RBP, folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L, respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL, 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L, 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L. Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population.

  20. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Kerry J Ressler; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant w...

  1. Changes in ectocervical surface area in women throughout pregnancy compared to non-pregnant and postpartum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueya; Jiang, Yanmin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate changes in the surface area of the ectocervix (CA) in women during pregnancy and compare this to postpartum and non-pregnant states. CA was evaluated in 210 normal nulliparous women divided into groups from early to late gestation, 40 postpartum women, and 25 non-pregnant women. CA in cm(2) was estimated from analysis of images taken with an endoscope of the cervical face and an mm scale. An mm scale was also used to determine fornix length and fornix area computed. The face, fornix, and total areas of the CA of non-pregnant and postpartum groups are significantly smaller (p 75% area compared with CA of non-pregnant patients and then reverts back to low CA postpartum. (2) Increases in CA during pregnancy occur in both the face and fornix areas. (3) Increases in CA reflect enlargement in cervical volume and remodeling during pregnancy.

  2. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at a secondary level hospital in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Lohiya, Ayush; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is frequently associated with complications. Currently, in India, there is no regular screening for UTI, and facility for diagnosis of UTI is not available at peripheral government health centers. To estimate the proportion of pregnant women with UTI among antenatal clinic attendees in rural Haryana. Eligible participants were pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of secondary care center of rural Haryana from March to May 2015. Consecutive sampling was done to select pregnant women. Interview schedule was administered to the selected women, and midstream urine sample was collected. Urine sample was plated on MacConkey agar, and colony count was done using standard methods. A total of 1253 pregnant women were included in the study. The proportion of women with symptoms of UTI on the basis of history was 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] - 30.7, 35.9), and UTI by colony count was 3.3% (95% CI - 2.4, 4.5). The presence of UTI was found to be significantly associated with the presence of any symptom of UTI on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [95% CI] - 7.35 [1.95, 27.77]). The burden of UTI among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of a sub-district hospital was considerable, more so among the women that presented with symptoms suggestive of UTI. The study suggested that considering the burden of UTI and its complications, diagnosis of UTI at a resource-constrained setting like a secondary care hospital can be done after screening women for symptoms suggestive of UTI.

  3. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  4. Evaluation of ventricular repolarization in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ozgur; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Kurmus, Ozge; Danisman, Nuri; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids can induce arrhythmia by altering cardiomyocyte contractility or electrical conduction. The aim of this study was to investigate, by means of QT dispersion parameter detected by simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG), ventricular repolarization changes in pregnant women with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In this case-control study including 75 pregnant women with cholestasis and 35 healthy, uncomplicated pregnancy cases, electrocardiographic QT interval durations and QT dispersion (QT-disp) parameters, corrected for the patients' heart rate using the Hodges formula, were investigated. Maximum corrected QT interval values were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p cholestasis when compared to the normal ones. This simple ECG parameter can be used to screen high-risk women, in order to better target counseling regarding lifestyle modifications and to conduct closer follow up and management of women with a history of ICP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Willingness among obese pregnant women to accept MRI scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, H; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women...

  6. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...

  7. Mid-gestational serum uric acid concentration effect on neonate birth weight and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Razavi, Maryamsadat; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Esmat; Chehrei, Ali; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mid-gestational serum uric acid and birth weight in diabetic pregnant women with or without insulin resistance. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, fasting uric acid, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured in 247 pregnant women between 20-22 weeks of gestational period. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Stratification analysis and independent t-test was used to ass...

  8. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in pregnant women and birth outcomes of their children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the possible association of pregnant women with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) with the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes, particularly different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded PSVT was evaluated in 103 pregnant women who later had offspring with CA (case group) and 149 pregnant women who later delivered newborn infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 252 pregnant women with PSVT, 115 (45.6%) had the onset of this condition before the study pregnancy, that is, their PSVT was a chronic condition, while the rest (N = 137) of PSVT was considered as new onset in the study pregnancy. The comparison of occurrence of PSVT in pregnant women who had offspring with different CA groups and in control mothers showed a higher risk for cardiovascular CAs (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 2.1, 1.1-3.8) explained mainly by secundum atrial septal defect. This association was confirmed in pregnant women with PSVT in the second and/or third gestational month, that is, critical period of cardiovascular CAs. In conclusion PSVT in pregnant women associates with a higher risk of secundum atrial septal defect in their children.

  9. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  10. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-01-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-de...

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. ... Hence, 0.8% of the entire study population was found to be at high risk of transmitting ... status, may be the most effective approach to HBV prevention and control in Zimbabwe.

  15. Copper and selenium status of healthy pregnant women in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake should be modified to ensure optimal selenium levels during pregnancy. Key words: Copper ... common practice to routinely supplement iron and folic acid with the aim of ... pregnant women to assist in the optimal formulation of micronutrient needs .... trend has been shown in many other studies from different.

  16. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    2016-01-01

    -making, responsibility-making and disciplinary technologies, to govern people to promote physical health. Conclusion: Public health programmes conjure up an image of overweight individuals as strongly burdened subjectivities. The implications for overweight pregnant women are the formation of new subjectivities...

  17. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  18. Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About Caesarean Section. ... it is the devil's work; punishment for marital infidelity or out of doctors self interest. ... Conclusion: More pregnant women supported caesarean section than were ...

  19. Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163680.html Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say Better prevention ... action, should be the focus when dealing with pregnant women who use opioids, a leading pediatricians' group ...

  20. [The expectancy-stress factor in pregnant refugee women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D

    2006-09-01

    Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.

  1. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  2. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-09-01

    Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women's power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  3. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  4. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing information seeking were attributed mainly to ... India, being a developing country, contributes ... required by rural women. 79 ... identified family and friends, local herb hawkers, local drug sellers (hawkers) .... Lack of Radio.

  5. A halfway house for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z; Jaafar, R; Hassan, M H; Awang, C W

    1998-01-01

    For a number of reasons, it is common for rural women in Malaysia who are experiencing high-risk pregnancy to choose to give birth at home rather than in a hospital. In so doing, these women usually agree to enter the hospital only upon the development of birth complications, a behavior which tends to raise the incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. The records were analyzed of 171 women who received care in the low-risk birth center of Bachok district in Kelantan between June 1995 and September 1996. 93 of the women delivered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours, with no case of postpartum hemorrhage. The remaining 78 women were referred to hospital for delivery for a range of reasons. All women interviewed in Bachok felt that a low-risk birth center should be part of every health clinic. Many of the drawbacks of hospitalization were reduced or eliminated in the new facilities, and all of the doctors, nurses, and midwives saw the establishment of the low-risk birth center as beneficial.

  6. Changes in cytomegalovirus seroprevalence in pregnant Japanese women-a 10-year single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Sato, Anna; Jwa, Seung Chik; Suzuki, Tomo; Yamanobe, Yuji; Sago, Haruhiko; Kozuka, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes congenital infections during pregnancy, and seroepidemiological data are important for estimating the risk of infection. However, only a few reports of CMV seroprevalence exist for pregnant Japanese women. The purpose of this study was to assess CMV seroprevalence in pregnant Japanese women. This cross-sectional study involved pregnant Japanese women who delivered from 2003 to 2012 at our hospital (n=15,616). Among these women, 14,099 (90.3%) underwent tests for the presence of CMV IgG. Those with an equivocal test result were excluded (n=195) from this analysis, leaving a study sample of 13,904 Japanese pregnant women. The prevalence of CMV IgG was also assessed by calendar year, age, and parity. The overall CMV IgG prevalence rate was 66.0%. CMV IgG prevalence significantly decreased over the course of 10 years from 2003 to 2012 (from 69.9% in 2003 to 65.2% in 2012) (p40 years were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.25-2.20), 1.20 (95%CI: 1.07-1.35), 1.16 (95%CI: 1.07-1.26), and 1.44 (95%CI: 1.28-1.62), respectively, compared to women aged 30-35 years. Adjusted odds ratios for CMV IgG positivity for a parity of 1, 2, and ≥3 were 1.14 (95%CI: 1.06-1.23), 1.52 (95%CI: 1.32-1.77), and 2.54 (95%CI: 2.69-3.84), respectively, compared to nulliparous women. We found that 34% of pregnant Japanese women were susceptible to CMV infection. Calendar year, maternal age, and parity were significantly associated with changes in CMV seroprevalence among this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  8. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  9. Estimation of the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections and its consequences on maternal/fetal outcome in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Indu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other vaginal infections during pregnancy and its association with urinary tract infections (UTI and its consequences on pregnancy outcome, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: The present prospective cohort study was conducted on 200 women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC of a tertiary hospital. All pertinent obstetric and neonatal data covering antenatal events during the course of pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and condition of each newborn at the time of birth were collected. BV was detected by both Gram stain and gold standard clinical criteria (Amsel′s composite criteria. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 9. Fischer′s exact test, chi square tests and Student′s′ test has been used for analysis. The probability of 5% was considered as significant for continuous variables such as age, period of gestation and birth weight. Odds ratio (OR and confidence interval (CI with 95% probability were determined. Results: The incidence of bacterial vaginosis was 41 in 200 patients. Adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, PROM and fetal complications were found more in pregnant women who had bacterial vaginosis (N=41, bacterial vaginosis with UTI (N=14 as compared to those without bacterial vaginosis (N=118. Conclusions: The incidence of poor pregnancy outcome was higher in bacterial vaginosis with UTI. Prevention of BV and UTI is cost effective to minimize the pregnancy-related complications and preterm labor to decrease in perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity. We recommend all antenatal patients should be screened for the presence of bacterial vaginosis, other infections and UTI.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Preg¬nant Women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1 pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15-44 yr old.Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation costs and indirect (productivity loss costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women.Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women. The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant.Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1 pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. Keywords: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1, Costs, Health services, Pregnant women, Spain

  11. The costs of crime and the benefits of substance abuse treatment for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M; Argeriou, M; McCarty, D; Callahan, J J; Shepard, D S; Williams, C N

    2000-12-01

    Although many pregnant, drug-dependent women report extensive criminal justice involvement, few studies have examined reductions in crime as an outcome of substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women. This is unfortunate, because maternal criminal involvement can have serious health and cost implications for the unborn child, the mother and society. Using the Addiction Severity Index, differences in pre- and posttreatment criminal involvement were measured for a sample of 439 pregnant women who entered publicly funded treatment programs in Massachusetts between 1992 and 1997. Accepted cost of illness methods were supplemented with information from the Bureau of Justice Statistics to estimate the costs and benefits of five treatment modalities: detoxification only (used as a minimal treatment comparison group), methadone only, residential only, outpatient only, and residential/outpatient combined. Projected to a year, the net benefits (avoided costs of crime net of treatment costs) ranged from US$32,772 for residential only to US$3,072 for detoxification. Although all five modalities paid for themselves by reducing criminal activities, multivariate regressions controlling for baseline differences between the groups showed that reductions in crime and related costs were significantly greater for women in the two residential programs. The study provides economic justification for the continuation and possible expansion of residential substance abuse treatment programs for criminally involved pregnant women.

  12. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolm

  13. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  14. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  15. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  16. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Berti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine; to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β and SE(β were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P<0.00001; that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P<0.00001, that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P=0.001, that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women.

  17. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    , particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers.......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared...... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  18. Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2004-12-01

    On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  1. Acute HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Methods Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Results Among 3825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2666 seronegative specimens, 2327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% CI: 0.03, 0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Discussion Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery. PMID:20226326

  2. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  3. Hydration status of pregnant women in West Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Erry Yudhya; Hardinsyah; Briawan, Dodik; Santoso, Budi Iman

    2017-06-01

    During pregnancy, the body exhibits dynamic changes in fluid composition. More than 50%of women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester. Studies of hydration status in pregnant women are limited, and not in tropical countries, like in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydration status and appropriate biomarkers for determination of hydration status in pregnant women in West Jakarta. This study was cross-sectional. A total of 35 pregnant women aged (19-35 years) at the early second trimester of pregnancy was recruited. Urine osmolality, urine specific gravity, and serum osmolality were used to determine hydration status. Subjects then were divided into a hydration group (HG) and a dehydration group (DG). We used independent t tests, chi-square and Spearman rank correlation coefficient to analyse the data. The population was comparably divided between dehydration and hydration groups (57.1% and 42.9%, respectively). The proportions by age, parity, gestational age, height, weight, upper arm circumference, waist circumference, pelvic circumference, body temperature, blood pressure, and fundal height did not differ between groups (p>=0.05). There was a relationship between urine colour and hydration status (ppregnant women.

  4. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

  5. Management of HIV infected pregnant women in Chonburi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchun, P

    1994-04-01

    This study on birth control methods used, and HIV infection protection of the HIV infected pregnant women in the obstetrics-gynecology department of Chonburi Hospital from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1993 revealed that there were 27 HIV infected women with less than 24 weeks gestational age, using birth control methods as such 12 women (44.44%) had tubal resection after abortion, 8 women (29.62%) oral contraceptive pills, 5 women (15.51%) injectable contraception, and 2 women (7.40%) norplants. The 106 HIV infected women with more than 24 weeks gestational age were allowed to deliver. The birth control methods were as follows: 19 women (17.92%) tubal resection, 38 women (35.84%) oral contraceptive pills, 49 women (46.22%) injectable contraception. They were all encouraged to use a condom while having sexual intercourse. Only 40 women of this group are still seen in the follow-up clinic and all are found to be healthy, the birth control is effective and HIV infection is in the early stage. The new born babies were not allowed to be breast fed and were followed-up periodically to 18 months old. Twenty five babies received HIV blood test; 7 babies (28%) were found to be HIV infected. The birth control and HIV infection protection used in this study demonstrate no adverse effects on the disease, and the unexpected problems of these women, as well as the health personnel concerned are reduced both economically and socially. This study provides the guidelines of good care for HIV infected pregnant women.

  6. non-pregnant rural women of childbearing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum folate, ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate and full blood count. Results. The prevalence of low serum folate (<3ng/ml) in the study population was ... acid, iron and other nutrients has been implemented ... women, and those on chronic disease medication, ... the cut-off points before and after fortification were.

  7. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  8. Representation of women and pregnant women in HIV research: a limited systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Rosenberg, Molly; Schwartz, Sheree; Swamy, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related outcomes may be affected by biological sex and by pregnancy. Including women in general and pregnant women in particular in HIV-related research is important for generalizability of findings. To characterize representation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in HIV-related research conducted in general populations. All HIV-related articles published in fifteen journals from January to March of 2011. We selected the top five journals by 2010 impact factor, in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and HIV/AIDS. HIV-related studies reporting original research on questions applicable to both men and women of reproductive age were considered; studies were excluded if they did not include individual-level patient data. Articles were doubly reviewed and abstracted; discrepancies were resolved through consensus. We recorded proportion of female study participants, whether pregnant women were included or excluded, and other key factors. In total, 2014 articles were published during this period. After screening, 259 articles were included as original HIV-related research reporting individual-level data; of these, 226 were determined to be articles relevant to both men and women of reproductive age. In these articles, women were adequately represented within geographic region. The vast majority of published articles, 183/226 (81%), did not mention pregnancy (or related issues); still fewer included pregnant women (n=33), reported numbers of pregnant women (n=19), or analyzed using pregnancy status (n=9). Data were missing for some key variables, including pregnancy. The time period over which published works were evaluated was relatively short. The under-reporting and inattention to pregnancy in the HIV literature may reduce policy-makers' ability to set evidence-based policy around HIV/AIDS care for pregnant women and women of child-bearing age.

  9. Administration of praziquantel to pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, G Richard

    2003-05-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the safest of all anti-helminthics and now forms the backbone for all national control programs against schistosomiasis (Med. Res. Rev. 3 (1983) 147-200; Bull. WHO 57 (1979) 767-771; Wegner, D.H.G, Therapeutic Drugs (1991), Churchill Livingstone; Adv. Intern. Med. 32 (1987) 193-206; Drugs 42 (1991) 379-405; Pharmac. Ther. 68 (1995) 35-85; Ann. Intern. Med. 110 (1989) 290-296). Despite its lack of known toxicity, the drug was not tested on pregnant or lactating women prior to release. It is currently listed as Pregnancy Category B by the US FDA, which is a drug presumed safe based in animal studies. Unfortunately, this has been interpreted by most national control programs and WHO (1998) to exclude lactating and pregnant women from treatment. In fact, some experts advocate excluding adolescent girls from mass treatment campaigns over this issue. As a result, a large number of women living in endemic countries are currently left untreated or have treatment significantly delayed. A review of the current known toxicology of PZQ, combined with over two decades of clinical experience with this drug, suggest very low potential for adverse effects on either the mother or her unborn child. In contrast, significant animal and human data are presented in this review that suggest both the pregnant woman and her unborn fetus suffer morbid sequella from schistosomiasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial that could resolve this issue would require a very large and expensive study and in light of the above facts might not now be ethically appropriate. The author concludes that pregnant women should be treated with PZQ, that women of childbearing age should be included in all mass treatment programs and that lactating women are not systematically excluded from treatment.

  10. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  11. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Rezaei; Farahnaz Sadat Ahmadi; Shirin Niroomanesh; Shahram Ejtemaee Mehr; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Atefeh Aminian; Azizeh Ghaseminejad; Soleiman Abbasi; Fariba Yarandi

    2013-01-01

    The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs) is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2...

  12. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83......% and 61% respectively. Primary cause for incomplete MRI scans were no-show (45%); no reported concern for safety as a cause. Conclusion: A majority of the women accepted MRI scans in GW 15, 32 and 40. Thorough, information about the safety of the method, and the applicability of the results, encouraged...

  13. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m(2), 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women ... and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women...... in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  14. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  15. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  16. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  17. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  18. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (PBrasil and others.).

  19. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  20. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  1. [Iron status in pregnant women and its changes during preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-mellouli, Monia; Amara, Fethi Ben; Loussaief, Wafa; Reziga, Hédi

    2013-10-01

    Micronutrients or trace elements are minerals essential for growth and development of the body human. To analyze changes in normal pregnancy and during preeclampsia, serum iron and its main proteins: ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. This is a prospective study of case- control study of 56 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant women selected as controls. Pregnant women received a quarterly dosing paramètres. The same assays were performed once in controls. The comparative assay of various parameters in normal pregnancy and in control women showed a significant decrease in serum iron from 1 to the third quarter, a slight decline in reserves ferritin in 1st and 2nd quarter increases and becomes significant in the third quarter and an increase of soluble receptors trasferrine during pregnancy, which becomes significant in the third quarter. We noted a disturbance of these parameters in preeclampsia. Iron is essential for fetal development. His involvement in several maternal- fetal complications is not to dismantle .

  2. Ethnic differences in resistance artery contractility of normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, L M; Taherzadeh, Z; Volger, S; Clark, J F; Rolf, T; Wolf, H; Vanbavel, E; van Montfrans, G A

    2010-08-01

    Black women are at a greater risk to develop hypertension during pregnancy, with a 4.5 times higher rate of fatal preeclampsia than white women. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that may affect this risk. Our group previously proposed that high activity of the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, creatine kinase (CK), may increase ATP-buffering capacity and lead to enhanced vascular contractility and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore, we assessed microvascular contractility characteristics in isolated resistance arteries from self-defined black and white normotensive pregnant women using a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Additionally, morphology was assessed with electron microscopy. Resistance-sized arteries obtained from omentum donated during cesarean sections (11 black women and 20 white women, mean age: 34 yr) studied in series showed similar morphology but significantly greater maximum contractions to norepinephrine (10(-5) M) in blacks [14.0 mN (1.8 SE)] compared with whites [8.9 mN (1.4 SE), P = 0.02]. Furthermore, we found greater residual contractility after the specific CK inhibitor dinitrofluorobenzene (10(-6) M) in black women [55% (6 SE)] compared with white women [28% (4 SE), P = 0.001] and attenuated vasodilation after bradykinin (10(-7) M) in black women [103% (6 SE)] compared with white women [84% (5 SE), P = 0.023], whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) and amlodipine (10(-6) M) were similar. We conclude that compared with white women, normotensive pregnant black women display greater resistance artery contractility and evidence of higher vascular CK activity with attenuated nitric oxide synthesis. These findings in normotensives may imply that the black population is at risk for a further incline in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders.

  3. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion.

  4. Use of herbal product among pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıssal, Aygül; Çevik Güner, Ümran; Batkın Ertürk, Döndü

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (pginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  6. Features of laboratory tests for diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Grigor’eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite on mandatory vaccination against rubella, the amount of pregnant women without immunity to rubella may exceed 20%. These women represent a risk group for the rubella disease.Objectives: The goals of the presented work are to analyze the cases of anti-rubella IgM detection in pregnant women, and to develop an algorithm for management of such patients.Materials and Methods: Screening has been performed by ELISA test systems company Radim (Italy. In total 799 patients were examined for rubella in 2013, 56 of them were pregnant women.Results. Positive IgM antibodies to rubella in 2013 have been identified in 5 cases, including 4 pregnant women. A detailed analysis of medical history, clinical and laboratory data has been done. In none of these cases the diagnosis of rubella has been confirmed.Conclusions. The main criterion for the diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women with rubella markers in the absence of clinical symptoms must be a dynamic examination, including study on IgM- and IgG-antibodies to rubella virus. The study must be conducted in the same laboratory at intervals of 10–14 days. In most cases, determination of IgG-antibodies avidity helps to estimate the time of infection. In complicated cases it is recommended to use PCR and immunoblot.

  7. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  8. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  9. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women.

  11. New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Kashani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Although pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy

  12. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area.

  13. Pertussis vaccine in pregnant women: safety and uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munoz FM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flor M Munoz Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, particularly among infants too young to be vaccinated or who are unvaccinated and unprotected by naturally acquired passive antibodies from their mothers. Vaccination of women during pregnancy with an adult formulation of acellular pertussis vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap [tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine] is recommended in several industrialized countries to boost the levels of maternal antibodies that are transferred transplacentally and protect infants during the period of life when they are more likely to succumb to pertussis. Data from clinical and epidemiologic studies are supportive of the safety and effectiveness of maternal immunization with pertussis vaccines. Tdap is safe and well tolerated in pregnant women. Local and systemic reactogenicity is similar to that observed in nonpregnant adults, and no serious adverse events have been attributed to Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies elicited by the vaccine are efficiently transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and studies have consistently found that infants born to vaccinated mothers have significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies than infants of nonvaccinated mothers. Although a correlate of protection against pertussis is unknown, higher concentrations of antibodies are likely to result in protection of young infants. A reduction in infant pertussis has been shown to occur when high vaccine coverage rates are achieved by pregnant women, as reported in the UK vaccination program. Furthermore, as more vaccine programs incorporate Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, prospective and epidemiologic data will be available to continuously assess the safety and efficacy of

  14. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  15. Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze UI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38% was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13% and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43% of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42% were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8% of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17% were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5% in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

  16. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  17. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids.

  18. Improving ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance in pregnant women: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Moeller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. METHODS: We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. RESULTS: Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%, F(1,60  = 17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%, F(1,60 = 0.78, p = 0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64  = 8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705  = 7.38, p = 0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest

  19. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  20. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

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    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  1. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  2. [Modern medico-biological nutritional requirements for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkova, D; Markov, D; Markov, P; Ivanov, S

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the basic physiological requirements, expert opinions and medico-biological recommendations for the optimal nutritional regime of pregnant women. In the first trimester of pregnancy the nutritional intake should be supplemented by about +68 kcal/24 h (the normal intake is 2000 kcal/24 h for non-pregnant women in the respective age group). In the second trimester the supplementation should be by +266 kcal/24 h, while in the III trimester--by up to +496 kcal/24 h. The requirements of folic acid and vitamin B6 during pregnancy are increased by 50%. The need for vitamin A is augmented up to 60%, while for vitamin C, niacin, vitamin B2 and B12--up to 30%. However, the requirements of iron and iodine are increased at most--100%. The weight gain in pregnant women should normally be in the range of 10-12.5 kg. During the I and II trimester it should be not substantial, while in the III trimester it should be about 350-400 g/per week. The risks associated with obesity and uncontrolled weight gain during pregnancy are discussed. Consulting physicians are provided with expert opinions about the individualization of the nutritional intake according to the specific metabolic changes during pregnancy and with definitions of an adequate in energy supply and nutritional balance diet.

  3. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  4. Cervical Stiffness Evaluated In Vivo by Endoflip in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Hee; Donghua Liao; Puk Sandager; Hans Gregersen; Niels Uldbjerg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation wi...

  5. Smoking among pregnant women in small towns in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Zarzeczna-Baran, M.; Wierucki, Ł.; Jędrzejczyk, T.; Strahl, M.; Wrotkowska, M.; Goniewicz, M. L.; Zdrojewski, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the work was to assess among pregnant women from small towns and villages in Poland: the prevalence of smoking, credibility of smoking, and influence of socioeconomic factors on smoking status. Methods The data came from 4512 interviews with women in different trimesters of pregnancy. The interviews were collected in 2007 and 2008 year in towns up to 8000 citizens in 12 voivodeships. Results Prevalence of smoking in the beginning of pregnancy was confirmed by 34.6 % of w...

  6. THE STUDY OF ANAEMIA & ITS RELATED SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL COMMUNITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Shams Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is one of India’s major public health problems and is a major factor responsible for low birth weight. One fifth of the maternal deaths occurred worldwide due to anemia . OBJECTIVES: To find out prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and it s association with socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING : The study was conducted in village Khera at RHTC , Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre , G h aziabad. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried from Oct 2012 to June 2013. A total of 321 pregnant women with gestational period between 12 to 20 weeks were registered. H a emoglobin was estimated and peripheral smear examination was carried out. Statistical Analysis: Chi - Squar e test. RESULTS: A high prevalence of anaemia (79.75% was observed in pregnant women. Majority of the primipara were moderately anaemic (58.38% and were less than 20 years of age. 37% of multipara pregnant women were severely anaemic . Occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be inversely proportional to the socioeconomic class. Statistic ally significant association (P< 0.05 were found amongst anaemic pregnant women with their age , parity and socioeconomic class.

  7. Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Subchorionic Hematoma

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    Victoria V. Barinova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of subchorionic hematoma (SCH in the first trimester of pregnancy remains open for discussion. Some authors claim that SCH does not affect the pregnancy; others have found that it is a serious risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. The objective of the present study was to explore the outcomes of pregnancy in patients with SCH diagnosed in the first trimester. Methods and Results: The study involved 194 pregnant women who were in terms of 6 to12 weeks: 115 women with SCH (Group 1 and 79 apparently healthy pregnant women (Group 2. A missed miscarriage was observed in 27/23% women of Group 1 and in 4/5% of Group 2 (P<0.05, recurrent threat of miscarriage in 27/23% and in 4/5%, recurrent bleeding in 14/12% and 2/3%, and the short cervix syndrome in 22/19% and 5/6% women, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the presence of SCH adversely affects the first half of pregnancy, leading to recurrent threatened abortion, recurrent threat of miscarriage, missed miscarriage until 12 weeks of gestation, and the short cervix syndrome.

  8. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

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    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  9. Audit of management of pregnant women with positive VDRL tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Mathai, M; Prakash, J A; Bergström, S

    2001-01-01

    Syphilis is a preventable cause of foetal loss and congenital disease. Although the VDRL test is an integral part of routine antenatal care in India, little is known about the disease burden in pregnancy in India. Therefore, we carried out a study to determine the prevalence of VDRL positivity and syphilis among pregnant women in Vellore and to audit the management and outcome of VDRL-positive pregnancies. A retrospective review of case records. Only 0.98% of pregnant women were positive by the VDRL test. However, foetal loss occurred in 16 (32%) of the 50 seropositive women; 15 of these did not receive antenatal care. Seventeen of the 34 seropositive multiparous women had had previous foetal losses. Only 16 women had received penicillin. Although the seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnancy is low, it is an unrecognized cause of foetal loss in Vellore. An audit of the testing and management of VDRL positivity in pregnancy provides valuable information on the quality of antenatal care in an area.

  10. VALIDITY OF SELF-REPORTED DRUG USE INFORMATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mahek; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Hamidovic, Ajna; Borrego, Matthew; Rayburn, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study assesses validity of self-report for the use of major classes of illicit drugs and opioid-maintenance therapy among pregnant women at a substance abuse treatment program. Methods Analyses used data collected from 83 pregnant women in a prospective cohort study at the University of New Mexico. Study participants with a history of substance abuse were screened and, if eligible, enrolled during an early prenatal care visit. A follow-up interview was conducted shortly after delivery. Self-reported information about drug use later in pregnancy was compared with urine drug screen (UDS) results collected during the third trimester. Simple kappa (k) and prevalence-and-bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) coefficients were calculated as the measures of agreement. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report for each drug class were estimated using UDS as the ‘gold standard’. Results The sample included a large proportion of ethnic minority (80% Hispanic/Latina and 7% American Indian) and socially disadvantaged (50% < less than high school education and 94% Medicaid-insured) pregnant women. On average, patients had 4.8 ± 3.0 urine drug screens during the third trimester. Sensitivity of self-report was low (<60%) for all classes of illicit drugs; however, marijuana and opioids demonstrated slightly higher sensitivity (57.9% and 58.3%, respectively) than other classes (<47%). Conclusions This study found substantial underreporting for all classes of illicit drugs among pregnant women in a substance abuse treatment program. Rates of underreporting are expected to be higher among the general population of pregnant women. PMID:26175273

  11. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L;

    2015-01-01

    ) and type 2 diabetes (n = 28) who used repeated CGM during pregnancy were recruited from secondary care multidisciplinary obstetric clinics for diabetes in the U.K. and Denmark. LGA was defined as birth weight ≥90th percentile adjusted for sex and gestational age. RESULTS: A total of 54 of 117 (46%) women......OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women...... with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...

  12. Risky health seeking practice among pregnant women in rural Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørby, Laila

    2007-01-01

    delays, Culture, Field and Capital, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC). Title: Risky health seeking practice, among pregnant women in rural Congo (DRC). Background Statement: Worldwide more than half a million women still die each year of pregnancy and childbirth related reasons. Most of these women live...... about 60 % of the women have a professional help at birth, and even fewer delivers in a health centre, which is far from the Unicef and WHO goal trying to combat high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). In the southern and rural part of DRC, is a small well equipped and well staffed dispensary and maternity...... professional assistance for normal pregnancy and delivery; delay in reaching an adequate medical facility, which includes accessibility, availability and cost of transportation and conditions of roads; and delays in obtaining the care needed to manage the situation. Following that I have analysed...

  13. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

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    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  14. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  15. PHQ-8 minor depression among pregnant women: association with somatic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Adrienne B; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; Harper, Bridgette D; LoBello, Steven G

    2017-06-01

    It was recently reported that pregnant women were more likely to have minor depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 depression scale (PHQ-8), (as reported by Kroenke and Spitzer (Psychiatr Ann 32(9):1-7, 2002), and Kroenke et al. (J Affect 114(1-3):163-173, 2009)) compared to women who were not pregnant (as reported by Ashley et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 19(2):395-400, 2015)). The present study is designed to investigate if somatic symptoms (energy level, appetite, sleep) associated with both pregnancy and depression were responsible for this increased prevalence of minor depression. A sample of pregnant women (n = 404) was compared to women who were not pregnant (n = 6754). Both groups scored within the minor depression range on the PHQ-8 and comparisons were based on participants' responses to PHQ-8 items. Results indicate that of the somatic symptoms of depression, only changes in energy level accounted for the elevated prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women compared to women who are not pregnant. Removing the decreased energy item from the score determination reduces the prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women to a level significantly below that of women who are not pregnant. Emotional symptoms such as feeling down and feeling like a failure were less likely to be reported by pregnant women compared to women who were not pregnant. Implications for depression screening during pregnancy are discussed.

  16. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women.

  17. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  18. Analysis of pregnancy and childbirth course in pregnant women with excessive weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka Yu.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under supervision there were 233 pregnant women with excessive weight aged 18-43 years. Patients were under observation and gave birth on the basis of obstetric units of municipal establishment "Dnepropetrovsk regional perinatal center with in-patient unit of" Dnepropetrovsk regional council". When performing research 2 groups were formed: 120 (51,5% pregnant women with miscarriage threat against excessive weight being at in-patient treatment since early terms of pregnancy. They underwent in-depth study. 113 (48,5% pregnant women with obesity with gestation course estimated retrospectively at the time of delivery. As a result of the obtained data in women of prospective group treatment algorithm was developed. This algorithm represented a complex treatment including antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy, co-factor vitamin therapy. Despite a more mature age of women of prospective group, adverse anamnesis by missarriage, high frequency of miscarriage in its first half, low placentation level, this complex allowed to improve course of the second half of pregnancy and to reduce number of gestational complications and perinatal losses.

  19. Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women

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    Christian Mølgaard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day. In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day. 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy.

  20. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE IN BARPETA DISTRICT, ASSAM

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    Dhritishna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy has serious adverse effects on the health of the mother and the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES The study aims to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant woman attending the Nagaon Primary Health Centre (PHC in Barpeta district, Assam. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out from 1 April, 2014 to 1 May, 2014. 100 pregnant women attending Nagaon PHC were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule followed by a short clinical examination for pallor and laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. Sahli’s (Acid Haematin method was used for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin level below the cut-off 11 g/dL was used to label a pregnant woman as anaemic and further classified as mild (10-10.9 g/dL, moderate anaemia (7-9.9 g/dL and severe anaemia (<7 g/dL. RESULTS 77% women were suffering from anaemia. Out of these, 57 %were mildly anaemic and 20% were moderately anaemic. Women of younger age groups, greater parity, a gap less than 3 years between subsequent pregnancies, less education and practising Hinduism had a greater prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSION Awareness about the serious consequences that anaemia can lead to and advocacy of a proper iron-rich diet, regular intake of IFA tablets and purification of water to prevent infestation by parasites can help in reduction of anaemia.

  1. PREVALENCE OF OVERT AND SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM AMONG INDIAN PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON FOETOMATERNAL OUTCOME

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    Deeksha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are amongst the commonest endocrinological disorders encountered in pregnancy. It is now well established that not only overt (OH, but Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH also has adverse effects on maternal and foetal outcomes. Most of the studies are from the western population and only a few studies have analysed pregnancy outcome in hypothyroid Indian pregnant women. Presently, there is a paucity of Indian data on the prevalence and effect of hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Keeping all these things in mind, present study was aimed to find prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and its effect on foetomaternal outcome in Indian pregnant women studying a large population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi, in collaboration with the Departments of Endocrinology, Laboratory Medicine and Paediatrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS All women attending antenatal clinic between October 2010 and April 2011, underwent thyroid screening using Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH assay. Women with hypothyroidism were grouped into OH and SCH on the basis of Free T4 estimation. Pregnancy outcomes of these women were compared with pregnant women with normal TSH values. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED Data was analysed using Pearson Chi square test. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 12.0 for windows. RESULTS Overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.2% with SCH (6.4% being commoner than OH (3.8%, 33 hypothyroid women excluded who were already on treatment. Out of 69 remaining hypothyroid women, 48 had SCH (69.56% and 21 had OH (30.43% and were categorised as group A1 and A2 successively. Preeclampsia (PE, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and Intrauterine Foetal Demise (IUFD developed in significantly higher number of women in OH group as compared to controls (p=0.009, p=0.002, p=0.002. Anaemia, placental abruption

  2. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2017-05-08

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  3. Breastfeeding Attitudes of Pregnant Women and Some Factors Which Effect the Breastfeeding Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This research is carried out as analitical to determine the breastfeeding attitudes of pregnant women who applied Hacettepe University Hospital Gynecologic and Obstetric Department during the month of December 2001 and some factors effecting breastfeeding attitude. Most of the women who taken the research was between 25-29 age group and graduated high school and university. About 39.8% of the pregnant women was in the period of first pregnancy. 96.1% of pregnant women who delivered live ...

  4. [Reference Intervals of Thyroid Hormones in Normal Pregnant Women and Effects of Thyroid Autoantibodies on Thyroid Hormone Levels in Pregnant Women in Chengdu Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Zeng, Jing; Yan, Yue-Rong; Luo, Dan; Huang, Lu; Huang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    To establish the reference intervals of thyroid hormones in normal pregnant women in Chengdu area of China, and to investigate the effects of thyroid autoantibodies on thyroid function in pregnant women. We included 696 pregnant women who had gestation data from June 2013 to March 2014 in Chengdu Women & Children's Central Hospital. Every subject under went questionnaire survey, physical examination, thyroid ultrasound and measurement of thyroid hormone and thyroid autoantibodies. The normal reference intervals were established according to the percentiles (P2.5-P97.5) of the healthy pregnant women in the same trimester. Another 50 non-pregnant women were selected as the control group. Of the 696 pregnant women, 579 subjects had negative thyroid autoantibodies and 117 subjects had positive thyroid autoantibodies. The positive rate of thyroid autoantibodies was 16.81%. Of the 579 subjects with negative thyroid autoantibodies, 257 were in the first trimester, 202 in the second trimester and 120 in the third trimester. In the first trimester of normal pregnancy, the reference intervals of serum thyrotropin (TSH) , free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were 0.02-4.03 mIU/L, 3.85-6.27 pmol/L and 11.93-21.04 pmol/L respectively. In the second trimester, the reference intervals of serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 were 0.02-4.05 mIU/L, 3.51-5.82 pmol/L and 11.23-19.22 pmol/L respectively. In the thirdtrimester, the reference intervals for serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 were 0.24-5.41 mIU/L, 3.18-4.97 pmol/L and 11.10-17.00 pmol/L, respectively. When compared with non-pregnant women, the median TSH value was increasingly consisted with the progress of pregnancy period, while the median FT4 and FT3 values were decreasing accordingly. The similar tendencies of TSH, FT3, and FT4 were found in pregnant women with positive thyroid autoantibodies, but the trends were more remarkable when compared with those with negative thyroid autoantibodies. In pregnant women with positive

  5. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  6. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-10-01

    The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n=47) and 36 weeks (n=45) of gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30s following stimulation. Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. © 2013.

  7. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  8. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Mainly based on the nature of the underlying viral reactivation, pityriasis rosea is classified into five different forms (2): 1) Classic and 2) Relapsing (characterized by sporadic and relapsing HHV-6/7 systemic reactivation, respectively), 3) Persistent (persistence of HHV-6/7 viremia), 4) Pediatric (longer activity of HHV-6/7 infection; recent primary infection) and 5) Gestational (HHV-6/7 reactivation and possible intrauterine transmission). Clearly, the inevitable impairment of immune response in pregnancy favors viral reactivation and possibly also the intrauterine transmission of HHV-6/7. Indeed, it is well known and documented that pityriasis rosea more frequently occurs in pregnant women (18%) as compared to the general population (6%) (3). However, the literature concerning the possible effect of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is surprisingly sparse. Only an Italian group, Drago et al (4,5), has systematically investigated the impact of this disorder on pregnant women. They found that 22 out of 61 women (36%) who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy had unfavorable outcomes, whereas 8 others miscarried (13%). None of the latter had any risk factors, other than

  9. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Herrera-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection. IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was employed to evaluate demographic and sexual behavior characteristics associated with HSV-2 infection. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence among Mexican women analyzed was 14.5% (333/2300, demographic factors (location of General Hospital, age, education level, and civil status, and risky sexual behaviors (STI self-report and number of sexual partners during last year were associated with HSV-2 infection. Seventeen women were detected with low avidity antibodies (early infection with a cut-off point of 66.1%. Conclusions. HSV-2 infection was common among this group of women from Mexico; the avidity test detected women with recent infections, and these women were more likely to transmit HSV-2 to their neonates. Neonatal herpes has no epidemiological surveillance, the disease could be overlooked, and so more studies are needed to estimate the magnitude of neonatal infection.

  10. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  11. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  12. Time trends of perfluorinated alkyl acids in serum from Danish pregnant women 2008-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Bach, Cathrine C; Long, Manhai;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the levels and time trends of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in serum of 1533 Danish pregnant nulliparous women between 2008 and 2013. The selection criterion of only including nulliparous women was chosen to avoid confounding from parity. The serum samples were analyzed...... (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). We found that the serum levels of all seven PFAAs decreased during the period from 2008 to 2013; on average PFHxS decreased with 7.0% per year, PFHpS with 14...

  13. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  14. [Simple locomotion and during load carrying in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomer, E; Ducher, D; Arfi, G S; Sud, R

    1991-01-01

    There have been few studies of the way women walk in pregnancy, though some of the causes of low back ache of which they complain have only been partially worked out. This is why this study has been carried out on ten women between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. The speed at which they walk and the parameters of the gait as well as the localization of the centre of gravity when keeping upright have been measured in these pregnant women as well as in twenty control women of the same age. The results show that the speed at which they walk whether with or without carrying a weight usually is identical at the beginning and the end of pregnancy. When walking normally the size of the steps taken are no larger in pregnant women than in the control patients (p less than 0.05). Though the results are not statistically significant the rhythm of the steps is faster as well as their being a reduction in the length of the steps between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. When carrying a weight the length of the steps does not change greatly with pregnancy (p less than 0.05) and it would seem therefore to be a good way of assessing the changes that locomotion undergoes in pregnancy. The fact that women do not walk faster or slower can give evidence that they adapt to the change in posture that happens in pregnancy and they make the best possible biomechanical use of the parameters of walking in order to economise total energy output of the organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Comparing caring practices between two groups of pregnant women in the city of sincelejo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In order to compare the care practices that a group of pregnant women exercise in respect of themselves and their unborn child of a group of adolescent pregnant girls andanother of adult pregnant women who attended prenatal check ups in Sincelejo during the months of July and September of 2006, a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study was developed, with a sample of 97 adolescent pregnant girls between 15 and 19 years and of 153 adult pregnant women between 20 and 45 years of age, wi...

  16. Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in pregnant women in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Custódio Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: The impact of gestational toxocariasis is an understudied topic on female reproductive health. We estimated anti-Toxocara IgG prevalence among pregnant women in Brasília, Brazil, and investigated the association of the infection with history of abortion and contact with pets. METHODS: Infection was diagnosed using ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens. Participant information was obtained via questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 311 pregnant women, 23 were anti-Toxocara IgG positive. Twenty-two percent of anti-Toxocara IgG-positive participants and 26% had previously miscarried. Previous contact with pets was associated with higher toxocariasis prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: A direct relationship between toxocariasis and contact with pets was observed, but there was no relationship with the miscarriage prevalence.

  17. Correlation between human placental lactogen levels and glucose metabolism in pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, R; Vasishta, K; Majumdar, S; Garg, S K

    1990-11-01

    Twenty pregnant women with fetal growth retardation and 20 pregnant women with appropriate for gestational age fetuses (controls) were recruited after the 28th week of gestation. Samples were collected for estimation of serum insulin and human placental lactogen (HPL) levels in the fasting state and a glucose tolerance test was carried out on all the subjects. The results showed the glucose and HPL levels to be significantly lower in the fetal growth retardation group compared to controls. There were no differences in the fasting serum insulin levels in the 2 groups. Fetal growth retardation appears to be linked with the absence of development of the physiological 'diabetogenic' state in the second half of pregnancy. This maternal hypoglycaemic state is associated with low HPL levels and not with raised maternal insulin levels as measured in the fasting state.

  18. Care cost for pregnant and parturient women with diabetes and mild hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Molina Cavassini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare inpatient and outpatient care costs for pregnant/parturient women with diabetes and mild hyperglycemia. METHODS: A prospective observational quantitative study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Center in the city of Botucatu, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. Direct and indirect costs and disease-specific costs (medications and tests were estimated. Thirty diet-treated pregnant women with diabetes were followed up on an outpatient basis, and 20 who required insulin therapy were hospitalized. RESULTS: The cost of diabetes disease (prenatal and delivery care was US$ 3,311.84 for inpatients and US$ 1,366.04 for outpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and indirect costs as well as total prenatal care cost were higher for diabetic inpatients while delivery care costs and delivery-postpartum hospitalization were similar. Prenatal and delivery-postpartum care costs were higher for these patients compared to those paid by Brazilian National Health System.

  19. Perceptions by pregnant and childbearing-age women in southern Brazil towards teratogenic risk from medicines and radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia da Silva Pons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mistaken perception of teratogenic risk can keep pregnant women from using safe medicines. The current study analyzed women’s concepts and perceptions towards teratogenic risk from medicines and exposure to radiotherapy during pregnancy. The quantitative data resulted from interviews with 287 pregnant and non-pregnant women. Two qualitative focus groups were conducted. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of perceptions of teratogenic risk. Median perceptions of non-teratogenic exposures (paracetamol and metoclopramide were close to the expected values, while higher values were found for teratogenic exposures (misoprostol and radiotherapy. The logic women used to estimate risk was classification of medicines as “strong” or “weak”. Medicines perceived as “weak” by the women do not pose any teratogenic risk, as shown by the median perceptions close to the true values. Meanwhile, “strong” medicines were viewed as dangerous, thus explaining the high median perceptions of teratogenic exposures.

  20. A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

  1. Prevalence of vaginitis among pregnant women attending Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Tuladhar, N R; Basnyat, S; Acharya, G P; Shrestha, P; Kumar, P

    2011-12-01

    Vaginitis is the most prevalent disorder among the pregnant women. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of common types of vaginitis among the pregnant women visiting Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital in Kathmandu. Among 200 pregnant women included in the study, 78 (39.0%) had vaginitis. Of total 78 positive cases of vaginitis, 29.5% had candidiasis, 52.6% bacterial vaginosis and 1.3% trichomoniasis. Approximately 83% had monomicrobial infection and 16.7% had polymicrobial infection. Vaginitis was common in the age group of 20 to 29 years (41.8%) and 30-39 years (40.0%). Ethnically, Indo-Aryans (40.2%) were mostly infected. The infection rate was the highest among illiterate women (47.6%) and least among the women having education above secondary (23.0%). The positive infection rate was higher in women from rural area (45.2%) than those from urban area (37.3%). Nearly half of the women with agriculture occupation (48.4%) had vaginitis. Vaginitis was common in women with third pregnancy (52.6%). Among 78 vaginitis cases, 53 (67.9%) were asymptomatic cases.

  2. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  3. Iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which proved to be an iodine-sufficient area. Is mandatory salt iodisation enough for pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Engin; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Aydogan, Berna Imge; Acıkgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Erenel, Hakan; Celik Acıoglu, Hasniye; Anık Ilhan, Gökce; Dane, Banu; Ozel, Aysegul; Tandogan, Bulent; Cakar, Erbil; Isci, Herman; Kayan, Basak; Aslan, Halil; Ekiz, Ali; Sancak, Seda; Celik, Ayhan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Uzun, Ozgur; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which was stated as iodine sufficient area after salt iodination program. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out on 3543 pregnant women. Age, gestational weeks, smoking, consumption of iodized salt, dietary salt restriction, history of stillbirth, abortus and congenital malformations were questioned. Spot urine samples were analyzed for urine iodine concentration (UIC). The outcomes were: (a) median UIC in three trimesters of pregnancy and (b) frequency of ID among pregnant women. The median UIC was 73 µg/L. The median UIC was 77 µg/L (1-324), 73 µg/L (1-600) and 70 µg/L (1-1650) in three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively (p: 0.14). UIC <50 µg/L was observed in 36.6% (n: 1295) and UIC<150 µg/L was observed in 90.7% (n: 3214) of pregnant women. Only 1% (n: 34) of the pregnant women had UIC levels higher than 500 µg/L. This study showed that more than 90% of the pregnant women in this iodine-sufficient city are facing some degree of iodine deficiency during their pregnancy. A salt iodization program might be satisfactory for the non-pregnant population, but it seems to be insufficient for the pregnant population.

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  6. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  7. Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.

  8. Comparison of universal and targeted screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iman Z; Eid, Yara M; El Orabi, Hussein; Ibrahim, Hani Refat

    2014-08-01

    To compare universal vs targeted screening for thyroid dysfunction and to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant Egyptian women. A total of 168 of pregnant women who attended the outpatient obstetric clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital (Cairo, Egypt) for antenatal care between September 2011 and December 2011 were enrolled. Based on the detailed data collection and results of laboratory testing, they were subdivided into the high- and low-risk group for thyroid disease according to the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines, as well as into groups by trimester for application of American Thyroid Association guidelines. The group values were subjected to statistical analysis for estimating the prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and for identifying significant differences. Of the 168 patients, 104 were classified into the low-risk group and 64 into the high-risk group. Using the trimesteric and normal population cutoff values for thyroid functions, the prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 56% (n=94) and 44.6% (n=75) respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the high- and low-risk group regarding prevalence of either clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism, and no significant differences were found regarding the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the first, second, or third trimester. Use of the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines led to missed detection of clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism in 34.5% of pregnant women. Universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction should thus be adopted throughout Egypt. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  10. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  11. Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufer S. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital among pregnant women. A total of 165 pregnant women were interviewed by a clinical psychologist using HADS for assessing anxiety and/or depression and also collected information regarding sociodemographic, obstetric, family relationships, and home environment. Out of the total of 165 pregnant women about 70 percent of them were either anxious and/or depressed. The increasing age of women (P-value=0.073, not having any live birth (P-value=0.036, adverse pregnancy outcome in past including death of a child, stillbirth or abortion (P-value=0.013, participant’s role in household decision making (P-value=0.013, and domestic violence (verbal or physical abuse towards mother or children by any family member (P-value=0.123. Our study highlights that anxiety and/or depression is quite common among pregnant women. Therefore, there is a need to incorporate screening for anxiety and depression in the existing antenatal programs and development of strategies to provide practical support to those identified.

  12. High HIV incidence and sexual behavior change among pregnant women in Lilongwe, Malawi: implications for the risk of HIV acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Maria A; Hamela, Gloria; Miller, William C; Moses, Agnes; Hoffman, Irving F; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2012-01-01

    HIV incidence is higher among pregnant women than their non-pregnant counterparts in some sub-Saharan African settings. Our aims were (1) to estimate HIV incidence during pregnancy and (2) to compare sexual activity between pregnant, postpartum, and non-pregnant women. We examined a retrospective cohort of 1087 women to identify seroconverters using antenatal and labor ward HIV test results. We also conducted a cross-sectional survey, including a quantitative questionnaire (n = 200) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) among women in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, postpartum, and non-pregnancy. Outcomes included measures of sexual activity, reported spouse's risky behavior, and beliefs about abstinence. 11 of 1087 women seroconverted during pregnancy yielding a 1% seroconversion risk and an incidence rate of 4.0/100 person years (95% CI 2.2-7.2). The reported sexual activity of the early pregnancy and non-pregnancy groups was similar, but significantly higher than the late pregnancy and postpartum groups (psexual activity decreases during pregnancy and postpartum. Pregnant women need to be informed of their increased risk for HIV and the importance of using condoms throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  13. Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Haug

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.

  14. DeQuervain tenosynovitis in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schned, E S

    1986-09-01

    DeQuervain tenosynovitis, which involves the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, is much more common in women than men and is due to repetitive movements of the hand such as grasping and twisting. Housewives and persons involved in manual occupations using the hands and wrists account for most cases in previous series. In this series, six of 24 female patients (25%) were pregnant or postpartum at the time of onset. In five of the six, activities of infant care aggravated symptoms. Both pregnancy, per se, and mechanical factors appear to play a role in causing this condition.

  15. The Haemostatic Effects of Mifepristone in Early Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昌海; 范倩; 顾江; 桂幼伦; 汪荣卿; 李盛华; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    The paper reported the effects of four different regimens of mifepristone on clotting and fibrinolytic systems in pregnant women. Nine parameters (PT,KPTT,Ⅶ: C, Ⅷ: C, VWF , AT Ⅲ = C, AT Ⅱ = Ag , α2-macroglobulin and plasminogen antigen levels) were determined. All the data were analysed on VAX-Ⅱ using SAS software package, The results showed that among the four groups there was no significant.difference in pretreated values of each parameter, and in values of PT、KPTT、 AT

  16. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  17. Trends and consequences of consumption of food and non-food items (pica by pregnant women in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kariuki

    2016-12-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica practices should be assessed in antenatal care of pregnant women. Attention should be paid to pregnant women who have had a history of child death and women with low education level.

  18. Anemia and Dental Caries in Pregnant Women: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elisa Miranda; Azevedo, Juliana A P; Martins, Rafiza F M; Alves, Cláudia M C; Ribeiro, Cecília C C; Thomaz, Erika B A F

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of anemia during pregnancy on the risk of dental caries development in pregnant women. A prospective cohort including a sample of pregnant women in a prenatal care unit of São Luís, Brazil, was done. The incidence of dental caries during pregnancy, according to Nyvad's criteria, was the outcome. The main independent variables were serum iron, ferritin, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and red cell distribution width (RDW). Pregnant women (n = 121) were evaluated at two moments: up to 16th week of gestational age (T1) and in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2). Crude and adjusted associations were estimated by the incidence ratio risk (IRR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). After adjustment, higher serum concentrations of ferritin (IRR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99) in T1, and Fe (IRR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.98-0.99), ferritin (IRR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.98-0.99), erythrocyte (IRR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.50-0.99), hemoglobin (IRR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.73-0.96), hematocrit (IRR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.88-0.98), MCV (IRR = 0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.96), and MCH (IRR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.93) in T2, were associated with fewer incidence of dental caries in pregnant women. Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy is a risk factor for the incidence of dental caries in these women.

  19. Smoking during pregnancy--hematological observations in pregnant women and their newborns after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyła, Cezary; Głuszek, Łukasz; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a global public health problem. According to the current estimations, more than one billion people worldwide smoke tobacco. The highest prevalence of smoking is observed in Europe and Central Asia. In Poland, nearly a half of males and 1/3 of females are smokers. Information concerning an increase in the prevalence of tobacco smoking among women is alarming. It is estimated that tobacco smoking is the cause of approximately 10% of deaths worldwide. If the present trend maintains itself, in the present 21(st) century nearly one billion people will prematurely loose their lives due to tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoking by pregnant women additionally exerts a negative effect on the developing foetus. The objective of the study was analysis of haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system in pregnant women and their newborn babies after delivery according to the number of cigarettes smoked daily by the mothers in pregnancy. The studies were based on the questionnaire forms. The studies were carried out in all hospitals in Poland where pregnant women were hospitalized with their newborns on one day in 2010 and 2011. The material for the study were replies to the questions concerning the results of blood tests of mothers and newborns. No significant changes concerning haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system were observed in women after delivery. With respect to newborns, an increase was noted in the level of haemoglobin in the babies of women who, in the third trimester of pregnancy, smoked more than 6 cigarettes daily. The hematocrit value and amount of erythrocytes did not change. The results of the studies showed that tobacco smoking in pregnancy exerts a negative effect on the environment in which the foetus develops, and consequently, on the health of newborn babies.

  20. The Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale: development and initial psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda A; Duffy, Mary E

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a report of the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale. Previous research has identified that attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS have been judgmental and could affect clinical care and outcomes. Stigma towards persons with HIV has persisted as a barrier to nursing care globally. Women are more vulnerable during pregnancy. An instrument to specifically measure obstetric care provider's attitudes toward this population is needed to target identified gaps in providing respectful care. Existing literature and instruments were analysed and two existing measures, the Attitudes about People with HIV Scale and the Attitudes toward Women with HIV Scale, were combined to create an initial item pool to address attitudes toward HIV-positive pregnant women. The data were collected in 2003 with obstetric nurses attending a national conference in the United States of America (N = 210). Content validity was used for item pool development and principal component analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine construct validity. Reliability was analysed using Cronbach's Alpha. The new measure demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha estimates = 0.89). Principal component analysis yielded a two-component structure that accounted for 45% of the total variance: Mothering-Choice (alpha estimates = 0.89) and Sympathy-Rights (alpha estimates = 0.72). These data provided initial evidence of the psychometric properties of the Pregnant Women with HIV Attitude Scale. Further analysis is required of the validity of the constructs of this scale and its reliability with various obstetric care providers.

  1. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  2. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding ...

  3. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Leidiane De Lucca; Fabiane Rodrigues; Letícia B. Jantsch; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 2...

  4. Anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia: prevalence, severity and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kefiyalew, Filagot; Zemene, Endalew; Asres, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background Anemia is a significant public health problem in developing countries, particularly in pregnant women. It may complicate pregnancy, sometimes resulting in tragic outcomes. There is a lack of information on the magnitude of anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia. The aim of this study is, therefore, to determine the prevalence of anemia and assess associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at Bisidimo Hospital in Southeast Ethiopia. Methods A f...

  5. The Condition of Thyroid and Fetoplacental Systems in Pregnant Women with Clinically Euthyroid Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Petrova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study a condition of thyroid and fetoplacental systems at pregnant women with clinically euthyroid goiter. Materials and methods: 116 pregnant women have been included in the basic group with clinically euthyroid goiter. The control group was made by 60 pregnant women with physiologically proceeding pregnancy, not having anamnestic and the clinical data on diseases of the thyroid. Inspection included: definition of concentration thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4 by a radio-immunologic method, sets “RIA-gnost” (France and the maintenance of antibodies to thyroid peroxydase (anti-TPO by a method hard phase immune-enzyme analysis; ultrasonic assessment of a thyroid with the help of device SONOACE 8800 “GAIA MT”; ultrasonic fetometry, placentography, measurement of amniotic fluid volume, doppler ultrasound examination of the blood flow, an estimation of a functional condition of a fetus on parameters of its biophysical profile (BP and cardiotocography (CTG, carried out on device “Oxford Sonicaid Team S8000”. Results: At studying hormonal function thyroid systems at 25 pregnant (21.6% with euthyroid goiter in the third trimester of pregnancy a level fT4 norms were lower and had values from 4.5 up to 6.9 ng/ml, therefore an average level fT4 at pregnant women of the basic group was authentically lower, than in control (8.26 ± 0.30 and 10.71 ± 0.52 ng/ml, accordingly. At the retrospective analysis it is established, that only at 5 of 116 (4.3% pregnant women with a goiter were not complications pregnancy, at the others — 111 (95.7% took place a combination various obstetric complications: an anemia — at 72 (62.0%, threat noncarrying of pregnancy — at 75 (64.6 %, an early toxicosis — at 45 (38.6%, a gestosis — at 47 (40.5% which frequency authentically is higher, than in control group: 20.0%, 25.0%, 16.6%. 20.0%, accordingly, р < 0.05. Average Estimation CTG at patients of the basic group is

  6. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  7. [Detection of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women with different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis J O; Cruz, Thomaz; Daltro, Carla; França, Caroline S; Nascimento, Avelina O S

    2005-12-01

    To detect subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Seventy-five pregnant women who resided in the town of Itabuna, state of Bahia, were voluntarily studied. Inclusion criteria were age pregnant women. In 5.4% of them, thyroid ultrasonographic changes were documented. Based on finding of a 4% prevalence of elevated TSH during pregnancy, the authors consider important the inclusion of thyroid function laboratory evaluation in the routine prenatal examination. Further studies appear necessary to establish at what gestational age thyroid function evaluation should be started in pregnant women and how frequently it should be repeated during the course of gestation.

  8. Malaria burden among pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Gies, Sabine; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2007-12-01

    In two cross-sectional surveys carried out in the rural health district of Boromo, Burkina Faso, malaria infection was evaluated in 295 pregnant women in May 2003 and 288 pregnant women in December 2003. Malaria prevalence, all P. falciparum infection, was higher in December (32.2%) than in May (11.9%) (P pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo. This requires a major effort by the health authorities to guarantee all pregnant women have access to and use preventive measures.

  9. Characterization of Pregnant Women in the Social Enterprise State Santiago de Tunja, First Half of 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rebellón, David Esteban; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Parra, Tania Julieth; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Hernández, Fredy; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Linares, Andrés Fernando; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Rodríguez, Ana Yervid; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Vargas, Ludy Alexandra; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Introduccion: Physicological changes, sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric conditions during pregnancy lead to alterations predispose morbimortality in pregnant women. This study aims to characterize pregnant women attending antenatal care in the ESE Santiago de Tunja between January and June 2013.Materials and methods: Observational-descriptive study, in which databases were reviewed to determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors in 910 pregnant women.Results: Pregnant women ...

  10. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heminger CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results: Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion: Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. Keywords: mHealth, smoking cessation, pregnancy, text messaging

  11. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  12. What do pregnant women know about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damase-Michel, Christine; Christaud, Julie; Berrebi, Alain; Lacroix, Isabelle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2009-11-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on late pregnancy can be associated with severe adverse neonatal outcomes. Some NSAIDs, available over the counter, can be purchased easily by pregnant women. The present study evaluates pregnant womens' knowledge about NSAID use in pregnancy. The survey includes 250 pregnant women in South-west France. Women have been interviewed about their knowledge on analgesic and NSAID use in pregnancy. A total of 2% pregnant women use aspirin or ibuprofen as self-medication. More than 10% of the women think that it is safe to take NSAIDs on late pregnancy. A majority of them thought that aspirin and ibuprofen are not NSAIDs. NSAID risks in pregnancy are insufficiently known. Adequate information must be provided not only to medical practitioners and pharmacists but also to pregnant women especially for drugs which are available over the counter. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Characteristics of pregnant and lactating women with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sacha Frota Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of women who conceive during leprosy and the association between leprosy and pregnancy are not well known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 49 pregnant or lactating women diagnosed with leprosy in 2011. RESULTS: The patients had a clinical dimorphous form of leprosy (44.9%, no physical incapacity at diagnosis (87.5%, and no complications in either the patient or infant (33.4%. In 36.3% of cases, leprosy symptoms were presented in the last trimester of pregnancy, and in 31.9% of patients were in the first trimester of lactation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between leprosy and pregnancy should be routinely investigated, particularly in endemic areas.

  14. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

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    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  15. [Maternal outcomes in pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-kun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yu-mei; Ying, Jun; Chen, Dan-qing

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the maternal outcomes of pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa (PPP). Clinical data of 470 patients with placenta previa admitted in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from August 2012 to August 2014 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into pernicious group(n=101) and non-pernicious group(n=369) according to the history of cesarean section and location of placenta attached to the uterine. The general profiles, maternal outcomes of two groups were compared. The age, gravidity and rate of recurrent cavity surgery of pernicious group [(32.5 ± 4.1) y, 3.4 ± 1.2, 28.7%] were higher than those of non-pernicious group [(30.7 ± 4.5) y, 2.1 ± 1.4,13.6%] (Pplacenta accrete was significantly associated with postpartum massive hemorrhage in pernicious group (Pplacenta previa.

  16. Awareness of Pregnant Women about Folic Acid Supplementation in Iran

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    Hedyeh Riazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of folic acidsupplementation amongst Iranian pregnant women.Materials and methods: We selected 322 women through simple randomized method in a cross sectionstudy. Data was gathered on the base of questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performedusing SPSS software. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The obtained information revealed that 7.8% with high level of knowledge, 43.8% withintermediate level, 30.4% with low level knowledge, and 18% with no knowledge. Hospitals and healthcenters are two major sources for promoting popular awareness about folic acid. There is a significantrelationship between the knowledge, education, employment, time of prenatal care beginning, age,gravidity, and sources of health information. The number of women with high level of knowledge wasmore among those with lower parity, higher level of education, employment, young age and looking forhealth information.Conclusion: Awareness of folic acid is low among Iranian women. The different strategies are required toelevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them withsome information about the benefits of this supplement.

  17. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  18. The effect of tenofovir on renal function in HIV-positive pregnant women

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    Stuart Flanagan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tenofovir is a commonly used component of antiretroviral therapy (ART to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. Although systematic review of tenofovir use in pregnancy concluded it to be low risk for foetal abnormalities (1, data is limited on its impact on renal function in pregnant women. A recent South African study (2 concluded that renal dysfunction in HIV-infected pregnant women is significantly less common than in other HIV-infected adults, however there is currently no UK data. We aimed to investigate the effect of tenofovir on renal function in HIV-1 positive pregnant women in a UK clinic. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data on renal function in pregnancy from a cohort of women attending a busy inner city London antenatal clinic. All women were screened for renal function throughout pregnancy via serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR calculated using modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD and corrected for ethnicity. Results: Ninety-seven HIV-1 positive women were registered at Homerton Hospital antenatal service of a total of 105 pregnancies between January 2010 and September 2013. Tenofovir was prescribed in 71/105 pregnancies (67.6%. Of the 71 pregnancies, 41 were prescribed tenofovir pre-conception (57.7%. Of the pregnant women who started tenofovir in pregnancy, 21/31 (67.7% were initiated before week 24 of pregnancy, in line with British HIV association (BHIVA guidelines (3. There was no deterioration in median serum creatinine or decline in eGFR in women prescribed tenofovir during pregnancy. At six weeks after delivery, in the 42 women who continued tenofovir therapy and had eGFR measured, one woman had eGFR=60, all others eGFR >90 (Table 1. Conclusions: Consistent with current guidelines and experience, this study shows tenofovir did not cause decline in renal function in pregnancy in our cohort of HIV-1 positive women, whether started during pre-conception or during pregnancy

  19. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately high altitude.

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    Batmaz, G; Aksoy, A N; Aydın, S; Ay, N K; Dane, B

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at moderately high altitude (1890 m in Erzurum, Turkey) with those of women living at sea level (31 m in İstanbul, Turkey). One-hundred ten women (n = 55, for each group) with full-term and single child pregnancies. Two different locations in that state were selected: İstanbul, Turkey, which is at 31 m above sea level (Group 1) and Erzurum, Turkey, at 1890 m above sea level (Group 2). Physicians from the two locations participated in the study. We estimated QTc, QTc Max, QTc Min, QT, and QTcd intervals. Moderately high altitude group had significantly longer QT parameters (QTc, QTc Max, QTc Min, QT, and QTcd intervals) compared with sea level group (P anges occur in term pregnant women living moderately high altitude. These changes may be associated with pregnancy-related cardiovascular complications in moderately high altitude.

  20. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

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    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  1. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

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    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  2. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  3. A comparison of population air pollution exposure estimation techniques with personal exposure estimates in a pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kimberly; McNamee, Roseanne; De Vocht, Frank; Baker, Philip; Sibley, Colin; Agius, Raymond

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of the harmful effects for mother and fetus of maternal exposure to air pollutants. Most studies use large retrospective birth outcome datasets and make a best estimate of personal exposure (PE) during pregnancy periods. We compared estimates of personal NOx and NO2 exposure of pregnant women in the North West of England with exposure estimates derived using different modelling techniques. A cohort of 85 pregnant women was recruited from Manchester and Blackpool. Participants completed a time-activity log and questionnaire at 13-22 weeks gestation and were provided with personal Ogawa samplers to measure their NOx/NO2 exposure. PE was compared to monthly averages, the nearest stationary monitor to the participants' home, weighted average of the closest monitor to home and work location, proximity to major roads, as well as to background modelled concentrations (DEFRA), inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and a land use regression model with and without temporal adjustment. PE was most strongly correlated with monthly adjusted DEFRA (NO2r = 0.61, NOxr = 0.60), OK and IDW (NO2r = 0.60; NOxr = 0.62) concentrations. Correlations were stronger in Blackpool than in Manchester. Where there is evidence for high temporal variability in exposure, methods of exposure estimation which focus solely on spatial methods should be adjusted temporally, with an improvement in estimation expected to be better with increased temporal variability.

  4. Changes in hematologic indices in caucasian and non-caucasian pregnant women in the United States.

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    Harm, Sarah K; Yazer, Mark H; Waters, Jonathan H

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least pregnant women at any point during gestation. There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.

  5. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols.

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    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Boye Kyhl, Henriette; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Husby, Steffen; Barington, Torben; Main, Katharina M; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine-disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is particularly vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals therefore is of concern for pregnant women. We investigated current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between 8 and 30 weeks of gestation and analysed for metabolites of ten phenols, seven parabens and 16 phthalate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry representing 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in the urine sample collected from most women who participated. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite(s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups, suggesting combined exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DIs) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable DI (TDI) and with hazard quotients below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the estimated DI of phthalates and BPA for an individual was below TDI, our results still raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure. The true cumulative risk for the foetus may therefore be underestimated.

  6. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.

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    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes.

  7. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

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    Jodie Dionne-Odom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%, HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%, and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8% with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4 and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7. Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%, HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%, syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%, malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%. Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  8. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and coefficients of variation in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

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    Menezes de Oliveira, Alane Cabral; Albuquerque Santos, Arianne; Rodrigues Bezerra, Alexandra; Machado Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne; Rocha de Barros, Amanda Maria; Costa Ferreira, Raphaela

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Evidence suggests that adequate intake of antioxidants can modulate this condition. The objective of this study was to assess the intake of antioxidant nutrients and coefficients of variation in pregnant women with preeclampsia. In a cross-sectional study in the public health network of the city of Maceió, Brazil, a dietary survey was performed consisting of 24-hour food recalls, with subsequent adjustment of nutrients using the estimated average requirement as the cutoff point, and a questionnaire on frequency of consumption of antioxidants. We studied 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP) with mean ages of 25.8±6.7 years and 24.1±6.2 years (p=0.519), respectively. A low mean intake of antioxidants (vitamin A, selenium, zinc and copper) was observed in both PWP and PWoP, although intakes of vitamin A (p=0.045) and selenium (p=0.008) were higher in PWoP. In addition, we observed high coefficients of variation in nutrient intakes in both groups, which were higher for vitamin C (p<0.001), vitamin A (p=0.006) and copper (p=0.005) in PWP. Consumption of antioxidant nutrients by pregnant women with preeclampsia is inadequate, with considerable daily variations in intake, which points to a need for nutrition education strategies aimed at improving intakes, because diet is without doubt a key factor in the modulation of oxidative stress caused by preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

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    Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  10. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; pviolence (pviolence indistinctly affected pregnant women of different socioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical/sexual violence.

  11. Comparison of Lifestyles of Women With Gestational Diabetes and Healthy Pregnant Women

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    Javid, Fatereh Momeni; Simbar, Masoumeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes is the most common medical condition in pregnancy and can be a predisposing factor in incidence of type II diabetes in future. Incorrect lifestyles can predispose people to various diseases, including diabetes, which is a serious health risk. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare lifestyles of women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant women attending the health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in 2...

  12. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  13. Comparison of serum calcium and magnesium levels between preeclamptic and normotensive healthy pregnant women

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    Shilpa Mittal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is idiopathic multisystem disorder specific to human pregnancy. Its incidence is 8-10% of total pregnancies in India. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alterations in serum calcium and magnesium levels have been suggested as effective factors in causing preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to compare serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: The study was conducted in the department of biochemistry in collaboration with department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Sri Aurobindo medical college and P. G. institute, Indore during the period January 2012 to January 2013. Subjects were divided into two groups: group-I included 100 preeclamptic women group-II included 100 age matched, healthy pregnant women. Serum calcium and magnesium was estimated by Arsenazo III method and by Calmagite method in ERBA CHEM-5 respectively (Enzymatic kit method. Results: Serum levels of calcium (8.27 +/- 0.37 mg/dL vs. 9.06 +/- 0.27 mg/dL and magnesium (1.99 +/- 0.13 mEq/L vs. 2.03 +/- 0.13 mEq/L were significantly lower in preeclamptic women than the control group (i.e. healthy pregnant women. Conclusions: Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia are seen in the preeclamptic women may be responsible for the vascular pathology associated with onset of preeclampsia. Hence it can be concluded that adjuvant supplementation of calcium and magnesium may prevent further progression of preeclampsia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 959-962

  14. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Mwangi, Raphael; Yao, Xiaoxi; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O’Keeffe, Derek T; De Ycaza, Ana E Espinosa; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Coddington, Charles C; Stan, Marius N; Brito, Juan P; Montori, Victor M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effectiveness and safety of thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Large US administrative database between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. Participants 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as untreated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration 2.5-10 mIU/L. Exposure Thyroid hormone therapy. Main outcome measure Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified maternal and fetal pregnancy related adverse outcomes. Results Among 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, 843 with a mean pre-treatment TSH concentration of 4.8 (SD 1.7) mIU/L were treated with thyroid hormone and 4562 with a mean baseline TSH concentration of 3.3 (SD 0.9) mIU/L were not treated (Ppre-eclampsia (1.61, 1.10 to 2.37); other pregnancy related adverse outcomes were similar between the two groups. The adjusted odds of pregnancy loss were lower in treated women than in untreated women if their pre-treatment TSH concentration was 4.1-10 mIU/L (odds ratio 0.45, 0.30 to 0.65) but not if it was 2.5-4.0 mIU/L (0.91, 0.65 to 1.23) (P<0.01). Conclusion Thyroid hormone treatment was associated with decreased risk of pregnancy loss among women with subclinical hypothyroidism, especially those with pre-treatment TSH concentrations of 4.1-10 mIU/L. However, the increased risk of other pregnancy related adverse outcomes calls for additional studies evaluating the safety of thyroid hormone treatment in this patient population. PMID:28122781

  15. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2013-04-01

    Physical activity significantly impacts public health as it reduces the risk of chronic diseases and provides numerous protective factors during pregnancy. Although Canadian guidelines recommend regular physical activity for healthy pregnant women, little is known about their leisure-time physical activity patterns. This study compared the physical activity levels of pregnant and non-pregnant women and examined socio-demographic and health correlates of physical activity during pregnancy. Canadian Community Health Survey data (2005-2008) from 623 pregnant women and 20,392 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Ontario, Canada were examined. The prevalence of regular physical activity (15 or more minutes on at least 3 days of the week) was 58.3 % [95 % CI 52.9, 63.4], among pregnant women and 66.9 % [95 % CI 65.8, 68.0] among non-pregnant women. However, the prevalence of meeting Canadian guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy (30 or more minutes on at least 4 days of the week) was only 23.3 %, [95 % CI 19.4, 27.7] among pregnant women and 33.6 % [95 % CI 32.7, 34.6] among non-pregnant women. Pregnant women were less likely to be meeting guidelines if they were single, divorced, separated or widowed, a visible minority, had a household income between $20,000 and $79,999, and reported being in good or fair/poor health; when it came to education, women who had completed high school were more likely to be meeting guidelines. Few pregnant women in Ontario are meeting guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Results indicate that promoting physical activity during pregnancy should remain a public health priority.

  16. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ≥ 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

  18. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  19. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J. Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  20. [Vaccination coverage against pertussis in pregnant women of Catalonia in the first year of implementation of the immunisation program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cano, María Isabel; Espada-Trespalacios, Xavier; Reyes-Lacalle, Azahara; Manresa Domínguez, Josep Maria; Armadans-Gil, Lluís; Campins-Martí, Magda; Falguera-Puig, Gemma; Toran Monserrat, Pere

    2016-10-18

    The re-emergence of pertussis and the severity of its complications in infants younger than 3 months, were determining factors for starting a vaccination program for pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation in Catalonia in February 2014. This was the first autonomous community to introduce it in Spain. The aim of the study was to estimate the coverage of the program in its first year of implementation. A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from the Primary Care Centre computerised medical records of pregnant women attending Sexual and Reproductive Health Care centres of the Metropolitan Nord area of the province of Barcelona, part of the Catalan Institute of Health. The overall coverage was estimated, as well as the sociodemographic variables of Tdap vaccination of women who had registered a delivery of a live birth between August 2014 and August 2015. A total of 6,697 deliveries of live births were recorded, and 1,713 pregnant women were vaccinated, which represented an overall coverage of 25.6% (95% CI; 24.1-26.1). Vaccination coverage was higher in pregnant women under 18 years and Spanish women (P=.018 and P=.036, respectively). The estimation of vaccine coverage against pertussis in pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, after the first year of implementation of the program in a health area of Catalonia was lower than the objective set. Strategies need to be designed in order to improve program coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. [Active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Acuña, Cecilia; Ríos, Paulina

    2017-06-08

    Document and analyze Ecuador's experience using active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of information obtained on active community case-finding of pregnant and postpartum women in the catchment areas of 200 primary care facilities of Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. Visits were made to 460 451 homes in 20 provinces; 15 622 pregnant women and 4 014 postpartum women were identified. Of the pregnant women, 89% (13 875) had had at least one prenatal check-up, while 70% of postpartum women (4 014) had had at least one post-delivery or post-caesarean check-up. Potential risk was identified in 29% of pregnant women (4 601). Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces had the lowest percentages of pregnant women with at least one prenatal check-up and the lowest percentages of postpartum women with at least one postpartum checkup. A total of 3 951 brigades were formed at the national level for this activity. Active community case-finding was valuable in identifying pregnant and postpartum women who had not been captured by the health system, especially to detect their risk status, in addition to the advantages of participatory uptake, especially with support from universities with health majors. Low coverage for postpartum check-ups underscores the importance of learning why women do not receive this care. Similar experiences need to be systematized to improve the process.

  2. Changes in exhaled breath condensate pH in healthy and asthmatic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Noémi; Bikov, András; Lázár, Zsófia; Bohács, Anikó; Müller, Veronika; Stenczer, Balázs; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Horváth, Ildikó; Tamási, Lilla

    2013-05-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease complicating pregnancy with a risk for perinatal complications. Control of airway inflammation in the asthmatic pregnancy improves pregnancy outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive method for the assessment of asthmatic airway inflammation, in healthy and asthmatic pregnancies. Cross-sectional study. Hungarian university clinics. Seventeen healthy pregnant women, 21 asthmatic pregnant women, 23 healthy non-pregnant women and 22 asthmatic non-pregnant women. EBC samples were collected using a portable condenser, EBC pH was measured after argon deaeration. EBC pH. EBC pH (mean ± SD) of healthy non-pregnant and asthmatic non-pregnant women was similar (7.75 ± 0.27 vs. 7.54 ± 0.57; p = 0.118), probably indicating an optimal control of airway inflammation in asthmatic women. On the other hand, EBC pH was higher in healthy pregnant women compared with healthy non-pregnant women (8.02 ± 0.43 vs. 7.75 ± 0.27; p = 0.017). Higher EBC pH accompanying healthy pregnancy was absent in asthmatic pregnant patients whose EBC pH was lower (7.65 ± 0.38) than that of healthy pregnant women (p = 0.006), and it was similar to that in asthmatic and healthy non-pregnant women (p = 0.470 and p = 0.300, respectively). The EBC pH in asthmatic pregnant women correlated positively with birthweight (r = 0.49, p = 0.047) and negatively with forced vital capacity (r = 0.45, p = 0.039). EBC pH was not related to blood pH. EBC pH is higher in healthy pregnant women but not in asthmatic pregnant women compared with data from healthy non-pregnant women, indicating that oxidative inflammatory processes induced by asthma may compromise the regulatory mechanisms causing alkaline pH in the airways during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane C; Campbell, Karen J; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2015-08-07

    Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women's GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women's sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Consecutive women (n = 1032) received a mailed questionnaire after their first antenatal visit to a public maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Recalled provision of GWG guidelines by doctors and midwives, recalled provided GWG goals, and the obtaining of GWG information and information sources were assessed. Participants (n = 368; 35.7% response) averaged 32.5 years of age and 20.8 weeks gestation, with 33.7% speaking a language other than English. One in ten women recalled receiving GWG guidelines from doctors or midwives, of which half were consistent with Institute of Medicine guidelines. More than half the women (55.4%) had actively sought GWG information. Nulliparous (OR 7.07, 95% CI = 3.91-12.81) and obese (OR 1.96, 95% CI = 1.05-3.65) women were more likely to seek information. Underweight (OR 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09-0.97) women and those working part time (OR 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28-0.97) were less likely to seek information. Most frequently reported GWG sources included the internet (82.7%), books (55.4%) and friends (51.5%). The single most important sources were identified as the internet (32.8%), general practitioners (16.9%) and books (14.9%). More than half of women were seeking GWG guidance and were more likely to consult non-clinician sources. The small numbers given GWG targets, and the dominance of non-clinical information sources, reinforces that an important opportunity to provide evidence based advice and guidance in the antenatal care setting is currently being missed.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Stephen; Altice, Frederick L; Paltiel, A David

    2005-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated on a prenatal basis in HIV-infected pregnant women is a highly effective method for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. We developed a decision analytic model to project the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative HIV screening strategies (voluntary prenatal screening [VPS], routine prenatal screening [RPS], and mandatory newborn screening [MNS]) for a high-risk population of incarcerated pregnant women. Data for the decision model came from the HIV voluntary counseling and testing program at Connecticut's sole correctional facility for women and a comprehensive anonymously linked serosurvey of all inmates who entered the facility during the 2-year period beginning in October 1994. Based on serosurvey results, in the absence of any HIV screening program, 2.5 cases of pediatric HIV infection would be expected per 1000 pregnancies. Multiplied by the discounted lifetime cost per case of $247,000, this translates to a cost of $624 per testing-eligible prison entrant. Entrants were considered eligible if they were pregnant and their HIV status was unknown. MNS would save money, cost $364 per eligible entrant, and simultaneously reduce the rate of infections to 1.1 per 1000 pregnancies. Doing both MNS and RPS is most effective in reducing the rate of new infections (down to 0.2 per 1000 pregnancies). It would, however, increase costs to $430 per eligible entrant. This would result in an incremental cost of $73,603 per additional pediatric HIV case averted when compared with MNS alone. If mandatory newborn testing was not considered a feasible option, RPS would dominate VPS and would be cost-saving compared with no screening. RPS compares favorably with alternative uses of HIV prevention and treatment resources. In correctional facilities where voluntary newborn screening is already in place, our findings show that there remains a small marginal benefit to be realized from switching to RPS. In settings where HIV

  5. [The perception of domestic violence of pregnant and not pregnant women in the city of Campinas, São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Corrêa, Ana Maria Segall; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Rodrigues, Maria Socorro Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare the perception of domestic violence of women, victims of this kind of violence, with the perception of pregnant women, victims or not of domestic violence, as well as to search for elements allowing for the planning and execution of a cohort study on domestic violence among pregnant women. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted using the technique of convenience sampling for selecting a focal group. The subjects were twenty four women divided into two groups: (1) thirteen women from a follow-up group from a Referral Center for victims of domestic violence, and (2) eleven pregnant women that were participating in the pre-natal care program in a primary care unit, selected independently of suffering domestic violence or not. The data collected were transcribed, conceptually decoded and qualified for qualitative analysis. The contents of the women's discourse were analyzed on the basis of thematic categories. It was observed that domestic violence was perceived in a similar way by both studied groups, independently from the fact of having or not experienced a situation of this kind. The understanding and discussion of the topics proposed for the groups allowed developing a more appropriate approach to the studied women. The way the questions were formulated in the questionnaire was considered of easy understanding by both groups of women.

  6. Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn’s disease: case series and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Myriam D; Kopylov, Uri; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Apter, Sarah; Amitai, Marianne Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were perf...

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WHO Violence Against Women instrument in pregnant women: results from the BRISA prenatal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; de Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Bettiol, Heloisa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2014-01-01

    Screening for violence during pregnancy is one of the strategies for the prevention of abuse against women. Since violence is difficult to measure, it is necessary to validate questionnaires that can provide a good measure of the phenomenon. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) instrument for the measurement of violence against pregnant women. Data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA) were used. The sample consisted of 1,446 pregnant women from São Luís and 1,378 from Ribeirão Preto, interviewed in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen variables were selected from a self-applied questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate whether violence is a uni-or-multidimensional construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The mean-and-variance-adjusted weighted least squares estimator was used. Models were fitted separately for each city and a third model combining data from the two settings was also tested. Models suggested from modification indices were tested to determine whether changes in the WHO VAW model would produce a better fit. The unidimensional model did not show good fit (Root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]  = 0.060, p violence showed a significantly better fit compared to the original WHO model (p Violence is a multidimensional second-order construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The WHO VAW model and the modified models are suitable for measuring violence against pregnant women.

  8. Diabetic Nephropathy and Microalbuminuria in Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Julie Agner; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Callesen, Nicoline Foged

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol.......To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol....

  9. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  10. An ethical analysis of opt-out HIV screening for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocial, Lucia D; Cox, Elaine G

    2013-07-01

    Critical advances in prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of the HIV in the perinatal period have changed practice recommendations for HIV screening for pregnant women. Using case studies we illustrate the ethical complexities and implications of opt-out HIV testing for pregnant women. Despite the potential for compromised informed consent, an opt-out HIV screening approach is ethically defensible.

  11. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Dube

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

  12. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15–44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina V. Cardemil

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15–19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults.

  13. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Leon, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Riedijk, Martiene; Matute, Armando J; Hak, Eelko; Delgado, Edgar; Alonso, Rosa E; Benavides, Maria D; van Loon, Anton M; Hoepelman, Ilja M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis and to identify risk factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics in León, Nicaragua. During February to April 2004, blood samples from pregnant women were collected after written consent had been obtained. Th

  14. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Kate; Tate, Anna; Illescas, Alex; Saffa, Alhaji; Collins, Austin; Varma, Jay K.

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel. PMID:27855041

  15. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  16. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  17. Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, A.M.; Lindblade, K.A.; Odhiambo, F.; Peterson, E.; Rosen, D.H.; Karanja, D.; Ayisi, J.G.; Shi, Y.P.; Adazu, K.; Slutsker, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology: During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglob

  18. Rubella immunity among pregnant women aged 15–44 years, Namibia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jonas

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of a routine rubella immunization program, the high level of rubella seropositivity suggests rubella virus transmission in Namibia, yet 15% of pregnant Namibian women remain susceptible to rubella. The introduction of rubella vaccine will help reduce the risk of rubella in pregnant women and CRS in infants.

  19. Proximity to goat farms and Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence among pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W. van der; Meekelenkamp, J.C.; Dijkstra, F.; Notermans, D.W.; Bom, B.; Vellema, P.; Rietveld, A.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van; Leenders, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007-2009, we tested serum samples from 2,004 pregnant women living in an area of high Q fever incidence in the Netherlands. Results confirmed that presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii is related to proximity to infected dairy goat farms. Pregnant women and patients with certain c

  20. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research : a systematic review of reported reasons for exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, ISE; Verhave, R; Browne, JL; van Delden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This empirical chapter provides a systematic review of literature relevant to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials. In particular, it addresses barriers to fair inclusion identified within the literature. The 31 articles reviewed discuss the exclusion of pregnant women from clinical tr

  1. Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ara, G.; Boonstra, A.; Roy, S.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh.F.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly

  2. Photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-guang; ZOU Xian-biao; ZHAO Hua; ZHANG Yun-jie; LI Heng-jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an emerging technique for the treatment of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced benign and premalignant lesions.We report here in a case series of condyloma acuminata (CA) in pregnancy successfully treated with ALA-PDT.Methods Five pregnant patients with CA received three to four times treatment respectively.Patients were followed up for 6-23 months after treatment.Results The clearance rate of genital warts was 100%.No recurrence was found during the follow-up period.Major adverse events reported were mild erosion,pain,and local edema.All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications.Conclusions PDT with topical ALA seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of CA in pregnancy.It demonstrated high clearance rate of warts,was well-tolerated by patients,and showed no adverse effects on mothers or fetuses.ALA-PDT may be an ideal strategy of treatment for pregnant women with CA.

  3. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernanda Campos; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Assis, Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  4. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  5. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  6. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  7. Preparedness of pregnant women for childbirth and the postpartum period: their knowledge and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugut, N; Tirkes, D; Demirel, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify knowledge and fear related to childbirth and the postpartum period in pregnant women. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women. It was determined that pregnant women had insufficient levels of knowledge related to childbirth and the postpartum period. The Fear of Childbirth and Postpartum Anxiety Scale score for childbirth and the postpartum period related to 'fear regarding the action of childbirth', was found to be the highest. The highest causes for concern were determined to be 'infant-related anxiety' and 'fear regarding infant and puerperal health'. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the perceived sufficiency of the knowledge of pregnant women in terms of maintaining their own health and care, and their mean childbirth and postpartum period concern score. These findings indicate that the level of concern among pregnant women with relation to the postpartum period and childbirth is rather high.

  8. Serum collagenase-2 and BMI levels in pregnant women with striae gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Perihan; Kıran, Hakan; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Mulayim, Kamil; Avcı, Fazıl

    2017-09-01

    Striae gravidarum is a form of scarring on the skin observed during pregnancy and can cause serious cosmetic problems. Striae gravidarum may be influenced by hormonal changes, although the etiology is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) and serum collagenase-2 levels in pregnant women are related to the development of striae gravidarum. Thirty pregnant women with striae, 30 pregnant women without striae, and 32 health controls were enrolled in the study. BMI and serum collagenase-2 levels were measured in the participants. Pregnant women with striae gravidarum had increased serum collagenase-2 and BMI levels when compared to pregnant women without striae gravidarum and healthy controls (P < 0.05). The increase in serum collagenase-2 levels was related to the development of striae gravidarum alone, or secondary to BMI increase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for pregnant women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deborah R; Hantsoo, Liisa; Thase, Michael E; Sammel, Mary; Epperson, C Neill

    2014-10-01

    Pregnant women with major depressive disorder (MDD) report that psychotherapy is a more acceptable treatment than pharmacotherapy. However, although results of several studies suggest that psychotherapy is an effective treatment for pregnant women, logistical barriers-including cost and traveling for weekly visits-can limit real-world utility. We hypothesized that computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy (CCBT) would be both acceptable and would significantly decrease depressive symptoms in pregnant women with MDD. As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, we treated 10 pregnant women with MDD using a standardized CCBT protocol. The pilot results were very promising, with 80% of participants showing treatment response and 60% showing remission after only eight sessions of CCBT. A larger, randomized controlled trial of CCBT in pregnant women with MDD is warranted.

  10. [Listeriosis in pregnant women and newborns in Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smíšková, Dita; Karpíšková, Renata; Džupová, Olga; Marešová, Vilma

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature, being commonly present in faecal flora of otherwise healthy human population or animals. Clinical manifestation of listeria infection may vary widely from mild to invasive, life-threatening disease. In an immunocompromised host, a rather serious course should be expected. Due to cell-mediated immune insufficiency associated with pregnancy even a short bacteraemia in pregnant women can result in transplacental infection. Most listeria infections are sporadic but outbreaks may occur. An outbreak of listeriosis in the Czech Republic in the autumn of 2006 and winter of 2007 was associated with an increased incidence of perinatal listeriosis. More information on listeriosis prevention in pregnancy should be given and each febrile episode during pregnancy should be carefully examined. Early treatment of listeriosis reduces the risk of vertical transmission.

  11. Levels and patterns of HIV RNA viral load in untreated pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Patel, Deven; Thorne, Claire;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess pregnancy levels and patterns of HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, while appropriately adjusting for potential confounders, including maternal immune status and race. METHODS: Data on > or = 1 antenatal HIV RNA measurements were available for 333 untreated HIV......-infected pregnant women enrolled in the European Collaborative Study. CD4 counts and HIV RNA measurements were routinely collected from 1992 and 1998, respectively. Linear mixed effects models based on 246 women for whom complete data were available examined changes in HIV RNA levels over pregnancy, with a nested...... random effects term accounting for measurement variability within women and period of sample collection. RESULTS: The change in HIV RNA over pregnancy varied significantly by race (p=0.005): from the second trimester until delivery, HIV RNA decreased significantly by an estimated 0.019 log(10) copies...

  12. Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Hamdela

    Full Text Available Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residing in Hossana, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods was carried out in Hossana from April 02 to 15, 2011. 385 pregnant married women randomly selected from the census were included for the quantitative data and took in-depth interviews for the qualitative. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Out of the total pregnancies, 131 (34% were unintended and 254 (66% were reported to be intended. A history of previous unintended pregnancy, the husband not wanting to limit family size, a desire for at least two children, the number of pregnancy 3–4 and parity of 5 and above were factors significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. With over one third of pregnancies unintended, having a previous unintended pregnancy, the number of previous pregnancies, and husbands’ disagreement over family size, and the desired number of children are factors that reproductive health programs should aim to focus on to reduce unintended pregnancy.

  13. Susceptibility of pregnant women to toxoplasma infection--potential benefits for newborn screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, W

    2008-08-20

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in neonatal blood reflects maternal exposure history, maternal antibody seroprevalence was determined using anonymized residual blood from newborn screening cards. A total of 20,252 cards were tested in 1 year. 4,991 (24.6%) cards tested positive for Toxoplasma antibody. Results were stratified by county. Toxoplasma antibody seroprevalence rates of 25% indicated that Toxoplasma infection is common in Ireland and that up to 75% of women remain susceptible to primary infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to a) determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women, and hence b) estimate the risk for acquisition of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in order to support an application to fund a pilot newborn screening programme.

  14. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  15. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  16. Development of stria gravidarum in pregnant women and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both

  17. Predicting length of stay of substance-using pregnant and postpartum women in day treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K; Cramer-Benjamin, D; Anastas, J

    1997-01-01

    Pregnant and postpartum substance-using women are a special population whose needs do not reflect those of the general substance-using communities. This study examined length of stay in a federally funded day treatment demonstration program in order to identify predictor variables that may help identify pregnant and postpartum substance-using women at high risk for dropping out of treatment. Variables from intake and exit questionnaires on a sample of 163 women were analyzed using multiple regression on both days in treatment and the logarithmic transformation of days in treatment. Few predictor variables were identified, although findings suggest that if a women is younger and self-referred, she may leave treatment sooner. As one of the first sets of published data on pregnant and postpartum women and retention in treatment, this study lays the groundwork for future research on the retention of pregnant and postpartum women in treatment, thereby facilitating the success of these women in overcoming their addiction.

  18. Intention for Cesarean Section Versus Vaginal Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Isfahan: Correlates and Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Zahra; Khalajabadi-Farahani, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Iran has the second highest rate of cesarean section in the world. the corresponding rate in the third metropolitan city of Iran, Isfahan, is even higher. This paper aimed to assess correlates and determinants of intention for cesarean section versus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) among pregnant women in Isfahan. A study was conducted among 400 pregnant women aged 18-38 years, with gestational age of 24-40 weeks who attended labor clinics of nine hospitals in Isfahan during June and July 2014. Probability proportional to size was used to estimate the number of cases required to be selected for each hospital. T-test, chi-square and logistic regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. Mean age of women was 26.6±4.4 years. Multivariate analysis identified selected factors as determinants of intention for CS. These were "the role of physician" (OR=1.33, pcesarean section" and "individualism" influence CS decision through subjective norm. Choosing cesarean section voluntarily is a multifaceted decision which is shaped by various factors; hence, comprehensive interventions are suggested to discourage voluntary cesarean section. These interventions need to encompass changes in physicians' role, social norms, body image and correcting misperceptions among women towards CS and NVD during prenatal courses.

  19. Exposure to metals and congenital anomalies: A biomonitoring study of pregnant Bedouin-Arab women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakis, Isabella [Environmental Epidemiology Department, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem (Israel); Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Public Health, The Ashkelon Academic College, Ashkelon (Israel); Landau, Daniella [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Neonatology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Yitshak-Sade, Maayan [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Clinical Research Center, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hershkovitz, Reli [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ultrasound Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Rotenberg, Michal [Laboratory of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Sarov, Batia [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Grotto, Itamar [Environmental Epidemiology Department, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem (Israel); Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem (Israel); Novack, Lena, E-mail: novack@bgu.ac.il [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2015-06-01

    Background: The Bedouin-Arab population in Israel comprises a low socio-economic society in transition. Smoking among males and consanguineous marriages are frequent. A previous study showed elevated rates of major malformations within groups from this population residing near an industrial park, where high ambient values of arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were detected, compared to groups living in remote localities. Objectives: We estimated the extent of exposure to metals in pregnant Bedouin-Arab women in relation to congenital malformations. Methods: We collected maternal urine samples from 140 Bedouin women who gave birth in a local hospital. Patient medical history, type of marriage (consanguineous or non-consanguineous), and parental exposure history were collected by interview and medical records. Results: Aluminum (Al) was detected in 37 women (26.4%), cadmium (Cd) in 2 (1.4%), As in 10 (7.1%), and Ni in 1 woman (0.7%). The detected rate of Cd exposure was low, though more than 92% of the fathers reported smoking. Concentrations of Al were higher for women residing within 10 km of the local industrial park (Prevalence Ratio (PR) = 1.12, p-value = 0.012) or who reported using a wood burning stove (PR = 1.37, p-value = 0.011) and cooking over an open fire (PR = 1.16, p-value = 0.076). Exposure to Al was adversely associated with minor anomalies (OR = 3.8, p-value = 0.046) after adjusting for history of abortions (OR = 6.1, p-value = 0.007). Fetuses prenatally exposed to As were born prematurely (p-value = 0.001) and at lower weights (pv = 0.023). Conclusions: The study population of pregnant women is exposed to high levels of metals mainly of household origin. Our findings may be generalized to similar populations in developing countries. - Highlights: • Almost a third of the pregnant women had a detectable metal in their urine. • Aluminum and Arsenic were the most prevalent metals in urine. • The study investigates pregnant women exposed to a hazardous

  20. von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in normal non-pregnant women, pregnant and post-delivery women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luceros, Analía; Farías, Cristina E; Amaral, María M; Kempfer, Ana C; Votta, Roberto; Marchese, Carlos; Salviú, María J; Woods, Adriana I; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, María A

    2004-12-01

    ADAMTS13 dysfunction has been involved in the pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. This disorder occurs more frequently in women and, in 13% of them, is associated with pregnancy. However, there is little information on the protease behaviour in normal pregnancy. We studied von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 activity changes in normal non-pregnant, pregnant and post-delivery women. Fifty-five non-pregnant women, normal blood bank donors, who were not taking contraceptive pills were included as controls. A prospective cross-sectional study of 270 normal pregnant and post-delivery women was carried out. ADAMTS13 activity decreased progressively as from the period of 12-16 weeks up to the end of early puerperium (mean 52%, range 22-89, p < 0.0001), to increase slightly thereafter. Nulliparous presented mildly lower levels of ADAMTS13 activity than parous women (65% vs. 83 %, p = 0.0003), and primigravidae than multigravidae between 6-11 weeks up to 17-23 weeks of pregnancy (69% vs. 80%, p = 0.005). Although in all women the protease levels were the same by blood groups, the O blood group non-pregnant women showed a higher mean of ADAMTS13 activity than those non-O (78% vs. 69%, p = 0.064). Our results suggest that the changing levels of protease activity during pregnancy and puerperium, induced by unidentified mechanisms, could render the peripartum time more vulnerable to developed thrombotic microangiopathies.

  1. Prevalence of HIV among rural pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A Giri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many antenatal clinics (ANC-based HIV surveillance systems in India have limited coverage of remote rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring, and development of effective preventive and care programs. To address this void in rural area of western Maharashtra, we conducted antenatal clinic-based sentinel surveillance to know the prevalence of HIV infection among rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at ANC clinic, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra. A total of 12,171 pregnant women from rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic in Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, during January 2008 to December 2011 were included in the study. Data were entered in Microsoft excel and percentage and proportion was calculated. Results: In the present study, out of 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic, only 50 (0.41% were HIV positive and remaining 12, 221 (99.59% were HIV negative. The study showed that the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.41%. Out of the 50 HIV positive pregnant women studied majority, 32 (64.0%, were primigravidas and 18 (36.0% were multigravidas. Conclusion: In our study all 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling and prevalence of HIV was found to be 0.41%. The need of the hour is to provide universal access to these services by involving the NGO′s and the private sector.

  2. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68 reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours were 1.95 (1.03-3.69. The corresponding OR (95%CI for long sleep duration (≥9 hours during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03. Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00 and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  3. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  4. Posture analysis of lifting a load for head carriage and comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Preston, D; Beaucage-Gauvreau, E; Lawani, M

    2014-01-01

    In Western Africa, women continue performing heavy physical work that includes carrying loads on their heads during pregnancy. Women may adapt to pregnancy related body changes by modifying their postures to perform such tasks. The objectives of this biomechanical task analysis study were to 1) determine sagittal plane postures of the trunk and upper extremities at specific events during the task of lifting and lowering a load to be carried on the head, 2) compare postures of pregnant and non-pregnant participants, 3) evaluate risk for musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) with the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) criteria. Twenty-six pregnant (26 ± 5 years, 159 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 15 kg, 25 ± 9 weeks of pregnancy) and 25 paired non-pregnant retail merchants were recruited in Porto-Novo (Benin). Participants were recorded on video in a laboratory setting while they lifted a tray (20% body weight) from a stool to their head and then put it back down. Trunk inclination and knee, shoulder and elbow flexion angles were determined using Dartfish® software. The trunk was bent by more than 80° at pick-up and set-down and knees were moderately flexed, significantly less (pregnant women, possibly because it was harder to lift the trunk, or for stability. For all postures analysed, the majority of trials were classified as "high" risk or "very high risk" for MSD. Future research should investigate prevalence of MSDs in this population to confirm the results of this study.

  5. Predictive model for risk of cesarean section in pregnant women after induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Antonio; Pascual-Pedreño, Ana I; Baño-Garnés, Ana B; Melero-Jiménez, María R; Tenías-Burillo, José M; Molina-Alarcón, Milagros

    2016-03-01

    To develop a predictive model for risk of cesarean section in pregnant women after induction of labor. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 861 induced labors during 2009, 2010, and 2011 at Hospital "La Mancha-Centro" in Alcázar de San Juan, Spain. Multivariate analysis was used with binary logistic regression and areas under the ROC curves to determine predictive ability. Two predictive models were created: model A predicts the outcome at the time the woman is admitted to the hospital (before the decision to of the method of induction); and model B predicts the outcome at the time the woman is definitely admitted to the labor room. The predictive factors in the final model were: maternal height, body mass index, nulliparity, Bishop score, gestational age, macrosomia, gender of fetus, and the gynecologist's overall cesarean section rate. The predictive ability of model A was 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.80] and model B was 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.83). The predictive ability for pregnant women with previous cesarean section with model A was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.94) and with model B was 0.80 (95% CI 0.64-0.96). For a probability of estimated cesarean section ≥80%, the models A and B presented a positive likelihood ratio (+LR) for cesarean section of 22 and 20, respectively. Also, for a likelihood of estimated cesarean section ≤10%, the models A and B presented a +LR for vaginal delivery of 13 and 6, respectively. These predictive models have a good discriminative ability, both overall and for all subgroups studied. This tool can be useful in clinical practice, especially for pregnant women with previous cesarean section and diabetes.

  6. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  7. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  8. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  9. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  10. Perineal trauma after vaginal delivery in healthy pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Santos Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Despite all the medical care provided during delivery labor, perineal injury is still prevalent and may lead to diverse pelvic floor disorders. The aim here was to investigate the prevalence of obstetric and anal sphincter injuries (OASIS in healthy pregnant women after vaginal delivery.DESIGN AND SETTING:Cross-sectional study involving 3,034 patients with singletons in a secondary hospital for low-risk cases.METHODS:A standardized questionnaire was prepared and applied to medical files that had been completely filled out (classification of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, RCOG in order to identify OASIS and analyze risk factors associated with mild and severe perineal lacerations.RESULTS:The women's mean age was 25 years; more than half (54.4% were primiparae. Almost 38% of the participants had perineal lacerations; these were severe in 0.9% of the cases. Previous vaginal delivery (odds ratio, OR: 1.64 [1.33-2.04] and forceps delivery (OR: 2.04 [1.39-2.97] were risk factors associated with mild perineal injuries (1st and 2nd OASIS classifications. Only remaining standing for prolonged periods during professional activity (OR: 2.85 [1.34-6.09] was associated with severe perineal injuries.CONCLUSION:The prevalence of severe perineal injuries was concordant with data in the literature. The variable of standing position was considered to be a risk factor for severe perineal injury and should be further investigated.

  11. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  12. Malaria associated symptoms in pregnant women followed-up in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Massougbodji Achille; Mévo Blaise; Borgella Sophie; Gbaguidi Gildas; Fievet Nadine; Huynh Bich-Tram; Deloron Philippe; Cot Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is generally agreed that in high transmission areas, pregnant women have acquired a partial immunity to malaria and when infected they present few or no symptoms. However, longitudinal cohort studies investigating the clinical presentation of malaria infection in pregnant women in stable endemic areas are lacking, and the few studies exploring this issue are unconclusive. Methods A prospective cohort of women followed monthly during pregnancy was conducted in three rura...

  13. Nutritional Factors Associated with Anaemia in Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Brock, Hugh S.; Melah, George S.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.; Crossey, Michael J.; Glew, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relative contribution of iron, folate, and B12 deficiency to anaemia in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 146 pregnant women, who attended two antenatal clinics in Gombe, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The majority (54%) of the women were in the third trimester. Blood samples were obtained for determination of haematocrit and for measurement of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine...

  14. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  15. Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women and their Associated Factors in Eight Cities of China: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Li; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Parés, Gerard Vinyes; Reidy, Kathleen C; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Ai; Chen, Cheng; Ning, Celia Y; Zheng, Ying-Dong; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-07-05

    During the last 3 decades, China has dramatic changes of the dietary pattern among its citizens, particularly in urban cities. This study aimed to determine the nutrient intake status and factors associated with nutrient intakes of urban Chinese pregnant women now-a-day. The multistage stratified random sampling method was applied in the cross-sectional study. 479 women in three trimesters of pregnancy from eight cities of China were recruited. Nutrient intakes were evaluated with one 24 h dietary recall, and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013 for available nutrients. Most pregnant women had imbalanced macronutrient distribution with excessive energy derived from fat. Intakes of Vitamin A, B 6, calcium, magnesium, and selenium were below Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) and Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in all trimesters. Most pregnant women took more folic acid in the first trimester with a significant decrease in the second and third trimester (P body mass index was inversely associated with energy, fat, Vitamin C, and calcium intake (P pregnant women in China are imbalanced in the nutrient intake when compared with national DRIs 2013, particularly in intakes of energy derived from fat and micronutrients. Appropriate dietary advice to pregnant women should promote a balanced diet with emphasis on avoidance of foods of high fat content and incorporation of foods that are good sources of the key micronutrients that are usually lacking in a regular pregnancy diet. Further research is needed to understand the eating habits and food patterns that contribute to this imbalanced diet in order to be able to effectively improve prenatal women's nutrient intake status.

  16. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; psexual violence (psexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical/sexual violence. PMID:28107428

  17. Correlation of psychological symptoms with cortisol and CRP levels in pregnant women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanović, Vedran; Babić, Dragan; Hodžić, Damir; Bjelanović, Ana; Krešić, Tanja; Dugandžić-Šimić, Ana; Orešković, Slavko

    2015-12-01

    In pregnancy occurs series of physiological, organic and psychological changes in the female organism. Particularly are significant hormonal and metabolic changes. Elevated cortisol levels are reduced by linking the transport of globulin (transcortin). Triglycerides were increased 50% and other lipids from 20 to 30%. The values of CRP were slightly elevated in the third trimester of pregnancy (10-15 mg/L). To investigate the association of psychological symptoms with the level of cortisol and CRP in women with metabolic syndrome. From 1646 pregnant women cross-sectional, prospective study included 180 pregnant women divided into three groups by applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Research methods are laboratory and clinical tests and questionnaires. Every pregnant woman have been made complete laboratory findings and determined cortisol in 8 and 17 hours using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method. All pregnant women filled in several questionnaires: socio-demographic, obstetrical-gynecological, standardized psychometric questionnaire (SCL 90-R), a questionnaire syndrome of depression according to ICD 10 and Beck self depression scale. The study was conducted from August 2011 to mid-November 2012. From the total of 1646 hospitalized pregnant women, 176 pregnant women had a BMI>30 and 120 of them were tested, but 60 had criteria for MS. The concentration of morning and afternoon cortisol is increased in pregnant women with the metabolic syndrome Obese pregnant women have a statistically higher level and morning and afternoon cortisol levels than women with normal body weight and without the metabolic syndrome, but these differences are smaller than in the case of pregnant women with the metabolic syndrome. CRP is significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome. CRP concentration is significantly higher in obese pregnant women compared to pregnant women with normal weight and without the metabolic syndrome, but it is lower than in pregnant women

  18. D-dimer concentration outliers are not rare in at-term pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan

    2016-06-01

    To determine the D-dimer levels in pregnant women at term and the differences between pregnant women with different D-dimer levels. The plasma D-dimer concentrations in pregnant women at term were identified in a cross-sectional study. The clinical indicators that are potentially relevant to D-dimer levels were compared between the pregnant women with different D-dimer levels (i.e., normal, mildly increased, and severely increased). There were always some D-dimer concentration outliers in the pregnant women at term regardless of the presence or absence of complications, and there were no significant differences in maternal age, gestational age, gravidity, parity, blood count, blood coagulation, or liver function between the pregnant women with different D-dimer levels. D-dimer levels may vary significantly during pregnancy for unknown reasons. This variation, particularly in pregnant women at term, might lead to questionable diagnostic information regarding coagulation. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Meinilä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394 were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7, saturated fatty acids (SFA 12 en% (SD 3, and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6. Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3, which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4 (p<0.001. Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.

  20. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics In HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Mulligan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12 or 24 hour pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 mcg/mL and 0.026 mcg/mL. Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily dosing and one took 400 mg once-daily. Etravirine AUC0-12 was significantly higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 45% (median 8.3 mcg*hr/mL versus 5.7 mcg*hr/mL, p = 0.086. Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data (median 24 L/h versus 35 L/h, p = 0.038. The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.56 (range: 0.19 - 4.25 and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929.

  1. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Nikki; Schalkwijk, Stein; Best, Brookie M.; Colbers, Angela; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Moltó, José; Stek, Alice M.; Taylor, Graham; Smith, Elizabeth; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Chakhtoura, Nahida; van Kasteren, Marjo; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Mirochnick, Mark; Burger, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 and 0.026 mcg/mL). Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily. Etravirine AUC0–12 was higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 34% (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 mcg*h/mL, p = 0.068). Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data by 52% (median 24 vs. 38 L/h, p = 0.025). The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.52 (range: 0.19–4.25) and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. Clinical Trial registration: The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929. PMID:27540363

  2. Venous thromboembolism in pregnant and puerperal women in Denmark 1995-2005. A national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virkus, Rie Adser; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    -11 up to 59.0 (95% CI: 46.1 to 76.4) in week 40 and decreased in the puerperal period from 60.0 (95% CI:47.2-76.4) during the first week after birth to 2.1 (95% CI:1.1 to 4.2) during week 9-12 after birth. Compared with non-pregnant women, the incidence rate ratio rose from 1.5 (95% CI:1.1 to 1......Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of maternal death in the Western world, and the risk increases during pregnancy and puerperal period. It was the objective of the present study to estimate the absolute and the relative risk of VTE at different weeks of gestation....... Danish women 15 to 49 years old during the period January 1995 through December 2005 were included in the study. In total 819,751 pregnant women were identified of whom 727 had a diagnosis of VTE. The absolute risk of VTE per 10,000 pregnancy-years increased from 4.1 (95% CI, 3.2 to 5.2) during week 1...

  3. Assessment of dietary diversity and nutritional status of pregnant women in Islamabad, Pakistan. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima; Thaver, Inayat; Khan, Shahzad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition is one of the most important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Maternal nutrition has direct association with foetal nutrition. This study aimed to identify dietary diversity and determine any relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Rawalpindi Islamabad region. It was a cross sectional survey involving 350 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, conducted in outpatient department of Maternal and Child health centre at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad. A semi qualitative questionnaire was used that contained structured questions regarding socio-demographic features, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and three day dietary recall. A second section comprising of questions regarding dietary perceptions was also Out of total, 47% of pregnant women had normal pre-gestational BMI while, 22% were overweight, 17% obese, and only 12% of pregnant women were under weight. Similarly 28.1% were anaemic. Medium dietary diversity was observed in 89% of pregnant women, while only 5% showed low, and high dietary diversity. Dietary diversity was not associated with sociodemographic, or socioeconomic status of pregnant women. Even though weight gain during second (p=0.2) and third trimesters (p=0.049) had a positive relationship with dietary diversity, more than 74% of pregnant women gained less than recommended level of weight gain. No association could be proven between haemoglobin and dietary diversity (p=0.51). Dietary diversity is a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy in pregnant women, however if quantity of food consumed is added it can give better indication of determinants of nutritional status of pregnant women.

  4. CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-fang He; Mei-lu Bian; Ying Wang; Xiao-yan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and follow up cervical cytology of pregnant and postpartum women and study their cytopathologic characteristics, so as to determine screening and managing programs for abnormal cervical cytology.Methods Totally 5296 patients in pregnancy and postpartum, in which 3729 by computer-assisted cytology test and 1567 by liquid-based monolayers cytology test, were examined and diagnosed by the Bethesda System made in 2001. Those proven epithelial abnormalities patients were followed up until the lesions regressed to normal. The remaining patients,who exhibited persistent abnormalities or progression, were given further examinations.Results The positive rate of cervical cytological test was 8.72% (462/5296), including squamous carcinoma (SCA) 1case (0.02%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 34 cases (0.64%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 145 cases (2.74%), atypical glandular cells (AGC) 5 cases (0.09%), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) 14 cases (0.26%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 263 cases (4.97%). The 419 proven cytological abnormality cases were followed up successfully. The total transnegative rate in three months was 73.74% (309/419), in which 303 cases (72.32%) persisted normal status for more than six months after regression. And the transnegative rate of ASC-US, ASC-H, AGC, LSIL, and HSIL were 79.56%, 64.29%, 100%,72.14% and 44.12%, respectively. Forty-six cases received biopsy directed by colposcopy. The distribution of coincidence of cytopathologic and histopathologic diagnosis was: SCA 1 case (100%), HSIL 10 cases (76.92%), LSIL 13 cases (65%), ASC-H 2 cases (50%), ASC-US 3 cases (37.50%), total 29 cases (63.04%).Conclusions We should cast more attention to screening cervix lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Their cytopathologic characteristics are liable to make the clinician give a false positive diagnosis. So we propose to follow up them closely

  5. Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Gisselle; Goodall, Stephen; Eastman, Creswell J

    2010-04-19

    Recent research has confirmed that Australian children and pregnant women are mildly iodine deficient. A considerable proportion of the pregnant population is moderately to severely iodine deficient. Even subclinical hypothyroidism in the mother, occurring as a consequence of iodine deficiency, can cause irreversible brain damage in the fetus, making it essential to avoid iodine deficiency in pregnancy. The proposal of Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) - Mandatory Iodine Fortification for Australia (P1003) - has been implemented. FSANZ openly admits P1003 is inadequate for covering the needs of pregnant women. Therefore, health professionals and the public must be properly informed about the limitations of this proposal. Views differ about the most effective measures to prevent iodine deficiency in Australia. We propose that women planning a pregnancy, and pregnant and lactating women should be advised to take an iodine supplement. Women with pre-existing thyroid disease should exercise caution and seek medical advice before taking a supplement.

  6. Distribution of HIV among pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rijal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the distribution of HIV among the pregnant women visiting a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu. Methods: A total of 1 440 blood samples from pregnant women were collected and tested for antiHIV antibodies using rapid screening assay kits and ELISA in Paropakar Maternity and Women ’s Hospital during May to November, 2011. Results: The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.62%, the prevalence being highest (1.4% in age group 35-39 years old, and during second trimester of gestation (0.75%. Similarly, it was found to be highest among the illiterates (1.92%, commercial sex worker (10.00% and those having multiple sexual partners (30.00%. Conclusions: Sero-prevalence of HIV infection was higher among the pregnant women of Kathmandu.

  7. Challenges in preventing pyelonephritis in pregnant women in Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookallil, M; Chalmers, E; Andrew, B

    2005-01-01

    To measure the quality of antenatal care in rural and remote regions of the Northern Territory, using asymptomatic bacteruria as an indicator. Indigenous Australian women and their babies have a greater frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. It is well established that asymptomatic bacteriuria may have serious outcomes in pregnancy, including an increased risk of pyelonephritis and a strong association with preterm and low birth weight delivery. Ensuring good quality antenatal care can reduce the individual risks of pregnancy for mothers and their babies. In the Northern Territory there are well established guidelines for antenatal care in rural and remote Indigenous communities. These are documented in the Women's Business Manual. Audit and feedback is one method that has been shown to have a small to moderate effect in changing clinician behaviour, in this case improving compliance with guidelines. A retrospective chart audit of antenatal clients was conducted at 10 rural and remote primary health care clinics in the Northern Territory, Australia. The audit reviewed all the available charts (n = 268) of pregnant women, from the participating communities, who gave birth in 2002 or 2003. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria was chosen as the indicator of quality antenatal care, as it is one of five areas of antenatal care where there is evidence that appropriate management improves outcomes. The quality of care was measured against the local guidelines, the Women's Business Manual. Women frequently had urine tests with where the dipstick showed an abnormal result, with 75% (95% CI [0.70,0.80]) of women having at least one episode of abnormal urinalysis during pregnancy. Six hundred and twenty episodes of abnormal urinalysis in pregnancy were identified. The incidence of bacteriuria at first visit was 16%, (95%-confidence interval = 95% CI [0.10, 0.21]). Compliance with the guidelines was poor. Fifty

  8. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and preterm labor(birth) in pregnant women-an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaosong; Sun, Dehong; Li, Chuansheng; Ying, Jie; Yan, Youde

    2017-08-29

    We aimed to explore whether maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection certainly affects preterm labor (birth) in pregnant women. Four databases were systematically searched up to May 31, 2017, without language restriction. Any study was included if it clearly defined exposure to chronic HBV infection, reported risk of preterm labor or birth in pregnant women, and reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) or provided data for estimation. RRs (or ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Twenty-two observational studies involving 6 141 146 pregnant women (three prospective cohort studies, n = 1 116 799; 15 retrospective cohort studies, n = 5 022 513 and four case-control studies, n = 1834) were included. The risk of preterm labor was significantly intensified with chronic HBV infection compared with uninfected women, with substantial heterogeneity. Chronic HBV infection was also significantly associated with a 16% increase in the risk of preterm birth, with substantial heterogeneity. The risk of preterm birth significantly increased by 21% in HBsAg+/HBeAg+ pregnant women compared with uninfected pregnant women. Chronic HBV infection intensifies the risk of preterm labor and birth in pregnant women, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding and be confirmed by well-designed studies in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A national survey to determine prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among pregnant women in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costales, Jaime A; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A; Jacobson, Jerry O; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-04-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0-0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0-0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador.

  10. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20-80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane.

  11. Effects of maternal vitamin D status on pregnancy outcomes, health of pregnant women and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Elzbieta; Lebiedzińska, Katarzyna; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Głowacka, Ewa; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy increases the demand for vitamins, including vitamin D. Data on effects of vitamin D deficiency for pregnant woman and fetus available in Poland are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D3 concentration in pregnant women and its influence on pregnancy course, health of pregnant women and their offspring. The study included 102 healthy pregnant women, aged 21 to 40 years, mean 30.5±4.9 years. Women were divided into three groups based on 25(OH)D serum concentration in the third trimester of pregnancy: Group I - with sufficient 25(OH)D serum concentration (>30 ng/ml), Group II - with vitamin D3 insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), Group III - with serious vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D concentrations were found only in 31.2% of women, however in winter months only in 16%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly more common in women with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (pvitamin D status and the incidence of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, mode of delivery and size of newborns. A relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and subsequent incidence of respiratory infections in children (pvitamin D supplementation in pregnant women in Poland is insufficient, particularly in winter. 2. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women fosters development of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy and recurrent respiratory infections in children, suggestive of the role of vitamin D in prevention of infections.

  12. Measurement of choroid thickness in pregnant women using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Sertan; Basaran, Ahmet; Sakarya, Yasar; Ozcimen, Muammer; Kucukaydin, Zehra; Sakarya, Rabia; Basaran, Mustafa; Erdogan, Erkan; Alpfidan, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    To investigate choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women during different trimesters using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). This prospective study included 90 healthy pregnant women in their first, second, or third trimester (groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and 30 non-pregnant healthy women (group 4). The age range for all groups was 18-40 years. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were obtained to estimate the average choroidal thickness. Using EDI-OCT, we measured choroidal thickness manually from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border at the subfovea, 3 mm temporal, and 3 mm nasal to the fovea. Differences among groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. We found a statistically significant difference between groups 2 and group 4 for subfoveal, temporal, and nasal mean choroidal thickness (p=0.007, pchoroidal thickness for group 2 was 395 ± 80 μm, 338 ± 74 μm, and 233 ± 61 μm at the regions subfoveal, temporal, and nasal to the fovea, respectively. In comparison, the mean choroidal thickness for group 4 was 335 ± 86 μm, 274 ± 54 μm, and 200 ± 53 μm at the regions subfoveal, temporal, and nasal to the fovea, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found for choroidal thickness among groups 1-4 (p=0.214, p=0.177, p=0.094, respectively) and between groups 3-4 (p=0.105, p=0.261, p=0.695, respectively) for all measured points. Our results suggest that choroidal thickening can occur at the regions subfoveal, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in the second trimester.

  13. The association between nonylphenols and sexual hormones levels among pregnant women: a cohort study in Taiwan.

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    Chia-Huang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.

  14. Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Tennant, Peter W G; McParlin, Catherine; Poston, Lucilla; Robson, Stephen C; Bell, Ruth

    2011-06-27

    Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures. Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-701 pedometer for four consecutive days. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were determined between pedometer step counts and various accelerometer measures of PA. Total agreement between accelerometer and pedometer step counts was evaluated by determining the 95% limits of agreement estimated using a regression-based method. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants as active or inactive was assessed by determining Kappa. Pedometer step counts correlated moderately (r = 0.36 to 0.54) with most accelerometer measures of PA. Overall step counts recorded by the pedometer and the accelerometer were not significantly different (medians 5961 vs. 5687 steps/day, p = 0.37). However, the 95% limits of agreement ranged from -2690 to 2656 steps/day for the mean step count value (6026 steps/day) and changed substantially over the range of values. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants to active and inactive varied from moderate to good depending on the criteria adopted. Despite statistically significant correlations and similar median step counts, the overall agreement between pedometer and accelerometer step counts was poor and varied with activity level. Pedometer and accelerometer steps cannot be used interchangeably in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  15. Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McParlin Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA in large scale trials. This study compared the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement between these measures. Methods Pregnant women (n = 58 with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer and a Yamax Digi-Walker CW-701 pedometer for four consecutive days. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were determined between pedometer step counts and various accelerometer measures of PA. Total agreement between accelerometer and pedometer step counts was evaluated by determining the 95% limits of agreement estimated using a regression-based method. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants as active or inactive was assessed by determining Kappa. Results Pedometer step counts correlated moderately (r = 0.36 to 0.54 with most accelerometer measures of PA. Overall step counts recorded by the pedometer and the accelerometer were not significantly different (medians 5961 vs. 5687 steps/day, p = 0.37. However, the 95% limits of agreement ranged from -2690 to 2656 steps/day for the mean step count value (6026 steps/day and changed substantially over the range of values. Agreement between the monitors in categorising participants to active and inactive varied from moderate to good depending on the criteria adopted. Conclusions Despite statistically significant correlations and similar median step counts, the overall agreement between pedometer and accelerometer step counts was poor and varied with activity level. Pedometer and accelerometer steps cannot be used interchangeably in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  16. Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.

  17. Compliance with iron-folic acid (IFA) therapy among pregnant women in an urban area of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithra, P; Unnikrishnan, B; Rekha, T; Nithin, K; Mohan, K; Kulkarni, V; Kulkarni, V; Agarwal, D

    2013-12-01

    Anaemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women and iron deficiency is the most important cause. Like many other countries, India has policies to give pregnant women iron supplements. Non-compliance is one important challenging factor in combating anaemia. To estimate the compliance for IFA tablets among pregnant women and to study the social factors influencing it. This study included 190 pregnant women seeking ante-natal care in tertiary health centres in the Mangalore city in south India. After Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) approval, data was collected by personal interview. Missing >2 doses consecutively was considered non-compliance. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 11.5. The mean age of the study population was 25.8 years (SD: 4.1). Most of the subjects consumed mixed diet and 72.1% belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Overall, compliance with IFA tablets was 64.7%. Compliance increased with the increase in age, birth order and single daily dose. Forgetfulness and both perceived as well as experienced side effects of IFA therapy were the important factors for non-compliance. There was a moderate level of compliance towards IFA tablets with key social and demographic factors playing an important role.

  18. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital