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Sample records for pregnant women differences

  1. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

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    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  2. Ethnic differences in resistance artery contractility of normotensive pregnant women.

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    Brewster, L M; Taherzadeh, Z; Volger, S; Clark, J F; Rolf, T; Wolf, H; Vanbavel, E; van Montfrans, G A

    2010-08-01

    Black women are at a greater risk to develop hypertension during pregnancy, with a 4.5 times higher rate of fatal preeclampsia than white women. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that may affect this risk. Our group previously proposed that high activity of the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, creatine kinase (CK), may increase ATP-buffering capacity and lead to enhanced vascular contractility and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore, we assessed microvascular contractility characteristics in isolated resistance arteries from self-defined black and white normotensive pregnant women using a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Additionally, morphology was assessed with electron microscopy. Resistance-sized arteries obtained from omentum donated during cesarean sections (11 black women and 20 white women, mean age: 34 yr) studied in series showed similar morphology but significantly greater maximum contractions to norepinephrine (10(-5) M) in blacks [14.0 mN (1.8 SE)] compared with whites [8.9 mN (1.4 SE), P = 0.02]. Furthermore, we found greater residual contractility after the specific CK inhibitor dinitrofluorobenzene (10(-6) M) in black women [55% (6 SE)] compared with white women [28% (4 SE), P = 0.001] and attenuated vasodilation after bradykinin (10(-7) M) in black women [103% (6 SE)] compared with white women [84% (5 SE), P = 0.023], whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) and amlodipine (10(-6) M) were similar. We conclude that compared with white women, normotensive pregnant black women display greater resistance artery contractility and evidence of higher vascular CK activity with attenuated nitric oxide synthesis. These findings in normotensives may imply that the black population is at risk for a further incline in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders.

  3. PREGNANT WOMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women attending an antenatal clinic and gynaeco- logical clinic ... Other observa- tions are less specific and may be part of the gen- .... be due to the high levels of corticosteroids though there is no direct proof ... Scully C, Cawson RA. Medical ...

  4. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

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    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  5. Gestational age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories misclassify pregnant women's thyroid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Boas, Malene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Correct interpretation of thyroid status during pregnancy is vital to secure fetal development. Pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status necessitate the use of gestational age-specific reference ranges. In this study, we investigated between-laboratory reproducibility...... of thyroid reference ranges in pregnant women. DESIGN: Comparison of two longitudinal prospective cohort studies including 255 (cohort 1) and 101 (cohort 2) healthy antibody-negative Danish pregnant women attending prenatal care at Copenhagen University Hospital. METHODS: Different immunoassays were used...... region, the use of gestational-age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories led to misclassification. Up to 100% of maternal FT4 levels fell outside the other cohort's reference range despite similar TSH levels. In clinical practice, thyroid testing of pregnant women without adding method...

  6. [Detection of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women with different gestational ages].

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    Andrade, Luis J O; Cruz, Thomaz; Daltro, Carla; França, Caroline S; Nascimento, Avelina O S

    2005-12-01

    To detect subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Seventy-five pregnant women who resided in the town of Itabuna, state of Bahia, were voluntarily studied. Inclusion criteria were age pregnant women. In 5.4% of them, thyroid ultrasonographic changes were documented. Based on finding of a 4% prevalence of elevated TSH during pregnancy, the authors consider important the inclusion of thyroid function laboratory evaluation in the routine prenatal examination. Further studies appear necessary to establish at what gestational age thyroid function evaluation should be started in pregnant women and how frequently it should be repeated during the course of gestation.

  7. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated

  8. Measurement of Perceived Stress Among Pregnant Women: A Comparison of Two Different Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solivan, Amber E; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Assess the amount of agreement between the classification of stress from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Assessment of Stress portion of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP) among pregnant women. A secondary data analysis on a cross-sectional study of 301 pregnant women from the New Orleans and Baton Rouge areas who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina was conducted. Women with complete data (219) were analyzed. Women scoring in the third tertile of each instrument were compared. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between instruments. Additional comparisons were made with three instruments that measure other important psychosocial constructs that could be related to stress: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Assessments of Support (partner and other support) and Self-Esteem from the PPP. No significant difference was found between the two tests. The PSS and the PPP were both statistically significantly correlated to each other (ρ = 0.71, p < 0.01). Thirty-five women were classified discordantly resulting in a Kappa Coefficient of 0.61 (95% CI 0.50-0.72, p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between these two instruments in correlation with the EDS (PPP, r = 0.76; PSS, r = 0.72; p < 0.01 for each), partner support (PPP, r = -0.47; PSS r = -0.46; p < 0.01 for each), other support (PPP, r = -0.31; PSS r = -0.32; p < 0.01 for each) and self-esteem (PPP, r = -0.41; PSS, r = -0.52; p < 0.01 for each), respectively. Given the similarities between the PSS and PPP, researchers are encouraged to choose and administer one instrument to participants, or to use the instruments in combination as an external reliability check.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

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    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  10. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  11. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  12. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with PCOS: comparison of different diagnostic definitions.

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    Kollmann, M; Klaritsch, P; Martins, W P; Guenther, F; Schneider, V; Herzog, S A; Craciunas, L; Lang, U; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Lerchbaum, E; Raine-Fenning, N

    2015-10-01

    Does the prevalence of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes vary in women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to different definitions? A comparison of different criteria revealed that there is a substantial risk for perinatal complications in PCOS women, regardless of the used definition. Pregnant women with PCOS are susceptible to perinatal complications. At present, there are three main definitions for PCOS. So far, we are aware of only one study, which found that the elevated risk for complications varied widely depending on the different phenotypes and features but only considered a relatively small sample size for some of the phenotypes. Retrospective matched cohort study. Data of primiparous women with PCOS according to ESHRE/ASRM 2003 criteria and healthy controls giving birth to neonates ≥500 g were included. A total of 885 women were analysed: out of 177 women with PCOS, 85 (48.0%) met the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 1990 criteria, another 14 (7.9%) featured the additional phenotypes defined by The Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS) 2006 criteria, 78 (44.1%) were classified as PCOS exclusively by the ESHRE/ASRM 2003 definition, and 708 represented the control group. The prevalence of adverse maternal (49.4 versus 64.3 versus 60.3%, P = 0.313) and neonatal (27.1 versus 35.7 versus 23.1%, P = 0.615) outcomes did not differ within the three PCOS groups (ESHRE/ASRM, NIH, AE-PCOS, respectively). Compared with healthy controls, the risk for maternal complications was increased in PCOS patients [odds ratio (OR) 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-3.64; P < 0.001] while there was no difference in neonatal complications (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.56-1.21; P = 0.343). A limitation of our study is its retrospective design and the relatively small sample size, particularly in the AE-PCOS subgroup. Since women with PCOS have, regardless of the used definition, a high risk of maternal and neonatal complications they should be

  13. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

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    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  14. Influence of physical activity and different sensory conditions on static and dynamic balance of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Patrícia Soares de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract BACKGROUND Physical activity during pregnancy provides countless benefits to pregnant women and results in a smaller number of falls during pregnancy. Thus, this study aims to verify the influence of physical activity and test conditions on the static and dynamic balance of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY The study was an analytical, transversal, and comparative study with a sample of 99 pregnant women divided into two groups, with physical activity as the grouping factor. The evaluation included questions about the type and frequency of physical activity and investigation of postural balance (Balance Master System(r. For statistical analysis, we used the following tests: Shapiro Wilk, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA One Way and Wilcoxon. RESULTS No relationship was found between physical activity and postural balance (F > 0.40, P > 0.07. However, the test conditions alter the sway velocity (P = 0.001 and directional control movement (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that: (1 physical activity does not influence variables related to postural balance in active and sedentary pregnant women; and (2 postural sway velocity and directional control of movement are related to the test conditions used during balance evaluation.

  15. Impact of the Use of Different Diagnostic Criteria in the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Pregnant Women

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    Alina Coutinho Rodrigues Feitosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95% and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5% for gestational age (GA. Objective: To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. Conclusion: 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6% had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities.

  16. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  17. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women...

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  20. Different insulin types and regimens for pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sinéad M; Kenny, Louise C; Khashan, Ali S; West, Helen M; Smyth, Rebecca Md; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-02-03

    Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre-existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens (e.g. via syringe, pen) and types of insulin (e.g. fast-acting insulin, human insulin). To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 October 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (17 October 2016), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 17 October 2016), and the reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different insulin types and regimens in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes.We had planned to include cluster-RCTs, but none were identified. We excluded quasi-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials. We included studies published in abstract form and contacted the authors for further details when applicable. Conference abstracts were superseded by full publications. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, conducted data extraction, assessed risk of bias, and checked for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The findings in this review were based on very low-quality evidence, from single, small sample sized trial estimates, with wide confidence intervals (CI), some of which crossed the line of no effect; many of the prespecified outcomes were not reported. Therefore, they should be interpreted with caution. We included five trials that included 554 women and babies (four open-label, multi-centre, two-arm trials; one single centre, four-arm RCT). All five trials were at a high or unclear risk of bias due to lack of blinding, unclear methods of randomisation, and selective reporting of outcomes. Pooling of data from the trials was not possible, as each trial looked at a different comparison.1. One

  1. Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.

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    Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

    2014-05-01

    Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ≤19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2 IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7 IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres.

  2. Characterization of Vaginal Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant Women in Two Different African Sites.

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    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available The relevance of vaginal colonization of pregnant women by Escherichia coli is poorly understood, despite these strains sharing a similar virulence profile with other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli producing severe obstetric and neonatal infections. We characterized the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence profiles of 84 vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant women from Rabat (Morocco and Manhiça (Mozambique, two very distinct epidemiological settings. Low levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed to all drugs tested, except for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Manhiça, where this drug is extensively used as prophylaxis for opportunistic HIV infections. The most prevalent virulence factors were related to iron acquisition systems. Phylogroup A was the most common in Rabat, while phylogroups E and non-typeable were the most frequent in Manhiça. Regardless of the apparently "low virulence" of these isolates, the frequency of infections is higher and the outcomes more devastating in constrained-resources conditions, especially among pregnant women and newborns.

  3. Acculturation and biobehavioral profiles in pregnant women of Hispanic origin: generational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Roberta J; Stowe, Raymond P; Brown, Adama; Wommack, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In Hispanics, acculturation may lead to negative health outcomes. This study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the psychosocial and biological risks in acculturating pregnant women of Hispanic origin (n = 470). Psychosocial risks-depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress-were assessed by self-report, whereas biological measures included stress-related and reproductive hormones. Mental health deteriorated across generations, with worsening depression, anxiety, and stress with successive generations. Stress and reproductive hormone levels decreased across generations, whereas body mass index and number of sexual partners increased. These data provide potential biobehavioral explanations of the relationship between acculturation and declining health among Hispanic women in the United States.

  4. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  5. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  6. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  7. Characteristics and management of HIV-1-infected pregnant women enrolled in a randomised trial: differences between Europe and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delke Isaac

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT have historically been lower in European than in American cohort studies, possibly due to differences in population characteristics. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol (PACTG 316 trial evaluated the effectiveness of the addition of intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine in reducing MTCT in women already receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. Participation of large numbers of pregnant HIV-infected women from the US and Western Europe enrolling in the same clinical trial provided the opportunity to identify and explore differences in their characteristics and in the use of non-study interventions to reduce MTCT. Methods In this secondary analysis, 1350 women were categorized according to enrollment in centres in the USA (n = 978 or in Europe (n = 372. Factors associated with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy and with elective caesarean delivery were identified with logistic regression. Results In Europe, women enrolled were more likely to be white and those of black race were mainly born in Sub-Saharan Africa. Women in the US were younger and more likely to have previous pregnancies and miscarriages and a history of sexually transmitted infections. More than 90% of women did not report symptoms of their HIV infection; however, more women from the US had symptoms (8%, compared to women from Europe (4%. Women in the US were less likely to have HIV RNA levels Conclusion These findings confirm that there are important historical differences between the HIV-infected pregnant populations in Western Europe and the USA, both in terms of the characteristics of the women and their obstetric and therapeutic management. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy predominates in pregnancy in both settings now, population differences are likely to remain. Trial registration NCT00000869

  8. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aila, Nabil A; Tency, Inge; Claeys, Geert; Saerens, Bart; Cools, Piet; Verstraelen, Hans; Temmerman, Marleen; Verhelst, Rita; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2010-09-29

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA), group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA) (Granada Medium) and chromID Strepto B agar (CA), with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100%) was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%), but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%). Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95%) detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%). One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. In conclusion, rectovaginal sampling increased the number GBS

  9. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  10. Effective mechanical means of uterine cervix accelerating maturity in pregnant women of first mature age period of different somatotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovleva О.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation of delivery in first mature age period of pregnant women mechanically in different somatotypes. Materials and Methods: 658 patients at 38-41 weeks of gestation of the first period of mature age (22-35 years have been considered. Differentiation by somatotypes has been performed by the method of HT Kaarma (1991. All patients of each somatotype have been divided into primiparous (n = 402 and multiparous (n = 256. Preparation for delivery by mechanical means: on the 1 st day it was introduced into the cervical canal for 16 hours, on the 2nd day — Foley catheter for 8-16 hours (before the birth. Results: In multiparous women the application of mechanical preparation of the birth canal has been effective regardless of somatotype. The percentage of operative delivery in mechanical induction has been lower in multiparous women and also not related to somatotype. In nulliparous women of asthenic and normosthenic type greater efficiency of mechanical induction in preparation for delivery has been revealed. In asthenic and pyknictype mechanical induction has been inefficient and therefore has not been recommended for the use. Conclusion: Application of mechanical means of stimulation of delivery in nulliparous pregnant women should be performed according to their somatotype.

  11. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Verhelst Rita; Temmerman Marleen; Verstraelen Hans; Cools Piet; Saerens Bart; Claeys Geert; Tency Inge; El Aila Nabil A; Vaneechoutte Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete....

  12. Impact of the Use of Different Diagnostic Criteria in the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Barreto, Luciana Tedgue; Silva, Isabela Matos da; Silva, Felipe Freire da; Feitosa, Gilson Soares

    2017-07-01

    There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP) in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95%) and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5%) for gestational age (GA). To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6%) had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities. Durante a gestação ocorrem, fisiologicamente, elevações do colesterol total (CT) e triglicerídios (TG). Alguns autores definem dislipidemia (DLP) gestacional quando as concentrações de CT, LDL e TG são superiores ao percentil 95 (P95%) e de HDL, inferiores ao percentil 5 (P5%) para a idade gestacional. Comparar a prevalência da DLP em gestantes conforme critério por percentis com o da V

  13. Different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being among pregnant Chinese women: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Tha, Pyai Htun; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Wang, Ying; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ), and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB) were used to measure perceived stress, coping styles, and general well-being, respectively. A structural equation model showed that positive and negative perceptions of stress significantly influenced positive and negative coping styles, respectively. Different perceptions of stress were significantly associated with general well-being, but different coping styles had no significant effects on general well-being. The model had a good fit to the data (IFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.038). Different perception of stress was able to predict significant differences in coping styles and general well-being.

  14. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  15. Iodine nutritional status in pregnant women of two historically different iodine-deficient areas of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Lluis; Serra-Prat, Mateu; de Castro, Alfonso; Palomera, Elisabet; Casamitjana, Roser; Legaz, Gustavo; Barrionuevo, Celia; Muñoz, José A; García, Ana J; Lal-Trehan, Sanjay; García, Amparo; Durán, Josep; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2011-10-01

    Catalonia (Spain) has a historically worse situation of mild iodine deficiency in the Pyrenees Mountains compared with the coastal region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current iodine status in pregnant women living in these two areas. An epidemiologic prospective survey included 267 consecutive pregnancies in the Catalan mountains (n = 139) and coast (n = 128) studied during the first trimester; an additional subset of 135 women from the initial cohort was available for evaluation in the third trimester. Urinary iodine (UI) was measured, and questionnaires to determine iodized salt and sea fish consumption and potassium iodide supplementation were administered. The median UI in the first trimester was 163 μg/L for the entire cohort, with differences between mountain and coastal regions (209 versus 142 μg/L, P = 0.007). The highest prevalence of iodized salt consumption was in the mountain area (58% versus 36.4%, P pregnancy (190 versus 154 μg/L, P = 0.015). A reversal in the historically iodine-deficient situation was observed in the Catalan Pyrenees compared with the coastal area, with a globally acceptable iodine status in pregnant women of the two geographic locations. Iodized salt consumption seems to have contributed to maintaining an acceptable iodine status in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Are Different Coping Styles Mitigating Perceived Stress Associated With Depressive Symptoms Among Pregnant Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2016-04-01

    To test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among 755 women. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire, and the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale were used to test different effects in multiple linear regression models. Direct effects of positive and negative coping styles were found. Positive coping styles have moderating effects on perceived stress but negative coping styles do not. Health services should dedicate resources to teach women positive coping styles to decrease their vulnerability to developing antenatal depressive symptoms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy: Is this procedure safe in pregnant women with ureteral stones at different locations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Adanur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of ureteroscopy and Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral stones with different localizations in symptomatic pregnant women. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 19 pregnant patients referred to our center between January 2005 and December 2012 with symptomatic hydronephrosis requiring surgical intervention. 7.5 F and 9.5 F semirigid ureterorenoscopy with Holmium laser lithotripsy was used for treatment in all patients. Complications were stratified according to modified Clavien criteria. Results: The mean age of patients was 25.4 (18-41 years, and the mean gestation duration was 24.8 (7-33 weeks. Six cases (31.5% had a history of stone. Solitary kidney secondary to previous nephrectomy was observed in 2 patients and 1 patient had a hypoplastic kidney. Abdominal ultrasonography was used as the main diagnostic tool. Mean stone size was 9.2 mm (6-13. The location of the stones was the lower, middle, and upper ureter in 8 (42.1%, 5 (26.3% and 6 (31.5% cases, respectively. All stones were fragmented with Holmium laser lithotripsy. Of the 19 patients, 11 (57.8% required doublr J stent insertion peroperatively. Intraoperative urological and obstetric complications were not observed. Postoperatively two complications were noted. According to Clavien criteria a complication was level 1, and the other was level 2. Conclusions: For treatment of pregnant women with symptomatic ureteral stones in every location, Holmium laser lithotripsy with a semirigid ureteroscopy can be used as judicious treatment. This approach is effective and safe with an acceptable complication rate.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  19. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  20. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  1. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  3. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  4. Study results on the use of different therapies for the treatment of vaginitis in hospitalised pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakov Mikić, Aleksandra; Stojic, Sinisa

    2015-08-01

    During pregnancy, many women experience vaginal infections due to a weakened immune system and changes in hormonal status. Treating these infections is of crucial importance, because women are at high risk for serious complications such as preterm birth and late miscarriage. For this reason, the present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of octenidine dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) in comparison to antimicrobial therapies in pregnant women in hospital suffering from different types of vaginitis. A total of 1,000 patients were divided into 4 different groups according to their type of vaginal infection after smear analyses. Each group was again divided into two subgroups receiving treatment with OHP or antimicrobial therapies with neomycin/polymyxin B/nystatin, metronidazole or miconazole vaginal tablets. The most frequent causes of vaginitis were unspecific bacterial infections (42.4 %) and vaginal candidiasis (44.8 %). The average time needed to obtain negative results from smear analyses was significantly shorter when treated with OHP, both in patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or vaginal candidiasis (VC) compared to antimicrobial therapy (1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 days; 2.3 ± 1.4 vs. 3.4 ± 1.6 days; both p vaginitis during pregnancy and thus should be an integral part of standard therapy regimens.

  5. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  6. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  7. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  8. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  9. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  10. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  11. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  12. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  13. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  14. Maternity perception by pregnant women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the perceptions of pregnant women living with HIV about motherhood and understand the expectations and feelings experienced by these women. Methodology. Study with descriptive design and qualitative approach, carried out with 10 pregnant women living with HIV who attend the prenatal service of a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The participants answered a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results. Pregnant women in their descriptions revealed that motherhood gives them different perspectives on the present and future. They see it as a good thing, a responsibility to care for the child, and consider bearing a child to be a gift. Conclusion. For pregnant women living with HIV, motherhood is a positive experience in their lives. Nurses must be sensitive to the needs of this group and aware of their role in health care and preventing any possible complications that may affect the mother and her baby.

  15. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  16. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  17. [Prevalence of malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Comparative study of the plasmodial indices in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Ndir, O; Dieng, Y; Ba, F D; Bah, I B; Diop, B M; Gaye, O; Dieng, T

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of the prevalence of malaria in pregnant and non pregnant women living in Dakar has interested 1819 women among whom 950 pregnant and 869 non pregnant. For all the examined women, the global plasmoidic index was 2.6% and the gametocytic index 0.1%. Plasmodium falciparum was the only observed species. According to the obtained results, pregnant women, with a plasmoidic index of 4.5% are more often parasited than the non pregnant women, only affected in a proportion of 0.5% Whatever the age, the number of previous pregnancy, the place of residence, the duration of the stay in Dakar may be, the pregnant women are always more often parasited than the non pregnant women and the registered differences are statistically significant. That situation could come from a greater receptivity of the pregnant women what is admitted by some authors. But a more important proportion of natives from rural area was observed among the pregnant women, from where a difference in the exposure to the risk of impaludation between the two groups that could explain the registered results. The global plasmoidic index of 2.6% obtained in the examined women, reflects well the present situation of the malaria endemy in Dakar, a weak hypo-endemic area.

  18. The effect of different information sources on the anxiety level of pregnant women who underwent invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Mehmet; Tari Kasnakoglu, Berna; Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Okuducu, Ümmühan; Beksaç, M Sinan

    2016-12-01

    The goal is to explore the effects of age, education, obstetric history and information sources on the (Beck) anxiety levels of pregnant women attending invasive prenatal testing. Questionnaire results from 152 pregnant women are utilized. Results are analyzed through an independent samples t-test and a two-step cluster analysis attempting to categorize patients in terms of the chosen variables. t-Tests reveal that age, education and bad obstetric history do not significantly affect anxiety levels. Descriptive statistics indicate that almost 60% of patients feel anxious mostly because of the fear of receiving bad news, followed by the fear of miscarriage, the fear of pain and the fear of hurting the baby. According to the cluster analysis, patients who use doctors or nurses as information sources have significantly lower anxiety levels, while those who do not receive information from any source have the second lowest level of anxiety. Patients who receive information from personal sources (i.e. friends and family) have the highest level of anxiety. Anxiety levels do not change according to test type. Doctors and nurses should allocate enough time for providing information about prenatal diagnosis before the procedure. This will reduce the anxiety level as well as the felt necessity to search for information from other sources, such as personal or popular which will further increase the level of anxiety.

  19. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  20. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  1. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  2. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  3. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  4. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  5. Early uptake of HIV counselling and testing among pregnant women at different levels of health facilities – experiences from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV counselling and testing for pregnant women is a key factor for successful prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women's access to testing can be improved by scaling up the distribution of this service at all levels of health facilities. However, this strategy...... will only be effective if pregnant women are tested early and provided enough counselling. OBJECTIVE: To assess early uptake of HIV testing and the provision of HIV counselling among pregnant women who attend antenatal care at primary and higher level health facilities. METHODS: A community based study...

  6. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  7. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  9. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  10. Ventricular dyssynchrony in pregnant women: A tissue Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; El-Awady, Waleed S; Dewedar, Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the left ventricular (LV) synchronicity in pregnant women and to identify the main determinants of LV dyssynchrony in asymptomatic pregnant women. One hundred sixty-seven pregnant women consecutively and 48 age-matched nonpregnant controls were enrolled. For the assessment of LV systolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic (Tps-LV- standard deviation [SD]) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic velocity (Tps-LV) from 12 segments at the apical views. For the LV diastolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic (Tpe-LV-SD) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic velocity (Tpe-LV) were calculated. Both systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony indexes were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the normal controls (Tps-LV; Ppregnant women had a dyssynchrony index above the accepted value for LV dyssynchrony (>34.4 msec). There was a significant correlation between LV dyssynchrony indexes with, multiparty, multifetal pregnancies, systolic blood pressure in pregnant women with LV dyssynchrony. Additionally LV dyssynchrony was significantly associated with elevated E/e" and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both systolic synchronicity and diastolic synchronicity were affected in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. LV dyssynchrony was significantly correlated with age, multiparity, and BNP level. Early detectable changes in systolic and diastolic synchrony may be present in pregnant women at higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Representativeness of Participants in a Lifestyle Intervention Study in Obese Pregnant Women - the Difference between Study Participants and Non-Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gesche

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the representativeness of participants attending a lifestyle intervention study addressing obese pregnant women. Methods: Retrospective comparison of baseline data, attendance to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy, and pregnancy outcome in eligible women stratified according to study participation. Of 750 eligible women with a self-reported BMI > 30 kg/m2, and a live singleton pregnancy, 510 were eligible for inclusion and 425 were randomized to either active intervention (n= 284 or to standard obstetric care (n= 141 including two standard OGTT. The 85 women who declined participation or were excluded due to competing diseases and 240 women who did not respond to the initial invitation received the same standard care. Results: The randomized women had similar BMI but a lower parity and age, and were more frequently non-smokers, born in Denmark and married or cohabitating with their partner than the non-participants. Women participating in the trial had a higher compliance to the second OGTT compared to non-participants, also after correcting for age and nationality. There was no difference in pregnancy outcome, i.e., fetal weight and length, gestational age as well as mode of delivery. Conclusion: Women declining participation in a randomized lifestyle intervention study in pregnancy have characteristics indicating they are those who might benefit the most from lifestyle intervention.

  12. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  13. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  14. Clostridium difficile carriage in healthy pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guang-yong; Li, Na; Chen, Yun-Bo; Lv, Tao; Shen, Ping; Gu, Si-Lan; Fang, Yun-Hui; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile has been shown to have particularly poor outcomes for pregnant women, including an increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypic distribution, and characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant women without diarrhea in China. As part of this study, 3.7% (37 out of 1009) of samples acquired from pregnant females tested positive for C. difficile. Of these positive samples, 27.0% (10) were toxigenic isolates containing both toxin A and toxin B genes (A+B+), 13.5% (5) of the variant strains contained the toxin B gene (A-B+) only, while the rest were non-toxigenic isolates (59.5%, 22 isolates). Among the non-pregnant women without diarrhea tested, 1.4% (9 of 651) contained toxigenic isolates (all of which were A+B+). Sixteen different sequence types (STs) were isolated during the course of this study. ST-37 (ribotype 017) and ST-54 (ribotype 012) were the most frequent toxigenic types observed in pregnant women. All strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics metronidazole and vancomycin. The resistance rates of toxigenic C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant females to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and rifampicin were 20%, 46.7%, 13.6%, 46.7% and 13.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between resistance rates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains with respect to their susceptibility to these antibiotics. However, when compared with the same data from non-pregnant women, toxigenic strains from pregnant women showed lower resistance rates to clindamycin (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  16. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  18. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  19. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  20. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  1. Early uptake of HIV counselling and testing among pregnant women at different levels of health facilities – experiences from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    .0% of the women interviewed had attended antenatal care and 90.3% had been tested for HIV during their most recent pregnancy. Women who had their first antenatal checkup at primary health facilities were significantly more likely to be tested before 34 weeks of gestation (OR = 43.2, CI: 18.9-98.1). The reported......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV counselling and testing for pregnant women is a key factor for successful prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women's access to testing can be improved by scaling up the distribution of this service at all levels of health facilities. However, this strategy...... will only be effective if pregnant women are tested early and provided enough counselling. OBJECTIVE: To assess early uptake of HIV testing and the provision of HIV counselling among pregnant women who attend antenatal care at primary and higher level health facilities. METHODS: A community based study...

  2. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  3. Zika virus and pregnant women: A psychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus presents risk of physical harm to pregnant women, but the fear of infection is also affecting women around the world. There is a gap in the research on Zika virus in the areas involving the impact on the psychosocial well-being of pregnant women. Therefore, this study is aimed at the investigation of the psychosocial adjustment of pregnant women to the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We investigated 14 pregnant women who were classified in three different groups: six in the first trimester, five in the second trimester and three in the third trimester, aged from 28 to 40 years (33.43 ± 3.76 years). Content analysis was used to interpret data. Our results show that the psychosocial adjustment of participants was significantly negative and included five aspects: (1) negative feelings, (2) changes in family planning, (3) adopting new customs (avoiding places of risk, use of specific clothes and use of repellent), (4) changed attitudes regarding body image and (5) feeling of external demand regarding prevention. The fear of Zika virus infection and all its associated risks have a negative biopsychosocial impact on the pregnant women in this study.

  4. Hemoglobin values for pregnant women residing at middle altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Jatziri Gaitán-González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal hemoglobin behavior during pregnancy for middle altitude residents and to compare it with that reported in other populations with or without iron supplementation. Materials and methods. Hematological values from 227 pregnant women residing at 2 240 m altitude (Mexico City, with low obstetric and perinatal risk, and receiving supplementary iron, were compared with reference values obtained from other populations of pregnant women residing at different altitudes, after correcting for altitude. Results. While the hemoglobin values for the first and second trimester of pregnancy in our studied population were similar to those reported for iron-supplemented populations (p mayor que 0.05, the third trimester values were similar to those reported for a population without this supplement (p mayor que 0.05. Conclusions. Despite receiving supplementary iron, hemoglobin values during pregnancy from women residing at middle altitude show similar behavior to that reported for pregnant women without iron supplementation.

  5. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  6. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...... subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish...

  7. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  8. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  9. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  10. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  11. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  12. Airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydas, A D; Basaranoglu, G; Ozdemir, H; Dooply, S L S; Muhammedoglu, N; Kucuk, S; Saidoglu, L

    2015-06-01

    High incidence of difficult or failed intubation in obstetric patients is still a major problem to challenge anaesthesiologists. Although the probability of difficult intubation is impossible to predict preoperatively, some simple, practical bedside tests may help. This study used five simple tests in an attempt to better evaluate airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery. Pregnant women from the ASA I-II group who were planning to undergo a normal vaginal delivery were evaluated as to the possibility of experiencing difficult intubation. Mallampati scores, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension were recorded just before delivery and 24 h after delivery. Significant differences were seen in the pre- and post-delivery measurements (p changed in one-third (n 21, 36.6%) of the patients. Significant differences between the two measurements of thyromental and sternomental distances, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension confirm difficult airway management in pregnant women.

  13. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  14. Evaluation of sexual functions of the pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun Güleroğlu, Funda; Gördeles Beşer, Nalan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women may avoid sexual intercourse or may unavoidably undergo problems in their sexual lives because of various complaints they suffer from. The study aims to evaluate sexual functions of the pregnant women and to determine the factors that negatively affect their sexual health. This is a descriptive research study conducted to evaluate sexual functions of pregnant women. Three hundred six pregnant women admitted to the Women Birth Polyclinics within the Women Birth and Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were included in the study. The data were gathered using a personal information form and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Kruskall-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analysis. The main outcome is an assessment of the FSFI domains in pregnancy and relationships between pregnancy complaints and sexual functions. The results indicated that the mean age of the pregnant women was 25.6 ± 5.4 and their length of marriage was 5.93 ± 5.4 years. The study revealed that 88.9% of the pregnant women had sexual desire disorders, 86.9% had sexual arousal disorder, 42.8% had lubrication disorders, 69.6% had orgasm disorders, and 48% had sexual satisfaction disorders. Statistically significant differences were found in correlations between FSFI medians and the characteristics of the pregnant women in terms of age, educational level, length and type of marriage, and gestational week. There were also statistically significant differences in correlations between the pregnancy characteristics in terms of backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache, and cramp problems (P sexual lives of the pregnant women were negatively affected not only by factors such as old age, low educational status, arranged marriages lasting for more than 10 years, undesired pregnancy, and gestational week but also by health problems such as backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache

  15. Investigation of the psychological condition of pregnant women of different ages%不同年龄孕妇妊娠期心理状态调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支媛; 李正敏; 刘珏

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查不同年龄段的妊娠期女性在焦虑症状、社会支持、心境状态等方面的差异,探讨孕期心理可能的影响因素以给予孕期心理支持.方法 选择在产科门诊定期进行产前检查的初产妇90例,采用贝克焦虑量表(BAI)、社会支持评定量表及简式心境量表调查妊娠期女性在焦虑症状、社会支持、心境状态等方面的情况.结果 不同年龄组的初产妇都存在焦虑以及心理状态上的问题,但这种焦虑与年龄无直接关系,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);31 ~36岁组孕妇的社会支持评定量表总分与简式心境量表总分及其各负性情绪秩相关系数(r)为-0.230~-0.415,均呈负相关(P<0.05),说明高年龄组孕妇的社会支持度越高,其负性情绪越低.而24~30岁组孕妇的社会支持评定量表得分与简式心境量表得分则无明显相关性(P>0.05).结论 不同年龄组孕妇都存在焦虑状态、社会支持、心境状态方面的问题.高龄孕妇需要更多的心理支持,孕期心理健康教育应结合社会、家庭等多方面因素帮助高龄孕妇提高对支持的利用度并根据个体差异给予有针对性的指导.%Objective To investigate the differences of pregnant women of different ages in anxiety,social support and mood status,so as to take this discussion of possible influencing factors during pregnancy,as well as psychological support during pregnancy.Methods Totals of 90 pregnant women in the obstetric clinic were investigated with Beck anxiety inventory (BAI),social support ratting scale (SSRS) to evaluate their anxiety,social support and mood status.Results All the maternal had anxiety and mental problems,which not directly related to age (P > 0.05).Social support of pregnant women more in higher age groups,lower the negative emotions (P < 0.05),while no significant relation was found in the 24-30 age nurses between SSRS score and Jane type mood scale score (P > 0

  16. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  17. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2008-01-30

    There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown

  18. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be

  19. 南京地区孕妇弓形虫感染不同妊娠结局研究%Investigation of different pregnant results of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii in Nanjing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏薇; 张小俊; 陈锡慰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of Toxoplasma gondii infection on pregnant results during different pregnancies of women. Methods The antibodies of IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA in 6 849 pregnant women and the antibody of IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in cord blood was also detected in 1 032 newborns in Nanjing City. The general status of these women was investigated with questionnaire, and the outcome of pregnancies of the women was followed up. Results A total of 6 849 pregnant women were screened, 438 persons were found with antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and the positive rate was 6.4% . Among them, 87 women were IgM positive accounting for 19.9% , and 351 IgG positive accounting for 80. 1%. Totally 1 032 newborns were screened and they were divided into a normal group and a deformed group according to their health. Among them, the IgM positive rates were 0. 6% in the normal group and 28. 13% in the deformed group respectively, and there was a statistically significant deference between 2 groups (P<0.01). The exposure to animals and bad eating habits were the main risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Conclusions Toxoplasma infection can lead to different pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The detection of IgM antibody against Toxoplasma gondii may contribute to screening deformed newborns.%目的 探讨孕妇怀孕不同时期弓形虫感染对妊娠结局的影响.方法 采用问卷调查、随访和酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测南京地区6 849名孕妇外周血弓形虫IgG抗体和IgM抗体以及1 032名新生儿脐血弓形虫IgM抗体,并观察孕妇妊娠结局.结果 共筛查孕妇6 849例,抗体阳性438例,阳性率为6.4%.其中弓形虫lgM抗体阳性87例,占19.9%;IgG抗体阳性351例,占80.1%.筛查新生儿1 032名,其中正常新生儿组脐血弓形虫IgM抗体阳性率为0.6%,畸形儿组脐血弓形虫IgM抗体阳性率为28.13%,两

  20. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  1. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  2. [Concentration of heavy metals in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyszyn, K; Walas, J; Malinowski, A; Latkowski, T; Cwynar, L

    1982-01-01

    Copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured in two groups 72 pregnant women. Twenty-one of them, making up the control group, lived and worked in Wrocław. The other 51 women, the second group, had lived more than five years in Lubin-Polkowice and worked in the local non-ferrous metal plants. They were particularly endangered by their exposure to copper, zinc, and lead concentrations. Pregnancy was normal in all cases. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placenta homogenate, and amniotic fluid were examined by techniques of atom-absorption spectrometry. The metals tested were conspicuously absorbed by placental tissue, but no danger to the pregnant women could be established.

  3. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  4. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  5. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  6. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. METHODS: Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. FINDINGS: One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with

  7. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  8. Maternal thyroid parameters in pregnant women with different ethnic backgrounds: Do ethnicity-specific reference ranges improve the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Flora; Belhomme, Julie; Kleynen, Pierre; Grabczan, Lidia; Rozenberg, Serge; Pepersack, Thierry; Poppe, Kris

    2017-06-01

    Guidelines on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy have recently been updated and, for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) upper reference limit (cut-off) of 4.0 mIU/L has been proposed when no institutional values are available. It is also suggested that serum TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) may be different according to the ethnic background of the women. We therefore determined the prevalence of TAI and SCH in pregnant women with different ethnic backgrounds and, to define SCH, we used different first trimester TSH upper reference cut-offs (institutional, ethnicity-specific, 2.5 mIU/L [Endocrine Society] and 4.0 mIU/L [American Thyroid Association]). Cross-sectional data analysis of 1683 pregnant women nested within an ongoing prospective database of pregnant women. The study was performed in a single centre in Brussels, Belgium. During the first antenatal visit, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-abs), TSH and free T4 (FT4) were measured and baseline characteristics recorded. Data from 481 women with sub-Saharan (SaBg; 28.6%), 754 North African (NaBg; 44.8%) and 448 Caucasian (CaBg; 26.6%) backgrounds were analysed. For the calculation of TSH reference ranges, women with TAI, outliers, twin and assisted pregnancies were excluded. The prevalence of TAI was significantly lower in the SaBg group than in NaBg and CaBg groups (3.3% vs 8.6% and 11.1%; Pwomen with SCH was comparable between all groups when 2.5 mIU/L was used as cut-off, but when 4.0 mIU/L or the institutional cut-off (3.74 mIU/L) was used, it was significantly higher in the CaBg group vs the NaBg group (5.4% vs 2.1% and 7.1% vs 3.3%, P=.008 and .013, respectively). The use of ethnicity-specific cut-offs did not change the prevalence of SCH as compared to the use of institutional cut-offs. However, when these cut-offs were used, the prevalence of SCH reduced by >70% (4.5% instead of 16.7%; PPregnant women with a sub

  9. Domestic violence against pregnant women in iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

  10. Copper and selenium status of healthy pregnant women in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake should be modified to ensure optimal selenium levels during pregnancy. Key words: Copper ... common practice to routinely supplement iron and folic acid with the aim of ... pregnant women to assist in the optimal formulation of micronutrient needs .... trend has been shown in many other studies from different.

  11. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  12. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  13. Changes in hematologic indices in caucasian and non-caucasian pregnant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Sarah K; Yazer, Mark H; Waters, Jonathan H

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least pregnant women at any point during gestation. There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.

  14. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  15. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m(2), 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women ... and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women...... in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  16. [Reference Intervals of Thyroid Hormones in Normal Pregnant Women and Effects of Thyroid Autoantibodies on Thyroid Hormone Levels in Pregnant Women in Chengdu Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Zeng, Jing; Yan, Yue-Rong; Luo, Dan; Huang, Lu; Huang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    thyroid autoantibodies, the incidences of clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were 0.85%, 15.38% and 0.85%, respectively. The thyroid hormone reference ranges of pregnant women is quite different from those of non-pregnant women. It is necessary to establish the reference intervals of thyroid hormones in normal pregnant women. Thyroid function of pregnant women with positive thyroid autoantibodies should be monitored during the pregnant period.

  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico

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    Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

  18. Contamination Rates of Three Urine-Sampling Methods to Assess Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare contamination rates of three different urine-sampling methods in pregnant women to assess bacteriuria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 pregnant women collected three different midstream urine samples consecutively: morning (first void); midstream (void

  19. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...

  20. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  1. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  2. Physical activity of pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristine E; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penny; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized. To assess patterns and correlates of physical activity among 1355 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. Household/caregiving activity was the primary mode of pregnancy activity ranging from 56% to 60% of total activity while sports/exercise contributed the least (<10%). Compared to nulliparous women, women with two or more children were 85% less likely to become inactive at any time during pregnancy (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04, 0.56, p-trend <0.01). Women with one or more children increased their total physical activity on average 9.73±2.04 MET-hours/week and 12.04±2.39 MET-hours/week, respectively, with the onset of pregnancy (p<0.01). Those with the highest levels of total physical activity prior to pregnancy were 87% less likely to become inactive with the onset of pregnancy than those who were inactive prior to pregnancy (OR=0.13, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.29). Findings can inform culturally appropriate interventions designed to reduce pregnancy complications through the promotion of physical activity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ausilia Grassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  4. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  5. Early uptake of HIV counseling and testing among pregnant women at different levels of health facilities - experiences from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammeltoft Tine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counselling and testing for pregnant women is a key factor for successful prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women's access to testing can be improved by scaling up the distribution of this service at all levels of health facilities. However, this strategy will only be effective if pregnant women are tested early and provided enough counselling. Objective To assess early uptake of HIV testing and the provision of HIV counselling among pregnant women who attend antenatal care at primary and higher level health facilities. Methods A community based study was conducted among 1108 nursing mothers. Data was collected during interviews using a structured questionnaire focused on socio-economic background, reproductive history, experience with antenatal HIV counselling and testing as well as types of health facility providing the services. Results In all 91.0% of the women interviewed had attended antenatal care and 90.3% had been tested for HIV during their most recent pregnancy. Women who had their first antenatal checkup at primary health facilities were significantly more likely to be tested before 34 weeks of gestation (OR = 43.2, CI: 18.9-98.1. The reported HIV counselling provision was also higher at primary health facilities, where women in comparison with women attending higher level health facilities were nearly three or and four times more likely to receive pre-test (OR = 2.7; CI:2.1-3.5 and post-test counseling (OR = 4.0; CI: 2.3-6.8. Conclusions The results suggest that antenatal HIV counseling and testing can be scaled up to primary heath facilities and that such scaling up may enhance early uptake of testing and provision of counseling.

  6. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernanda Campos; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Assis, Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  7. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  8. Hydration status of pregnant women in West Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Erry Yudhya; Hardinsyah; Briawan, Dodik; Santoso, Budi Iman

    2017-06-01

    During pregnancy, the body exhibits dynamic changes in fluid composition. More than 50%of women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester. Studies of hydration status in pregnant women are limited, and not in tropical countries, like in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydration status and appropriate biomarkers for determination of hydration status in pregnant women in West Jakarta. This study was cross-sectional. A total of 35 pregnant women aged (19-35 years) at the early second trimester of pregnancy was recruited. Urine osmolality, urine specific gravity, and serum osmolality were used to determine hydration status. Subjects then were divided into a hydration group (HG) and a dehydration group (DG). We used independent t tests, chi-square and Spearman rank correlation coefficient to analyse the data. The population was comparably divided between dehydration and hydration groups (57.1% and 42.9%, respectively). The proportions by age, parity, gestational age, height, weight, upper arm circumference, waist circumference, pelvic circumference, body temperature, blood pressure, and fundal height did not differ between groups (p>=0.05). There was a relationship between urine colour and hydration status (ppregnant women.

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  10. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  11. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  12. Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Hee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05 whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84, between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81, and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85. CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.

  13. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (Pchanges associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  14. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247. The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 - 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006. Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004 affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

  15. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  16. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  17. Representativeness of participants in a lifestyle intervention study in obese pregnant women - the difference between study participants and non-participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the representativeness of participants attending a lifestyle intervention study addressing obese pregnant women. METHODS: Retrospective comparison of baseline data, attendance to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy, and pregnancy outcome in eligible women......, gestational age as well as mode of delivery. CONCLUSION: Women declining participation in a randomized lifestyle intervention study in pregnancy have characteristics indicating they are those who might benefit the most from lifestyle intervention....... stratified according to study participation. Of 750 eligible women with a self-reported BMI > 30 kg/m(2), and a live singleton pregnancy, 510 were eligible for inclusion and 425 were randomized to either active intervention (n= 284) or to standard obstetric care (n= 141) including two standard OGTT. The 85...

  18. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  19. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... parity and is significantly higher in pregnant women who are in their first or .... highly educated women with tertiary education and the others. ... albicans is highly sensitive; there is considerable maternal disability and neonatal ...

  20. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic at a health centre in Balaka, Malawi. Methods. This was a ... pregnant women enroled in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. A sample size of thirty-five ..... Some women reported suffering the physical and psychological ...

  1. Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease Multiple specialists may be needed to care for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many more American women with heart disease are choosing to have babies, a new study ...

  2. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  3. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  4. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  5. Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Vivette

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10 were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks, together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. Results The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one Conclusions This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother.

  6. Smoking among pregnant women in small towns in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Balwicki, Łukasz; Zarzeczna-Baran, M.; Wierucki, Ł.; Jędrzejczyk, T.; Strahl, M.; Wrotkowska, M.; Goniewicz, M. L.; Zdrojewski, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the work was to assess among pregnant women from small towns and villages in Poland: the prevalence of smoking, credibility of smoking, and influence of socioeconomic factors on smoking status. Methods The data came from 4512 interviews with women in different trimesters of pregnancy. The interviews were collected in 2007 and 2008 year in towns up to 8000 citizens in 12 voivodeships. Results Prevalence of smoking in the beginning of pregnancy was confirmed by 34.6 % of w...

  7. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  8. D-dimer concentration outliers are not rare in at-term pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan

    2016-06-01

    To determine the D-dimer levels in pregnant women at term and the differences between pregnant women with different D-dimer levels. The plasma D-dimer concentrations in pregnant women at term were identified in a cross-sectional study. The clinical indicators that are potentially relevant to D-dimer levels were compared between the pregnant women with different D-dimer levels (i.e., normal, mildly increased, and severely increased). There were always some D-dimer concentration outliers in the pregnant women at term regardless of the presence or absence of complications, and there were no significant differences in maternal age, gestational age, gravidity, parity, blood count, blood coagulation, or liver function between the pregnant women with different D-dimer levels. D-dimer levels may vary significantly during pregnancy for unknown reasons. This variation, particularly in pregnant women at term, might lead to questionable diagnostic information regarding coagulation. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osime, Odaburhine E; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U; Kolade, Samson O

    2015-02-01

    To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13 g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia.

  10. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  11. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  12. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  13. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  14. Telbivudine treatment of hepatitis B virus-infected pregnant women at different gestational stages for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhangmin; Yin, Yuzhu; Zhou, Jin; Wu, Lingling; Xu, Chengfang; Hou, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination. Mothers and infants were followed for 7 months after birth. Pregnancy outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. HBV MTCT rates in the early and late treatment and control groups were 0, 0, and 4.69%, respectively. The rates of infant vaccination success among the 3 groups were similar, as were neonatal outcomes including birth weights, asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, Apgar score, birth defects, and weight and height at 7 months. Puerperal discontinuation of telbivudine did not increase the alanine transaminase value at 7 months after birth, but increased serum HBV DNA levels, and rates of positive hepatitis Be-antigen. Telbivudine treatment in HBV-infected pregnant women was associated with lower serum HBV DNA levels and reduced rates of HBV MTCT; there were no associated changes in pregnancy or neonatal outcomes at birth or 7 months after birth, or in the rate of infant vaccination success. Puerperal drug withdrawal after short-term antiviral therapy will not influence hepatic function, but may increase virus replication. PMID:27749537

  15. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  16. Estado nutricional de gestantes avaliado por três diferentes métodos de classificação antropométrica Nutritional status of pregnant women according to three different anthropometric classification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Bezerra de Melo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de gestantes por três diferentes métodos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, realizado entre janeiro e junho de 2006, com 992 gestantes de um serviço público. O estado nutricional foi classificado por diferentes métodos de avaliação: nomograma de Rosso, método de Atalah e gestograma do Centro Latino Americano de Perinatologia. Os resultados foram comparados com o estado nutricional de mulheres não gestantes em idade reprodutiva da Região Nordeste e do Brasil. As diferenças foram analisadas pelo teste qui-quadrado de bondade de ajuste, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O baixo peso gravídico avaliado pelo nomograma de Rosso foi a condição que mais contribuiu para a diferença encontrada (pOBJECTIVE: This study assessed the nutritional status of pregnant women by three different methods. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted between January and June 2006 with 992 pregnant women attending a public prenatal care facility. Nutritional status was classified according to different assessment methods (Rosso nomogram, Atalah method and the Latin American Center for Perinatology gestogram. The results were compared with the nutritional status of nonpregnant women in childbearing age in the Brazilian Northeast and all of Brazil. The differences were analyzed by the chi-square goodness of fit test, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Low weight of pregnant women according to the Rosso nomogram was the condition that most contributed to the difference (p<0.001. According to the Atalah method, extreme differences were also observed in the prevalences of underweight pregnant women both in the Northeast and in all of Brazil. In relation to the gestogram of the Perinatology Latin American Center, the greatest prevalence differences also occurred among the underweight: 18% versus 7.4% for the Northeast Region and 18% versus 6.7% for Brazil, although this was the

  17. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

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    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  18. 山东省孕妇营养知识和饮食行为城乡差别研究%Study on the differences between urban and rural pregnant women about nutrition knowledge and diet behavior in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐雷涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To learn the pregnant women's nutrition knowledge and behavior condition in Shandong province and analyze the influencing factors. Methods: All 500 pregnant women of 5 different areas in Shandong province were selected by stratified sampling. Data were collected through the self - designed questionnaire. Results: The average score of pregnant women's nutrition knowledge was 7. 17 ± 1. 74, and the passed ration was 44. 00%. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that lived in the city, higher education degree, and higher income, the pregnant women s school experience were positive factors for higher knowledge score. The urban pregnant women's intake frequency of eggs, milk, foods rich in iron and calcium were higher than country pregnant women's ( P < 0.05 ) . The country pregnant women's intake frequency of pickles were higher than urban women {P <0.05) . Conclusion: The pregnant women's nutrition condition is not good enough. We should establishing and perfecting the health education institutions for the pregnant women in urban and rural and guidance their nutrition behavior.%目的:了解山东省孕妇的营养知识、饮食行为及影响因素.方法:采用分层抽样的方法,自行设计问卷,对山东省5个地区500名城乡孕妇营养知识及饮食行为进行调查.结果:调查对象营养知识平均为(7.17±1.74)分,及格率为44.00%.多元线性回归分析显示:居住在城市、文化程度高、家庭月牧入高、参加孕妇学校学习是营养知识得分高的有利因素.城市孕妇牛奶和鸡蛋的摄入频率、有意摄取富含铁和钙的食物频率高于农村孕妇(P<0.05);农村孕妇“经常”食用腌制食物的比例高于城市孕妇(P<0.05).结论:孕妇的营养知识水平较低,正确饮食行为有待提高,应建立和健全城乡孕妇的健康教育机构,指导她们科学合理的安排营养膳食.

  19. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

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    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  20. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, pchange during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (pchanges, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

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    Katayoon Bidad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship.

  2. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for 12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  3. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Verly Junior, Eliseu

    2014-06-02

    Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan.

  4. Music Therapy on Anxiety, Stress and Maternal-fetal Attachment in Pregnant Women During Transvaginal Ultrasound

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    Hye Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The finding provides evidence for use of nursing intervention in prenatal care unit to reduce pregnant women's anxiety. Further research is necessary to test the benefits of music therapy with different frequency and duration.

  5. The Haemostatic Effects of Mifepristone in Early Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昌海; 范倩; 顾江; 桂幼伦; 汪荣卿; 李盛华; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    The paper reported the effects of four different regimens of mifepristone on clotting and fibrinolytic systems in pregnant women. Nine parameters (PT,KPTT,Ⅶ: C, Ⅷ: C, VWF , AT Ⅲ = C, AT Ⅱ = Ag , α2-macroglobulin and plasminogen antigen levels) were determined. All the data were analysed on VAX-Ⅱ using SAS software package, The results showed that among the four groups there was no significant.difference in pretreated values of each parameter, and in values of PT、KPTT、 AT

  6. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

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    Jelena Meinilä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394 were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7, saturated fatty acids (SFA 12 en% (SD 3, and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6. Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3, which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4 (p<0.001. Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.

  7. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Sarah Oluwatayo Ajibola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 10 [9] /L. [3],[4] Counts from 100 to 150 × 10 [9] /L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 10 [9] /L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 10 [9] /L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5% pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3% non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82. Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78% had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth.

  8. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

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    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  9. Comparative Analysis of Urine Testing by Different Methods in Pregnant Women%不同检查方法对孕妇尿检测结果的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芒会; 张利侠; 胡淑玲; 弥鹏; 王莉; 张连

    2013-01-01

    目的 究UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿检测结果的可靠性分析.方法 随机选择100例怀孕妇女中段尿及100例门诊患者中段尿,用UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪、干化学分析仪及显微镜检查测定,对比三种方法的结果,分析UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪产生假阳性的原因.结果 UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿的阳性预测值:白细胞为67.8%,红细胞为61.9%,管型为16.7%,上皮细胞为91.0%,结晶为57.1%.其他患者的阳性预测值:白细胞为89.3%,红细胞为83.3%,管型为65.5%,上皮细胞为93.6%,结晶为87.1%.干化学对孕妇尿的阳性预测值:白细胞为88.9%,红细胞为81.1%,对其他患者的阳性预测值:白细胞为96.1%,红细胞为81.6%.结论 UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿各参数的阳性预测值及干化学对孕妇尿白细胞的阳性预测值低于其他患者.因此当孕妇尿干化学与UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪检测结果有差异时必须进行显微镜检查,对假阳性结果进行修正.%Objective To examine the reliability of urine testing by urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i) in pregnant women. Methods One hundred middle-urine samples were randomly collected from pregnant women and non-pregnant patients. Comparing the results of urine testing which were examined by three different methods, urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i),dry chemistry analyzer and microscopy,and finding the reasons that lead to? false positive results in urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i). Results The positive predictive values (PPV) of white blood cells (WBC),red blood cells (RBC), tube, epithelial cells and the crystal in urine testing from pregnant women by urinary sediment analyzer were 67. 8%,61. 9%, 16. 7%, 91.0% and 57. 1% , respectively, and from non-pregnant patients were 89. 3% , 83. 3% , 65. 5% , 93. 6% and 87. 1%. The PPV of WBC and RBC in urine testing from pregnant women by dry chemistry analyzer were 88. 9% and 81. 1% , respectively, and from non-pregnant

  10. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  11. Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Gisselle; Goodall, Stephen; Eastman, Creswell J

    2010-04-19

    Recent research has confirmed that Australian children and pregnant women are mildly iodine deficient. A considerable proportion of the pregnant population is moderately to severely iodine deficient. Even subclinical hypothyroidism in the mother, occurring as a consequence of iodine deficiency, can cause irreversible brain damage in the fetus, making it essential to avoid iodine deficiency in pregnancy. The proposal of Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) - Mandatory Iodine Fortification for Australia (P1003) - has been implemented. FSANZ openly admits P1003 is inadequate for covering the needs of pregnant women. Therefore, health professionals and the public must be properly informed about the limitations of this proposal. Views differ about the most effective measures to prevent iodine deficiency in Australia. We propose that women planning a pregnancy, and pregnant and lactating women should be advised to take an iodine supplement. Women with pre-existing thyroid disease should exercise caution and seek medical advice before taking a supplement.

  12. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  13. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  14. Correlation of psychological symptoms with cortisol and CRP levels in pregnant women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanović, Vedran; Babić, Dragan; Hodžić, Damir; Bjelanović, Ana; Krešić, Tanja; Dugandžić-Šimić, Ana; Orešković, Slavko

    2015-12-01

    In pregnancy occurs series of physiological, organic and psychological changes in the female organism. Particularly are significant hormonal and metabolic changes. Elevated cortisol levels are reduced by linking the transport of globulin (transcortin). Triglycerides were increased 50% and other lipids from 20 to 30%. The values of CRP were slightly elevated in the third trimester of pregnancy (10-15 mg/L). To investigate the association of psychological symptoms with the level of cortisol and CRP in women with metabolic syndrome. From 1646 pregnant women cross-sectional, prospective study included 180 pregnant women divided into three groups by applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Research methods are laboratory and clinical tests and questionnaires. Every pregnant woman have been made complete laboratory findings and determined cortisol in 8 and 17 hours using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method. All pregnant women filled in several questionnaires: socio-demographic, obstetrical-gynecological, standardized psychometric questionnaire (SCL 90-R), a questionnaire syndrome of depression according to ICD 10 and Beck self depression scale. The study was conducted from August 2011 to mid-November 2012. From the total of 1646 hospitalized pregnant women, 176 pregnant women had a BMI>30 and 120 of them were tested, but 60 had criteria for MS. The concentration of morning and afternoon cortisol is increased in pregnant women with the metabolic syndrome Obese pregnant women have a statistically higher level and morning and afternoon cortisol levels than women with normal body weight and without the metabolic syndrome, but these differences are smaller than in the case of pregnant women with the metabolic syndrome. CRP is significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome. CRP concentration is significantly higher in obese pregnant women compared to pregnant women with normal weight and without the metabolic syndrome, but it is lower than in pregnant women

  15. Assessment of dietary diversity and nutritional status of pregnant women in Islamabad, Pakistan. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima; Thaver, Inayat; Khan, Shahzad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition is one of the most important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Maternal nutrition has direct association with foetal nutrition. This study aimed to identify dietary diversity and determine any relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Rawalpindi Islamabad region. It was a cross sectional survey involving 350 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, conducted in outpatient department of Maternal and Child health centre at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad. A semi qualitative questionnaire was used that contained structured questions regarding socio-demographic features, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and three day dietary recall. A second section comprising of questions regarding dietary perceptions was also Out of total, 47% of pregnant women had normal pre-gestational BMI while, 22% were overweight, 17% obese, and only 12% of pregnant women were under weight. Similarly 28.1% were anaemic. Medium dietary diversity was observed in 89% of pregnant women, while only 5% showed low, and high dietary diversity. Dietary diversity was not associated with sociodemographic, or socioeconomic status of pregnant women. Even though weight gain during second (p=0.2) and third trimesters (p=0.049) had a positive relationship with dietary diversity, more than 74% of pregnant women gained less than recommended level of weight gain. No association could be proven between haemoglobin and dietary diversity (p=0.51). Dietary diversity is a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy in pregnant women, however if quantity of food consumed is added it can give better indication of determinants of nutritional status of pregnant women.

  16. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Mainly based on the nature of the underlying viral reactivation, pityriasis rosea is classified into five different forms (2): 1) Classic and 2) Relapsing (characterized by sporadic and relapsing HHV-6/7 systemic reactivation, respectively), 3) Persistent (persistence of HHV-6/7 viremia), 4) Pediatric (longer activity of HHV-6/7 infection; recent primary infection) and 5) Gestational (HHV-6/7 reactivation and possible intrauterine transmission). Clearly, the inevitable impairment of immune response in pregnancy favors viral reactivation and possibly also the intrauterine transmission of HHV-6/7. Indeed, it is well known and documented that pityriasis rosea more frequently occurs in pregnant women (18%) as compared to the general population (6%) (3). However, the literature concerning the possible effect of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is surprisingly sparse. Only an Italian group, Drago et al (4,5), has systematically investigated the impact of this disorder on pregnant women. They found that 22 out of 61 women (36%) who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy had unfavorable outcomes, whereas 8 others miscarried (13%). None of the latter had any risk factors, other than

  17. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  18. Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Handberg, A; Kühl, C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the decreased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance found in normal and gestational diabetic pregnancy might be associated with changes in insulin receptor function. METHODS: Eight nonpregnant healthy women (nonpregnant controls), eight healthy pregnant women...... (pregnant controls), and eight women with gestational diabetes were investigated. All were non-obese. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle, and insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activities in partially purified skeletal muscle insulin receptors were studied. The pregnant controls...... with gestational diabetes compared to nonpregnant controls (P pregnant women did not differ from the other two groups. Postpartum, no differences in insulin binding were found between the groups. Basal and maximal tyrosine kinase activities toward the exogenous substrate poly(Glu4Tyr1) were...

  19. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  20. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  1. Central sleep apnea in pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjeily, Ghada; Sharkey, Katherine M; Mazer, Jeffrey; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan; Millman, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Physiologic changes in the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems in pregnancy likely impact ventilatory control. Though obstructive sleep apnea and snoring are common in the pregnant population, the predisposition to central respiratory events during sleep and the prevalence of such events is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of central apneas during sleep in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls suspected of sleep disordered breathing. Twenty-five pregnant women referred for polysomnography for sleep disordered breathing were compared with non-pregnant controls matched for age, body mass index, gender, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Central apnea index was defined as the number of central apneas per hour of sleep, and mixed apnea index was defined as the number of mixed apneas per hour of sleep. Sixty-four percent of pregnant women had a respiratory disturbance index >5 events per hour of sleep. Mean body mass index was 44.1 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) pregnant compared to 44.0 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) in controls. The total number of central apneas observed during sleep in the pregnant group consisted of two central apneas in one patient, and of 98 central apneas in 11 patients in the control group (p = 0.05). Median central apnea index was low in both groups (pregnant 0, interquartile range (IQR) 0, 0 vs. non-pregnant 0, IQR 0, 0.2, p = 0.04). Mixed apnea index was similarly low in both groups. Despite some physiologic changes of pregnancy that impact ventilatory control, the prevalence of central sleep apnea was low in our sample of overweight pregnant women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  2. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  3. Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state, nigeria. ... instrument was ensured through constructive criticisms of seven health professionals. ... safe motherhood and family life education concepts that would sensitize the ...

  4. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...

  5. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... settings, and 15 - 34% of indirect obstetric maternal mortality.10. In SA between 2008 and ... TB prevention, diagnosis and treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women should be ..... Bothamley G. Drug treatment for tuberculosis.

  6. RESEARCH Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 SAMJ. In January 2005, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration ... therapy (ART) for pregnant women with CD4 ≤350 cells/µl,7 based on their ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand and.

  7. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y. Y. Nikulina; I. E. Sokolova; A. I. Vinnikov

    2012-01-01

    .... The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration...

  8. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively ... due to the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. ... by bacteria species that are part of the normal body.

  9. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under ... agency news release. She is director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Parents and ...

  10. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi, Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical. Student. Research. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi,. Namibia ... Julia Thomson, medk:aJ student. In recognition of this ..... College of General Practitioners, the Commonwealth ... Maternal nutritional status in pregnancy.

  11. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather: Wildfires Ready.gov (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) Are You Ready? (FEMA) American Red Cross Family Preparedness Guide (Florida Department of Health) Preparedness Information for Pregnant Women Pregnancy and Disaster Information from ...

  12. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  13. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salah K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  14. Resistin protein expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of resistin protein in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placental tissue in pregnant women and the relationship between pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods: The expression of resistin protein in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant and nonpregnant women and placental tissue was measured using western blotting method. Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay.Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Results: Resistin protein expression in placental tissue(67905 ± 8441)(arbitrary OD units)was much higher than that in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue in pregnant women (40718 ± 3818)( P <0.01 ) and nonpregnant women (38288 ± 2084) ( P < 0.01 ) respectively, and there was no significant difference in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conclusion: Resistin protein expression in placental tissue is much higher than that in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Resistin protein is secreted from human placental tissue.Resistin is one of the factors which lead to pregnant physiological IR and GDM.

  15. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods) and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from f...

  16. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  17. Serum adipocytokines in pregnant women with different glucose metabolism status%不同糖耐量状态孕妇血清脂肪因子水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁涛; 王相清; 赵维纲; 付勇; 董颖越; 李嘉佩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical features,insulin sensitivity,and serum adipocytokines levels in pregnant women with different glucose tolerance status and to investigate the possible serum predictive biomarkers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods We included 74 pregnant women with positive results of 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT),who received regular obstetrical follow-up in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to June 2012.A further 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 24-28 gestational weeks,based on which the 74 pregnant women were divided into GDM group (n =25),impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) group (n =25) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group (n =24).The clinical data were recorded in detail.Serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19,FGF-21,visceral adiposespecific serine protease inhibitor (vaspin),leptin,insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1),and adiponectin levels of the 3 groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared.The associations of these adipocytokines with the patients' baseline data and metabolic indexes were analyzed.Results The blood glucose after GCT and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c in the GDM group were significantly higher than those in the NGT group [(9.21 ±0.75) mmol/L vs.(8.52 ±0.50) mmol/L,P <0.05;(5.39 ± 0.34) % vs.(5.18 ± 0.20) %,P < 0.05],but not significantly different from those in the IGT group [(9.14 ± 0.64) mmol/L,P > 0.05;(5.28 ± 0.28) %,P > 0.05].Age,systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in the first trimester,pre-gestational body mass index (BMI),increment of BMI during pregnancy,serum total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,and C-reactive protein levels in the three groups showed no significant differences (all P >0.05).From the NGT group to the IGT group to the GDM group,the area under curve of blood glucose (AUCBG) [(19.84±1

  18. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  19. Attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding malaria prevention and treatment among pregnant women in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lora L; Rizal, Abanish; Brooks, Mohamad I; Singh, Mrigendra P; Tuchman, Jordan; Wylie, Blair J; Joyce, Katherine M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Singh, Neeru; Hamer, Davidson H

    2010-06-01

    We explored views toward and use of malaria prevention and treatment measures among pregnant women in Jharkhand, India. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions (total = 73 respondents) with pregnant women in urban, semi-urban, and rural locations in a region with moderate intensity malaria transmission. Most respondents ranked malaria as an important health issue affecting pregnant women, had partially correct understanding of malaria transmission and prevention, and reported using potentially effective prevention methods, usually untreated bed nets. However, most conveyed misinformation and described using unproven prevention and/or treatment methods. Many described using different ineffective traditional malaria remedies. The majority also showed willingness to try new prevention methods and take medications if doctor-prescribed. Misconceptions and use of unproven prevention and treatment methods are common among pregnant women in eastern India. Policy makers should focus on improving knowledge and availability of effective malaria control strategies in this population.

  20. Intraocular Pressure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Nigerian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    hormones are steroids and steroids have an effect on salt and water ... antenatal clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology of the ... women were part of the study. One hundred .... Castro-Mesa C, Castilla-López-Madridejos F and.

  1. Serum HSV-1 and -2 IgM in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonko, I O; Cookey, T I; Okerentugba, P O; Frank-Peterside, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken for the purpose of finding IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and 2 infections among pregnant women and also to evaluate correlation of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in these pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were consecutively recruited, after they had given consents to participate in the study. Serum of each sample was assayed for HSV-1&2 IgM antibody using a commercial ELISA. Five (2.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for IgM antibody against HSV-1&2. Marital status mainly correlated (χ(2) = 221.5, P HSV-2 infection and HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection. Age, educational level, occupation, and gestation were not consistently associated (P>0.05) with HSV-1/HSV-2 infection and co-infection. We also observed a high overall anti-HSV-1&2 IgM seronegativity of 97.2% among these pregnant women. Group-specific seronegativity was also high ranging from 93.3-100%. Although the age-groups significantly differed, none of their variables showed statistical association with the seronegativity. This represents the first analysis of HSV IgM antibody reported in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and has important public health implications, particularly for pregnant women. Consideration of this information would benefit physicians providing primary gynecological and obstetric care to this population of women.

  2. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman’s body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%, low back pain (42%, and pelvic girdle pain (37%. Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions among Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Preetha; Maiya, Arun G; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  5. 不同体重指数孕期体重增长指导的重要性%Importance of guidance of body weight gain during pregnancy for the pregnant women with different body mass indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲; 于力; 刘海琛; 王鑫; 鲁泽春; 杜建新

    2012-01-01

    目的:总结目前该院正常产前检查(产检)的不同体重指数孕妇妊娠期体重增长的情况,并对其妊娠结局进行分析,指出根据不同体重指数进行正确体重增长指导的重要性.方法:对2009年1月~2010年1月在该院检查及分娩的2 557例孕妇进行分析,按孕妇孕前体重指数(BMI)进行分组,计算出不同组别的孕期体重增长值,并与2009年Institute of Medicine( IOM)体重增长指南进行比较,得出超出指南建议体重的比率,并随访妊娠结局.结果:四组孕妇体重超出指南建议的比率分别为38.36%、40.77%、65.36%、63.64%.这些孕妇与正常孕妇相比,剖宫产率、妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)、妊娠期高血压疾病(HDCP)、产后出血的发生率均升高,差异存在统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期提供正确的体重增长指导有着重要的意义,可以减少不良的妊娠结局,并可以减少妇女及后代肥胖症的发生.%Objective: To summarize the conditions of body weight gain during pregnancy of the pregnant women with different body mass indexes who received normal prenatal examination in the hospital, analyze the pregnancy outcomes, point the importance of providing proper guidelines for body weight gain during pregnancy according to different body mass indexes. Methods: A total of 2 557 pregnant women who received prenatal examination and deliveried in the hospital from January 2009 to January 2010 were analyzed, then they were divided into different groups according to body mass index before pregnancy, the body weight gains during pregnancy in different groups were calculated, and the results were compared with weight gain guideline reversed by Institute of Medicine in 2009, the proportion of pregnant women with body weight above weight gain guideline was obtained, the pregnancy outcomes were followed up. Results: The proportion of pregnant women with body weight above weight gain guideline in the four groups were 38. 36% , 40

  6. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  7. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  8. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  9. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...... be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one....

  10. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  11. High protein and iron-folate crackers supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Anwar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that several factors influenced the relatively low success of iron supplementation for pregnant women. The factors included poor distribution, low coverage and compliance, as well as low absorption. The aim of this study is to measure the iron status of pregnant women after consuming crackers containing fish powder and iron-folate. This study was carried out in the Purworejo district (Central Java from February through October 2002. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT design, 70 pregnant women in their second-third month of pregnancy were recruited, and divided into two groups. Ten women dropped out during the study. The first group consisted of 28 women were given protein – iron enriched crackers (PIEC group, while the second group of 32 women were given iron–enriched crackers (IEC group for a total of 12 weeks. The results showed that the hemoglobin (Hb levels and serum transferrin receptors (sTfR of both groups were increased. Serum ferritins (SF of both groups were decreased. At the end of the study, the increase in Hb and sTfR levels between the two groups were significantly different, while the decrease in SF was not significantly different. Animal protein from fish powder tended to improve absorption of non-heme iron among pregnant women, resulting in improved Hb and sTfR levels. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 243-6Keywords: pregnant women, anemia, iron deficiency, high protein crackers

  12. Influence of peripheral blood microparticles of pregnant women with preeclampsia on the phenotype of monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Dmitriy I; Ovchinnikova, Olga M; Korenkov, Daniil A; Viknyanschuk, Alice N; Benken, Konstantin A; Onokhin, Kirril V; Selkov, Sergey A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet- and endothelial-derived microparticles influence the phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes and induce production of proinflammatory cytokines. The influence of blood plasma microparticles of pregnant women on the surface receptor expression on intact or activated monocytes is still unexplored. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that peripheral blood microparticles of women with normal pregnancy and women with preeclampsia have different influence on the expression of surface molecules on monocytes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of blood plasma microparticles of pregnant women on the phenotypic properties of intact and activated THP-1 monocytes. Microparticles were isolated from peripheral blood samples of nonpregnant women, healthy pregnant women, and women with preeclampsia. THP-1 cell line was used as a model of monocytes. Microparticles of nonpregnant women decreased CD18, CD49d, and CD54 expressions and increased CD11c, CD31, CD47, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expressions. Microparticles of healthy pregnant women increased CD18, CD54, and integrin β7 expressions and decreased CD11a and CD29 expressions. Microparticles of women with preeclampsia decreased CD18 expression on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-activated ТНР-1 cells. Microparticles of nonpregnant women, women with normal pregnancy, and pregnant women with preeclampsia decreased CD181 expression on intact and TNF-α-activated THP-1 cells. Therefore, blood plasma microparticles of women with normal pregnancy and women with preeclampsia have different influences on the expression of surface molecules on THP-1 monocytes.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

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    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  14. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  15. Pro-inflammatory cytokines profiles in Nigerian pregnant women infected withPlasmodium falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nmorsi OPG; Isaac C; Ohaneme BA; Obiazi HAK

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines profiles in in Nigerian pregnant women infected withPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria.Methods: Peripheral, and placental blood samples were collected from96 consenting volunteers comprising76 P. falciparium infected pregnant women and 20 healthy uninfected pregnant women in Ekpoma, Nigeria, and subjected to ELISA for cytokines evaluation.Results: Increased serum concentrations of interferon-gamma(IFN-γ) was observed in infected pregnant women than their uninfected counterparts[(31.2±20.9)pg/mL vs (1.8±0.9) pg/mL] and these differences were statistically significant(″2= 26.18,P0.05). The interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly elevated in infected pregnant women (81.0±26.1 pg/mL) than in the uninfected pregnant women [(25.0±5.0) pg/mL](″2 = 29.58,P<0.05). In all, mean cytokines concentration of IL-6, IL-12 andIFN-γ in the placental blood from infected pregnant women were (53.5±23.4) pg/mL, (8.7±6.9) pg/mL and(16.4±4.0) pg/mL, respectively. The multigravidae had a higher haemoglobin level of 10.2 g/dL and birth weight of3 000 g than the primigrivadae with lower haemoglobin level of7.5g/dL and birth weight of2 430 g. Conclusions: The elevatedIFN-γamong the malarous pregnant women implicates it as the major cytokine mediator in the host responses to systematicP. falciparummalaria in our locality.

  16. Towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: performance of different models of care for initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women in Malawi (Option B+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique van Lettow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malawi introduced a new strategy to improve the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT, the Option B+ strategy. We aimed to (i describe how Option B+ is provided in health facilities in the South East Zone in Malawi, identifying the diverse approaches to service organization (the “model of care” and (ii explore associations between the “model of care” and health facility–level uptake and retention rates for pregnant women identified as HIV-positive at antenatal (ANC clinics. Methods: A health facility survey was conducted in all facilities providing PMTCT/antiretroviral therapy (ART services in six of Malawi's 28 districts to describe and compare Option B+ service delivery models. Associations of identified models with program performance were explored using facility cohort reports. Results: Among 141 health facilities, four “models of care” were identified: A facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are initiated and followed on ART at the ANC clinic until delivery; B facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women receive only the first dose of ART at the ANC clinic, and are referred to the ART clinic for follow-up; C facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are referred from ANC to the ART clinic for initiation and follow-up of ART; and D facilities serving as ART referral sites (not providing ANC. The proportion of women tested for HIV during ANC was highest in facilities applying Model A and lowest in facilities applying Model B. The highest retention rates were reported in Model C and D facilities and lowest in Model B facilities. In multivariable analyses, health facility factors independently associated with uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC in ANC were number of women per HTC counsellor, HIV test kit availability, and the “model of care” applied; factors independently associated with ART retention were district location, patient volume

  17. Awareness of Pregnant Women about Folic Acid Supplementation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Riazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of folic acidsupplementation amongst Iranian pregnant women.Materials and methods: We selected 322 women through simple randomized method in a cross sectionstudy. Data was gathered on the base of questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performedusing SPSS software. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The obtained information revealed that 7.8% with high level of knowledge, 43.8% withintermediate level, 30.4% with low level knowledge, and 18% with no knowledge. Hospitals and healthcenters are two major sources for promoting popular awareness about folic acid. There is a significantrelationship between the knowledge, education, employment, time of prenatal care beginning, age,gravidity, and sources of health information. The number of women with high level of knowledge wasmore among those with lower parity, higher level of education, employment, young age and looking forhealth information.Conclusion: Awareness of folic acid is low among Iranian women. The different strategies are required toelevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them withsome information about the benefits of this supplement.

  18. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia C

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24(th) and 36(th) weeks of gestation. Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire(1) RESULTS: Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment (poorer body image and worse marital relationship) and poorer maternal attitudes (more negative attitudes to sex) than adult pregnant women. When controlling for socio-demographics, age at pregnancy predicts poorer body image and more negative attitudes to sex, but not a worse marital relationship, more somatic symptoms or negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby. A worse marital relationship was better predicted by living without the partner, and more somatic symptoms and negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby was predicted by higher education. Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment and poorer maternal attitudes than adult pregnant women according to socio-demographics and unfavorable developmental circumstances. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  20. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  1. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  2. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers, A.; Best, B.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Wang, J; Stek, A.; Tenorio, C.H.; Hawkins, D.; Taylor, G.; Kreitchmann, R.; Burchett, S.; Haberl, A.; Kabeya, K.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Smith, E.; Capparelli, E.; Burger, D.M.; Mirochnick, M.; Ven, A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and post partum. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed

  3. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, N.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Best, B.M.; Colbers, A.; Wang, J; Capparelli, E.V.; Molto, J.; Stek, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Smith, E.; Tenorio, C.H.; Chakhtoura, N.; Kasteren, M. van; Fletcher, C.V.; Mirochnick, M.; Burger, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. METHODS: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women.

  4. Anxiety and Depressed Mood in Obese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Controlled Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick.F.L. Bogaerts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychological health in obese women during pregnancy has been poorly studied. Objective: To compare levels of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy in obese versus normal-weight women. Methods: 63 obese pregnant women and 156 normal-weight controls were included prospectively before 15 weeks of gestation. Levels of state and trait anxiety and depressed mood were measured during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. A linear mixed-effect model with repeated measures was used to evaluate group differences. Results: The levels of state anxiety significantly increased from trimester 1 to trimester 3 in obese pregnant women (beta = 3.70; p = 0.007, while this parameter remained constant throughout pregnancy in normal-weight women. Levels of trait anxiety and depressed mood significantly decreased from trimester 1 to trimester 2 in controls, but not in obese pregnant women. Variables such as maternal education, ethnicity, marital state, psychological history and miscarriages, parity and smoking behaviour had significant effects on anxiety and/or depressed moods during pregnancy. Obese pregnant women show higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptomatology compared to normal-weight pregnant women. Conclusion: Interventional programmes aiming at preventing the deleterious influence of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes should include a psycho-educational program specifically tailored to this high-risk group.

  5. HIV-related intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyginus, Ezegwui; Chukwuemeka, Iyoke; Lawrence, Ikeako; Sunday, Mbah

    2012-03-01

    To compare the prevalences and patterns of intimate partner violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria A comparative cross-sectional study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women was done. Statistical analysis was by descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence A total of 220 pregnant women studied. These were equally divided between HIV-positive women (cases) and HIV-negative women (controls). Cases did not differ significantly from controls with respect to age, parity, tribe, religion, marital status, monthly family income. HIV positive respondents experienced physical violence in the course of the index pregnancy six times more than controls; sexual violence about 4 times more than controls and were 12 times more likely to be denied sex by their partner compared to controls. Threat of being hurt, deprivation of financial support and denial of communication were the commonest forms of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive pregnant women and these also occurred significantly more among HIV positive women than the controls. HIV-positive status predisposes pregnant women to increased intimate partner violence more of emotional nature further underlying the enormity of social rejection suffered as a result of HIV infection. Intimate partner violence screening should form part of their routine antenatal care

  6. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ≥ 4 mm and CAL ≥ 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  7. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  8. Effectiveness and safety of ureteroscopy in pregnant women: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Yasar; Soylemez, Haluk; Atar, Murat; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Penbegul, Necmettin; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Bodakcı, Mehmet Nuri; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy (URS) in pregnant patients compared with non-pregnant patients. We reviewed the cases of 41 pregnant and 62 non-pregnant women who developed ureteral stones and were treated with URS in our center between April 2005 and September 2011. A semi-rigid 9.5 F ureteroscope was used. The calculi were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripsy or a holmium laser, and if necessary, a double-J (JJ) stent was inserted during the procedure. Among the pregnant women, the mean gestation period was 23.22 ± 4.61 weeks (range 13-34), and the mean number of pregnancies per patient was 3 ± 2.02 (range 1-10). The mean ages of the pregnant and non-pregnant patients were 27.41 ± 5.79 and 28.54 ± 7.94 years, respectively (p = 0.734). There were no statistically significant differences in stone localization, anesthesia type, stone diameter, methods of stone manipulation, JJ stent insertion rate, hospitalization length, or operative times between the two groups. For pregnant and non-pregnant patients, the stone-free rates achieved in a single session were 87.8 and 85.5 %, respectively (p = 0.737). There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative and postoperative complication rates between the two groups. The positive urine culture rate was statistically significantly higher for pregnant patients than non-pregnant patients (29.3 vs. 11.3 %; p = 0.021). We did not observe any serious obstetric complications. URS is a safe and reasonable treatment option for pregnant patients with ureteral stones refractory to medical treatment during pregnancy.

  9. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  11. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  12. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  13. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  14. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.

  15. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithia...

  16. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  17. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  19. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all gra

  20. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all

  1. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p

  2. The Effectiveness of Counseling in Reducing Anxiety Among Nulliparous Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Parsa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effectiveness of counseling in reducing anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women.Materials and methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 nulliparous pregnant women were selected out of all pregnant women referring to Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Then, the subjects were divided into two groups in experimental and control (55 women in each. The data were collected through a questionnaire covering demographic and obstetric characteristics and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental group participated in four weekly sessions of group counseling about mother-infant attachment behaviors. Whereas, the control group only receive routine cares. Two groups were compared in terms of anxiety before and after the study.Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference in anxiety level was observed between the two groups; however, state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women in the experimental group significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.001. There was also significant difference in the mean score of state and trait anxiety levels between the two groups after the intervention (p < 0.001.Conclusion: The results showed the effectiveness of prenatal counseling in reducing state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women

  3. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  5. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  6. Sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Tao; Lin, Chao Ling; Wan, Gwo Hwa; Liang, Ching Chung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The results showed that coital frequency decreased from the first to third trimester (p sexual position for pregnant women (67.6%) was man on top, face-to-face. Sexual position did not change significantly by trimester. More women with more sexual satisfaction than women with poor sexual satisfaction tended to adopt the woman-on-top, face-to-face, and abdominal-supportive sexual positions.

  7. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  8. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  9. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  10. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  11. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Kotomi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae. Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011. Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p p = 0.005. Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL

  12. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  13. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  14. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.

  15. Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exercise in Pregnant Women on Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrist, Dawndra M; Tiongco, Cynthia Gorter; Whisner, Sandra M; Geddie, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an Aquatic Exercise Program (AEP) provided by an occupational therapist for pregnant women on hospitalized bed rest. Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized pregnant women comparing those who attended an AEP (n = 19) to a control group who received no AEP (n = 12). Statistical tests were used to assess evidence of differences in length of gestation as well as blood pressure and amniotic fluid index (AFI) at discharge. Women who received an AEP had increased AFI and length of gestation compared to the control group. This study supports the use of an AEP as an intervention for pregnant women on prescribed bed rest. Further research is recommended to validate these findings with a larger sample.

  16. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  17. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Kerry J Ressler; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant w...

  18. Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress in pregnant women of South East Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uchenna Ifeanyi Nwagha; Tochukwu Christopher Okeke; Theresa Ukamaka Nwagha; FidelisEbeleEjezie; SylvesterOgbonnaOgbodo; CyrilChukwudiDim; BondUgochukwuAnyaehie

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and some oxidative stress parameters in pregnant Nigerian women. Methods:This is a cross-sectional study involving 130 normal pregnant women at various trimesters, who were attending antenatal clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and Kenechukwu Specialist Hospital in Enugu. A comparable group (control), made of 30 non pregnant women was also recruited. After a 24 hour dietary recall, serum levels of vitamin A, C and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by colorimetric method, while vitamin E was determined by absorptiometric method. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, parity, estimated calorie, vitamins A, C and E intake between the pregnant and non pregnant groups (P>0.05). The serum level of the vitamins (umol/L) and MDA (umol/L) in control, 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively were:(1)Vitamin A:1.6±0.36 vs 0.6±0.26 vs 0.62±0.33 vs 0.46±0.21 (P0.05). Conclusions:Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress on pregnant women in Nigeria. The enormity of acute and complicated attack should be further investigated.

  19. Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Intervention for Methadone-Maintained Women: A Comparison of Pregnant and Parenting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Holbrook

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women in substance abuse programs have high rates of smoking. Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity for intervention, but few data exist to guide tailoring of effective interventions. In this study, 44 pregnant and 47 nonpregnant opioid-dependent women enrolled in comprehensive substance abuse treatment received a 6-week smoking cessation intervention based on the 5A's counseling model. The number of daily cigarettes decreased by 49% for pregnant patients and 32% for nonpregnant patients at the 3-month followup. Length of time in substance abuse treatment did not correlate with smoking cessation or reduction for either group. Factors predicting reduction of cigarette smoking differed for pregnant versus nonpregnant patients. For pregnant patients, lower levels of nicotine use prior to intervention and self-reported cigarette cravings predicted successful reduction in smoking. For nonpregnant patients, lower affiliative attachment to cigarettes, reliance on cigarettes for cognitive enhancement, and greater sense of control predicted more successful outcomes.

  20. Parity implications for anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Goñi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining an adequate health status and appropriate lifestyles during pregnancy is of great importance to prevent adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, socio-demographic features, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits of pregnant women in Spain, and to identify the influence of parity on these profiles. Methods: This cross-sectional study included pregnant women from regions all over Spain. The information was collected through a 40 item questionnaire, previously validated, by community health professionals. Results: The 5,087 pregnant women analyzed had an average age of 31.9 years with an adequate nutritional status. The distribution of the sample was 56% nulliparous and 44% multiparous. The nulliparous reported a better self-perceived health status and nutritional balance, and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the multiparous showed healthier lifestyle habits (lower rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and more physically active patterns. Regarding diet, nulliparous pregnant women consumed more dairy products, fresh fruit and nuts, and less bread, rice/pasta/potatoes, meat, sausage and buns/pastries than multiparous pregnant women. Conclusions: Differences between analyzed patterns were observed in anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits, which may require different nutritional messages to nulliparous as compared to multiparous from a public health point of view.

  1. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  2. Evaluation of ventricular repolarization in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ozgur; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Kurmus, Ozge; Danisman, Nuri; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids can induce arrhythmia by altering cardiomyocyte contractility or electrical conduction. The aim of this study was to investigate, by means of QT dispersion parameter detected by simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG), ventricular repolarization changes in pregnant women with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In this case-control study including 75 pregnant women with cholestasis and 35 healthy, uncomplicated pregnancy cases, electrocardiographic QT interval durations and QT dispersion (QT-disp) parameters, corrected for the patients' heart rate using the Hodges formula, were investigated. Maximum corrected QT interval values were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p cholestasis when compared to the normal ones. This simple ECG parameter can be used to screen high-risk women, in order to better target counseling regarding lifestyle modifications and to conduct closer follow up and management of women with a history of ICP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Willingness among obese pregnant women to accept MRI scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, H; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women...

  4. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...

  5. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  6. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  7. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-01-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-de...

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  9. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  10. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. ... Hence, 0.8% of the entire study population was found to be at high risk of transmitting ... status, may be the most effective approach to HBV prevention and control in Zimbabwe.

  12. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    2016-01-01

    -making, responsibility-making and disciplinary technologies, to govern people to promote physical health. Conclusion: Public health programmes conjure up an image of overweight individuals as strongly burdened subjectivities. The implications for overweight pregnant women are the formation of new subjectivities...

  13. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It is estimated that iodine intake from salt is between 113 to 225 mg per day assuming salt iodization levels of 20 to ...

  14. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  15. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  16. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  17. Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About Caesarean Section. ... it is the devil's work; punishment for marital infidelity or out of doctors self interest. ... Conclusion: More pregnant women supported caesarean section than were ...

  18. Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163680.html Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say Better prevention ... action, should be the focus when dealing with pregnant women who use opioids, a leading pediatricians' group ...

  19. Study of Coping-competence among Unmarried Pregnant Young Women in Three Big Cites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WEI; Xiao-ming YU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the coping-competence among unmarried pregnant young women.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the setting of clinics-based.A total of 1391 unmarried young women were recruited as the sample in Youth Clinics of 3 maternal care hospitals in Beijing,Jinan,and Guangzhou respectively in China."Behavioral Attributes of Psychosocial Competence Scale-Condensed Form" was administered to identify the coping-competence of these women.All these women were aged 10-24 years old and were divided into three groups based on whether or not they had sex and pregnancy.The three groups were named as follows:pregnancy group with young women having had both sex and pregnancy,sex group with young women having had only sex but not pregnancy,and non-sex group with young women having no sex experience.Results Among the adolescents aged 10-19 years old,the coping-competence was different among the three groups(P=0.050).Compared with the pregnancy group,the non-sex group were more inclined to active coping(P=0.026).Among all the pregnant women aged 10-24 years old,the coping-competence was various by region(P<0.001):the women in Jinan were more inclined to active coping than the women in another two cites(P=0.009,P<0.001),and there was no difference between the women from Beijing and Guangzhou(P=0.324).Conclusion This is the first study of coping among unmarried pregnant young women in China.The results supported the point of view that the pregnant adolescents were more inclined to passive coping,and the coping had regional differences.

  20. [The expectancy-stress factor in pregnant refugee women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D

    2006-09-01

    Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.

  1. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-09-01

    Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women's power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  2. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing information seeking were attributed mainly to ... India, being a developing country, contributes ... required by rural women. 79 ... identified family and friends, local herb hawkers, local drug sellers (hawkers) .... Lack of Radio.

  3. Prevalence of hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinopathies among the pregnant women attending a tertiary hospital in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir S. Balgir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemia in pregnancy is one of the causes of maternal morbidity and, maternal and fetal mortality in India. Hemoglobin transports oxygen to different parts of the body. Any defect in hemoglobin structure leads to its adverse functions. Screening of pregnant women for hemoglobinopahties helps in early intervention for reducing morbidity and mortality. Although the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies especially of the sickle cell disorders is high in Madhya Pradesh but any study on pregnant women is lacking. This study had set the objectives to find the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin disorders in pregnant women, and to determine the health status through hematological indices profile in central India. Hospital based a cross-sectional study showed 12.26% prevalence of hemoglobinopathies among 416 pregnant women, the sickle cell trait being 7.45%, followed by β-thalassemia trait (2.89%, hemoglobin E trait (0.24%, and sickle cell disease (1.68%. About 88% of the pregnant women were found free of hemoglobinopathies. Of the 9.13% pregnant women included in the study were suffering from sickle cell disorders. However, the overall 47.11% anemia was observed in pregnant women, ranging in between 45% to 66% and seemed to show a reduction in anemia after nutritional supplementations and improvement in maternal health care at antenatal check up due to accessibility to medical health facilities. A comparison of hematological indices of pregnant women afflicted with and without sickle cell disorders have revealed much reduced hemoglobin level, red blood cells count, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin; and raised leucocytosis in sickle cell disorder cases than among the normal pregnant women. A more vigorous and realistic campaign of prophylactic regime of supplementations for these pregnant women and child health care is suggested.

  4. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Renström, Frida; Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  5. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. METHODS: Non-pregnant (N = 73 and pregnant (N = 35 Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10 and 9(7-10, respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  6. [The course and outcome of pregnancy in pregnant women with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodić, Lj; Sulović, V; Milacić, D; Terzić, M

    1993-01-01

    The report presents the analysis of 56 pregnant women with hypothyroidism as a consequence of different aetiopathogenetic factor, and 20 healthy pregnant women with normal pregnancies and term deliveries. Patients with hypothyroidism diagnosed prior pregnancy (46) were treated before and during pregnancy with thyroid hormone preparations. Patients with hypothyroidism verified in subclinical form during pregnancy (10) were not treated. In all examined pregnant women the mean values with standard deviations for thyroid-stimulating form hormone levels, total thyroxine and triiodothyronine, in each trimester of pregnancy, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the first and the last trimester were recorded; dynamics of their trends, as well as correlation of values in healthy pregnant women were presented. The analysis of the pregnancy course revealed a significantly higher incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia (p hypothyroidism is one of the risk factors for development of gestational diabetes, and also one of the pre-existing factors for development of preeclampsia. Delivery occurred in 83.9% of patients; in 12.8% of patients delivery was prior to term while spontaneous abortion occurred in 16.1% of cases (in one third in the first trimester). Similar results were observed in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. There were 4.2% of stillbirths which corresponded to the rate of perinatal mortality. One infant was born with hydrocephalus and the others were healthy. In the authors' opinion it is necessary to achieve normal metabolic state before pregnancy which should be maintained with substitutional therapy during the whole pregnancy.

  7. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Njouom, Richard; Branger, Michel; Brun-Vézinet, Francoise; Mahé, Antoine; Rousset, Dominique; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1%) were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004) and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05), being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c). Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c) was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed. PMID:18559087

  8. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahé Antoine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947 were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1% were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004 and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05, being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c. Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed.

  9. Urinary antibiotics of pregnant women in Eastern China and cumulative health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Qian, Junhua; Hu, Lingyun; Huang, Peixin; Su, Meifang; Yu, Xin; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Haijiang; He, Gengsheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-02-23

    Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few bio-monitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urines by using the isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry. Hazard index (HI) was calculated based on estimated daily exposure dose and acceptable daily intakes. Sixteen antibiotics were found in urines with detection frequencies between 0.2% and 16.0%. Antibiotics were overall detected in 41.6% of urines, and two or more antibiotics were detected in 13.1% of urines. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in urine with detection frequencies between 10% and 20%. The majority of the antibiotics tested had an estimated daily exposure dose less than 1μg/kg/day and 4.3% of pregnant women had a HI value more than one. These findings indicated that pregnant women were frequently exposed to antibiotics and some individuals were in the potential risk of adverse microbiological effects induced by antibiotics.

  10. Tei index in determination of fetal cardiac function in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Li; Jia-Yuan Yi; Shu-Yu Gao; Hong-Ping Liang; Yan-Qing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application value of Tei index in determination of fetal cardiac function in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods: A total of 60 gestational diabetes mellitus pregnant women with single birth were included in the study and served as GDM group, while 60 healthy pregnant women with single birth were served as the control group. The fetal echocardiography was performed. The cardiac structure, function, and other related indicators were detected and compared.Results:IVSs, LVWT, RVWT, LVEF, LVFS, and RVFS in GDM group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P<0.05). E/A MV and E/A TV in GDM group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The left and right ventricular Tei index in GDM group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The fetal cardiac structure and function in GDM pregnant women can cause damage to a different degree. Tei index is an important indicator to evaluate the fetal cardiac function in GDM pregnant women, and can be applied in the early diagnosis and treatment; therefore, it deserved to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  11. A halfway house for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z; Jaafar, R; Hassan, M H; Awang, C W

    1998-01-01

    For a number of reasons, it is common for rural women in Malaysia who are experiencing high-risk pregnancy to choose to give birth at home rather than in a hospital. In so doing, these women usually agree to enter the hospital only upon the development of birth complications, a behavior which tends to raise the incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. The records were analyzed of 171 women who received care in the low-risk birth center of Bachok district in Kelantan between June 1995 and September 1996. 93 of the women delivered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours, with no case of postpartum hemorrhage. The remaining 78 women were referred to hospital for delivery for a range of reasons. All women interviewed in Bachok felt that a low-risk birth center should be part of every health clinic. Many of the drawbacks of hospitalization were reduced or eliminated in the new facilities, and all of the doctors, nurses, and midwives saw the establishment of the low-risk birth center as beneficial.

  12. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with Different Blood Glucose Abnormalities%妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇不同血糖指标异常的母婴结局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women with different glycemic in-dex of abnormal pregnancy outcome. Methods Admitted to our hospital with 300 cases of pregnancy with gestational dia-betes mellitus pregnant women and 150 cases of normal pregnant women as the observation object, the admitted time for June 5, 2012 to 2015, the normal pregnant women as control group, the 300 cases of pregnancy with gestational diabetes, according to the degree of blood glucose control points for normal glycemic index group (158 cases) and abnormal blood glu-cose index group (142 cases), three groups of clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to observe the differences between the three groups of pregnant women, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results Control group and blood sugar index normal group of pregnant women pregnancy differences between outcome was not significant (P > 0.05); control group and blood sugar index group of abnormal pregnant women, maternal and neonatal outcomes between the difference is significant (P0.05);对照组与血糖指标异常组孕妇母婴结局之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且血糖指标异常组与血糖指标正常组之间对比的母婴结局,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论妊娠期糖尿病孕妇不同血糖指标对母婴结局的影响较大,临床中应注意控制孕妇的血糖水平,达到改善母婴结局的效果。

  13. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  14. Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawand Pouls Shamoon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and define the causes of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 850 pregnant women at different ages of gestation were screened for thrombocytopenia. A control group of 150 age-matched non-pregnant women were tested for platelet count. Newborns of thrombocytopenic women were tested within 24 hours of delivery and reassessment of the women's platelets was done within 7-10 days post-delivery. Results: The mean platelet count in pregnant women was significantly lower than in non-pregnant women (221±59.9/mm3 vs. 273±66.9/mm3. Thrombocytopenia affected 8% of cases, with peak incidence during the third trimester. Gestational thrombocytopenia was found to be the principal cause (73.8%; hypertensive disorders caused thrombocytopenia in 23% of cases and two cases (4% were due to immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No maternal or fetal complications were noted. The mean platelet count of 51 newborns of thrombocytopenic women was 240±7.1. Two newborns (4% had low platelet counts. Conclusion: The majority of thrombocytopenias were mild gestational and occurred in late pregnancy. No maternal or neonatal bleeding complications were observed.

  15. Changes in standing body sway of pregnant women after long-term bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Y; Kuwata, T; Yamaguchi, J; Matsumoto, M; Watanabe, M; Nakano, R; Kai, K; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, R; Ohkuchi, A; Matsubara, S

    2016-05-01

    Pregnant women tend to fall and increased body postural instability, namely body sway, may be one of the causative factors. We had a clinical impression that pregnant women after long-term bed rest tend to fall. We hypothesised that such women may show increased body sway, which we attempted to determine. Pregnant women (n = 161) were divided into three groups: (i) women with preterm labour after 2-week bed rest, (ii) those after 4-week bed rest, and (iii) those without bed rest or preterm labour. Body sway was analysed using stabilometry, that is, computed analysis of movement of the centre of gravity. The 3 groups fundamentally showed the same stabilometric measurements. Women with oedema showed greater medial-lateral sway than those without it. Factors other than oedema yielded no differences in stabilometric parameters. Long-term bed rest fundamentally did not increase body sway to the extent that stabilometry could reveal it. It may be prudent to consider that pregnant women with oedema tend to fall.

  16. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound for acute appendicitis in pregnant and young nonpregnant women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Lior; Segev, Yakir; Rayman, Shlomi; Nissan, Aviram; Sadot, Eran

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasonography is frequently used to diagnose acute appendicitis in women of reproductive age, but its diagnostic value in pregnant patients remains unclear. This study sought to compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in pregnant and young nonpregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. The database of a single tertiary medical center was reviewed for all women of reproductive age who underwent appendectomy either during pregnancy (2000-2014) or in the nonpregnant state (2004-2007) following ultrasound evaluation. The performance of ultrasound in terms of predicting the final pathologic diagnosis was compared between the pregnant and non pregnant groups using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 586 young women treated for appendicitis during the study periods (92 pregnant, 494 non-pregnant), 200 underwent preoperative ultrasound [67 pregnant, and 133 nonpregnant young women]. The pregnant and nonpregnant groups were comparable in age and presenting symptoms. There was no significant difference in the predictive performance of ultrasound between the two groups (AUC 0.76 and 0.73 respectively, p = 0.78) or within the pregnant group, by trimester [first (n = 23), AUC 0.73; second (n = 32), AUC 0.67; third (n = 12), AUC 0.86; p = 0.4]. Ultrasound had a positive predictive value of 0.94 in the pregnant group and 0.91 in the nonpregnant group; corresponding negative predictive values were 0.40 and 0.43. There appears to be no difference in the ability of ultrasound to predict the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age. Therefore, similar preoperative imaging algorithms may be used in both patient populations. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolm

  18. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  19. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  20. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  1. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    , particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers.......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared...... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  2. Iodine nutritional status and thyroid function among pregnant women in different periods of pregnancy in Tianjin%天津市不同孕期孕妇碘营养及甲状腺功能调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠慧; 王洋; 马圣兰; 李娟; 吴佐军; 侯常春

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women in different periods of pregnancy,analyze the relationship between iodine nutritional status and thyroid function and provide a basis for scientific supplementation of iodine to pregnant women.Methods In 2013 and 2014,using stratified random sampling method,six counties were selected in the city;around 30 early,middle and late pregnant women each in every county were selected;a total of 545 (173 early,203 middle and 169 late) pregnant women were investigated in the 6 counties;instant random urine samples of 25 ml were collected and urinary iodine was tested.A total of 151 (52 early,55 middle and 44 late) pregnant women were selected to collect 3 ml venous blood samples for determination of thyroid hormone and thyroid autoantibodies.Results Median urinary iodine levels of early,middle and late pregnant women were 132.2,128.9 and 113.5 μg/L,respectively,under the condition of iodine deficiency.Prevalence rates of low frce thyroxine FT4,subclinical hypothyroidism,hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in pregnant women were 0.66% (1/151),15.23% (23/151),0.66% (1/151) and 0.66% (1/151),respectively.The positive rate of TgAb and TPOAb was 15.23% (23/151) and 11.92% (18/151),respectively.There were significant differences in the levels of free three iodine thyroid (FT3) in different periods of pregnancy (F =7.723,P < 0.05);FT3 in late pregnancy was lower than that in early and middle pregnancy (P < 0.05).There were significant differences in the levels of FT4 in different periods of pregnancy (F =3.762,P < 0.05);FT4 in late pregnancy was lower than that in early and middle pregnancy (P < 0.05).There were significant differences in the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in different periods of pregnancy (F =13.199,P < 0.05);TSH in early pregnancy was higher than that in middle and late pregnancy (P < 0.05).Subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence rate in

  3. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neiswanger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women, recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA, assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA, timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood, quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural and Pittsburgh (primarily urban. These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  4. Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2004-12-01

    On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  7. Acute HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Methods Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Results Among 3825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2666 seronegative specimens, 2327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% CI: 0.03, 0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Discussion Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery. PMID:20226326

  8. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  9. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

  10. Management of HIV infected pregnant women in Chonburi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchun, P

    1994-04-01

    This study on birth control methods used, and HIV infection protection of the HIV infected pregnant women in the obstetrics-gynecology department of Chonburi Hospital from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1993 revealed that there were 27 HIV infected women with less than 24 weeks gestational age, using birth control methods as such 12 women (44.44%) had tubal resection after abortion, 8 women (29.62%) oral contraceptive pills, 5 women (15.51%) injectable contraception, and 2 women (7.40%) norplants. The 106 HIV infected women with more than 24 weeks gestational age were allowed to deliver. The birth control methods were as follows: 19 women (17.92%) tubal resection, 38 women (35.84%) oral contraceptive pills, 49 women (46.22%) injectable contraception. They were all encouraged to use a condom while having sexual intercourse. Only 40 women of this group are still seen in the follow-up clinic and all are found to be healthy, the birth control is effective and HIV infection is in the early stage. The new born babies were not allowed to be breast fed and were followed-up periodically to 18 months old. Twenty five babies received HIV blood test; 7 babies (28%) were found to be HIV infected. The birth control and HIV infection protection used in this study demonstrate no adverse effects on the disease, and the unexpected problems of these women, as well as the health personnel concerned are reduced both economically and socially. This study provides the guidelines of good care for HIV infected pregnant women.

  11. non-pregnant rural women of childbearing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum folate, ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate and full blood count. Results. The prevalence of low serum folate (<3ng/ml) in the study population was ... acid, iron and other nutrients has been implemented ... women, and those on chronic disease medication, ... the cut-off points before and after fortification were.

  12. Different intakes of n-3 fatty acids among pregnant women in 3 regions of China with contrasting dietary patterns are reflected in maternal but not in umbilical erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Gao, Yixiong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Song, Pengkun; Meng, Liping; Du, Zhen-Yu; Miles, Elizabeth A; Lie, Øvyind; Calder, Philip C; Frøyland, Livar

    2013-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the intake and status of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in Chinese pregnant women with different dietary patterns. We hypothesize that there will be significant differences in long chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA status in pregnant women from 3 regions of China (river/lake, coastal and inland). Dietary fatty acid intakes and fatty acid profiles in maternal and umbilical erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine (PC) were analyzed. The median daily intakes (mg) of eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the coastal group (64.6 and 93.9, n = 42) were significantly higher than those in the river/lake group (27.9 and 41.8, n = 41) and the inland group (12.1 and 41.1, n = 40). Daily intake of arachidonic acid (AA) was highest (170.2 mg) in the inland group. The median DHA level (%) of maternal erythrocyte PC was comparable between river/lake and inland groups (5.7 vs. 5.6) while both were significantly lower than in coastal group (8.4). The median AA level (%) of maternal erythrocyte PC tended to be lower in the coastal group than in the inland group but the difference was not significant. The AA and DHA levels in umbilical erythrocyte PC were comparable among the 3 groups. In conclusion, differences in long chain n-3 PUFA intake between geographic regions, in particular in DHA, were reflected in differences in maternal erythrocyte PC DHA status but did not result in differences in umbilical erythrocyte PC.

  13. Representation of women and pregnant women in HIV research: a limited systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Rosenberg, Molly; Schwartz, Sheree; Swamy, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related outcomes may be affected by biological sex and by pregnancy. Including women in general and pregnant women in particular in HIV-related research is important for generalizability of findings. To characterize representation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in HIV-related research conducted in general populations. All HIV-related articles published in fifteen journals from January to March of 2011. We selected the top five journals by 2010 impact factor, in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and HIV/AIDS. HIV-related studies reporting original research on questions applicable to both men and women of reproductive age were considered; studies were excluded if they did not include individual-level patient data. Articles were doubly reviewed and abstracted; discrepancies were resolved through consensus. We recorded proportion of female study participants, whether pregnant women were included or excluded, and other key factors. In total, 2014 articles were published during this period. After screening, 259 articles were included as original HIV-related research reporting individual-level data; of these, 226 were determined to be articles relevant to both men and women of reproductive age. In these articles, women were adequately represented within geographic region. The vast majority of published articles, 183/226 (81%), did not mention pregnancy (or related issues); still fewer included pregnant women (n=33), reported numbers of pregnant women (n=19), or analyzed using pregnancy status (n=9). Data were missing for some key variables, including pregnancy. The time period over which published works were evaluated was relatively short. The under-reporting and inattention to pregnancy in the HIV literature may reduce policy-makers' ability to set evidence-based policy around HIV/AIDS care for pregnant women and women of child-bearing age.

  14. Metabolic changes, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and oxidative stress after short-term starvation in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraag, Sabrina; Mandach, Ursula von; Schweer, Horst; Beinder, Ernst

    2007-01-01

    To compare metabolic effects and oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant women after 12 h of fasting. Twenty-six healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies between the 24(th) and 28(th) gestational week were recruited. After an overnight fast, venous blood samples and urine samples were tested for metabolic parameters characteristic for starvation, cortisol and oxidative stress products. Healthy non-pregnant women matched by age, body mass index and length of fasting comprised the control group. The metabolic parameters beta-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids in blood and ketones in urine showed no differences in pregnant and non-pregnant women. However, the oxidative stress parameters, 8,12-iso-iPF(2alpha)-VI, isoprostanes and malondialdehyde were significantly higher in pregnant subjects, as was cortisol. Healthy pregnant women are exposed to oxidative stress and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, but not to metabolic changes resembling starvation during short fasting periods in comparison to non-pregnant healthy women.

  15. Administration of praziquantel to pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, G Richard

    2003-05-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the safest of all anti-helminthics and now forms the backbone for all national control programs against schistosomiasis (Med. Res. Rev. 3 (1983) 147-200; Bull. WHO 57 (1979) 767-771; Wegner, D.H.G, Therapeutic Drugs (1991), Churchill Livingstone; Adv. Intern. Med. 32 (1987) 193-206; Drugs 42 (1991) 379-405; Pharmac. Ther. 68 (1995) 35-85; Ann. Intern. Med. 110 (1989) 290-296). Despite its lack of known toxicity, the drug was not tested on pregnant or lactating women prior to release. It is currently listed as Pregnancy Category B by the US FDA, which is a drug presumed safe based in animal studies. Unfortunately, this has been interpreted by most national control programs and WHO (1998) to exclude lactating and pregnant women from treatment. In fact, some experts advocate excluding adolescent girls from mass treatment campaigns over this issue. As a result, a large number of women living in endemic countries are currently left untreated or have treatment significantly delayed. A review of the current known toxicology of PZQ, combined with over two decades of clinical experience with this drug, suggest very low potential for adverse effects on either the mother or her unborn child. In contrast, significant animal and human data are presented in this review that suggest both the pregnant woman and her unborn fetus suffer morbid sequella from schistosomiasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial that could resolve this issue would require a very large and expensive study and in light of the above facts might not now be ethically appropriate. The author concludes that pregnant women should be treated with PZQ, that women of childbearing age should be included in all mass treatment programs and that lactating women are not systematically excluded from treatment.

  16. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  17. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Rezaei; Farahnaz Sadat Ahmadi; Shirin Niroomanesh; Shahram Ejtemaee Mehr; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Atefeh Aminian; Azizeh Ghaseminejad; Soleiman Abbasi; Fariba Yarandi

    2013-01-01

    The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs) is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2...

  18. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83......% and 61% respectively. Primary cause for incomplete MRI scans were no-show (45%); no reported concern for safety as a cause. Conclusion: A majority of the women accepted MRI scans in GW 15, 32 and 40. Thorough, information about the safety of the method, and the applicability of the results, encouraged...

  19. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in pregnant women and birth outcomes of their children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the possible association of pregnant women with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) with the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes, particularly different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded PSVT was evaluated in 103 pregnant women who later had offspring with CA (case group) and 149 pregnant women who later delivered newborn infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 252 pregnant women with PSVT, 115 (45.6%) had the onset of this condition before the study pregnancy, that is, their PSVT was a chronic condition, while the rest (N = 137) of PSVT was considered as new onset in the study pregnancy. The comparison of occurrence of PSVT in pregnant women who had offspring with different CA groups and in control mothers showed a higher risk for cardiovascular CAs (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 2.1, 1.1-3.8) explained mainly by secundum atrial septal defect. This association was confirmed in pregnant women with PSVT in the second and/or third gestational month, that is, critical period of cardiovascular CAs. In conclusion PSVT in pregnant women associates with a higher risk of secundum atrial septal defect in their children.

  20. Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term.

  1. Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Younes (Layla); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention c

  2. Pregnant women, body image and self-esteem according to the examination of some of the variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kumcagız

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a natural life of women in crisis. Pregnant women, during pregnancy important psychological, physiological and emotional changes live. These changes also affect body perceptions and subsequent self respect. The purpose of this study, pregnant women and their self-esteem according to some variables to examine the perceptions of the body.The study was carried out using cross-sectional method. Sample of the study, between 15 March 2009 to 15 June 2009 Mayis University Medical Faculty Hospital Outpatient Clinic on 126 pregnant women admitted constituted. Pregnant women in order to collect data, "Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory ',' Body Image Scale 'and' Personal Information Form 'was applied. The data obtained, percentage ratings, the t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test and correlation analysis were evaluated using one-way. Results, scores of young age, pregnant women's body image is higher than others (r =- 0,305, p = 0.001, educational level of the relationship between body image and self esteem levels and significantly (p <0.05 that, with the body of pregnant women in marriage is a negative correlation between perceptions of pregnant women, body image scores decreased with increasing years of marriage (r =- 0,297, p = 0.001., pregnant women with high socio-economic level, a higher body image scores (p <0.01, non-pregnant body does not use perception scores were higher. In addition, women who want to become pregnant have a higher self-esteem and body perception, number of pregnancies is higher than others, at least the perception of the body of pregnant women (r =- 0,254, p = 0.01, pregnant women affected by perceptions of physical self-esteem, self-esteem is high pregnant women's body perceptions (those with high body image 139.8 ± 25.2 points, moderate (120.6 ± 30.9 points was higher than in those with a statistically significant difference (t =- 3,819, p = 0.000. was found. The results are discussed.

  3. Effects of lifestyle intervention on dietary intake, physical activity level, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women with different pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index in a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Amy Leung; Back, Lisa; Ludwig, Sora; Gardiner, Phillip; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Dean, Heather J; Sellers, Elisabeth; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Jiang, Depeng; Shen, Garry X

    2014-09-24

    The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 116 pregnant women (pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment. The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (≤24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p changes were not detected between the intervention (n = 27) and control group (n = 29) in the above normal pre-pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake. NCT00486629.

  4. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  5. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    Namibia experienced a large measles outbreak starting in 2009, with 38% of reported cases in adults, including women of reproductive age. Population immunity was assessed among pregnant women to determine whether immunization activities were needed in adults to achieve measles elimination in Namibia. A total of 1708 and 2040 specimens sampled from Namibian pregnant women aged 15-44 years who were included in the 2008 and 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey, respectively, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G antibody. The proportion of women seropositive overall and by 5-year age strata was determined, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, facility type, gravidity, HIV status, and urban/rural setting. Seropositivity in 2008 versus 2010 was compared. In both analysis years, measles seropositivity was lower in 15-19-year-olds (77%) and 20-24-year-olds (85-87%) and higher in 25-44-year-olds (90-94%) (2008, pmeasles seropositivity did not differ between 2008 (87%) and 2010 (87%) (p=0.7). HIV status did not affect seropositivity. Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15-19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  7. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (PBrasil and others.).

  8. Mapping the social determinants of substance use for pregnant-involved young Aboriginal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahram, Sana Z; Bottorff, Joan L; Oelke, Nelly D; Kurtz, Donna L M; Thomas, Victoria; Spittal, Patricia M; And For The Cedar Project Partnership

    2017-12-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about the social determinants of substance use among young pregnant-involved Indigenous women in Canada from their perspectives. As part of life history interviews, 17 young pregnant-involved Indigenous women with experiences with substances completed a participant-generated mapping activity CIRCLES (Charting Intersectional Relationships in the Context of Life Experiences with Substances). As women created their maps, they discussed how different social determinants impacted their experiences with pregnancy and substance use. The social determinants identified and used by women to explain determinants of their substance use were grouped into 10 themes: traumatic life histories; socioeconomic status; culture, identity and spirituality; shame and guilt; mental wellness; family connections; romantic and platonic relationships; strength and hope; mothering; and the intersections of determinants. We conclude that understanding the context and social determinants of substance use from a woman-informed perspective is paramount to informing effective and appropriate programs to support young Indigenous women who use substances.

  9. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  10. [Iron status in pregnant women and its changes during preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-mellouli, Monia; Amara, Fethi Ben; Loussaief, Wafa; Reziga, Hédi

    2013-10-01

    Micronutrients or trace elements are minerals essential for growth and development of the body human. To analyze changes in normal pregnancy and during preeclampsia, serum iron and its main proteins: ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. This is a prospective study of case- control study of 56 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant women selected as controls. Pregnant women received a quarterly dosing paramètres. The same assays were performed once in controls. The comparative assay of various parameters in normal pregnancy and in control women showed a significant decrease in serum iron from 1 to the third quarter, a slight decline in reserves ferritin in 1st and 2nd quarter increases and becomes significant in the third quarter and an increase of soluble receptors trasferrine during pregnancy, which becomes significant in the third quarter. We noted a disturbance of these parameters in preeclampsia. Iron is essential for fetal development. His involvement in several maternal- fetal complications is not to dismantle .

  11. Preliminary study on insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell function in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the distinguishing features of insulin resistance and pancreaticβ-cell secretion in midterm pregnant patients with different blood glucose levels,and to investigate the possible pathogenesis of gestational diabetes(GDM).Methods A total of 2 489 pregnant women during the second trimester(gestational age24-28 weeks)

  12. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion.

  13. Chagas disease prevalence in pregnant women: migration and risk of congenital transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolliker-Frers, Rodolfo A; Insua, Ivan; Razzitte, Gabriela; Capani, Francisco

    2016-09-30

    Argentina has been a preferential target for Bolivian immigrants for decades. The relatively recent migratory flux includes Germany, France, the United States, Australia, Japan, and some Latin American countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women, analyzing the Bolivian-specific Chagas prevalence as the main contributor of migratory populations from Chagas disease-endemic areas to Buenos Aires city, Argentina, and to evaluate the impact of these migrant influxes on the process of the "urbanization" of the disease in reference hospital José Maria Ramos Mejia (JMRM). Overall, 21,332 pregnant women (100%) between 15 and 49 years of age derived from the public maternity service of JMRMH were studied. Serology data was obtained from registered serological diagnosis data, consisting of three different serological tests performed at the Public Parasitology Unit. Although general prevalence decreased during the analyzed period, the specific prevalence of pregnant women from Bolivian origin showed a sustained growth during 1983-2013. Solely 5% of the total pregnant women population from Bolivia contributed to one third of the total Chagas prevalence. This study showed that a cohort of pregnant women from Bolivia who attended JMRMH during the period 1983-2007 constituted a population at risk for congenital transmission. Increased migration from endemic areas of Bolivia might potentially increase the prevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women. In addition, this study highlights the importance to analyze specific prevalence according to endemic areas to determine the profiles of potential hidden prevalence.

  14. Malaria and its burden among pregnant women in parts of the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwuocha Uchechukwu Madukaku; Dozie Ikechukwu Nosike; Chukwuocha Adanna Nneoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the epidemiology and burden of malaria among pregnant women in parts of theNigerDelta ofNigeria.Methods:About140 pregnant women were selected from four communities for the study after consent was obtained from them and their husbands.Clinical malaria was confirmed usingGiemsa staining technique, while social demographic data was obtained using structured pretested questionnaires.Results:Results showed that57.1% patients were positive for malaria infection.The peak age specific incidence was15-20 years(35%) and there was a significant difference among age groups(P<0.05).The incidence of malaria varied significantly according to the trimesters of the pregnant women, locations, level of education and occupation(P<0.05).The burden of the disease among pregnant women in the study area were in forms of symptoms(χ2=7.67,P<0.05), abnormalities(χ2 =21.38,P<0.05) and cost of treatment(χ2=6.62,P<0.005).Pregnant women were mostly predisposed to malaria infection by presence of stagnant water(25.0%) and with farming/fishing activities(22.5%).The most perceived preventive/control measure was intermittent preventive treatment(20.00%) and AntenatalCare/Health education(13.75%).Conclusions:Malaria still exerts heavy public health and socioeconomic burden on pregnant women in the study area.This calls for concerted effort to scale up and sustain control strategies especially intermittent preventive treatment and health education during antenatal visits.

  15. Use of herbal product among pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıssal, Aygül; Çevik Güner, Ümran; Batkın Ertürk, Döndü

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (pginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The costs of crime and the benefits of substance abuse treatment for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M; Argeriou, M; McCarty, D; Callahan, J J; Shepard, D S; Williams, C N

    2000-12-01

    Although many pregnant, drug-dependent women report extensive criminal justice involvement, few studies have examined reductions in crime as an outcome of substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women. This is unfortunate, because maternal criminal involvement can have serious health and cost implications for the unborn child, the mother and society. Using the Addiction Severity Index, differences in pre- and posttreatment criminal involvement were measured for a sample of 439 pregnant women who entered publicly funded treatment programs in Massachusetts between 1992 and 1997. Accepted cost of illness methods were supplemented with information from the Bureau of Justice Statistics to estimate the costs and benefits of five treatment modalities: detoxification only (used as a minimal treatment comparison group), methadone only, residential only, outpatient only, and residential/outpatient combined. Projected to a year, the net benefits (avoided costs of crime net of treatment costs) ranged from US$32,772 for residential only to US$3,072 for detoxification. Although all five modalities paid for themselves by reducing criminal activities, multivariate regressions controlling for baseline differences between the groups showed that reductions in crime and related costs were significantly greater for women in the two residential programs. The study provides economic justification for the continuation and possible expansion of residential substance abuse treatment programs for criminally involved pregnant women.

  17. Glycemic Control among Pregnant Diabetic Women on Insulin Who Fasted During Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ramadan fasting for pregnant women with diabetes remains controversial and underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the glycemic control in pregnant diabetic women on insulin who fasted during Ramadan.Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of three years including pregnant diabetic women, who were on short-acting, intermediate-acting, or a combination of them, and opted to carry out Ramadan fasting. Glycemic control was assessed before, middle and after Ramadan fasting.Results: Thirty seven women opted to fast with 24 (64.9% of them had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 83.8% of them required combined insulin (short- acting, intermediate-acting therapy. The age of the participants was 32.13±4.68 years, and the age of their pregnancies was 25.60±7.12 weeks when the study was performed. The median number of days fasted was 25 days, and most of the women were able to fast for more than 15 days. There was no difference between glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus women prior to fasting. In the middle of Ramadan, serum fructosamine decreased in both groups. However, only serum HbA1c reduced in gestational diabetes mellitus after Ramadan. Conclusion: the findings indicate that pregnant diabetic women on insulin were able to fast during Ramadan and that their glycemic control was improved during fasting period. They may also suggest that instead of absolute ban on fasting for pregnant diabetic women more practical approach and close consultation with health care providers might be more helpful.

  18. Thyroid antibodies in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroidic pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism: effects on hematological parameters and postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Inceefe, Hasbiye; Tatar, Sumeyra; Turan, Guluzar Arzu; Genc, Mine; Guclu, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid antibodies and hematological parameters in euthyroid or subclinical hypothyroidic (S H) pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism and to verity whether these pregnant women are affected by a higher rate of postpartum hemorrhage. Thirty-six out hyroid and 21 S H pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and 52 healthy pregnant women were evaluated. The relationship between thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies level, the dosage of Levotroxin (LT4) and hematological parameters and the amount of postpartum bleeding was investigated. The mean platelet volume (MPV), was significantly higher in the SH group than in the euthyroid group and in the euthyroid group than healthy group (ppregnant women with thyroid antibodies do not differ in terms of other coagulation parameters and postpartum hemorrhage from healthy controls.

  19. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  20. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  1. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  2. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  3. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women.

  5. [Changes of iodine nutrition status and thyroid function among pregnant women in iodine sufficient rural area of Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiaonan; Cao, Yongqin; Ge, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 215 pregnant women in Yongjing couty from May to June 2013. Samples of blood and random urine were collected, and serum thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin ( anti-TG)and urinary iodine were measured. The medians of urinary iodine from the three groups of pregnant women(first, second and third trimester) were 189.8 µg/L, 152.5 µg/L and 144.9 µg/L respectively. With the exception of pregnant women in the third trimester, the urinary iodine medians of pregnant women in the first and second trimesters were within the 150-249 µg/L range which was defined as optimal by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. With the increase of gestational age, the level of FT3 decreased (P pregnant women was statistically significant (P pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) (P changes of TSH, FT3, FT4, anti-TG and anti-TPO along with the changes of urine iodine levels were not obvious. With the increase of gestational age, the incidence of iodine deficiency also increased among pregnant women. Abnormal thyroid hormones, TSH, positive anti-TG and anti-TPO were mainly existed in the early pregnancy. Programs as monitoring urinary iodine as well as thyroid function targeting all the pregnant women should be carried out.

  6. New generation of antidepressants in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Kashani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Although pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy

  7. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  8. Pertussis vaccine in pregnant women: safety and uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munoz FM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flor M Munoz Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, particularly among infants too young to be vaccinated or who are unvaccinated and unprotected by naturally acquired passive antibodies from their mothers. Vaccination of women during pregnancy with an adult formulation of acellular pertussis vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap [tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine] is recommended in several industrialized countries to boost the levels of maternal antibodies that are transferred transplacentally and protect infants during the period of life when they are more likely to succumb to pertussis. Data from clinical and epidemiologic studies are supportive of the safety and effectiveness of maternal immunization with pertussis vaccines. Tdap is safe and well tolerated in pregnant women. Local and systemic reactogenicity is similar to that observed in nonpregnant adults, and no serious adverse events have been attributed to Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies elicited by the vaccine are efficiently transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and studies have consistently found that infants born to vaccinated mothers have significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies than infants of nonvaccinated mothers. Although a correlate of protection against pertussis is unknown, higher concentrations of antibodies are likely to result in protection of young infants. A reduction in infant pertussis has been shown to occur when high vaccine coverage rates are achieved by pregnant women, as reported in the UK vaccination program. Furthermore, as more vaccine programs incorporate Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, prospective and epidemiologic data will be available to continuously assess the safety and efficacy of

  9. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  10. Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze UI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38% was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13% and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43% of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42% were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8% of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17% were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5% in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

  11. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  12. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids.

  13. Genetic association study of phosphodiesterase 8B gene with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Junyu; Fan, Jianxia; Qian, Wei; Shu, Khor

    2015-01-01

    To explore whether phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene is involved in the etiology of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant patients with SCH and 311 healthy, pregnant control subjects were recruited in this study to detect 4 (rs4704397, rs6885099, rs2046045, and rs12514694 in PDE8B) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Univariate associations were studied using Pearson's χ(2) test for categorical variables and Student t/ANOVA tests for continuous ones. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test were used to study the associations of TSH level in different genotypes. Genotyping of SNPs was performed by the MassARRAY(®) iPLEX(®) Gold SNP genotyping analysis technique. The SHEsis program was used to analyze the genotyping data. There was a significant difference in the rate of high TSH in three genotypes of rs4704397 in all pregnant women. After adjusting for multiple testing by the program SNPSpD, allelic frequencies of rs4704397 (p = 0.016, OR = 1.692), rs6885099 (p = 0.031, OR = 0.621), and rs2046045 (p = 0.023, OR = 0.602) in PDE8B gene showed significant differences between patients with SCH and control subjects. There were no significant differences of genotype frequencies between patients and controls at any of the analyzed SNPs (p > 0.05).The haplotypes ''A G C G'' (p = 0.002; OR, 1.533; 95% CI, 1.172-2.006) and "G A A G" (p = 0.014; OR, 0.576; 95% CI, 0.369-0.899) in PDE8B were observed to be significantly associated with SCH in pregnant women. Genetic variation of the PDE8B gene may be involved in the etiology of SCH in pregnant women.

  14. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies against simian virus 40 in healthy pregnant women in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy.Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples.Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123 and 12.7% (14/110, respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods.SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines.

  15. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  16. [Modern medico-biological nutritional requirements for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkova, D; Markov, D; Markov, P; Ivanov, S

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the basic physiological requirements, expert opinions and medico-biological recommendations for the optimal nutritional regime of pregnant women. In the first trimester of pregnancy the nutritional intake should be supplemented by about +68 kcal/24 h (the normal intake is 2000 kcal/24 h for non-pregnant women in the respective age group). In the second trimester the supplementation should be by +266 kcal/24 h, while in the III trimester--by up to +496 kcal/24 h. The requirements of folic acid and vitamin B6 during pregnancy are increased by 50%. The need for vitamin A is augmented up to 60%, while for vitamin C, niacin, vitamin B2 and B12--up to 30%. However, the requirements of iron and iodine are increased at most--100%. The weight gain in pregnant women should normally be in the range of 10-12.5 kg. During the I and II trimester it should be not substantial, while in the III trimester it should be about 350-400 g/per week. The risks associated with obesity and uncontrolled weight gain during pregnancy are discussed. Consulting physicians are provided with expert opinions about the individualization of the nutritional intake according to the specific metabolic changes during pregnancy and with definitions of an adequate in energy supply and nutritional balance diet.

  17. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  18. Cervical Stiffness Evaluated In Vivo by Endoflip in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Hee; Donghua Liao; Puk Sandager; Hans Gregersen; Niels Uldbjerg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation wi...

  19. Study on alleviation of psychological intervention in different periods on depressive symptoms for pregnant women%不同时期心理干预对改善孕产妇抑郁症状的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾水琴; 崔菊芬; 邹建英; 林玉萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨不同时期心理干预对改善孕产妇抑郁症状的作用.方法 将900例孕16周至24周的孕妇,用随机等样本分配至A组、B组、C组,每组300例.3组均予常规医疗、护理和健康教育,B组在孕24周、28周、32周、36周增加心理干预,C组在孕37周、临产前、产后第1~2天、出院前进行心理干预.使用爱丁堡产后抑郁量表对3组孕产妇进行抑郁症状评估.结果 3组爱丁堡产后抑郁量表评分比较,F=46.531,P<0.01;B组和C组在孕37周后抑郁症状发生率低于A组;B组在孕37周评分降低明显,C组在产后第42天评分降低明显.结论 不同时期心理干预均能有效缓解孕产妇的抑郁症状,但孕中期心理干预效果持续更久.%Objective To study the effect of psychological intervention in different periods on depressive symptoms for pregnant women. Method Divide 900 pregnant women in 16 - 24 weeks of pregnancy into Group A, B and C equally by random sample. All patients receive routine medical care and health education. Patients in group B receive enhanced psychological intervention in the 24th, 28th, 32nd and 36th of pregnancy. Patients in group C receive psychological intervention in 37th week, before labor, 1 - 2 days after labor and before discharge. Assess depressive symptoms for pregnant women in 3 groups by Edingburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Result Comparison on scores of Edingburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for 3 groups,F=46. 531, P<0. 01. Depression rate of Group B and C after 37th week of pregnancy is lower than Group A. Score of Group B reduces obviously in 37 th week of pregnancy. Score of Group B reduces obviously in 42 nd day after labor. Conclusion Psychological intervention in different periods can relieve depressive symptoms for pregnant women. Psychological intervention in second trimester has longer effect.

  20. Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Subchorionic Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Barinova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of subchorionic hematoma (SCH in the first trimester of pregnancy remains open for discussion. Some authors claim that SCH does not affect the pregnancy; others have found that it is a serious risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. The objective of the present study was to explore the outcomes of pregnancy in patients with SCH diagnosed in the first trimester. Methods and Results: The study involved 194 pregnant women who were in terms of 6 to12 weeks: 115 women with SCH (Group 1 and 79 apparently healthy pregnant women (Group 2. A missed miscarriage was observed in 27/23% women of Group 1 and in 4/5% of Group 2 (P<0.05, recurrent threat of miscarriage in 27/23% and in 4/5%, recurrent bleeding in 14/12% and 2/3%, and the short cervix syndrome in 22/19% and 5/6% women, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the presence of SCH adversely affects the first half of pregnancy, leading to recurrent threatened abortion, recurrent threat of miscarriage, missed miscarriage until 12 weeks of gestation, and the short cervix syndrome.

  1. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  2. Audit of management of pregnant women with positive VDRL tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Mathai, M; Prakash, J A; Bergström, S

    2001-01-01

    Syphilis is a preventable cause of foetal loss and congenital disease. Although the VDRL test is an integral part of routine antenatal care in India, little is known about the disease burden in pregnancy in India. Therefore, we carried out a study to determine the prevalence of VDRL positivity and syphilis among pregnant women in Vellore and to audit the management and outcome of VDRL-positive pregnancies. A retrospective review of case records. Only 0.98% of pregnant women were positive by the VDRL test. However, foetal loss occurred in 16 (32%) of the 50 seropositive women; 15 of these did not receive antenatal care. Seventeen of the 34 seropositive multiparous women had had previous foetal losses. Only 16 women had received penicillin. Although the seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnancy is low, it is an unrecognized cause of foetal loss in Vellore. An audit of the testing and management of VDRL positivity in pregnancy provides valuable information on the quality of antenatal care in an area.

  3. First-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbom, Ingegerd; Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2016-10-11

    The body of first-time pregnant women is affected in many ways, and the women may not know what to expect. Conversations between women and healthcare personnel about women's bodily experience in early pregnancy can contribute to increased body knowledge, which may have a positive impact in later stages of their pregnancy and in relation to delivery. The aim of the study was to describe first-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy (pregnancy weeks 10-14). Twelve women were asked to draw pictures and answer questions freely about their experiences of their first pregnant body. Hermeneutical text interpretation was used to obtain an overall view of the experiences. A main theme emerged: 'the body is connected to the cycle of life'. This theme comprised five subthemes: 'bodily longing and a sense of ambivalence', 'being doubtful', 'welcoming changes in body and mind', 'feeling inner strength and struggle to find strength' and 'accepting a different body and mind'. This main theme and the subthemes were further interpreted and were understood as an experience of 'me and my body'. The body reminded the women to take care of it and gave rise to positive thoughts. When the body exhibited uncomfortable reactions and sensations, these were taken as evidence of pregnancy, which was also seen positive but it also triggered a sense of dissatisfaction with the body and a feeling of it becoming alien. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Health providers’ compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Vajihesadat; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most important crises with mental, social, and deep emotional dimensions in women's life. Health providers’ respect to pregnant women's Bill of Rights, as an important component of providing humanistic and ethical care, is of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery and some of its related factors in 2013. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on the subjects selected through census sampling (N = 257) from among the healthcare providers working in the labor rooms of four educational hospitals. The data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire whose validity and reliability were established. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights was found to be at a very high level in 22.8% of the midwifery students, 28.6% of the residents of obstetrics and gynecology, 21.9% of the interns, 50% of the obstetrics and gynecology faculty members (professors), and 31.9% of the midwives. There was a significant difference between the five groups of service providers in terms of overall compliance with mothers’ rights (P = 0.002). The results showed that the residents in higher years of education (P = 0.001), midwifery students in higher semesters (P = 0.001), midwives with more work experience (P Bill of Rights. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in compliance with Bill of Rights between labor and age (P = 0.82). Conclusions: The results showed that the health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals. PMID:26457093

  5. Health providers' compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Vajihesadat; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Delivery is one of the most important crises with mental, social, and deep emotional dimensions in women's life. Health providers' respect to pregnant women's Bill of Rights, as an important component of providing humanistic and ethical care, is of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine health providers' compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery and some of its related factors in 2013. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on the subjects selected through census sampling (N = 257) from among the healthcare providers working in the labor rooms of four educational hospitals. The data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire whose validity and reliability were established. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights was found to be at a very high level in 22.8% of the midwifery students, 28.6% of the residents of obstetrics and gynecology, 21.9% of the interns, 50% of the obstetrics and gynecology faculty members (professors), and 31.9% of the midwives. There was a significant difference between the five groups of service providers in terms of overall compliance with mothers' rights (P = 0.002). The results showed that the residents in higher years of education (P = 0.001), midwifery students in higher semesters (P = 0.001), midwives with more work experience (P Bill of Rights. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in compliance with Bill of Rights between labor and age (P = 0.82). The results showed that the health providers' compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals.

  6. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L;

    2015-01-01

    ) and type 2 diabetes (n = 28) who used repeated CGM during pregnancy were recruited from secondary care multidisciplinary obstetric clinics for diabetes in the U.K. and Denmark. LGA was defined as birth weight ≥90th percentile adjusted for sex and gestational age. RESULTS: A total of 54 of 117 (46%) women......OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women...... with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...

  7. Risky health seeking practice among pregnant women in rural Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørby, Laila

    2007-01-01

    delays, Culture, Field and Capital, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC). Title: Risky health seeking practice, among pregnant women in rural Congo (DRC). Background Statement: Worldwide more than half a million women still die each year of pregnancy and childbirth related reasons. Most of these women live...... about 60 % of the women have a professional help at birth, and even fewer delivers in a health centre, which is far from the Unicef and WHO goal trying to combat high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). In the southern and rural part of DRC, is a small well equipped and well staffed dispensary and maternity...... professional assistance for normal pregnancy and delivery; delay in reaching an adequate medical facility, which includes accessibility, availability and cost of transportation and conditions of roads; and delays in obtaining the care needed to manage the situation. Following that I have analysed...

  8. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  9. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  10. PHQ-8 minor depression among pregnant women: association with somatic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Adrienne B; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; Harper, Bridgette D; LoBello, Steven G

    2017-06-01

    It was recently reported that pregnant women were more likely to have minor depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 depression scale (PHQ-8), (as reported by Kroenke and Spitzer (Psychiatr Ann 32(9):1-7, 2002), and Kroenke et al. (J Affect 114(1-3):163-173, 2009)) compared to women who were not pregnant (as reported by Ashley et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 19(2):395-400, 2015)). The present study is designed to investigate if somatic symptoms (energy level, appetite, sleep) associated with both pregnancy and depression were responsible for this increased prevalence of minor depression. A sample of pregnant women (n = 404) was compared to women who were not pregnant (n = 6754). Both groups scored within the minor depression range on the PHQ-8 and comparisons were based on participants' responses to PHQ-8 items. Results indicate that of the somatic symptoms of depression, only changes in energy level accounted for the elevated prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women compared to women who are not pregnant. Removing the decreased energy item from the score determination reduces the prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women to a level significantly below that of women who are not pregnant. Emotional symptoms such as feeling down and feeling like a failure were less likely to be reported by pregnant women compared to women who were not pregnant. Implications for depression screening during pregnancy are discussed.

  11. 孕产妇不同分娩方式的选择及结局探讨%Study of different modes of delivery and outcome of pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞运夺; 马艳; 董胜雯; 孙忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the different selections of delivery mode of pregnant women, and compare their outcomes. Methods Data of 7 509 pregnant women hospitalized in the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University between January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Of them, there were 6 229 cases of primipara and 1 280 cases of multipara. The numbers of vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery were statistical analyzed between primipara and multipara. The cesarean delivery indications of multipara was also studied. The vaginal delivery rates and cesarean delivery rates, and their outcomes were compared between primipara and scar uterus maternal pregnancy. Results The cesarean delivery rate was higher in multipara than that of primipara (69.06%vs. 57.54%,χ2=59.19, P<0.05). Among them, 631 cases were uterine scar pregnancy, 39 cases (6.18%) were vaginal delivery and 592 cases (93.82%) were cesarean delivery. The uterine scar was the main indicator for cesarean delivery in multipara. Compared the outcomes of cesarean delivery, the weight of neonatal body mass was relatively light, the hospital stay was shorter, the amount of 24 h postpartum bleeding and postpartum fever were less in vaginal delivery in primipara and pregnant women with uterine scar ( P<0.05). There were no significant differences in scores of newborn. There were no significant differences in outcomes of vaginal delivery between primipara and pregnant women with uterine scar. Compared outcomes of cesarean delivery between multipara with scar uterus and primipara, there were increased maternal blood loss and postpartum fever in multipara with scar uterus (P<0.05). Conclusion The cesarean delivery is still the mainly mode for multipara. The vaginal delivery is the best mode for pregnant women with scar uterus compared with that of primipara. The vaginal delivery is the safer way of delivery for pregnant women.%目的:调查初产妇及经产妇不同情况下分娩方式的选择,并

  12. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women.

  13. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  14. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  15. [Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

    2008-06-01

    This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.

  16. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2017-05-08

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  17. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  18. Breastfeeding Attitudes of Pregnant Women and Some Factors Which Effect the Breastfeeding Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This research is carried out as analitical to determine the breastfeeding attitudes of pregnant women who applied Hacettepe University Hospital Gynecologic and Obstetric Department during the month of December 2001 and some factors effecting breastfeeding attitude. Most of the women who taken the research was between 25-29 age group and graduated high school and university. About 39.8% of the pregnant women was in the period of first pregnancy. 96.1% of pregnant women who delivered live ...

  19. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Igbinosa, Irogue; Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Pillai, Satish K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Villanueva, Julie M; Newsome, Kim; Fischer, Marc; Gupta, Priya M; Powers, Ann M; Lampe, Margaret; Hills, Susan; Arnold, Kathryn E; Rose, Laura E; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Beard, Charles B; Muñoz, Jorge L; Rao, Carol Y; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-07-25

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.(†) Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease(§) (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for possible exposure, including residence in or frequent travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, as well as women living in areas without Zika virus transmission who travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, or have unprotected sex with a partner who traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission). Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated possible Zika virus exposure who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic pregnant women) differ based on the circumstances of possible exposure. For asymptomatic pregnant women who live in areas without active Zika virus transmission and who are evaluated possible exposure, rRT-PCR testing should be performed. If the rRT-PCR result is negative, a Zika virus IgM antibody test should be performed 2-12 weeks after the exposure. Asymptomatic pregnant women who do not live in an area with active Zika virus transmission, who are first evaluated 2-12 weeks

  20. Hypotension in pregnant women: a population-based case-control study of pregnancy complications and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-01-01

    Hypotension is frequent in pregnant women; nevertheless, its association with pregnancy complications and birth outcomes has not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of hypotension in pregnant women with pregnancy complications and with the risk for preterm birth, low birthweight and different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in the children of these mothers in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of CAs, 1980-1996. Prospectively and medically recorded hypotension was evaluated in 537 pregnant women who later had offspring with CAs (case group) and 1268 pregnant women with hypotension who later delivered newborn infants without CAs (control group); controls were matched to sex and birth week of cases (in the year when cases were born), in addition to residence of mothers. Over half of the pregnant women who had chronic hypotension were treated with pholedrine or ephedrine. Maternal hypotension is protective against preeclampsia; however, hypotensive pregnant women were at higher risk for severe nausea or vomiting, threatened abortion (hemorrhage in early pregnancy) and for anemia. There was no clinically important difference in the rate of preterm births and low birthweight newborns in pregnant women with or without hypotension. The comparison of the rate of maternal hypotension in cases with 23 different CAs and their matched controls did not show a higher risk for CAs (adjusted OR with 95% confidence intervals: 0.66, 0.49-0.84). In conclusion, a higher risk for CAs and other adverse birth outcomes was not found in the offspring of pregnant women with hypotension, but maternal hypotension was associated with a higher risk of some pregnancy complications.

  1. Providing prenatal care to pregnant women with overweight or obesity: Differences in provider communication and ratings of the patient-provider relationship by patient body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Cole, Katie O; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bleich, Sara N; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Roter, Debra L

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association of women's body weight with provider communication during prenatal care. We coded audio recordings of prenatal visits between 22 providers and 117 of their patients using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Multivariate, multilevel Poisson models were used to examine the relationship between patient pre-pregnancy body mass index and provider communication. Compared to women with normal weight, providers asked fewer lifestyle questions (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99, p=0.04) and gave less lifestyle information (IRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82, p=0.01) to women with overweight and obesity, respectively. Providers used fewer approval (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.91, p=0.01) and concern statements (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.86, p=0.002) when caring for women with overweight and fewer self-disclosure statements caring for women with obesity (IRR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84 p=0.02). Less lifestyle and rapport building communication for women with obesity may weaken patient-provider relationship during routine prenatal care. Interventions to increase use of patient-centered communication - especially for women with overweight and obesity - may improve prenatal care quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  3. Monitoring of iodine intake and thyroid status of pregnant women in Saratov region from 1999 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova Yu.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of monitoring of iodine intake and thyroid status in pregnant women in Saratov region according to the two cross-sectional studies in 1999 and 2008. The study involved 229 pregnant women. It has been established that there is a decrease in frequency of endemic goiter in pregnant women from 52,8 to 23,6% and increase in median urinary ioduria from 33,0 to 115,5 ug/l. However, iodine intake in pregnancy remains insufficient, as currently the median urinary ioduria is 150-249 ug/l (WHO, 2007. The frequency of maternal hypothyroxinemia, the most significant iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women, has not changed in a 10-year period (1999 - 46,3%; in 2008 - 55,7%; p>0,1. The research has not obtained significant differences in the frequency of interrelated with pregnancy and delivery complications within two groups of patients

  4. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Berti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine; to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β and SE(β were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P<0.00001; that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P<0.00001, that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P=0.001, that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women.

  5. Expression of Resistin Protein in Normal Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Pregnant Women Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yongming; GUO Tiecheng; ZHANG Muxun; GUO Wei; YU Meixia; XUE Keying; HUANG Shiang; CHEN Yanhong; ZHU Huanli; XU Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta and the relationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was investigated. The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta was detected by using Western blotting method.Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay. Serum cholesterol (CHOL), serum triglycerides (TG), serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument. Fasting insulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay to calculate insulin resistance index (IRI). Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF %). Resistin protein expression in pregnant women placental tissue (67 905±8441) (arbitrary A values) was much higher than that in subcutaneous adipose tissue in pregnant women abdomen (40 718 ± 3818, P < 0.01), non-pregnant women abdomen (38 288±2084, P<0.01), normal human abdomen (39 421±6087, P<0.01)and thigh (14 942 ±6706, P<0. 001) respectively. The resistin expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no significant difference among pregnant, non-pregnant women and normal human, but much higher than that in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0. 001). Pearson analysis revealed that resistin protein was correlated with BMI (r=0.42), fasting insulin concentration (r=0.38),IRI (r=0. 34), BF % (r=0.43) and fasting glucose (r=0. 39), but not with blood pressure,CHOL, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. It was suggested that resistin protein expression in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was much higher

  6. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-10-01

    The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n=47) and 36 weeks (n=45) of gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30s following stimulation. Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. © 2013.

  7. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  8. Effect of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy on Cytokines, Hemorheology and Coagulation Function of Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cui-ge; LI Lian-xiang; LIU Xiao-qin; SHI Jian-yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on the cytokines, hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 43 singleton pregnant women with ICP delivered in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, and 45 singleton healthy pregnant women accompanied by indications of cesarean section were selected as control group. Automatic Viscometer was used to detect the hematological indexes, Automatic Coagulometer to detect the indexes related to coagulation function and radioimmunoassay to determine the levels of cell inflammatory factors, and the pregnancy outcomes were closely observed. Results:The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high and low shear rates of whole blood viscosity, hematokrit, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in observation group were all dramatically higher than those in control group, and all the differences were statistically signiifcant (P0.05). When compared with control group, the levels of D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB) in observation group increased dramatically (P0.05). Conclusion: Both the hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women with ICP manifest signiifcantly high viscosity and hypercoagulability, and the release of cell inlfammatory factors increases, which all exert adverse inlfuence on pregnancy outcome.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  10. Association of Homocysteine, Vitamin and Blood Factors with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nadafi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Preeclampsia is a disease with worldwide importance to mothers and infants, where it accounts for 20–80% of the strikingly increased maternal mortality. The lack of enzymes added to the homocysteine metabolism or the cofactors necessary for its metabolism (folate, B6 vitamin, B12 vitamin cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Abnormal serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Recently high levels of B-HCG have been identified as a potential marker for developing preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible association of homocysteine, vitamin and some serum factors levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A case control study was performed prospectively on normotensive healthy pregnant women (80 and pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (80 referring to Imam Sadjad hospital in Yasuj, between September 2004 to August 2005. In addition to the obstetric evaluation and laboratory examination in the 3rd trimester of gestation, blood samples were taken from all cases for homocysteine and vitamin B12, folic acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, B-HCG analysis. The samples were evaluated by Immunoassay (ELISA. Univariant and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of outcomes. Results: The mean plasma level of total homocysteine was significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnancy(p0.05. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women(p<0/05. LDL and HDL levels were not correlated with preeclampsia. There was no significant association between preeclampsia and B-HCG levels. Conclusion: Homocysteine, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increase in preeclampsia but decrease of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels was not observed in preeclampsia. LDL, HDL and B-HCG levels were not

  11. [Prevalence of iron-deficient anemia in rural pregnant women in Valldolid, Yucatan, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Gamboa, Ligia; Quintal Duarte, Rommel; González Martínez, Pedro; Castillo Gumersindo, Vázquez

    2009-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia among rural pregnant women in Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. A descriptive study was carried out from March to May 2006. A clinical-epidemiological survey, a complete blood count test and a ferritin test were applied to a non-random sample conformed by 51 rural pregnant women. Thirty five point two percent of the 51 pregnant women studied presented anaemia, which was more frequent during the second and third trimester, 25.6% of which were adolescents. Abnormal iron profile was found in 41% of the women, 30% (9/51) presented iron-deficiency anaemia which was more frequent in the third trimester. The women with iron-deficiency anaemia had had an average of four pregnancies. No significant difference was found between multiparity and anaemia (square Chi, p = 9.29). The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia was 17.64% in this group, more frequent during the third trimester. The hematological alterations were more frequent in multipara women. In a quarter of the sample, pregnancy occurred during adolescence; two events that need greater amounts of iron. The creation of nutritional programs since childhood and the incorporation of ferritin in prenatal care is fundamental for the adequate development and security of both mother and child.

  12. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  13. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  14. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  15. [Simple locomotion and during load carrying in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomer, E; Ducher, D; Arfi, G S; Sud, R

    1991-01-01

    There have been few studies of the way women walk in pregnancy, though some of the causes of low back ache of which they complain have only been partially worked out. This is why this study has been carried out on ten women between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. The speed at which they walk and the parameters of the gait as well as the localization of the centre of gravity when keeping upright have been measured in these pregnant women as well as in twenty control women of the same age. The results show that the speed at which they walk whether with or without carrying a weight usually is identical at the beginning and the end of pregnancy. When walking normally the size of the steps taken are no larger in pregnant women than in the control patients (p less than 0.05). Though the results are not statistically significant the rhythm of the steps is faster as well as their being a reduction in the length of the steps between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. When carrying a weight the length of the steps does not change greatly with pregnancy (p less than 0.05) and it would seem therefore to be a good way of assessing the changes that locomotion undergoes in pregnancy. The fact that women do not walk faster or slower can give evidence that they adapt to the change in posture that happens in pregnancy and they make the best possible biomechanical use of the parameters of walking in order to economise total energy output of the organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Comparing caring practices between two groups of pregnant women in the city of sincelejo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In order to compare the care practices that a group of pregnant women exercise in respect of themselves and their unborn child of a group of adolescent pregnant girls andanother of adult pregnant women who attended prenatal check ups in Sincelejo during the months of July and September of 2006, a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study was developed, with a sample of 97 adolescent pregnant girls between 15 and 19 years and of 153 adult pregnant women between 20 and 45 years of age, wi...

  17. Prevalence of vaginitis among pregnant women attending Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Tuladhar, N R; Basnyat, S; Acharya, G P; Shrestha, P; Kumar, P

    2011-12-01

    Vaginitis is the most prevalent disorder among the pregnant women. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of common types of vaginitis among the pregnant women visiting Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital in Kathmandu. Among 200 pregnant women included in the study, 78 (39.0%) had vaginitis. Of total 78 positive cases of vaginitis, 29.5% had candidiasis, 52.6% bacterial vaginosis and 1.3% trichomoniasis. Approximately 83% had monomicrobial infection and 16.7% had polymicrobial infection. Vaginitis was common in the age group of 20 to 29 years (41.8%) and 30-39 years (40.0%). Ethnically, Indo-Aryans (40.2%) were mostly infected. The infection rate was the highest among illiterate women (47.6%) and least among the women having education above secondary (23.0%). The positive infection rate was higher in women from rural area (45.2%) than those from urban area (37.3%). Nearly half of the women with agriculture occupation (48.4%) had vaginitis. Vaginitis was common in women with third pregnancy (52.6%). Among 78 vaginitis cases, 53 (67.9%) were asymptomatic cases.

  18. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

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    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  19. Agreeableness and pregnancy: Relations with coping and psychiatric symptoms, a longitudinal study on Spanish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Laura; Carmona, Javier; Marín, Dolores

    2017-01-19

    Agreeableness is associated with good mental health during pregnancy. Although different studies have indicated that agreeableness is related to adaptive coping, this relation has scarcely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible differences between high and low agreeableness in relation to coping strategies and psychiatric symptoms in pregnant women. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study between October 2009 and January 2013. Pregnant women (n = 285) were assessed in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 122 of them were assessed during the third. Data were collected using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Symptom Check List 90-R, and the agreeableness subscale of the NEO-FFI. Using the SPSS 21 statistics package, binary logistic regression, two-way mixed analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses and a Sobel test were conducted. Higher levels of agreeableness were associated with positive reappraisal and problem-solving, and lower levels of agreeableness were associated with overt emotional expression and negative self-focused coping. Women with low agreeableness had poorer mental health, especially in the first trimester. These findings should be taken into account to improve women's experiences during pregnancy. Nevertheless, given the scarcity of data, additional studies are needed.

  20. Effect of Different Delivery Methods on Neonatal Outcomes in Amniotic Flu-id contaminated Pregnant Women%羊水污染孕产妇不同分娩方式对新生儿结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洵艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different delivery methods on neonatal outcome in amniotic fluid contaminated pregnant women. Methods Random decimation in 320 cases of meconium stained amniotic fluid of pregnant and lying in women, all personnel are admitted between May 2014 and March 2016, investigation of all patients with amniotic fluid pol-lution degree, and the ways of delivery and neonatal outcomes were investigated. Results Amniotic fluid I pollution degree of patients with neonatal asphyxia rate was 11.6%;pollution second degree amniotic fluid of patients with neonatal asphyxia incidence rate was 33.1%;meconium stained amniotic fluid of patients with neonatal asphyxia rate was 60.9%, three groups compared with the presence of significant difference,P < 0.05. Amniotic fluid I pollution degree of patients with cesarean section newborn asphyxia rate was 62.50% and vaginal delivery; neonatal asphyxia rate was 11.29%; 2nd degree amniotic fluid pollution in patients with cesarean section newborn asphyxia rate was 21.9%, vaginal delivery; neonatal asphyxia rate was 49.01%; meconium stained amniotic fluid of patients with cesarean section birth neonatal asphyxia rate was 49.3%, vaginal delivery;neonatal asphyxia rate was 85.7%. Conclusion Different ways of intervention should be taken to ensure the safety of pregnant women and neonates in different ways for the patients with different degrees of amniotic fluid pollution.%目的:对羊水污染孕产妇不同分娩方式对新生儿结局的影响结果进行研究。方法随机抽选该院320例羊水污染孕产妇,均为2014年5月一2016年3月间入院的产妇,对所有患者羊水污染程度进行调查,并对其分娩方式,新生儿结局进行调查。结果羊水I度污染的患者新生儿窒息率为11.6%;羊水Ⅱ度污染的患者新生儿窒息率发生率为33.1%;羊水Ⅲ度污染的患者新生儿窒息率为60.9%,3组比较差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。羊水I度污染的患者剖

  1. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  2. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    effects of cumulative stressful experiences are associated with disrupted HPA functioning among pregnant women. While the etiology of racial/ethnic differences in stress-induced HPA alterations is not clear, this warrants further research. PMID:21423846

  3. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    effects of cumulative stressful experiences are associated with disrupted HPA functioning among pregnant women. While the etiology of racial/ethnic differences in stress-induced HPA alterations is not clear, this warrants further research.

  4. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masinde, A; Gumodoka, B; Kilonzo, A; Mshana, S E

    2009-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women attending Bugando Medical centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 247 pregnant women were enrolled, of these 78 (31.5%) were symptomatic and 169 (68.4%) asymptomatic. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine (MSU) culture on standard culture media and urinalysis was done using rapid dip stick. The prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were 17.9% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.307). Using univariate analysis there was no association of parity (p = 0.825), gestational age (p = 0.173), education (p = 0.615), age (p = 0.211) and marital status (p = 0.949) with bacteriuria. The sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick was 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. Escherichia coli (47.2%) and Enterococcus spp (22.2%) were the most commonly recovered pathogens. The rate of resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethaxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 53%, 58.8%, 64.7%, 5.9%, 11.8%, 5.9%, 29.4% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women is prevalent in our setting and majority of Escherichia coli are resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, SXT and ceftriaxone. Due to low sensitivity of rapid dip stick, routine urine culture and susceptibility testing is recommended to all pregnant women at booking.

  5. Measurement of Gallbladder Volume with Ultrasonography in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Kapicioglu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and postprandial gallbladder volumes were investigated using ultrasonography in three groups (10 subjects in each of healthy women: third trimester pregnant women, postpartum women up to 10 days after giving birth and nonpregnant controls. The scans were performed at 09:00 after a 12 h fast. After the basal measurement was taken, gallbladder volumes were rescanned in 15 min intervals for 60 mins. At the end of this period, all volunteers received a standard liquid test meal, and scans were performed again for 1 h. The mean basal gallbladder volume was 22.2±4.2 mL in the nonpregnant (control group. In the third trimester group, the basal volume was 37.8±10.5 mL – 70.5% higher than in the nonpregnant group (P<0.001. In the postpartum group, the mean basal volume was 37.9% lower (27.4±6.5 mL than that of the third trimester group (P<0.02. This basal volume was 23.6% greater than that of the control group (P<0.05. After administration of a test meal, the postprandial gallbladder volumes decreased during the first few minutes compared with baseline values. The volumes decreased by 10.2% to 39.8% (23.5±7.3 to 34.0±10.2; P<0.01 in the third trimester group, by 14.9% to 43.2% (16.6±4.3 to 23.3±5.5; P<0.01, 0.001 in the postpartum group and by 19.2% to 51.6% (11.9±3.5 to 17.9±3.6; P<0.02, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001 in the control group. Postprandial mean gallbladder volumes of the third trimester (P<0.02 and postpartum groups (P<0.02 to 0.01 were significantly different from those of the control group. In conclusion, incomplete emptying of the gallbladder after eating during the third trimester of pregnancy may contribute to cholesterol-gallstone formation, and pregnancy may thus increase the risk of gallstones.

  6. Iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which proved to be an iodine-sufficient area. Is mandatory salt iodisation enough for pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Engin; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Aydogan, Berna Imge; Acıkgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Erenel, Hakan; Celik Acıoglu, Hasniye; Anık Ilhan, Gökce; Dane, Banu; Ozel, Aysegul; Tandogan, Bulent; Cakar, Erbil; Isci, Herman; Kayan, Basak; Aslan, Halil; Ekiz, Ali; Sancak, Seda; Celik, Ayhan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Uzun, Ozgur; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which was stated as iodine sufficient area after salt iodination program. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out on 3543 pregnant women. Age, gestational weeks, smoking, consumption of iodized salt, dietary salt restriction, history of stillbirth, abortus and congenital malformations were questioned. Spot urine samples were analyzed for urine iodine concentration (UIC). The outcomes were: (a) median UIC in three trimesters of pregnancy and (b) frequency of ID among pregnant women. The median UIC was 73 µg/L. The median UIC was 77 µg/L (1-324), 73 µg/L (1-600) and 70 µg/L (1-1650) in three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively (p: 0.14). UIC <50 µg/L was observed in 36.6% (n: 1295) and UIC<150 µg/L was observed in 90.7% (n: 3214) of pregnant women. Only 1% (n: 34) of the pregnant women had UIC levels higher than 500 µg/L. This study showed that more than 90% of the pregnant women in this iodine-sufficient city are facing some degree of iodine deficiency during their pregnancy. A salt iodization program might be satisfactory for the non-pregnant population, but it seems to be insufficient for the pregnant population.

  7. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  8. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  9. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  10. Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.

  11. PREVALENCE OF OVERT AND SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM AMONG INDIAN PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON FOETOMATERNAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha

    2016-06-01

    , mode of delivery, prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, foetal distress, neonatal intensive care unit admissions were comparable between the two groups. Amongst all foetomaternal variables assessed in SCH and control group, none was significantly different. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, especially overt and subclinical hypothyroidism among Indian pregnant women with associated adverse perinatal outcome. There was no significant association between SCH pregnancy and adverse foetomaternal outcome; however, in overtly hypothyroid pregnant women the incidence of PE, GDM and IUFD was significantly higher as compared to euthyroid controls.

  12. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  13. Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Haug

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSmoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS.There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion,reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten yearsago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. Duringthe last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.

  14. DeQuervain tenosynovitis in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schned, E S

    1986-09-01

    DeQuervain tenosynovitis, which involves the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, is much more common in women than men and is due to repetitive movements of the hand such as grasping and twisting. Housewives and persons involved in manual occupations using the hands and wrists account for most cases in previous series. In this series, six of 24 female patients (25%) were pregnant or postpartum at the time of onset. In five of the six, activities of infant care aggravated symptoms. Both pregnancy, per se, and mechanical factors appear to play a role in causing this condition.

  15. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  16. Trends and consequences of consumption of food and non-food items (pica by pregnant women in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kariuki

    2016-12-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica practices should be assessed in antenatal care of pregnant women. Attention should be paid to pregnant women who have had a history of child death and women with low education level.

  17. Relationship between vitamin D knowledge and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels amongst pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toher, C

    2013-08-24

    Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.

  18. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding ...

  19. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Can...

  20. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Leidiane De Lucca; Fabiane Rodrigues; Letícia B. Jantsch; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 2...

  1. Anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia: prevalence, severity and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kefiyalew, Filagot; Zemene, Endalew; Asres, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background Anemia is a significant public health problem in developing countries, particularly in pregnant women. It may complicate pregnancy, sometimes resulting in tragic outcomes. There is a lack of information on the magnitude of anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia. The aim of this study is, therefore, to determine the prevalence of anemia and assess associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at Bisidimo Hospital in Southeast Ethiopia. Methods A f...

  2. 妊娠期妇女在不同孕期血清铁蛋白、叶酸和25羟基维生素 D 检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of serum ferritin, folic acid and 25-hydroxyitamin D detection in pregnant women during different duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华铭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand significance of serum ferritin (SF), folic acid (FA) and 25-hydroxyitamin D (25OHD) detection in pregnant women during different duration. Methods Chemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to detect SF, FA, and 25OHD contents in 150 pregnant women receiving prenatal care (pregnancy group), 55 healthy pregnant women without anemia (control group 2), and 55 healthy non-pregnant women (control group 1). Results Contents of the three indexes decreased along with progress of pregnancy. Comparing with the control groups, the pregnancy group had lower SF and 25OHD in early pregnancy, and their difference had statistical significance (P0.05). Moderate and late pregnancy had all lower SF, FA and 25OHD than the control groups, and their difference had statistical significance (P0.05),中、晚期的 SF、FA 和25OHD 含量均比对照组低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。随着孕期的增加, SF 和 FA 低下检出率逐渐升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论检测妊娠期妇女在不同孕期 SF、FA 和25OHD 含量可以对妊娠期贫血的防治提供帮助,保障母婴安全。

  3. Obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and diet and health-related attitudes among women intending to become pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERENSON, Abbey B.; POHLMEIER, Ali M.; LAZ, Tabassum H.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur; SAADE, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and diet and health-related attitudes among women intending to become pregnant compared to those not intending to become pregnant. Study Design Cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception, and diet and health-related attitudes among women (16-40 years) attending reproductive health clinics in southeast Texas. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires and chart review. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and health-related attitudes after adjusting for age, race, income and gravidity. Results Overall, 1,726 women completed the survey of which 1,420 responded to a question on pregnancy intention. Of these, 126 stated they were intending to become pregnant. Obesity risk knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.77) and weight misperception (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 0.75-1.83) did not differ between women intending and not intending to become pregnant. Additionally, diet and health-related attitudes did not differ between these two groups (P>0.05 for all). Among women intending to become pregnant, 51% had low obesity risk knowledge and 31% misperceived their body weight. Further, 76% of these women felt confused about what constitutes a healthy diet, although 47% believed that their current diet was healthy and saw no reason to change their current eating patterns. While weight misperception did not differ significantly between the two groups, overweight women intending to become pregnant were more likely to misperceive their weight than obese women intending to become pregnant (71% vs 10%, Ppregnant, regarding the risks associated with being overweight or obese, misperception of body weight, and negative diet and health-related attitudes. PMID:26099687

  4. [Pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits after the second millennium in South-East Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battancs, Emese; Gorzó, István; Pál, Attila; Novák, Tibor; Eller, József; Kókai, Erzsébet L; Radnai, Márta

    2011-09-01

    Among the predisposing agents for inflammatory periodontal lesion dental plaque is the most important, but different local and systemic factors may influence the seriousness or progression of periodontitis. Hormonal changes during pregnancy belong to the systemic aggravating factors. The aim of the present study was to assess pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits, and if these have a relationship with age, residence, educational level and profession/occupation. Questionnaires were used for the data collection. 275 pregnant women, who underwent prenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Szeged, volunteered to answer the questions. The results showed that almost all the women brushed their teeth daily, but only about one third of them used special oral hygiene tools, like dental floss. Many of the women claimed to have gingival bleeding when brushing their teeth. More then 70% visited a dentist during pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between educational level and the use of dental floss (p=0.004) and gingival bleeding (p=0.023) Oral hygiene education, dental and periodontal treatment of pregnant women need more emphasis during prenatal care.

  5. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in cases with preeclampsia, eclampsia and healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Ercan, Onder; Köstü, Bülent; Avci, Fazıl; Kılınç, Metin; Kıran, Hakan; Kiran, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups. Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (Ppregnant group. The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (Ppregnant women (P<0.001). Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency.

  6. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest

  7. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E; Doherty, Irene A; Kline, Tracy L; Key, Mary E; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group.

  8. Malaria burden among pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Gies, Sabine; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2007-12-01

    In two cross-sectional surveys carried out in the rural health district of Boromo, Burkina Faso, malaria infection was evaluated in 295 pregnant women in May 2003 and 288 pregnant women in December 2003. Malaria prevalence, all P. falciparum infection, was higher in December (32.2%) than in May (11.9%) (P pregnant women living in the rural district of Boromo. This requires a major effort by the health authorities to guarantee all pregnant women have access to and use preventive measures.

  9. Characterization of Pregnant Women in the Social Enterprise State Santiago de Tunja, First Half of 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rebellón, David Esteban; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Parra, Tania Julieth; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Hernández, Fredy; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Linares, Andrés Fernando; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Rodríguez, Ana Yervid; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Vargas, Ludy Alexandra; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Introduccion: Physicological changes, sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric conditions during pregnancy lead to alterations predispose morbimortality in pregnant women. This study aims to characterize pregnant women attending antenatal care in the ESE Santiago de Tunja between January and June 2013.Materials and methods: Observational-descriptive study, in which databases were reviewed to determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors in 910 pregnant women.Results: Pregnant women ...

  10. Online nutrition information for pregnant women: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Tayla; Maher, Judith; Swanepoel, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Pregnant women actively seek health information online, including nutrition and food-related topics. However, the accuracy and readability of this information have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate pregnancy-related food and nutrition information available online. Four search engines were used to search for pregnancy-related nutrition web pages. Content analysis of web pages was performed. Web pages were assessed against the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines to assess accuracy. Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), Gunning Fog Index (FOG) and Flesch reading ease (FRE) formulas were used to assess readability. Data was analysed descriptively. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between web page characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to check for differences among readability and other web page characteristics. A total of 693 web pages were included. Web page types included commercial (n = 340), not-for-profit (n = 113), blogs (n = 112), government (n = 89), personal (n = 36) and educational (n = 3). The accuracy of online nutrition information varied with 39.7% of web pages containing accurate information, 22.8% containing mixed information and 37.5% containing inaccurate information. The average reading grade of all pages analysed measured by F-K, SMOG and FOG was 11.8. The mean FRE was 51.6, a 'fairly difficult to read' score. Only 0.5% of web pages were written at or below grade 6 according to F-K, SMOG and FOG. The findings suggest that accuracy of pregnancy-related nutrition information is a problem on the internet. Web page readability is generally difficult and means that the information may not be accessible to those who cannot read at a sophisticated level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heminger CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results: Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion: Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. Keywords: mHealth, smoking cessation, pregnancy, text messaging

  12. What do pregnant women know about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damase-Michel, Christine; Christaud, Julie; Berrebi, Alain; Lacroix, Isabelle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2009-11-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on late pregnancy can be associated with severe adverse neonatal outcomes. Some NSAIDs, available over the counter, can be purchased easily by pregnant women. The present study evaluates pregnant womens' knowledge about NSAID use in pregnancy. The survey includes 250 pregnant women in South-west France. Women have been interviewed about their knowledge on analgesic and NSAID use in pregnancy. A total of 2% pregnant women use aspirin or ibuprofen as self-medication. More than 10% of the women think that it is safe to take NSAIDs on late pregnancy. A majority of them thought that aspirin and ibuprofen are not NSAIDs. NSAID risks in pregnancy are insufficiently known. Adequate information must be provided not only to medical practitioners and pharmacists but also to pregnant women especially for drugs which are available over the counter. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Characteristics of pregnant and lactating women with leprosy

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    Paula Sacha Frota Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of women who conceive during leprosy and the association between leprosy and pregnancy are not well known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 49 pregnant or lactating women diagnosed with leprosy in 2011. RESULTS: The patients had a clinical dimorphous form of leprosy (44.9%, no physical incapacity at diagnosis (87.5%, and no complications in either the patient or infant (33.4%. In 36.3% of cases, leprosy symptoms were presented in the last trimester of pregnancy, and in 31.9% of patients were in the first trimester of lactation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between leprosy and pregnancy should be routinely investigated, particularly in endemic areas.

  14. [Maternal outcomes in pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-kun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yu-mei; Ying, Jun; Chen, Dan-qing

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the maternal outcomes of pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa (PPP). Clinical data of 470 patients with placenta previa admitted in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from August 2012 to August 2014 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into pernicious group(n=101) and non-pernicious group(n=369) according to the history of cesarean section and location of placenta attached to the uterine. The general profiles, maternal outcomes of two groups were compared. The age, gravidity and rate of recurrent cavity surgery of pernicious group [(32.5 ± 4.1) y, 3.4 ± 1.2, 28.7%] were higher than those of non-pernicious group [(30.7 ± 4.5) y, 2.1 ± 1.4,13.6%] (Pplacenta accrete was significantly associated with postpartum massive hemorrhage in pernicious group (Pplacenta previa.

  15. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  16. Breastfeeding intention among pregnant Hong Kong Chinese women.

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    Lau, Ying

    2010-09-01

    This study set out to (1) estimate the prevalence of three forms of feeding intention among 2,178 pregnant women in six of Hong Kong's regional hospitals and (2) identify the associated demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and relational correlates. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The Chinese version of a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the demographic, socio-economic, and obstetric characteristics of the women. Couples' relationships were investigated using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. All women in the second trimester of their pregnancies who attended the target antenatal clinics within the data collection period of December 2004 to December 2006 were recruited. The prevalence rates of breastfeeding, mixed feeding and artificial feeding were 53.9%, 14.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. Women who had been born in Hong Kong, lived in accommodation that was > or = 300 feet(2) (approximately 30 m(2)), had made an early antenatal booking, had a planned pregnancy, were experiencing their first pregnancy, and had a lower level of conflict with their partners were significantly more likely to opt for breastfeeding. Women who had been born in Hong Kong and already had children were significantly more likely to choose mixed feeding, compared with the artificial group in a multinomial logistic regression model. These findings suggest that effective promotion of breastfeeding during the prenatal period must target the correlates of feeding intention.

  17. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

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    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  18. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Annaba, Algeria].

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    Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  20. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes.

  1. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population.

  2. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

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    Antonia Herrera-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection. IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was employed to evaluate demographic and sexual behavior characteristics associated with HSV-2 infection. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence among Mexican women analyzed was 14.5% (333/2300, demographic factors (location of General Hospital, age, education level, and civil status, and risky sexual behaviors (STI self-report and number of sexual partners during last year were associated with HSV-2 infection. Seventeen women were detected with low avidity antibodies (early infection with a cut-off point of 66.1%. Conclusions. HSV-2 infection was common among this group of women from Mexico; the avidity test detected women with recent infections, and these women were more likely to transmit HSV-2 to their neonates. Neonatal herpes has no epidemiological surveillance, the disease could be overlooked, and so more studies are needed to estimate the magnitude of neonatal infection.

  3. Comparison of Lifestyles of Women With Gestational Diabetes and Healthy Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Javid, Fatereh Momeni; Simbar, Masoumeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes is the most common medical condition in pregnancy and can be a predisposing factor in incidence of type II diabetes in future. Incorrect lifestyles can predispose people to various diseases, including diabetes, which is a serious health risk. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare lifestyles of women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant women attending the health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in 2...

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  6. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2013-04-01

    Physical activity significantly impacts public health as it reduces the risk of chronic diseases and provides numerous protective factors during pregnancy. Although Canadian guidelines recommend regular physical activity for healthy pregnant women, little is known about their leisure-time physical activity patterns. This study compared the physical activity levels of pregnant and non-pregnant women and examined socio-demographic and health correlates of physical activity during pregnancy. Canadian Community Health Survey data (2005-2008) from 623 pregnant women and 20,392 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Ontario, Canada were examined. The prevalence of regular physical activity (15 or more minutes on at least 3 days of the week) was 58.3 % [95 % CI 52.9, 63.4], among pregnant women and 66.9 % [95 % CI 65.8, 68.0] among non-pregnant women. However, the prevalence of meeting Canadian guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy (30 or more minutes on at least 4 days of the week) was only 23.3 %, [95 % CI 19.4, 27.7] among pregnant women and 33.6 % [95 % CI 32.7, 34.6] among non-pregnant women. Pregnant women were less likely to be meeting guidelines if they were single, divorced, separated or widowed, a visible minority, had a household income between $20,000 and $79,999, and reported being in good or fair/poor health; when it came to education, women who had completed high school were more likely to be meeting guidelines. Few pregnant women in Ontario are meeting guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Results indicate that promoting physical activity during pregnancy should remain a public health priority.

  7. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant Women and its Importance for Candida Colonization of Newborns

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    Zisova Liliya G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis. Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and infection of the infant where prognosis depends on different predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the etiological structure of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its impact on Candida colonization of newborns.

  8. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

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    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  9. A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

  10. Monitoring HIV Epidemic in Pregnant Women: Are the Current Measures Enough?

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    Purva Sarkate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burden of HIV in pregnant women follows overall epidemic in India. Hence, it is imperative that prevalence calculations in this group be accurate. The present study was carried out to determine prevalence of HIV in pregnant women attending our hospital, to determine trend of HIV infection and to compare our results with reported prevalence. Methods. All pregnant women are routinely counselled for HIV testing using opt-out strategy. Year-wise positivity and trend were determined in these patients over a period of five years. The positivity in different age groups was determined. Results. 31,609 women were tested of which 279 (0.88% were positive. Positivity showed a declining trend over study period and significant quadratic trend (biphasic, P<0.05 was observed. The positivity in older age group ≥35 years (1.64% was significantly more than younger age groups (0.76% in 15–24-year and 0.94% in 25–34-year age group (P=0.0052. Conclusion. A significant decline in HIV positivity was seen over the study period. Taking into account heterogeneous nature of HIV epidemic even within the same district, analysis at local levels especially using the prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV program data is critical for HIV programming and resource allocation.

  11. Adiposity and hyperleptinemia during the first trimester among pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Francis Agyemang; Ngala, Robert Amadu; Bawah, Ahmed Tijani; Asare-Anane, Henry; Alidu, Huseini; Hamid, Abdul-Wahab Mawuko; Wumbee, Joshua Dokurugu Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Leptin levels start increasing from the early stages of pregnancy, irrespective of the maternal body mass index. Leptin levels are increased in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE) and may precede the clinical onset of the disease, with peaks occurring around 28 weeks of gestation. This study was aimed at determining whether serum leptin concentration and body fat percentage are significantly altered during the first trimester in pregnancies that subsequently develop PE and whether such changes are useful in predicting the disease. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted among pregnant women in Ho municipality. A cohort of 314 pregnant women was monitored from the first antenatal visit to delivery period at the Volta Regional Hospital, Ho, Ghana. Maternal serum leptin and lipid profile were analyzed and body fat percentage determined during first trimester. Body mass index was also calculated. First trimester serum leptin level (Pbody fat percentage (P<0.0001) were significantly higher in those who developed PE than those who did not; while triglycerides (P=0.8600), total cholesterol (P=0.5620), high-density lipoprotein (P=0.5880), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.4870) and very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.6540) did not show any significant difference between those with PE and those without PE. Leptin levels are increased significantly during the first trimester of pregnancy in obese women with PE, and these increases precede the onset of PE.

  12. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  13. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  14. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City

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    M. Fallah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ≥ 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

  15. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

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    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  16. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J. Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  17. [Active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Acuña, Cecilia; Ríos, Paulina

    2017-06-08

    Document and analyze Ecuador's experience using active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of information obtained on active community case-finding of pregnant and postpartum women in the catchment areas of 200 primary care facilities of Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. Visits were made to 460 451 homes in 20 provinces; 15 622 pregnant women and 4 014 postpartum women were identified. Of the pregnant women, 89% (13 875) had had at least one prenatal check-up, while 70% of postpartum women (4 014) had had at least one post-delivery or post-caesarean check-up. Potential risk was identified in 29% of pregnant women (4 601). Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces had the lowest percentages of pregnant women with at least one prenatal check-up and the lowest percentages of postpartum women with at least one postpartum checkup. A total of 3 951 brigades were formed at the national level for this activity. Active community case-finding was valuable in identifying pregnant and postpartum women who had not been captured by the health system, especially to detect their risk status, in addition to the advantages of participatory uptake, especially with support from universities with health majors. Low coverage for postpartum check-ups underscores the importance of learning why women do not receive this care. Similar experiences need to be systematized to improve the process.

  18. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Iodine Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women

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    E A Troshina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimate the influence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA on efficiency of the iodine prophylaxis for pregnant women, and also to offer the optimal levels of daily iodine intake during pregnancy and lactation. Materials and methods: serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxin (fT4, AT-TPO concentrations, urine excretion of iodine, levels of hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, red blood cell (RBC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, serum iron levels and serum ferritin were measured. The volume of thyroid gland was defined by ultrasonography. The pregnant women were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 111 – KI (200 micro# grams/day and Group 2 (n = 109 – KI (300 micrograms/day. Results: Median urinary iodine was 140,8 μg/l. During pregnancy there was an authentic rising of a median urinary iodine to 259,6 μg/l in group 2 (p = 0,0000 and in group 1 the iodine excretion in urine was more low than at a stage of screening and has compounded 96,9 μg/l (p = 0,002. During lactation there was an insufficient concentration of iodide in urine in group 1 and in group 2 there were normal indexes of a median urinary iodine – 88,6 and 123,2μg/l in groups 1st and 2nd accordingly (p = 0,004. In the third trimester 21,5% of women had a latent deficiency of iron. Authentic correlation between indexes of an iron deficiency anemia and iodine deficiency has not been detected. Conclusion: The median level of urinary iodine indicate optimal iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation and the requirement of iodine is at least 300 μg/day. In our research the negative influence of iron deficiency anemia on the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy has not been detected.

  19. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

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    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  20. Changes in exhaled breath condensate pH in healthy and asthmatic pregnant women.

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    Eszes, Noémi; Bikov, András; Lázár, Zsófia; Bohács, Anikó; Müller, Veronika; Stenczer, Balázs; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Horváth, Ildikó; Tamási, Lilla

    2013-05-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease complicating pregnancy with a risk for perinatal complications. Control of airway inflammation in the asthmatic pregnancy improves pregnancy outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive method for the assessment of asthmatic airway inflammation, in healthy and asthmatic pregnancies. Cross-sectional study. Hungarian university clinics. Seventeen healthy pregnant women, 21 asthmatic pregnant women, 23 healthy non-pregnant women and 22 asthmatic non-pregnant women. EBC samples were collected using a portable condenser, EBC pH was measured after argon deaeration. EBC pH. EBC pH (mean ± SD) of healthy non-pregnant and asthmatic non-pregnant women was similar (7.75 ± 0.27 vs. 7.54 ± 0.57; p = 0.118), probably indicating an optimal control of airway inflammation in asthmatic women. On the other hand, EBC pH was higher in healthy pregnant women compared with healthy non-pregnant women (8.02 ± 0.43 vs. 7.75 ± 0.27; p = 0.017). Higher EBC pH accompanying healthy pregnancy was absent in asthmatic pregnant patients whose EBC pH was lower (7.65 ± 0.38) than that of healthy pregnant women (p = 0.006), and it was similar to that in asthmatic and healthy non-pregnant women (p = 0.470 and p = 0.300, respectively). The EBC pH in asthmatic pregnant women correlated positively with birthweight (r = 0.49, p = 0.047) and negatively with forced vital capacity (r = 0.45, p = 0.039). EBC pH was not related to blood pH. EBC pH is higher in healthy pregnant women but not in asthmatic pregnant women compared with data from healthy non-pregnant women, indicating that oxidative inflammatory processes induced by asthma may compromise the regulatory mechanisms causing alkaline pH in the airways during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Comparison of universal and targeted screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant Egyptian women.

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    Ahmed, Iman Z; Eid, Yara M; El Orabi, Hussein; Ibrahim, Hani Refat

    2014-08-01

    To compare universal vs targeted screening for thyroid dysfunction and to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant Egyptian women. A total of 168 of pregnant women who attended the outpatient obstetric clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital (Cairo, Egypt) for antenatal care between September 2011 and December 2011 were enrolled. Based on the detailed data collection and results of laboratory testing, they were subdivided into the high- and low-risk group for thyroid disease according to the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines, as well as into groups by trimester for application of American Thyroid Association guidelines. The group values were subjected to statistical analysis for estimating the prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and for identifying significant differences. Of the 168 patients, 104 were classified into the low-risk group and 64 into the high-risk group. Using the trimesteric and normal population cutoff values for thyroid functions, the prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 56% (n=94) and 44.6% (n=75) respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the high- and low-risk group regarding prevalence of either clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism, and no significant differences were found regarding the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the first, second, or third trimester. Use of the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines led to missed detection of clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism in 34.5% of pregnant women. Universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction should thus be adopted throughout Egypt. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane C; Campbell, Karen J; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2015-08-07

    Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women's GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women's sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Consecutive women (n = 1032) received a mailed questionnaire after their first antenatal visit to a public maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Recalled provision of GWG guidelines by doctors and midwives, recalled provided GWG goals, and the obtaining of GWG information and information sources were assessed. Participants (n = 368; 35.7% response) averaged 32.5 years of age and 20.8 weeks gestation, with 33.7% speaking a language other than English. One in ten women recalled receiving GWG guidelines from doctors or midwives, of which half were consistent with Institute of Medicine guidelines. More than half the women (55.4%) had actively sought GWG information. Nulliparous (OR 7.07, 95% CI = 3.91-12.81) and obese (OR 1.96, 95% CI = 1.05-3.65) women were more likely to seek information. Underweight (OR 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09-0.97) women and those working part time (OR 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28-0.97) were less likely to seek information. Most frequently reported GWG sources included the internet (82.7%), books (55.4%) and friends (51.5%). The single most important sources were identified as the internet (32.8%), general practitioners (16.9%) and books (14.9%). More than half of women were seeking GWG guidance and were more likely to consult non-clinician sources. The small numbers given GWG targets, and the dominance of non-clinical information sources, reinforces that an important opportunity to provide evidence based advice and guidance in the antenatal care setting is currently being missed.

  3. Correlation between human placental lactogen levels and glucose metabolism in pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, R; Vasishta, K; Majumdar, S; Garg, S K

    1990-11-01

    Twenty pregnant women with fetal growth retardation and 20 pregnant women with appropriate for gestational age fetuses (controls) were recruited after the 28th week of gestation. Samples were collected for estimation of serum insulin and human placental lactogen (HPL) levels in the fasting state and a glucose tolerance test was carried out on all the subjects. The results showed the glucose and HPL levels to be significantly lower in the fetal growth retardation group compared to controls. There were no differences in the fasting serum insulin levels in the 2 groups. Fetal growth retardation appears to be linked with the absence of development of the physiological 'diabetogenic' state in the second half of pregnancy. This maternal hypoglycaemic state is associated with low HPL levels and not with raised maternal insulin levels as measured in the fasting state.

  4. Perceptions by pregnant and childbearing-age women in southern Brazil towards teratogenic risk from medicines and radiotherapy

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    Emilia da Silva Pons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mistaken perception of teratogenic risk can keep pregnant women from using safe medicines. The current study analyzed women’s concepts and perceptions towards teratogenic risk from medicines and exposure to radiotherapy during pregnancy. The quantitative data resulted from interviews with 287 pregnant and non-pregnant women. Two qualitative focus groups were conducted. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of perceptions of teratogenic risk. Median perceptions of non-teratogenic exposures (paracetamol and metoclopramide were close to the expected values, while higher values were found for teratogenic exposures (misoprostol and radiotherapy. The logic women used to estimate risk was classification of medicines as “strong” or “weak”. Medicines perceived as “weak” by the women do not pose any teratogenic risk, as shown by the median perceptions close to the true values. Meanwhile, “strong” medicines were viewed as dangerous, thus explaining the high median perceptions of teratogenic exposures.

  5. [A longitudinal study regarding the gestational changes in iodine nutrition and thyroid function among pregnant women in the iodine deficient areas of Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zheng, Heming; Li, Xiaofeng; Ying, Huili

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the gestational changes of iodine nutrition and thyroid function and to explore the factors associated with the thyroid function in pregnant women. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 130 pregnant women in Luohe city of Henan province from October 2012 to May 2013. Samples of fasting blood and urine were collected in each trimester to test on thyroid function and urinary iodine. Data regarding social demography and lifestyle behavior were collected through questionnaire in the first trimester. The medians of urinary iodine (MUI) for pregnant women were 238.9, 150.8 and 306.4 µg/L in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively (P change (P > 0.05) but the level of free thyroxine (FT4) decreased (P pregnant women during the three trimesters. It was essential to establish specific reference ranges for different trimesters. Thyroid functions of pregnant women seemed to be associated with iodine level and lifestyle.

  6. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283