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Sample records for pregnant toxemic goats

  1. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  2. Q fever in pregnant Goats: PAthogenesis and excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Gelderen, van E.; Dinkla, A.; Frangoulidis, D.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Keulen, van L.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we

  3. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

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    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  4. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  5. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant goats: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    We documented changes in serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in goats during pregnancy, as measured by competitive ELISAs. Fifteen does (pregnant group) and 20 castrated males (control group) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected on the same day from all 35 goats, 7 times throughout the study period: at mating, then once every month, during the week preceding kidding, and 1 mo after kidding. Baseline SAA and Hp concentrations at mating were identical in the 2 groups. In the pregnant group, SAA concentration rose significantly in the second month and remained elevated until the end of pregnancy, with the peak concentration at kidding. In the control group, SAA concentration remained unchanged compared to the baseline concentration throughout the study. SAA concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than control group only at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy and at kidding. Hp concentration did not change during pregnancy or between groups. SAA concentration at kidding was affected only by parity of does - it was highest in does in the third and fourth pregnancy and gradually lower in older does.

  6. Comparative evaluation of haematological parameters and erythrocyte membrane stability in pregnant and lactating goats in different seasons of tropical Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibu, B; Makun, H J; Yaqub, L S; Buhari, H U; Aluwong, T; Kawu, M U

    2017-09-01

    Haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) are commonly used as indicators of health status and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Variations in haematological parameters and EOF in late gestation and early lactation during the cold-dry (CDS), hot-dry (HDS) and rainy (RAS) seasons were studied in sixty (n = 60) Red Sokoto goats (20 goats for each season). The ambient temperatures and temperature-humidity index recorded were higher in the afternoon hours of the HDS and RAS, but lower in the morning hours of the CDS as compared with the thermoneutral zone of goats. Results revealed that the pregnant goats had significantly (P goats, higher (P goats. The EOF was significantly higher during lactation than pregnancy in the CDS and HDS. Similarly, the magnitude of the left shift in fragiligram during the CDS was more marked in pregnant compared with lactating goats. During gestation, the CDS had lower (P goats during the CDS. In conclusion, seasonal variations exist in physiology of erythrocytes of goats during the peri-partum period, with an increase in PCV and RBC, but a decrease in haemoglobin parameters in pregnant compared with lactating goats during the RAS. Erythrocyte stability and membrane integrity were higher in pregnant than lactating goats, and also higher during the CDS than the HDS and RAS, irrespective of reproductive status. This information may be useful in the design of animal breeding and is of value in animal welfare, research, diagnosis and management of haematological conditions during the peri-partum period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of C. burnetii Infection on the Cytokine Response of PBMCs from Pregnant Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

  8. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  9. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  10. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  11. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  12. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  13. Test and cull of high risk Coxiella burnetii infected pregnant dairy goats is not feasible due to poor test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Koop, Gerrit; Klinkenberg, Don; Roest, Hendrik I J; Vellema, Piet; Nielen, Mirjam

    2014-05-01

    A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007-2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can be identified by diagnostic testing. Samples of uterine fluid, milk and vaginal mucus from 203 euthanized pregnant goats were tested by PCR or ELISA. The results suggest that testing followed by culling of only the high risk animals is not a feasible method for protecting public health, mainly due to the low specificity of the tests and variability between herds. The risk of massive bacterial shedding during abortion or parturition can only be prevented by removal of all pregnant animals from naive recently infected herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to a dog elicits different cardiovascular and behavioral effects in pregnant and lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should increase in both these cases, due to a synchronized discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods Seven goats were exposed to a dog for 15 minutes at 12 ± 3 days before, and again at 10 ± 1 days after, parturition. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and activity were registered by telemetry. Behavioral data were collected during 5 minute sessions, followed by blood samples obtained via intrajugular catheters. Plasma cortisol concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results At the appearance of the dog, the mean arterial blood pressure of the goats increased from 90 ± 8 to 111 ± 8 mmHg (p Conclusions When goats were exposed to a dog during pregnancy, their heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma cortisol increased, in contrast to lactation when only their blood pressure and plasma cortisol increased. However, when they were lactating, goats vocalized more and started to ruminate later compared to when they were pregnant.

  15. Improved influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine induces robust B and T-cell responses and protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybayeva, Aigerim; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Sansyzbay, Abylai; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety. The Flu-BA vaccine formulation had two additional proteins Omp19 and SOD, and administered thrice with 20% Montanide Gel01 adjuvant, simultaneously by both subcutaneous and conjunctival routes at 21 days intervals in pregnant sheep and goats. At 42 days post-vaccination (DPV) we detected antigen-specific IgG antibodies predominantly of IgG2a isotype but also IgG1, and also detected a strong lymphocyte recall response with IFN-γ production. Importantly, our candidate vaccine prevented abortion in 66.7% and 77.8% of pregnant sheep and goats, respectively. Furthermore, complete protection (absence of live B. melitensis 16M) was observed in 55.6% and 66.7% of challenged sheep and goats, and 72.7% and 90.0% of their fetuses (lambs/yeanlings), respectively. The severity of B. melitensis 16M infection in vaccinated sheep and goats and their fetuses (index of infection and rates of Brucella colonization in tissues) was significantly lower than in control groups. None of the protection parameters after vaccination with Flu-BA vaccine were statistically inferior to protection seen with the commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine (protection against abortion and vaccination efficacy, alpha = 0.18–0.34, infection index, P = 0.37–0.77, Brucella colonization, P = 0.16 to P > 0.99). In conclusion, our improved Flu-BA vaccine formulation and delivery method were found safe and effective in protecting pregnant sheep and goats against adverse

  16. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  17. Exposure to a dog elicits different cardiovascular and behavioral effects in pregnant and lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Kerstin; Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva

    2011-11-16

    Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should increase in both these cases, due to a synchronized discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Seven goats were exposed to a dog for 15 minutes at 12 ± 3 days before, and again at 10 ± 1 days after, parturition. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and activity were registered by telemetry. Behavioral data were collected during 5 minute sessions, followed by blood samples obtained via intrajugular catheters. Plasma cortisol concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. At the appearance of the dog, the mean arterial blood pressure of the goats increased from 90 ± 8 to 111 ± 8 mmHg (p dog exposure during lactation, but increased from 117 ± 6 to 126 ± 10 beats/min (p Dog exposure resulted in plasma cortisol concentration increasing from 17 ± 1 to 43 ± 7 nmol/l (p dog, goats vocalized at a higher frequency and started to ruminate later during lactation compared to pregnancy. When goats were exposed to a dog during pregnancy, their heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma cortisol increased, in contrast to lactation when only their blood pressure and plasma cortisol increased. However, when they were lactating, goats vocalized more and started to ruminate later compared to when they were pregnant.

  18. Test and cull of high risk Coxiella burnetii infected pregnant dairy goats is not feasible due to poor test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Koop, Gerrit; Klinkenberg, Don; Roest, Hendrik I J; Vellema, Piet; Nielen, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007-2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can

  19. Test and cull of high risk Coxiella burnetii infected pregnant dairy goats is not feasible due to poor test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, L.; Koop, G.; Klinkenberg, D.; Roest, H.J.; Vellema, P.; Nielen, M.

    2014-01-01

    A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007–2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can

  20. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm. Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  1. Animal welfare aspects in respect of the slaughter or killing of pregnant livestock animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats,horses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    . Limiteddata on European prevalence and related uncertainties necessitated a structu red expert knowledgeelicitation (EKE) exercise. Estimated median percentages of animals slaughtered in the last third ofgestation are 3%, 1.5%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 0.2% (dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs, sheep and goats......,respectively). Pregnant animals may be sent for slaughter for health, welfare, management andeconomic reasons (ToR2); there are also reasons for farmers not knowing that animals sent forslaughter are pregnant. Measures to reduce the incidence are listed. ToR3 asked whether livestockfetuses can experience pain and other...... (with 90–100% likelihood). However, there are two differentpossibilities whether they perceive negative affect. It is more probable that the neurophysiologicalsituation does not allow for conscious perception (with 66–99% likelihood) because of brain inhibitorymechanisms. There is also a less probable...

  2. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Milk and hair progesterone contents during the oestrous cycle and gestation in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Zeng Xianyin; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua

    1991-01-01

    Milk and hair progesterone contents were determined during the oestrous cycle and gestation in Saanen, F1 crosses (Saanen x Chengdu Mah) and F2 (Saanen x (Saanen x Chengdu Mah)) goats using the radioimmunoassay kits provided by the IAEA. Hair samples were collected from the back of the goats every day from day 1 (after oestrus) to day 28 and every 5 days from day 30 to parturition. Foremilk samples were also collected daily from day 1 to day 20. The results showed that there were significant differences in milk progesterone concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant goats during days 19 to 22 after oestrus. Progesterone in goat hair could be detected using the RIA kits. Hair progesterone content was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during the first 20 days of pregnancy in non-pregnant goats; a similar correlation was observed during the oestrous cycle. When milk samples were collected on day 22 post-oestrus and 3.9 ng/mL was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 82.4% and 100% respectively. When hair samples were collected on day 22 and 3.7 ng/50 mg hair was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone contents increased gradually from day 30 to day 120 and decreased rapidly from day -8 before parturition to parturition. 6 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerweg, R.; Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bouma, A.; Vellema, P.; Pieterse, M.; Dercksen, D.; Nielen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of

  5. EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DAIRY GOATS LACTATING NATURALLY OR BY HORMONAL INDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Teresa García-Balcázar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the oxidative stress (OS and its association with performance and serum cortisol in dairy goats under induced (IL and natural lactation (NL. Six goats programmed to be eliminated due to reproductive problems were IL as follows: a days 1-7, estradiol plus progesterone; b days 8-14, estradiol; c days 18-20, flumetasone; d every seven days bovine somatotropin; f on day 21 milking began. Cortisol, antioxidant capacity and Glutathione Peroxidase activity (GHS-Px were determined in serum. During the first two weeks in milk, NL goats had higher cortisol (P0.05. Milk yield/day between groups (NL=2.54+0.2; IL= 2.12+0.2kg and proportion of pregnant goats (NL=100%; IL=83.3% were similar (P>0.05. The treatment was effective as inductor of lactation; besides most of the IL animals became pregnant despite their previous reproductive problems, prolonging their productive life with a natural lactation plus the additional benefit of at least one more kid. Because the antioxidant capacity increased and cortisol decreased in IL goats, apparently their welfare was more adequate than in NL animals.

  6. Acute toxemic schistosomiasis complicated by a acute flaccid paraplegia due to schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdelmonim F [Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah Univ., Al-Madinah Al-Munwarah (Saudi Arabia); Kareem, Abid M [Dept. of Gastroenterology, King Fahd Hospital, Al- Madinah Al-Munwarah (Saudi Arabia); Dawoud, Talal A [Dept. of Neurology, King Fahd Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarh (Saudi Arabia); Idris, Abdelrehman S [Dept. of Neurology, Hiraa Hospital, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    A 55-year old Sudanese physician presented with one month history of diarrhea, loss of weight 10 kg and low grade nocturnal fever. Following colonoscopy, he rapidly developed paraparesis and retention of urine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord showed low cord lesion suggestive of transverse myelitis. We present a detailed account of diagnostic and management challenges and a literature review of the final diagnosis of acute toxemic schistosomiasis, complicated by acute flaccid paraplegia due to schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. We are reporting this case to increase the awareness of physicians of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy, as it needs urgent specific treatment praziquantel and steroids. An early follow-up with MRI of the spinal cord 2 weeks treatment may help in preventing unnecessary neurosurgical intervention. Bilharziasis may be contracted on the banks of river White Nile in urban areas. Finally clinicians should make use of the Google search for diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  7. Acute toxemic schistosomiasis complicated by a acute flaccid paraplegia due to schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Abdelmonim F.; Kareem, Abid M.; Dawoud, Talal A.; Idris, Abdelrehman S.

    2008-01-01

    A 55-year old Sudanese physician presented with one month history of diarrhea, loss of weight 10 kg and low grade nocturnal fever. Following colonoscopy, he rapidly developed paraparesis and retention of urine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord showed low cord lesion suggestive of transverse myelitis. We present a detailed account of diagnostic and management challenges and a literature review of the final diagnosis of acute toxemic schistosomiasis, complicated by acute flaccid paraplegia due to schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. We are reporting this case to increase the awareness of physicians of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy, as it needs urgent specific treatment praziquantel and steroids. An early follow-up with MRI of the spinal cord 2 weeks treatment may help in preventing unnecessary neurosurgical intervention. Bilharziasis may be contracted on the banks of river White Nile in urban areas. Finally clinicians should make use of the Google search for diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  8. Hair progesterone contents during oestrus cycle and pregnancy in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianyin; Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    Hair progesterone contents during gestasion and milk progesterone levels during oestrus cycle in Saanen(S), crosses F 1 (SXChengdu Mah) and F 2 (SX(SXChengdu Mah)) goats were determined using the RIA kit. The results showed that progesterone in goats hair could be detected using the RIA kit. In pregnant goats, hair progesterone contents was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during 1-28 days after oestrus (r=0.5458, p<0.01). In non-pregnant goats, similar correlation was observed (r=7832, p<0.01). After milk samples were collected 22 days, 3.9ng/ml of progesterone was taken as the discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 82.4% and 100% respectively. After hair samples were collected 22 days, 3.7ng/50mg of progesterone was taken as discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone content increased gradually from day 30(5.67±0.98ng/50mg hair)to day 120 (9.85±1.20ng/50mg) and decreased rapidly from -8(before parturition, 7.73±1.91ng/50mg) to day 0(parturition, 4.93±0.25ng/50mg)

  9. Some Uterine and Ovarian Biometric Changes in Pregnant Maradi Female Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the changes in the biometry of the ovaries, of the uteri and its contents in the Maradi doe-goat during the three terms of pregnancy. Pregnant uteri from 28 female goats and their corresponding ovaries were used to study the biometric changes in the ovaries, gravid uteri, amniotic and allantoic fluids volumes, fetuses and plancentomes during the three terms of pregnancy. The results revealed that there was no significant variation in the ovarian weight during the three terms of pregnancy. However, there were significant variations in the ovarian length (left ovary 2.15 ± 0.16 cm; right ovary 2.10 ± 0.10 cm and width (left ovary 1.77 ± 0.19 cm; right ovary 1.60 ± 0.10 cm in the third term of pregnancy compared to the ovarian length and width in the first term of pregnancy. The uterine weight showed significant variation in the first term, second term   and in the third term of pregnancy. The uterine length of both horns also showed significant variations in the first term (left side 31.40 ± 1.79 cm; right side 28.22 ± 0.98 cm, second term (left side 51.58 ± 4.14 cm; right side 50.51 ± 3.62 cm and in the third term (left side 70.67 ± 1.76 cm; right side 80.38 ± 2.75 cm of pregnancy but only in the third term of pregnancy was a significant difference in the lengths of the left side uterine horn (70.67 ± 1.76 cm compared to the right side (80.38 ± 2.75 cm. The number of plancentomes was constant in both uterine horns throughout gestation; however the mean caruncular diameter increased progressively from the first term of gestation through the third term of pregnancy. The smallest and largest caruncles were observed on the ventral surfaces of the uterine horns, and the plancentomes were observed to be aligned in a linear manner along the longitudinal axis of the uterine horns. This study shows that there are differences in the biometrics of the ovary and uterus in Maradi goats compared to some other breed.

  10. Effect of pregnancy on some biochemical parameters in Sahel goats in semi-arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandabe, U K; Mustapha, A R; Sambo, E Y

    2004-05-01

    The effects of pregnancy on some biochemical parameters were studied using 20 sexually mature, cycling goats with weight range 20-25 kg. They were randomly separated into two groups of 10 animals each. In one group, oestrus was detected while going round with a buck in the morning and evening; a single buck on detection of oestrus mated the does and the does were tagged as pregnant after confirmation of non-return of oestrus. The other group was kept cycling and tagged as non-pregnant. The mean serum glucose concentration in pregnant does was 63.35 +/- 7.70 mg/dl, significantly lower than 71.59 +/- 1.14 mg/dl for non-pregnant does (p 0.05), as did the liver enzymes (ALT, AST). Therefore this study showed that low serum glucose and high cholesterol levels are features of mid to late pregnancy in Sahel goats.

  11. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik I J; Bouma, Annemarie; Vellema, Piet; Pieterse, Maarten; Dercksen, Daan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2011-03-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of vaccination on bacterial shedding by small ruminants. On the day of culling, samples of uterine fluid, vaginal mucus, and milk were obtained from 957 pregnant animals in 13 herds. Prevalence and bacterial load were reduced in vaccinated animals compared with unvaccinated animals. These effects were most pronounced in animals during their first pregnancy. Results indicate that vaccination may reduce bacterial load in the environment and human exposure to C. burnetii.

  12. Goats reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii: loss of viable prolificacy and gross revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe determined the reproductive parameters and clinical disorders in pregnant goats infected and reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii, and posteriorly the loss of gross revenue due to congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated. Of the 25 non-pregnant females negative for T. gondii, 20 were orally inoculated (ME 49 strain and of these, 15 pregnant females chronically infected were orally reinoculated (VEG strain with T. gondii oocysts. Five groups were formed (n=5: GI, GII and GIII (reinoculations at 40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, respectively, GIV (inoculation and GV (no inoculation. Clinical and serological exams were performed on days 0 (prior to inoculation, 3, 6 9, 15 and 21 and every 7 days post-inoculation. Exams were also performed on day 3 and every 7 days post-reinoculation. Reproductive management was performed on all females and initiated when the females infected displayed IgG titers IFAT<1,024. From the average prolificacy indexes of each experimental group were estimated: total production of kilograms of live weight (total kg LW of goats for slaughter, gross revenue and loss of gross revenue in U.S. dollars (US$, designed for a herd of 1,000 matrices. The unviable prolificacy indexes were 0.8 (GI, 1.2 (GII and 0.2 (GIII. Clinical disorders affected 57.1% (GI, 75.0% (GII and 16.7% (GIII of the offspring of goats reinfected with T. gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis in goats reinfected resulted in the loss of 26.5% of gross revenues, being GI (US$ 10,577.60 or 57.1% and GII (US$ 12,693.12 or 60% holders of the highest values and percentages of economic losses. It was found that congenital toxoplasmosis reinfection cause clinical disorders in goats chronically infected with T. gondii and their offspring with birth of unviable animals and loss of gross revenue, at different stages of pregnancy (40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, being in the initial and intermediate stages of pregnancy the largest estimates of these losses.

  13. Net mineral requirements of dairy goats during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härter, C J; Lima, L D; Castagnino, D S; Silva, H O; Figueiredo, F O M; St-Pierre, N R; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-09-01

    Mineral requirements of pregnant dairy goats are still not well defined; therefore, we investigated the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy and for maintenance during pregnancy in two separate experiments. Experiment 1 was performed to estimate the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements in goats carrying single or twin fetuses from 50 to 140 days of pregnancy (DOP). The net mineral requirements for pregnancy were determined by measuring mineral deposition in gravid uterus and mammary gland after comparative slaughter. In total, 57 dairy goats of two breeds (Oberhasli or Saanen), in their third or fourth parturition, were randomly assigned to groups based on litter size (single or twin) and day of slaughter (50, 80, 110 and 140 DOP) in a fully factorial design. Net mineral accretion for pregnancy did not differ by goat breed. The total daily Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy were greatest in goats carrying twins (Pgoat maintenance during pregnancy. In total, 58 dairy goats (Oberhasli and Saanen) carrying twin fetuses were assigned to groups based on slaughter day (80, 110 and 140 DOP) and feed restriction (ad libitum, 20% and 40% feed restriction) in a randomized block design. The net Ca, P and Mg requirements for maintenance did not vary by breed or over the course of pregnancy. The daily net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for maintenance were 60.4, 31.1 and 2.42 mg/kg live BW (LBW), respectively. The daily net Na requirement for maintenance was greater in Saanen goats (11.8 mg/kg LBW) than in Oberhasli goats (8.96 mg/kg LBW; Pgoats throughout their pregnancy.

  14. Effect of forage quality on intake, chewing activity, faecal particle size distribution, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in sheep, goats, and llamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    types of forage for two periods in a crossover design. The species included six adult, non-pregnant female Danish Landrace goats, Shropshire sheep, and Lama glama llamas with body weights of 45 ± 5, 75 ± 6, and 135 ± 20 kg (mean ± SD), respectively. Forage included chopped artificially dried grass hay.......05). Sheep and goats had a higher NDF intake per kg BW than did llamas when fed GSS (P ... chewing was higher in sheep than in goats (P goats than in sheep (P goats or sheep (P

  15. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  16. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal movement. However, pharmacological evidence of coniine actions at fetal muscle-type nAChR is lacking. The present study compared (-)-coniine, (+)-coniine, and nicotine for the ability to inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model and in TE-671 cells that express fetal muscle-type nAChR. Furthermore, α-conotoxins (CTx) EI and GI were used to antagonize the actions of (+)- and (-)-coniine in TE-671 cells. (-)-Coniine was more effective at eliciting electrical changes in TE-671 cells and inhibiting fetal movement than was (+)-coniine, suggesting stereoselectivity by the receptor. The pyridine alkaloid nicotine did not inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model, suggesting agonist specificity for the inhibition of fetal movement. Low concentrations of both CTxs potentiated the TE-671 cell response and higher concentrations of CTx EI, and GI antagonized the actions of both coniine enantiomers demonstrating concentration-dependent coagonism and selective antagonism. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner.

  17. Magnesium utilisation by West African dwarf goats during gestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve monoparous WAD goats aged 2-4 years and weighing 15 ± 1.2kg were used in a 20 wk gestation trial to study the effect of dietary inclusion of Mg supplementation at 0.01, 0.11 and 0.21% with MgSO4.7H2O in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. The does were synchronised and pregnant does were randomly ...

  18. The Effects of Prenatal Stocking Densities on the Fear Responses and Sociality of Goat (Capra hircus) Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Rachel M.; Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother) and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of ‘stress’ as “physical or perceived threats to homeostasis.” The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively). One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The ‘social test’ was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the ‘separation test’ assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats. PMID:24710177

  19. Embryonic death and abortion in goats caused by ingestion of Amorimia septentrionalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layze C.A. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Amorimia spp. are sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA containing plants causing sudden death in ruminants. In a previous study, Amorimia rigida caused abortion in one of the five pregnant sheep that received the plant suggesting that it may cause reproductive losses. This work aimed to study the embryotoxic and fetotoxic effects of Amorimia septentrionalis in goats in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region. The effects of A. septentrionalis on pregnancy were studied in 16 goats, divided into four groups according to their gestational period. In Groups 1, 2 and 3 the administration of A. septentrionalis at the daily dose of 5g of leaves per kg body weight was started on the 18th, 36th and 93th days of gestation, respectively. Goats from Group 4 did not ingest the plant. When the goats presented severe signs of poisoning the administration of the plant was suspended. Groups 1, 2 and 3 ingested the plant for 7.25±2.87, 9.25±2.21 and 12.50±0.57 days, respectively. All the goats recovered 7-12 days after the end of the administration of the plant. In Group 1, all the goats had embryonic death 6.25±3.59 days after the end of the ingestion of the plant. In Group 2, three goats aborted at 53, 54 and 78 days of gestation. Two goats from Group 3 gave birth normally and the other two aborted at 114 and 111 days of gestation. It is concluded that Amorimia septentrionalis is a sodium monofluoracetate-containing plant that causes embryonic deaths and abortions in goats that ingest non-lethal doses of the plant.

  20. Exposure to a dog elicits different cardiovascular and behavioral effects in pregnant and lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson Kerstin; Hydbring-Sandberg Eva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should inc...

  1. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  2. Ovarian function and growth performance of indigenous goats in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Alimon, A.R.; Sharifuddin, W.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian activity and factors influencing it were studied in the Malaysian indigenous goat using plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay technique and laparoscopic examination of the ovaries. Laparoscopy, complemented by progesterone assay, was found to be a reliable technique for diagnosing the presence of corpora lutea (CL). However, progesterone assay had the limitation that it could not detect the presence of early developing CL. Two morphological types of CL were observed, either protruding or embedded. The mean plasma progesterone concentrations for pregnant, dioestrous and postpartum anoestrous goats were 4.8 ± 0.72, 4.7 ± 1.60 and <0.7 ng/mL respectively. An inhibitory effect of suckling on the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity was also observed. Removal of kids tended to hasten the onset of postpartum ovarian activity. Continuous confinement of goats was suspected to contribute to conception failure and non-regression of the CL. Kids fed improved diet showed higher average daily weight gain than those suckling their dams. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  3. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  4. Bartholin’s gland adenoma in a Saanen goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Regina Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tumors affecting Bartholin’s gland are considered rare in human medicine; there are few reports in the veterinary literature, with descriptions occurring only in cows. This article described the clinical and pathological findings associated with Bartholin’s gland adenoma in a goat. Clinically, a 7-year-old pregnant Saanen goat presented bilateral enlargement of the vulva that did not regress spontaneously after parturition. Grossly, these vulvar masses were multilobulated, contained cystic areas from which oozed a whitish fluid. Histopathology revealed an adenoma characterized by the proliferation of irregularly shaped neoplastic epithelial cells that formed tubular to glandular-like structures. These neoplastic cells demonstrated moderate anisokaryosis and evident nucleoli. The intratumoral proliferation index (PI was estimated by immunoreactivity with the protein ki-67. Further, the glandular-like structures produced a Periodic Acid-Schiff positive secretion. A diagnosis of Bartholin’s gland adenoma was established due to the anatomic location of the neoplastic growths, the histopathological features, and the PI of the tumor.

  5. Effect of different estrus synchronization protocols on some reproductive traits in Nubian goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M. A.; Abu Eissa, H. I.; Abu Nikaila, A.M.; Adam, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of estrus synchronization protocol on the conception rates and actual kidding percentage together with litter size, birth weight twinning rates, sex of kids and sex ratio in Nubian goats were investigated. Eighteen Nubian goats were divided into three equal groups. The animals in group one were treated with vaginal sponges (VSP) impregnated with 45 mg flurogestone acetate (FGA) for 18 days followed by a single dose of 400 i.u. of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) upon removal of the VSP. The second group was subjected to a double injects of 7.5 mg prostaglandin (PGF 2 u) given eleven days apart. For the third group, a vasectomies buck was suddenly introduced and kept with goats for 15 days to initiate estrus. Intact bucks were used to detect heat and mate with goats in the the groups. Dose treated with PGF 2 u and those subjected to the buck effect showed significantly higher pregnancy rates (66.6%) than those treated with VSP + PMSG. (33.3%). However, the protocols of synchronization had on effect on the kidding rates, litter size and birth weight. The type of birth comprised both singletons and twins, but none of three groups. (Author)

  6. Phenotypic variations in osmotic lysis of Sahel goat erythrocytes in non-ionic glucose media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbokwe, Nanacha Afifi; Igbokwe, Ikechukwu Onyebuchi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrocyte osmotic lysis in deionised glucose media is regulated by glucose influx, cation efflux, and changes in cell volume after water diffusion. Transmembrane fluxes may be affected by varied expression of glucose transporter protein and susceptibility of membrane proteins to glucose-induced glycosylation and oxidation in various physiologic states. Variations in haemolysis of Sahel goat erythrocytes after incubation in hyposmotic non-ionic glucose media, associated with sex, age, late pregnancy, and lactation, were investigated. The osmotic fragility curve in glucose media was sigmoidal with erythrocytes from goats in late pregnancy (PRE) or lactation (LAC) or from kid (KGT) or middle-aged (MGT) goats. Non-sigmoidal phenotype occurred in yearlings (YGT) and old (OGT) goats. The composite fragility phenotype for males and non-pregnant dry (NPD) females was non-sigmoidal. Erythrocytes with non-sigmoidal curves were more stable than those with sigmoidal curves because of inflectional shift of the curve to the left. Erythrocytes tended to be more fragile with male than female sex, KGT and MGT than YGT and OGT, and LAC and PRE than NPD. Thus, sex, age, pregnancy, and lactation affected the haemolytic pattern of goat erythrocytes in glucose media. The physiologic state of the goat affected the in vitro interaction of glucose with erythrocytes, causing variations in osmotic stability with variants of fragility phenotype. Variations in the effect of high extracellular glucose concentrations on the functions of membrane-associated glucose transporter, aquaporins, and the cation cotransporter were presumed to be relevant in regulating the physical properties of goat erythrocytes under osmotic stress.

  7. Clinical report of still-birth in a goat due to leech infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gharedaghi

    2010-08-01

    At autumn 2009 a four year old pregnant white indigenous female goat was referred to the veterinary clinic located in Sarab. At initial examinations clinical symptoms such as cachexia, sever pains of parturition, rest less and provocation was seen and as the result of these sever pains tachycardia, tachy pnea, teeth grinding and grades of anemia was seen at mucous membranes and the animal could not stand. The fetus had entered the pelvic canal with flexion of the metacarpus and following correction of this position, it was extracted manually. The newly born kid had anasarcus and generalized edema in the forelimbs, hindlimbs and skull. During manual extraction of the fetus, 20 worms about 10–12 cm in length were discharged from the goats vagina. Isolated parasitic samples from the animal were fixed in %10 formalin and were referred to the parasitological laboratory of veterinary faculty of Islamic Azad university- Tabriz Branch. After further examinations they were identified as limnatis nilotica leeches. The kid goat died hours after birth because of respiratory difficulties.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick

    2014-02-13

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.

  9. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T; Pfister, James A; Raspantini, Paulo C F; Górniak, Silvana L

    2016-03-16

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids' ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival.

  10. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C. F.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. PMID:26999204

  11. Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

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    V. Marutsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK. A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27 – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0; ІІ group (n=28 – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15 and ІІІ group (n=58 – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45. It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001. Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l. The body condition scores (BCS of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

  12. Out-of-season breeding of milk goats - the effect of light treatment, melatonin and breed : research communication

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    E.R. Du Preez

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectivity of melatonin in addition to light treatment (exposure to 2 hours of light during the night = a long-day photoperiod to modify the breeding season of Saanen and cross-bred milk goats and to compare the difference between the breeds. Twenty-two Saanen and 22 cross-bred does were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 (controls received no treatment, Group 2 received light treatment for 37 days and Group 3 received light treatment plus melatonin implants after the light treatment. After a further 35 days the 3 groups were brought together and a billy goat that had also been exposed to the extra light at night, had received a melatonin implant and had been isolated from the does during the treatment period, was introduced to the does for natural mating. Ultrasound scanning was used to diagnose pregnancy and all the pregnant goats kidded. Significantly more Saanen does compared to cross-bred does (P = 0.018 became pregnant and kidded after natural mating, when the group that received melatonin as well as light treatment was compared to the group that received light treatment only. Compared to light treatment only, the addition of melatonin to light treatment improved (P = 0.0028 conception after natural mating, in both the Saanen and the cross-bred does.

  13. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  14. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P < 0.01) suggesting the probability of endocrine disruption of the CL. However, goats that were exposed to total EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P < 0.05), which might be considered as an effect rather than a cause of EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization

  15. Breeding season of Criollo and Granadina goats under constant nutritional level in the Mexican highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.; Zarco, L.; Ducoing, A.; Murcia, C.; Navarro, H.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the anoestrous season of Criollo and Granadina goats kept on a constant nutritional level to determine the time of year when ovarian activity ceases, the duration and depth of anoestrus, and the time at which these animals start cycling again. A sample of 19 Criollo and 11 Granadina goats were fed oat hay, concentrate and mineral salts to cover 100% of their nutritional requirements. All animals were adult, non-pregnant and non-lactating and were kept isolated from the males for the duration of the study. Blood samples, taken from all animals twice a week from November 1986 to July 1987 into heparinized tubes, were kept refrigerated until centrifugation for harvest of plasma and then frozen until assayed. Ovarian activity was monitored from the circulating levels of progesterone determined by the FAO/IAEA solid phase radioimmunoassay kit. Concentrations above 1 ng/mL were considered indicative of the presence of a functional corpus luteum and reproductive activity. The majority of the Criollo goats were cycling during November and December, ovarian activity decreasing gradually during February; from March to May most of the goats ceased to ovulate but ovarian activity resumed again in June or July; thus anoestrus was only evident during the spring. In contrast, Granadina goats had a longer and deeper anoestrus; 54% of these animals never showed significant increases in progesterone above basal levels during the period under study (November to July). The short anoestrous season of the Criollo goats and the weak inhibition of ovarian activity during this period suggest that these animals have a greater reproductive potential than the Granadina goats. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs

  16. Peripheral and placental immune responses in goats after primoinfection with Neospora caninum at early, mid and late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Horcajo, Pilar; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Romão, Elton Amorim; Álvarez-García, Gema; Mesquita, Emanuela Polimeni de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Neospora caninum can cause reproductive failure in goats. However, the pathogenesis of neosporosis in this domestic species remains largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection by N. caninum in pregnant goats is highly dependent on the time of gestation, during which infection occurs. In the present study, we examined the peripheral and placental immune responses in these groups of goats infected with 10 6 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at early (G1, at day 40 of gestation, dg), mid (G2, 90 dg) and late (G3, 120 dg) gestation, together with a group of non-infected goats as a control group (G4). Seroconversion was observed as early as day 10 post-infection (pi) in all goats from G1 that aborted earlier (10-11 pi). The remaining infected goats had seroconverted by day 14 pi. Similar IFN-γ kinetic profiles were found in sera from goats in G1 and G2 with a significant increase in the IFN-γ levels on days 7 and 10 pi. This increase was not observed in G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine expression was found in all infected groups. IFN-γ and IL-4 showed the highest increase, followed by a weaker up-regulation in TNF-α and IL-10. The lowest up-regulation was observed for IL-12 expression. In summary, this study provides information regarding the dynamics of immune responses and their relationship with the outcome of N. caninum infection in goats during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of C. burnetii infection on the cytokine response of PBMCs from pregnant goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerdorffer, A.; Roest, H.I.; Dinkla, A.; Post, J. van der; Schoffelen, T.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Rebel, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to

  18. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.

  19. Horny Goat Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, ...

  20. Serological prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goats and ewes diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filioussis, George; Theodoridis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Vouraki, Sotiria; Bramis, George; Arsenos, Georgios

    2017-12-23

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligatory intracellular bacterial pathogen causing the zoonotic disease Q fever. The most common reservoirs of C. burnetii are wild mammals, birds and ticks. Pregnant domestic ruminants infected with this bacterium are also a major source of human infection. The serological prevalence of C. burnetii in goats and sheep diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed by undertaking a survey on 800 dairy goats and 800 dairy ewes reared in four different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace, Thessaly, and Peloponnese). A stratified sampling was carried out, taking also as a criterion the age of the animals. Serum antibodies were analyzed by a commercial ELISA according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Generally, there was a statistically significantly higher serological prevalence of C. burnetii (14.4%) in goats compared to sheep (8%). Serological prevalence was higher in adults (15.5% in goats and 8.5% in sheep) compared to yearlings (7.4% in goats and 4.6% in sheep). The prevalence increased significantly with age only in goats. Finally, all animals reared in Peloponnese had a prevalence significantly higher (21% in goats and 18% in sheep) than animals reared in the other three regions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report that associates C. burnetii with reproductive disturbances of domestic ruminants in Greece. However, considering the importance of coxiellosis for public health, further investigations are required on its epidemiology regarding abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth and weak offspring in small ruminants, as well as in other domestic and wild animal species.

  1. Blood gas and electrolyte values of (Capra hircus Canindé breed goats raised in the northeastern semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talyta Lins Nunes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Nunes T.L., Oliveira M.G.C., Paiva A.L.C., Bezerra T.C.G., Barrêto Júnior R.A. & Paula V.V. [Blood gas and electrolyte values of (Capra hircus Canindé breed goats raised in the northeastern semiarid.] Valores hemogasométricos de caprinos (Capra hircus da raça Canindé criados no semiárido nordestino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:255-260, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, BR 110, Km 47, Bairro Presidente Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: talyta_lins@hotmail.com Canindé goat breed is native of northeastern Brazil and is in danger of extinction. The objective of this research was to determine blood gas and electrolytes values in Canindé goat breed reared in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, establishing baseline data for the breed in the semi-arid conditions. Blood samples from 83 clinically healthy animals were collected and distributed in four groups: Group I comprised of 32 pregnant females, Group II, 29 non-pregnant, Group III, 10 males, and group IV consisted of 12 pups. The blood sample was submitted for blood gas analysis, determining the concentration of sodium, potassium, chloride, total carbon dioxide, pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, sodium bicarbonate, excess base, and anion gap. Data with normal distribution were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test; those which did not have a normal distribution were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Spearman. The results were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The values obtained were similar to those found in other studies with different goat and sheep breeds, and thus may serve as reference for the Canindé breed. The data suggest an influence of age, sex and reproductive status in the variables analyzed.

  2. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.

  3. Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trauma crânio-encefálico contuso (TCEC é freqüentemente seguido pela amnésia pós-traumática (APT, caracterizada como um estado transitório de confusão e desorientação. Sua duração tem sido utilizada para quantificar a gravidade do TCEC e prever distúrbios nas funções cognitivas, assim como para antever as alterações na capacidade funcional das vítimas pós-trauma. O Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT é o primeiro instrumento sistematizado criado e o mais amplamente utilizado para avaliar a APT. Este artigo apresenta esse instrumento, as bases conceituais para seu desenvolvimento e a adaptação e validação do GOAT para cultura brasileira. Além disso, descreve sua aplicação e comenta as restrições do seu uso. Resultados de pesquisas realizadas em nosso meio contribuíram para as evidências sobre a validade do GOAT. Também apontaram os indicadores do momento pós-trauma em que o GOAT deve ser aplicado e destacaram as dificuldades no uso desse instrumento.El trauma cráneo-encefálico contuso (TCEC es frecuentemente seguido por la amnesia pos-traumática (APT, caracterizada como un estado transitorio de confusión y desorientación. Su duración ha sido utilizada para cuantificar la severidad del TCEC y prever alteraciones en las funciones cognitivas, tanto como para antever las dificultades en la capacidad funcional de las víctimas pos-trauma. El Galveston Orientation Amnésia Test (GOAT es la primera encuesta sistematizada que fue creada y el mas ampliamente utilizada para evaluar la APT. Esta publicación presenta esta encuesta, las bases conceptuales para su desarrollo y la adaptación y validación del GOAT para la cultura brasileña. Además, describe su aplicación y limitaciones en el uso. Resultados de pesquisas brasileñas contribuyeron para las evidencias sobre la validad del GOAT. También apuntaron los indicadores del momento pos-trauma en que el GOAT debe ser aplicado y destacaron las dificultades

  4. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of...

  5. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  6. The effects of PPR on the reproductive health of Black Bengal goats and the possible role played by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Dey, Amitava; Kumar, Abhay; Ray, Pradeep Kumar; Chandran, Poolangulam Chinnakkan; Kumari, Rashmi Rekha; Kumar, Manish

    2018-03-28

    Outbreaks of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viral disease in Black Bengal goats were investigated from the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Clinical profile of PPR-affected flocks was recorded from four different outbreak sites of the region. The PPR outbreak was diagnosed serologically using commercially available sandwich ELISA kit. Relatively, low mortality rate (mean 26.75%) for PPR outbreak was recorded due to the endemic status of the disease. To understand the role of oxidative stress in PPR virus pathogenesis, various oxidant and antioxidant parameters in goats infected with PPR were estimated and compared with the uninfected/healthy goats of the same flock. The measured high level of pro-oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA) obtained from lipid peroxidation along with lower levels of anti-oxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in PPR-affected Black Bengal goats suggests oxidative stress as one of the mechanism of pathogenesis of PPR virus. In addition, the correlation of oxidative stress due to PPR and the resulting reproductive disorders in the female goats were evaluated. The abortion in pregnant does observed during PPR outbreak was proportional to debility and oxidative stress manifested during PPR infection. The reproductive performance of recovered female goats in the period of 18 months of monitoring was significantly compromised in terms of kidding and twinning frequency. The mortality rate in kids born from PPR-recovered goats was significantly higher compared to those from health goats in the first 9 months post-recovery. From the present study, it may be concluded that together with the PPR virus, infection in goats and the resulting oxidative stress play a vital role for abortion and reduced post-reproductive performance in Black Bengal female goat.

  7. Zootechnical Performances of Goats in Niger: Comparative Study of the Maradi Russet Goat with the Black-Coat Goat in Maradi Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Marichatou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was not only to contribute to the knowledge of the Maradi russet goat, but also to compare some of its parameters (reproduction, adult weight, measurements, growth with those of the black goat. Retrospective oral surveys were carried out on three groups of black, and russet goats, in which 106 goats gave birth 3 or 4 times, 97 of them twice and 87 were primiparous. Seven measurements as well as adult weights were recorded in 125 russet, and black females of 4 years ± 3 months of age. Weight changes in 38 black, and russet kids were monitored from birth to three months of age in village conditions. Data statistical analysis on both coat-type groups showed, overall, similar results in village conditions. Nevertheless, prolificacy in russet goats was systematically higher than that in black goats regardless of parity.

  8. Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring.

  9. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  10. Anion gap as bio-diagnostic index in prediction of dystocia, retained placenta and delayed uterine involution of Baladi goat (Field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Raey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anion gap (AG validity in prediction the goat's fertility before parturition.Methods: This study was carried out on two groups (20/20, aged 4–6 years and weighted 30–43 kg of pluriparous pregnant Baladi goats. Animals were subjected to clinical examination, blood sampling to assess serum biochemical parameters in correlation with utrasonographic assessment of uterine horn involution (UTI and placental dropping time after kidding. Unpaired student t–test was used to detect the significance of differences (P<0.05. Correlation coefficient was used to study the relationships among the different assessed parameters, analysis (r was assigned at P<0.05 using the same statistics program.Results: Results revealed that there were highly significant differences (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goats concerning Cl-, K+, Na+, P, Mg2+, Total/Ca2+, albumin, glucose and AG. Goats suffered from dystocia having high levels of HCO3-, cortisol and lactate. Additionally, there were significant differences (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goat does regarding the process of UTI starting from 3rd to 10th wk after parturition. Furthermore, there was a highly significant difference (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goat does concerning their placental dropping time; where, distressed/ abnormally parturated goat having the longest time. Furthermore, there were highly strong correlation coefficient between Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, glucose, albumin, AG and corrected AG concentrations during goat's prepartum period and UTI, placental dropping time.Conclusions: Reporting serum bio-chemical changes and AG during goat's prepartum period could be used as diagnostic tool to judge the normality of parturition process, placental dropping, UTI and genital health, in other word, could be used as predictor for goat's fertility prior to parturition.

  11. Vaccination against Louping Ill Virus Protects Goats from Experimental Challenge with Spanish Goat Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, L M; Casais, R; García Marín, J F; Dalton, K P; Royo, L J; Del Cerro, A; Gayo, E; Dagleish, M P; Alberdi, P; Juste, R A; de la Fuente, J; Balseiro, A

    2017-05-01

    Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a recently described member of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis group of viruses, and is closely related to louping ill virus (LIV). Naturally acquired disease in goats results in severe, acute encephalitis and 100% mortality. Eighteen goats were challenged subcutaneously with SGEV; nine were vaccinated previously against LIV and nine were not. None of the vaccinated goats showed any clinical signs of disease or histological lesions, but all of the non-vaccinated goats developed pyrexia and 5/9 developed neurological clinical signs, primarily tremors in the neck and ataxia. All non-vaccinated animals developed histological lesions restricted to the central nervous system and consistent with a lymphocytic meningomyeloencephalitis. Vaccinated goats had significantly (P goats throughout the experiment, but increased rapidly and were significantly (P goats against LIV confers highly effective protection against SGEV; this is probably mediated by IgG and prevents an increase in viral RNA load in serum such that vaccinated animals would not be an effective reservoir of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.6 Goats. (a) In order to be eligible for export, goats shall be...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...

  13. Induction of synchronized oestrous in indigenous Damascus goats outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Synchronized oestrous was induced in indigenous Damascus goats, outside the breeding season, using intravaginal progestogen sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), plus pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). A total of 78 female Damascus goats of mixed ages (1.5 to 5 years) were divided randomly into 2 equal groups, T and C. The females in Group T were treated with MAP for 18 days and injected intramuscularly with either 150 of 200 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas, animals in Group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that oestrous was induced between 21 to 68 h post-sponge withdrawal in all treated animals, resulting in oestrous response of 100%. all animals in Group C were in anoestrous during the treatment period. In the Group T, conception rate and fecundity rate were 65.8% and 195.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference in pregnancy duration between animals carrying singles and twins (149 versus 184.5 days, respectively). The average birth weight of kids was 3.8 kg. However, single-born kids were significantly (p < 0.05) heavier at birth than individual twins (4.8 versus 3.8 kg). The results suggest that it is possible to induce synchronized and fertile oestrous, obtain successful pregnancy and kidding in Damascus goats outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and successful. (author)

  14. Use of enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) to measure progesterone and oestrone sulphate in milk and/or plasma for monitoring of fertility in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, D.F.M. van de; Vos, E.; Adrichem Boogaert, D.H. van; Nasir Hussain Shah, S.; Vendrig, A.A.A.; Koops, W.

    1991-01-01

    Fertility was monitored in goats during several stages of the reproductive cycle by measurement of progesterone in milk or plasma using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mean values in milk (strippings) of pregnant and non-pregnant goats at 21 days after mating (p.c.) were approximately 127 and 6 nmol/L, respectively. With a discriminatory level of 32 nmol/L the accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was around 80% and of negative diagnosis was 100%. It was found that the first oestrous cycle after the anoestrous season was preceded by a short period of progesterone elevation with a duration of 3-4 days and with maximum values between 25 and 45 nmol/L. Oestrus induction was studied in limited number of animals. During the anoestrous period ovulatory oestrus was obtained in 60% of the animals (n=10), whereas induction during the breeding season was 100% successful (n=9). Overall lambing rate after induced oestrus was 53%. Discrimination between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy could be done by measurements of oestrone sulphate from day 45 p.c. onwards. The enzymeimmunoassays (EIA) of progesterone in plasma and milk and of oestrone sulphate in plasma were validated. It is concluded that combined measurement of progesterone and oestrone sulphate is a useful method for monitoring of fertility in the goat. Furthermore the technique of EIA can add substantially to the general applicability of these hormone tests. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  15. quality and consumer acceptability of goat milk with respect to goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... farmers' goats in Trans Nzoia County was also determined. ..... Consumer acceptability (panelists scores*) of goat milk products in the north rift region in Kenya.

  16. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  17. Interview with Alison Goate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goate, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.

  18. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  19. Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Regina de Oliveira Felisberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

  20. INDONESIAN EFFORTS TO CONSERVE GEMBRONG GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatun Hasinah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan.  Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group.  Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males.  The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.

  1. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  2. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  3. Policy or poverty trap? Attitude of goat farmers towards the conservation rule on goat rearing in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study objectives were to gather feedback and opinions of goat farmers on the Forest and Nature Conservation Rule on goat rearing in Bhutan and identify field constraints arising from the conservation rule. Focus group and individual farmer survey methods were employed, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 180 goat farmers of six districts. All respondents were aware of the conservation rule. Majority of respondents knew goats as a threat to forest and crops. The vast majority of respondents felt that the conservation rule is not relevant in modern times, and all respondents felt the need to revise the rule. The main problem faced by farmers was difficulty in maintaining their goat numbers to four. The other problems faced were frequent conflicts with Forest personnel and restricted opportunities to earn more income. While the expected changes in the conservation rule included provisions to allow a farmer to rear more number of goats under stall-fed conditions, the additional rule suggested by farmers was allowing goats to browse freely in the forest. Majority of farmers reared goats under stall-fed conditions. The most common practice of managing goat populations was selling goats to fellow farmers. Despite the constraints, a majority of farmers expressed their willingness to continue goat rearing in the future, mainly to generate more income. The study findings suggest revision of the rule on goat rearing, with strong consideration of the needs of the modern farming system and growing economic demands. In revising the rule, the study recommends balanced representation from stakeholders and technical experts from both forest and livestock disciplines.

  4. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  5. Determination of serum progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on fertility control and early pregnancy diagnosis in angora goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsar, S.; Guven, B.; Ozekin, N.; Noyan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on diagnosis of cyclicity, confirmation of estrus so that mating timing and confirmation of return on non-return (pregnancy diagnosis) in Angora goats by using progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum as well as observing the sexual behaviours of the goats. The cyclic reproductive activity of 20 mature Angora goat does with normal previous reproductive function, 5 does which had never become pregnant in the previous breeding seasons, and 10 does which were old for breeding was investigated. Circulating progesterone was relatively low (0.45 ng/ml) at estrus (day 0) and increased progressively to 3.45 ng/ml during the subsequent luteal phase. This high level was maintained until day-3 of the succeding estrus cycle, when it decreased abruptly. Pregnancy diagnosis based on the levels of progesterone in serum was confirmed by kidding. 1.5 ng/ml or more progesterone was used as an indication of pregnancy (within 21 days after mating). The accuracy of pregnancy by progesterone assay was 100%. It was concluded that the use of progesterone RIA in serum is a reliable and convenient means of monitoring ovarian activity and early pregnancy. (author)

  6. Experimental intoxication of pregnant goats with Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae Intoxicação experimental por Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae em cabras gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Melo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Green leaves of Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss were fed to pregnant goats from day 35 of pregnancy. Five goats received 10g/kgBW (group I, five received 20g/kgBW (group II and five were used as control (group III, and received only hay, fresh grass and commercial ration. All animals were clinically examined daily and submitted to ultrasonography every three days. Fetal death and vulvar catarrhal discharge with subsequent abortion were observed at the end of the second month of pregnancy in group II and at the third month of pregnancy in group I. Animals from groups I and II were slaughtered after abortion and necropsied. Goats from the control group were necropsied at the same time. The main lesions in the aborted goats were focal placentitis with early involution (apoptosis and placentary coagulation necrosis, acute focal endometritis and vulvo-vaginal petechiae. All aborted fetuses were underdeveloped when compared to control fetuses, probably due to fetal malnutrition, since no congenital malformations could be noted. The majority of aborted fetuses showed some degree of autolysis, as fetal death occurred five and three days before abortion, in groups I and II, respectively. The most remarkable fetal lesions were focal or diffuse hemorrhages in the skin, meninges and visceral serosae.Com o objetivo de investigar a toxicidade da Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. foram utilizadas 15 cabras gestantes, divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos (GI, GII e GIII com cinco animais cada. Após estabelecer o diagnóstico de gestação no tempo médio de 35 dias, eram oferecidas diariamente doses de 10 e 20g/kg PV das folhas (jovens e maduras de Tetrapterys multiglandulosa para os grupos I e II, respectivamente, junto ao capim picado, feno e concentrado. Para o grupo III, usado como controle, foram fornecidos somente capim picado, feno e concentrado. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exames clínicos diários e a ultra-sonografia a cada tr

  7. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  8. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  9. Purine Turnover Metabolites and Selected Antioxidants in Blood of Goats during the Periparturient Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skotnicka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the erythrocyte concentrations of ATP, ADP, AMP, NAD+, NADP+ and adenylate energy charge (AEC and their metabolites: inosine (Ino, hypoxanthine (Hyp, uric acid (UA, selected blood antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR of goats during the periparturient period. The study was conducted on 12 clinically healthy pregnant goats (Capra hircus - 75% genotype of the Polish noble white aged between 2-3 years. Blood was taken from the external jugular vein early in the morning before feeding and obtained twice (4 weeks and 1 week before delivery and twice (2 and 3 weeks after delivery. The ATP concentration did not change significantly. One week before delivery ADP, AMP and Ino concentrations were significantly higher and AEC value significantly lower compared to values in the third week after delivery (p ≤ 0.02, p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.03 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively. One week before and two weeks after delivery we observed a significant increase in SOD and GR activities and an increase in NAD+ and NADP+ concentrations but a significant decrease in Hyp and UA concentrations. Constant ATP concentration and the changes in the dynamics and tendency of Hyp and UA concentrations show that in the periparturient period in goats, purine metabolism undergoes adaptive changes. The balance between resynthetic processes and adenine nucleotide degradation is retained in order to level the oxygen and energy lacks. The results of our study show that the maintenance of prooxidative homeostasis in goats of peripartal period depends mainly on enzymatic mechanisms.

  10. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Gardner, D R

    2015-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as "crooked calf syndrome" that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lupines. Similar malformations are also seen in animals poisoned by Conium maculatum (coniine) and Nicotiana glauca (anabasine). A proposed management strategy to limit these types of birth defects includes utilizing an intermittent grazing schedule to allow short durations of grazing lupine-infested areas interrupted by movement to a lupine-free pasture. The objective of this study was to use a goat model to determine if an intermittent schedule of five continuous days on treatment followed by two days off treatment would be sufficient to decrease, or prevent, the incidence of anabasine-induced malformations. The data from this study suggest that, for N. glauca in goats, the intermittent grazing program of five days exposure with two days of non-exposure is insufficient to prevent significant skeletal malformations from occurring. However, this study did demonstrate an inverse relationship between the amount of serum anabasine in the dam and the extent of fetal movement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  12. Identification and expression patterns of adipokine genes during adipocyte differentiation in the Tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2018-02-15

    Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats. In this study, we cloned the resistin (RETN), apelin (APLN), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and visfatin (NAMPT) genes from non-pregnant female Tibetan goat adipose tissue. APLN and NAMPT were predominantly expressed in the kidney, and FGF21 was expressed at the highest levels in the liver in vivo. In fat tissues, the highest expression levels of FGF21 and RETN were detected in omental fat, whereas their expression in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was extremely weak. APLN and NAMPT were abundantly expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat in vivo. In addition, the four adipokines had different expression profiles during goat adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Oil red O staining showed that rosiglitazone could promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet formation. In addition, rosiglitazone significantly increased the expression of FGF21 and RETN (pgoat adipocyte differentiation. And PPARγ could regulate the expression of the four adipokines, but the detailed regulatory mechanism still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

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    users

    KEYWORDS: Permanent Incisors; Carcass; Matebele Goats. INTRODUCTION ... Africa's goat population increased by ... local farmers to maximize on pricing of their goats. The ..... goats of Northern Mexico: Part 1- The effects of body weight on ...

  14. Goat Meat Consumer Preferences: Implications for Goat Meat Marketing in Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia

    2013-01-01

    Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...

  15. Effect of temperature variation on hormonal concentration at various gestation stages in black Bengal goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of risingtemperature on the metabolic as well as the reproductive performance of the black Bengal goat. Materials and Methods: A total 27 numbers of non-pregnant black Bengal goats of the same parity comprised the experimental animals. The selected goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 9 each, maintaining uniformity in body weight (average 14-18 kg. Goats in Group-I were kept between the temperature ranges of 35-40°C, in Group-II between 20°Cand 27°C, and Group-III were kept under loose housing system and serve as a control. Goats in all the groups were bred naturally. Blood was collected prior to feeding in the morning on the day 1 (estrus, 20, 45, 90, and 135, expected day of parturition and also 2 days after parturition from goats of all the three groups. Results: It was observed that the level of plasma estrogen decreased (p˂0.05 up to day 45 of gestation, then after increased up to 135 days of gestation and was maximum on expected day of parturition which was significantly (p˂0.05 higher than all the values. Plasma progesterone level increased from day 20 and was the highest on day 90 and then decreased significantly (p˂0.05 on expected date of parturition. The luteinizing hormone value decreased significantly (p˂0.05 on expected day of parturition and day 2 after parturition in all the groups. Follicle stimulating hormone concentration showed a significant (p˂0.05 decrease from day 1 to 2 days after parturition in all the groups. The plasma triiodothyronine (T3 level did not vary between and within the treatment groups at any stage of the experiment. The plasma thyroxine (T4 level varied significantly (p˂0.01 within and (p˂0.05 between groups at all stages of reproduction. A significant (p<0.05 variation in plasma cortisol concentration in all the groups increased significantly until the day of parturition and dropped significantly (p<0.01 in 2 days after

  16. PRODUCTIVITY COMPARISON BETWEEN BOER AND KACANG GOAT DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Elieser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the productivity of Boer and Kacang goats dam was carried out for 2 years atResearch Institute for Goat Production, Sungei Putih-North Sumatera. The materials used were goatsowned by the institute. The parameters observed were total birth and weaning weights of kid, litter size,parity of dam, pre-weaning mortality and kidding interval. The rate of reproduction and productivity ofthe dam were estimated using Amir and Knipscheer methods and were statistically analyzed usingGeneral Linear Model. The results showed that the total birth and weaning weight of Boer goats werehigher (P<0.05 than that of Kacang goats, while litter size of Boer goats were higher (P<0.05 than thatof Kacang goats. The pre-weaning mortality of Boer goat 15.1 ± 6.02% was lower than that ofKacang. The kidding interval of Boer goats was higher (P<0.05 than that of Kacang. Parity of dam hadsignificant effect on all production traits (P<0.05 except for pre-weaning mortality. Dam reproductionrate of Boer (1.81 was higher than that of Kacang (1.78, while productivity of Boer goat (37.12kg/head/year was higher than that of Kacang (18.12. It can be concluded that the reproductivity ofBoer and Kacang goats were similar, however the productivity of Boer goat had better than Kacang.

  17. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011-2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te-Chaniyom, Thanidtha; Geater, Alan F; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chethanond, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2012. The study population included three types of goat farms: standard, community enterprise and private goat farms that were located in Nakhon Si Thammmarat Province in southern Thailand. Information on whether the farm had any Brucella sero-positivity goats since 2011 was retrieved from the local livestock office records. Information on farming management was also traced back to 2011. Field researchers collected information from goat keepers of the selected farms using a structured questionnaire. Goat keepers on all farms pre-identified (January to June 2012) as having had at least one positive goat were considered to have been exposed. Goat keepers on a random sample of farms having all goats with negative results were considered to be unexposed. Venous blood samples were collected from goat keepers exposed and unexposed and from livestock officers and the samples were tested by IgG ELISA. Statistical analysis was done under the complex survey design in R software. Fourteen standard farms, 66 community enterprise farms and 68 private farms participated in the study; 82.4% (122/148) used public pasture and 53.4% (79/148) shared breeder goats with other farms. Farm management practices corresponding

  18. Serum progesterone levels for diagnosing pregnancy and monitoring corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages in hormonally-treated heat synchronized female damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on female damascus goats the breeding season to diagnose pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating and to monitor the corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages by measuring serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. A total of 75 intact female damascus goats were divided into 3 equal groups, S, P and C. females in group S were fitted with sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days and injected, at the sponge withdrawal, with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). Females in group P were injected twice with prostaglandin F 2a at 11 day intervals. Females in group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that the accuracy of positive pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 was 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively, and it was 100% for detecting non-pregnancy. There was no significant difference(p>0.05)among the 3 groups in serum progesterone level between days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating. Whereas, there were significant(p -1 at matinf, during pregnancy and at kidding. The triplet carrying goats had a significantly(p -1 , respectively. While, there was no significant difference in serum progesterone levels between the single and twin-carrying goats

  19. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  20. Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

  1. Capturing goats: documenting two hundred years of mitochondrial DNA diversity among goat populations from Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Lara M; Teasdale, Matthew D; Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G; Finlay, Emma K; Mattiangeli, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    The domestic goat ( Capra hircus ) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous 'Old Goat' populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral 'Old Goats' of Ireland and Britain. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubara, A S [University of Khartoum, Faculty of Animal Production, Department of Animal Husbandry and Genetics (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 {mu} g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P{<=} 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P{<=}0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P{<=}0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed

  3. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubara, A. S.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 μ g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P≤ 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P≤0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P≤0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed time

  4. Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-01-01

    Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information. PMID:18226239

  5. Effect of cortisol on gluconeogenesis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastradipradja, D.

    1976-01-01

    Three non-pregnant goats of local Malaysian breed with body weights between 15.9 and 22.6 kg were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to study the effect of daily cortisol injections for 5-6 days on gluconeogenesis. The treatments consisted of cortisol injection at a daily level of 1 mg/kg BW (body weight), 2.5 mg/kg BW, and a control. An extra goat (14.0 kg) received the same treatments for comparison and to check the accuracy of the methods employed. NaH 14 CO 3 , preceded by a primer dose, was infused continuously for 4-5 h to estimate quantitatively the extent to which gluconeogenesis may be affected by cortisol administration. Glucose-2- 3 H was also injected as a single pulse to assess kinetic parameters of the glucose pool. There was strong tendency (P=0.08) indicating that cortisol administration increased plasma glucose concentration. The mean increases above pre-treatment levels were 6.6, 21.3 and 53.5 mg/100 ml plasma for control, low and high cortisol treatment respectively. The transfer quotient from CO 2 to glucose for the treatments was significantly different (P 2 fixation expressed in absolute amounts was not significantly different among treatments (0.24, 0.33 and 0.36 mg/min per kg BW for control, low and high cortisol doses respectively). The insignificant result of the statistical test seemed to be caused by the low precision inherent in the experimental design. The data also show that glucose utilization was not impaired following cortisol treatment, and rather suggest normal glucose utilization at a higher level of plasma glucose concentration. (author)

  6. DESIGNING STUDY FOR A FAMILY FARM WITH 600 GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PĂDEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the hilly and plains area of Banat region, goat rearing for milk production haschances to become a profitable business. After Romania integration into the EUmarket there will be no quotas for goat milk and meat production. Also, importantlow-production arable land areas (over 3 million hectares will be laying fallow inthe next years, spectacularly increasing the fodder area for ruminants. There a fewgoat family farms having an efficient technological flow and with possibilities toprocess the milk in Romania. In this paper the bases are laid down for projecting afarm with 600 indigenous goats, to be exploited in an intensive system andgenetically improved with Sannen or French Alpine he-goats. The followingreproduction indices were planned for the 600 goats: goats in estrus per season96%, fecundity 95%, goats that keep the pregnancy 98%, kidding goats 90%,prolificacy 170%, and birth rate 152 kids for 100 dam goats. The total populationafter weaning the kids is 600 goats, 24 he-goats, and 173 reproduction female kids.For feeding this population 66.8 ha are required out of which 43.1 ha with grassespasture, 2.1 ha alfalfa, 10.2 ha corn, 4.2 ha barley, and 6.6 ha oats. Goats arehoused in 4 shelters, in 12 group pens of 48 heads. Goats will be fed year-round withgrass haylage, oats straw and concentrate mixtures. This farm will produce 2250 Hlmilk per year (mechanical milking, 150 reproduction female kids for selling at 8-9months of age, 500 fattening kids, and 120 culled goats sold for meat. The annuallyestimated gross income will be 34000 EUR.

  7. The effects of first gestation and lactation on bone metabolism in dairy goats and milk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Risteli, J; Wanner, M

    2006-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone mineral density (BMD) were quantified using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the same intervals as the blood was taken. Bone resorption was assessed by immunoassays quantitating two epitopes of the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, CTX). Bone formation was estimated by quantifying serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP). In addition, Ca and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-VITD) concentrations were determined in serum. Mean ICTP and CTX concentrations of both animal species increased the first week after parturition. By the second week pp, the concentrations of both markers had decreased toward early gestation levels. In contrast, mean OC concentrations continually decreased until the 1st week pp. By the 2nd week pp, the mean concentrations of OC started to increase again. Mean bAP activities decreased during gestation and reached a nadir in the first week pp in goats and 4 weeks pp in sheep. Afterwards, mean bAP activities increased again in goats and sheep. 1,25-VITD concentrations peaked the first week pp and returned to early gestation values thereafter. Total BMC and BMD decreased from the 4th month of pregnancy until the 1st week pp in both species. Afterwards, BMC increased throughout the first month pp in goats and the first 3 months pp in sheep. BMD levels of sheep and goats returned to prepartum levels during lactation. The resorptive phase of bone remodeling is accelerated at parturition and in early lactation and is uncoupled from the process of bone formation. This allows the animal to achieve Ca homeostasis at the expense of bone. Increased

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Barbara; Luttikholt, Saskia; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Vellema, Piet; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne

  11. Genetic distances and taxonomic trees between goats of Ceará State (Brazil and goats of the Mediterranean region (Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Théa M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats of an undefined breed (called UDB from the State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil (N = 447, European Mediterranean goats (N = 3,847 and African Mediterranean goats (N = 325 were compared to establish genetic distances and taxonomic trees. Allelic frequencies in each population for presence or absence of the following traits were used: horns, reduced ears, long hair, wattles, beard, roan color, brown eumelanin and eumelanic standard pigmentation. The genetic distance, applying the method developed by Nei (1972, was: least between goats from different meso-regions of the State of Ceará (0.0008 to 0.0120; small between all UDB of Ceará and French goats of Rove and Haute Roya (0.0236 and 0.0459; greater between all UDB of Ceará and northern Spanish goats (0.1166, and greatest between all UDB of Ceará and northern African goats (Moroccan of Drâa, Rhâali and Zagora, Balkan goats (Sakhar from Bulgaria and Macedonia from Greece and some insular Mediterranean populations (Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia, which ranged from 0.1237 to 0.2714. Brazilian UDB goats are more closely related to Continental and Western European populations than to North African, Balkan or Insular Mediterranean populations.

  12. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have...

  13. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  14. Experimental infection of goats with tick-borne encephalitis virus and the possibilities to prevent virus transmission by raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Egyed, László; Ferenczi, Emőke; Bán, Enikő; Szomor, Katalin N; Takács, Mária; Berencsi, György

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of goats and the possibilities to prevent human milk-borne infections either by immunizing animals or the heat treatment of milk. An experiment was conducted with 20 milking goats. Ten goats (half of them immunized) were challenged with live TBEV and 10 were left uninfected. Clinical signs and body temperatures of the animals were recorded and milk samples were collected daily. The presence of viral RNA and infectious virions in milk were detected by RT-PCR and intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice, respectively. Milk samples containing infectious virions were subjected to various heat treatment conditions and retested afterwards to assess the effect on infectivity. The infected goats did not show any clinical signs or fever compared to uninfected ones. Infectious virions were detected for 8-19 days from the milk samples (genome for 3-18 days by PCR) of infected goats. Immunized goats did not shed the virus. After heat treatment of the milk, the inoculated mice survived. Goats shed the virus with their milk without showing any symptoms. Human milk-borne infections can be avoided both by immunizing goats and boiling/pasteurizing infected milk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Peripartum dynamics of Coxiella burnetii infections in intensively managed dairy goats associated with a Q fever outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleme, Michael; Stenos, John; Vincent, Gemma; Wilks, Colin R; Devlin, Joanne M; Campbell, Angus; Cameron, Alexander; Stevenson, Mark A; Graves, Stephen; Firestone, Simon M

    2017-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii may cause reproduction disorders in pregnant animals but subclinical infection in other animals. Unrecognised disease may delay implementation of control interventions, resulting in transmission of infection to other livestock and to humans. Seroreactivity to C. burnetii phase-specific antigens, is routinely used to interpret the course of human Q fever. This approach could be similarly useful in identifying new and existing infections in livestock herds to help describe risk factors or production losses associated with the infections and the implementation of disease-control interventions. This study aimed to elucidate the dynamics of C. burnetii infections using seroreactivity to phase-specific antigens and to examine the impact of infection on milk yield in goats in an endemically-infected farm that was associated with a Q fever outbreak in Australia. Seroreactivity pre- and post-partum and milk yield were studied in 164 goats (86 nulliparous and 78 parous). Post-partum, the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. burnetti increased from 4.7% to 31.4% throughout goats' first kiddings and from 47.4% to 55.1% in goats kidding for the second or greater time. Of 123 goats that were seronegative pre-partum, 26.8% seroconverted over the three-month peri-partum period, highlighting the importance of controlling infection throughout this time. The risk of seroconversion was comparable in first or later kidders, suggesting constant risk irrespective of parity. No loss in milk production associated with seroconversion to phase 2 was observed within the first nine weeks of lactation. However, seroconversion to only phase 1 was associated with extra 0.276L of milk per day (95% Confidence Interval: 0.010, 0.543; P=0.042), which warrants further investigation to ascertain whether or not the association is causal. Further studies on seroreactivity and milk production over longer periods are required, as milk production loss caused by C. burnetti may be an

  16. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market | Asheim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A goat's meat production system based on suckling cashmere goats might also be ... The demand for goat's meat is high when sold at equal price of lamb's meat, but ... It is concluded that goat farmers should be paid a premium when keeping ...

  17. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  19. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  20. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  1. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  2. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  3. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  4. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  5. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (pgoat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  7. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538

  8. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  9. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF GOAT MILK CASEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Ahmed Salem; Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy; Fatma Salama; Nagwa Hussein Abosoliman

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding of goat and cow milk caseins on the body weight gain, body organs, erythrocytic & leukocytic counts and their parameters, plasma lipid profile, liver enzyme activities, renal function and plasma proteins of rats over a period of 45 days was studied. Feeding of goat or cow milk caseins had no significant effect on the parameters studied (P≤0.05) between rats fed either milk. However, rats fed on goat milk casein showed a significant increase in high density lipoproteins...

  10. Behavioural responses of four goat genotypes to successive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eared, Nguni and Boer goats and their crosses were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm, South Africa for eight weeks. The goats were randomly assigned to four pen groups with each pen having three goats of the same breed among the 12 ...

  11. Use of a commercial probiotic supplement in meat goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Cazac, D; Rude, B J; Jackson-O'Brien, D; Parveen, S

    2009-02-01

    Sixty-three Boer crossbred goats were used in 5 separate experiments (Exp. 1 to 5) to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplement on growth performance (Exp. 1 to 4), diet digestibility (Exp. 5), carcass traits (Exp. 3), and fecal bacterial populations (Exp. 4). Goats were either fed a commercially pelleted concentrate diet and supplemented with a commercial probiotic (PRO) that had shown anecdotal positive effects on goat growth and performance according to local goat producers, or they remained as controls. The dose of PRO used was within the labeled dose for sheep for all studies. For Exp. 1, goat BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 7 d for 56 d. For Exp. 2 to 4, BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 14 d. The first day of supplementation was considered d 0. Carcass traits were also collected at slaughter on d 57 for Exp. 3, and fecal samples were collected every 14 d for microbial culture for Exp. 4. For Exp. 5, which was a digestibility trial that lasted for 10 d, animals were placed in metabolic pens for collection of feces and orts. Growth performance of goats was not affected by probiotic supplementation, with the exception of performance in Exp. 2, in which ADG and G:F were improved (P goats compared with control goats on d 56 only (treatment x day interaction; P goats and 0.11 +/- 0.02 kg/d for control goats for ADG and 0.17 +/- 0.02 for PRO goats and 0.10 +/- 0.02 for control goats for G:F. Carcass weights and weights of fabricated cuts (shoulder, loin, leg, rack, shank, and total parts) as well as carcass length, leg circumference, loin eye area, and backfat were not influenced by PRO supplementation. Apparent digestibilities of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and GE (on a DM basis) were similar for the PRO and control treatments. Fecal culture analysis of Escherichia coli and coliforms, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations were not influenced by the PRO treatment. Overall, although the PRO

  12. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics around Estrus in Beetal and Teddy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Riaz, Nasim Ahmad* and Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher fecundity rate over Beetal goats, it is assumed that Teddy goats have higher ovarian activity. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that ovarian follicular population i.e. number of small (2-4 mm, medium (>4-6 mm and large follicles (>6 mm, size of the ovulatory follicle, and ovulation rate (No. of CL/No of ovulated goats, using transrectal ultrasonography are different between Beetal and Teddy goats of Pakistani origin. Beetal (n=6 and Teddy (n=8 does were synchronized using double PGF2a injections 10 d apart and were scanned on Days -2, 0 (estrus and +2. The onset of estrus was assessed by aproned bucks. Mean number of small follicles were higher (P<0.05 in Beetal goats, compared to Teddy goats, on days -2, estrus and +2. The ovulatory follicle diameter, and ovulation rate were found non-significant between Beetal and Teddy goats. It is concluded that Beetal goats have greater population of small follicles around estrus compared to Teddy goats. Future studies can be based on the follicle recruitment and atretic factors in Beetal goats to enhance the production.

  13. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of goat pox viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Jaisree, S; Balakrishnan, S; Senthilkumar, K; Mahaprabhu, R; Mishra, A; Maity, B; Ghosh, T K; Karmakar, A P

    2018-02-01

    Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages. Nucleotide sequence of complete p32 gene using randomly selected two isolates and three clinical specimens revealed presence of Goat pox virus (GTPV)-specific signature residues in all the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the present five sequences along with GenBank data of GTPV complete p32 gene sequences showed all the GTPV sequences cluster together except Pellor strain (NC004003) and FZ Chinese strain (KC951854). The five sequences either from WB or TN cluster more closely with GTPV isolates of Maharashtra state that were responsible for cross species outbreak of pox disease in both sheep (KF468759) and goats (KF468762) in India during the year 2010. All the Indian goat pox viruses, including the Mukteswar strain, isolated in 1946 and sequence reported in 2004 clustered together with the GTPVs causing the recent outbreaks. It was observed that GTPVs caused similar clinical manifestation irrespective of their geographical locations and breed characteristics, no variation observed among the Indian isolates based on p32 gene over the period of seventy years and disease outbreaks could not be observed or reported in vaccinated goats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and

  16. Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP Polymorphic Variants in the Susceptibility of Goats to Oral Infection With Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, Christine; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos; Groschup, Martin H; Nadeem, Muhammad; Goldmann, Wilfred; Langeveld, Jan; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan-María

    2015-08-15

    The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP genotypes were orally inoculated with a goat-BSE isolate to assess their relative susceptibility to BSE infection. Goats were killed at different time points during the incubation period and after the onset of clinical signs, and their brains as well as several peripheral tissues were analyzed for the accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and prion infectivity by mouse bioassay. R/Q211 goats displayed delayed clinical signs compared with wild-type goats. Deposits of PrP(Sc) were detected only in brain, whereas infectivity was present in peripheral tissues too. In contrast, none of the Q/K222 goats showed any evidence of clinical prion disease. No PrP(Sc) accumulation was observed in their brains or peripheral tissues, but very low infectivity was detected in some tissues very long after inoculation (44-45 months). These results demonstrate that transmission of goat BSE is genotype dependent, and they highlight the pivotal protective effect of the K222 PRNP variant in the oral susceptibility of goats to BSE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  18. The Goat in the Rug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  19. [Role of goat in transmission of schistosomiasis japonica III Environmental contamination by goat feces and prediction of environments at high risk of S. japonicum infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You-Sheng, Liang; Yi-An, Wang; Xue-Hui, Shen; Wei, Wang; Guo-Li, Qu; Yun-Tian, Xing; Jian-Rong, Dai

    2016-10-18

    To quantitatively estimate the range and area of environmental contamination by the feces of Schistosoma japonicum -infected that were freely grazed, so as to provide the theoretical evidence for the scientific assessment of the role of the freely grazed goat in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica and development of control strategy. All the fecal samples excreted by the infected goat at daytime (12 h) were collected by using a self-made goat fecal collector, weighed and counted. The quantity and dispersal of the feces excreted by the freely grazed goat at daytime under a natural condition were investigated, and the walking route and speed of the freely grazed goat at daytime were recorded with a multifunction GPS data logger. The maximum range and area of the environment contaminated by the feces of the freely grazed goat at daytime were estimated, and the maximum range and area of the Oncomelania hupensis snails that may be infected by the schistosome miracidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat at daytime were calculated. During the walking along the marshland at daytime (12 h), the quantity of the feces execrated by the freely grazed infected goat was (232.8 ± 39.8) g per goat, and the fecal samples were composed of (819.2 ± 152.1) pellets. The goat had a mean walking speed of (0.522 7 ± 0.099 7) km/h, and the longest distance, largest radius and largest range of walking activity were (6.272 4 ± 1.195 8) km, 3.136 2 km and (3 191.113 0 ± 1 189.709 4) hm 2 at daytime, respectively. The area of the snails that may be infected by the miracidium released from the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely graze goat (range of key regions for infected snails detection and control) at daytime was estimated to be (3 210.717 5 ± 1 190.907 3) hm 2 . The intensity of environmental contamination by the eggs in the fecal samples of the freely grazed goat is linked to the number of infected goat. The contamination range caused

  20. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  1. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  2. Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo

    2016-09-17

    Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the

  3. Generation of transgenic goats by pronuclear microinjection: a retrospective analysis of a commercial operation (1995-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, W; Blash, S; Buzzell, N; Pollock, D; Chen, L; Hawkins, N; Howe, J; Miner, K; Pollock, J; Porter, C; Schofield, M; Echelard, Y; Meade, H

    2018-02-01

    Production of transgenic founder goats involves introducing and stably integrating an engineered piece of DNA into the genome of the animal. At LFB USA, the ultimate use of these transgenic goats is for the production of recombinant human protein therapeutics in the milk of these dairy animals. The transgene or construct typically links a milk protein specific promoter sequence, the coding sequence for the gene of interest, and the necessary downstream regulatory sequences thereby directing expression of the recombinant protein in the milk during the lactation period. Over the time period indicated (1995-2012), pronuclear microinjection was used in a number of programs to insert transgenes into 18,120, 1- or 2- cell stage fertilized embryos. These embryos were transferred into 4180 synchronized recipient females with 1934 (47%) recipients becoming pregnant, 2594 offspring generated, and a 109 (4.2%) of those offspring determined to be transgenic. Even with new and improving genome editing tools now available, pronuclear microinjection is still the predominant and proven technology used in this commercial setting supporting regulatory filings and market authorizations when producing founder transgenic animals with large transgenes (> 10 kb) such as those necessary for directing monoclonal antibody production in milk.

  4. Reasons for U.S. Producer Selection of a Goat Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Brittany; Nyaupane, Narayan; Gillispie, Jeffrey; McMillan, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses 14 possible reasons why meat goat producers selected to engage in meat goat production, with results having implications for research, extension, and teaching efforts. A survey of meat goat producers was conducted. Reasons for entering meat goat production were assessed and analyzed using ordered probit models.

  5. Study of Goat Herdering System in Sawohan Village, Buduran District, Sidoarjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasich, M.; Suyadi; Ciptadi, G.; Budiarto, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyze goat herdering system in group of goat “Oro-oro” in Sawohan Village, Buduran District, Sidoarjo. This research was conducted by case study method, using 5 members of goat farmers “Oro-oro” with 298 goats. The results of this study indicate that the average number of goat ownership was more than 50 head/farmer. The goat breed that raising by the farmers was Kacang goats. Average daily gains was 53.32 + 36.01 gram, litter size 1.34 + 0.51 head, mean of kidding interval 7,41 + 0,99 month and mortality of kid prenatal period was 20,4%. From this research can be concluded that productivity of goat in Sawohan village was good with herdering system, so it can be used as one of alternative in developing goat farming system in other area.

  6. Socio-economic and cultural functions of goats in Niger Delta of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that goat keeping was not popular in the study area because the people did not cherish goat meat; they see goats as destructive, dirty, and often associated with witchcraft. Forty-six percent of the respondents practised free range, and 18 per cent confined their goats. Goats were, however, found to be widely ...

  7. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  9. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  10. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-04-26

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems.

  11. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  12. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-12-01

    Goats ( Capra hircus ) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  13. Glioma in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.L.; Weinstock, D.; Kramer, R.W.; Bagley, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    An adult goat was examined because of behavioral changes and circling. Results of neurologic examination, CSF analysis, hematologic evaluation, and computed tomography of the brain were suggestive of an intra-axial mass. The goat was euthanatized because of worsening neurologic condition and poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed a large mass in the right cerebral hemisphere and caudal brain herniation through the foramen magnum. The mass was diagnosed as a glioma, with oligodendrocyte differentiation. Results of immunohistochemical evaluation were compatible with a malignant, poorly differentiated tumor

  14. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1 st , 7 th and 15 th days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  15. Angora goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angora goat, tables of nutritional requirements (NRC, 1981) have been derived by ..... may fall as low as 0.38%/min in diabetic cows (Kaneko,. 1989). The diagnostic ... dependent on glucose oxidation via the pentose-phosphate pathway in ...

  16. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  17. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feiyan; Yu, Wenhai; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Jue; Li, Yunlong; Li, Yi; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route. Zoonotic transmission of HEV from HEV-infected pigs (pork) or cows (milk) to human or non-human primate has been confirmed, but the risk of HEV in goat is still rarely assessed. In the present study, stool, blood, tissues, and milk of goat were collected for HEV infection investigation from Dali City of Yunnan Province in China, where raw mutton and goat milk are traditionally consumed. Surprisingly, a high prevalence of HEV infection in goat was found. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from goat belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h, and shared a high similarity homology (>99.6%) with HEV isolated from human, swine, and cows in the same area. Results suggested that goats are a previously unrecognized HEV host. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  19. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome. PMID:27989103

  20. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N. N.; Singh, G. R.; Setia, H. C. [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (India)

    1995-06-15

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N.N.; Singh, G.R.; Setia, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants

  2. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  3. INFLUENCE OF BETAINE ON GOAT MILK YIELD AND BLOOD METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken  into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 g∙kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P

  4. Reproduction performance of Saanen goats raised under extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... and 150.1 day, respectively, while 2-5 age kidding rate, infertility and litter size were 81 and 81.3%, 11.5 and 0.09% ... Female goats. 27. -. 64. -. Goats in estrous. 25. 92.6. 60. 93.7. Kidding rate. 24. 81. 58. 81.3. Infertility rate. 3. 11.5. 6. 0.09. The goat's single birth. 22. 77.3. 57 .... adequate nutrition for twins.

  5. Ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquat Désirée

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary diseases of the omasum are uncommon in goats, although the omasum may be involved in various gastrointestinal disorders. Examination of the caprine omasum via ultrasonography requires a good understanding of the normal appearance of the organ. However, in contrast to cattle, there is a lack of reference information on this topic in goats. Thus, the goal of the present study was to describe the results of ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 healthy Saanen goats. Results Ultrasonography was carried out in standing, non-sedated goats using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The location and size of the omasum, thickness of the omasal wall and visualisation of the abomasal laminae, contents and contractions were assessed. The omasum was visible from the 9th intercostal space (ICS in all the goats, and from the 8th and 10th ICSs in 29 and 24 goats, respectively. The omasum was seen medial to the liver, but only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was visible. The dorsal omasal limit formed a dorsally convex curve running from cranioventral to caudodorsal and was furthest from the dorsal midline in the 6th ICS. The ventral omasal limit formed a ventrally convex curve. The size of the omasum was largest (10.2 ± 3.1 cm in the 9th ICS and decreased cranially and caudally from this position. Active omasal motility was recorded in 20 goats with 0.3 to 2.0 contractions per minute. Conclusions The findings of this study provide reference ranges for the interpretation of the location and size of the omasum in goats with suspected omasal abnormalities. Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for evaluation of the omasum, which is not accessible to conventional examination techniques, such as inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.

  6. Reproductive Effeciency of an Indigenous Irabian Goat ( Capra Hircus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that goat can tolerate harsh conditions; however there are little information about its reproduction functions such as testis histomorphometry and efficiency of sertoli cells. This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected ...

  7. Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infections with Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, C.; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, J.C.; Groschup, M.H.; Muhammad, Nadeem; Goldmann, W.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Bossers, A.; Andreoletti, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear.

    Methods. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP

  8. Capturing goats: documenting two hundred years of mitochondrial DNA diversity among goat populations from Britain and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G.; Finlay, Emma K.; Mattiangeli, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The domestic goat (Capra hircus) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous ‘Old Goat’ populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral ‘Old Goats’ of Ireland and Britain. PMID:28250207

  9. The 2007–2010 Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: characteristics of notified acute Q fever patients and the association with dairy goat farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Frederika; van der Hoek, Wim; Wijers, Nancy; Schimmer, Barbara; Rietveld, Ariene; Wijkmans, Clementine J; Vellema, Piet; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2012-02-01

    We describe the Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands with emphasis on the epidemiological characteristics of acute Q fever patients and the association with veterinary factors. Data from 3264 notifications for acute Q fever in the period from 2007 through 2009 were analysed. The patients most affected were men, smokers and persons aged 40–60 years. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation (62% in 2007 and 2008). Only 3.2% of the patients were working in the agriculture sector and 0.5% in the meat-processing industry including abattoirs. Dairy goat farms with Coxiella burnetii-induced abortion waves were mainly located in the same area where human cases occurred. Airborne transmission of contaminated dust particles from commercial dairy goat farms in densely populated areas has probably caused this epidemic. In 2010, there was a sharp decline in the number of notified cases following the implementation of control measures on dairy goat and sheep farms such as vaccination, hygiene measures and culling of pregnant animals on infected farms. In combination with a rise in the human population with antibodies against C. burnetii, these have most likely ended the outbreak. Development of chronic Q fever in infected patients remains an important problem for years to come.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats from the south-west region of Poland and the detection of T. gondii DNA in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Kusyk, Pawel; Bilska-Zajac, Ewa; Karamon, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Wojcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zajac, Violetta; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Rozycki, Miroslaw; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-07-11

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite prevalent in animals and humans worldwide having medical and veterinary importance on account of causing abortion or congenital disease in intermediate hosts, including man. Since T. gondii has already been identified in the milk of goats, Capra aegagrus hircus (Linnaeus), the possibility of acquiring infection by ingesting unpasteurised goat milk should be taken into consideration. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk. First, 73 goats (females) from 36 farms located in Poland were examined serologically by direct agglutination test (DAT) to estimate the T. gondii serological status. Milk samples from 60 selected lactating females were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA by Real time PCR and nested PCR (B1 gene). To estimate the clonal type of detected T. gondii, multiplex PCR was performed using 6 markers. In DAT, positive results were found in 70% of 73 goats. Among examined 60 milk samples, 65% were positive in Real time PCR and 43% in nested PCR. It is noteworthy that 11 samples positive in PCR were collected from seronegative goats. The multilocus PCR analysis mostly revealed the occurrence of genotype III, which is relatively rare in Europe. The recorded high prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in tested goats (70%), associated with a high prevalence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk samples (65%), indicates a potential risk of the parasite transmission through goat milk ingestion.

  11. Haemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Capra hircus at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossan Shaikat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.

  12. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the

  13. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  14. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different

  15. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six-months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on ...

  16. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  17. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  18. Clinical protection of goats against CpHV-1 induced genital disease with a BoHV-4-based vector expressing CpHV-1 gD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Donofrio

    Full Text Available Caprine herpesvirus type 1 (CpHV-1 is an alphaherpesvirus causing genital disease leading to abortion in adult pregnant goats and a systemic disease with high morbility and mortality in kids. Further, Caprine herpesvirus 1 infection represents a valuable large animal model for human herpesvirus induced genital disease, exploitable for pathogenic studies, new vaccines and antiviral molecules testing. Here, the bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 based vector derived from an apathogenic isolate of BoHV-4 and expressing the immunodominant CpHV-1 glycoprotein D (BoHV-4-A-gD(cpgD(106ΔTK was constructed and its ability to protect goats against CpHV-1 induced genital disease evaluated. The subcutaneous route of recombinant BoHV-4 administration was first tested in vivo/ex vivo by in vivo image analysis and in vitro by goat skin primary cultures preparation and transduction. Next, an exploratory immunization and safety study in goats was performed with two recombinant BoHV4, BoHV-4-A-gD(cpgD(106ΔTK or BoHV-4-CMV-IgK-gE2gD-TM. In both cases no clinical signs were evident but a good titer of serum neutralizing antibodies was produced in all inoculated animals. When a challenge experiment was performed in a new group of animals using a highly pathogenic dose of CpHV-1, all the vaccinated goats with BoHV-4-A-gD(cpgD(106ΔTK were protected toward CpHV-1 induced genital disease respect to the unvaccinated control which showed typical vaginal lesions with a high grade of clinical score as well as a long lasting viral shedding. In summary, the data acquired in the present study validate BoHV-4-based vector as a safe and effective viral vector for goat vaccination against CpHV-1 induced genital disease and pave the way for further applications.

  19. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  20. Genetic origin of goat populations in Oman revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Osman Mahgoub; Costa, Vânia; Neira, Agusto Luzuriaga; Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2017-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has a complex mosaic of livestock species and production systems, but the genetic diversity, demographic history or origins of these Omani animals has not been expensively studied. Goats might constitute one of the most abundant and important domestic livestock species since the Neolithic transition. Here, we examined the genetic diversity, origin, population structure and demographic history of Omani goats. Specifically, we analyzed a 525-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 69 Omani individuals and compared this fragment with 17 mtDNA sequences from Somalia and Yemen as well as 18 wild goat species and 1,198 previously published goat sequences from neighboring countries. The studied goat breeds show substantial diversity. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Omani goats were found equal to 0.983 ± 0.006 and 0.0284 ± 0.014, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses allowed us to classify Omani goats into three mtDNA haplogroups (A, B and G): haplogroup A was found to be predominant and widely distributed and accounted for 80% of all samples, and haplogroups B and G exhibited low frequencies. Phylogenetic comparisons with wild goats revealed that five of the native Omani goat populations originate from Capra aegagrus. Furthermore, most comparisons of pairwise population FST values within and between these five Omani goat breeds as well as between Omani goats and nine populations from nearby countries were not significant. These results suggest strong gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transport of goats and the frequent movements of human populations in ancient Arabia. The findings improve our understanding of the migration routes of modern goats from their region of domestication into southeastern Arabia and thereby shed light on human migratory and commercial networks during historical times. PMID:29281717

  1. Genetic origin of goat populations in Oman revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araimi, Nasser Ali; Gaafar, Osman Mahgoub; Costa, Vânia; Neira, Agusto Luzuriaga; Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2017-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has a complex mosaic of livestock species and production systems, but the genetic diversity, demographic history or origins of these Omani animals has not been expensively studied. Goats might constitute one of the most abundant and important domestic livestock species since the Neolithic transition. Here, we examined the genetic diversity, origin, population structure and demographic history of Omani goats. Specifically, we analyzed a 525-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 69 Omani individuals and compared this fragment with 17 mtDNA sequences from Somalia and Yemen as well as 18 wild goat species and 1,198 previously published goat sequences from neighboring countries. The studied goat breeds show substantial diversity. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Omani goats were found equal to 0.983 ± 0.006 and 0.0284 ± 0.014, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses allowed us to classify Omani goats into three mtDNA haplogroups (A, B and G): haplogroup A was found to be predominant and widely distributed and accounted for 80% of all samples, and haplogroups B and G exhibited low frequencies. Phylogenetic comparisons with wild goats revealed that five of the native Omani goat populations originate from Capra aegagrus. Furthermore, most comparisons of pairwise population FST values within and between these five Omani goat breeds as well as between Omani goats and nine populations from nearby countries were not significant. These results suggest strong gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transport of goats and the frequent movements of human populations in ancient Arabia. The findings improve our understanding of the migration routes of modern goats from their region of domestication into southeastern Arabia and thereby shed light on human migratory and commercial networks during historical times.

  2. GOAT MILK PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC FARMING STANDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Hartmut Rahmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (

  3. A Pilot Study of Halal Goat-Meat Consumption in Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Liu, Xuanli; Nelson, Mack C.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta is a relatively large market for goat meat. As in most metropolitan areas around the U.S., goat-meat consumption has grown steadily in Atlanta over the past decade (Northwest Cooperative Development Center 2005; Nettles and Bukenya 2004). This growth is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. over the same period (Gipson 1999). The increase in demand for goat meat has made the U.S. a net importer of competitively priced goat meat from Austr...

  4. Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective

  5. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  6. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. © S.N. Chiejina et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  7. Study Regarding Goat Milk Composition and the Growth Rate in Kids of Carpatina Goat Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Voia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fat and protein content from goat colostrum and milk at weaning the kids. Also, the growth rate of kids was determined during the 50 days of milk feeding period. The experiment was carried out on 8 Carpatina breed goats with their twin male/female couple kids (n=16. Fat and protein content is significant higher (p<0,001 by 8.12 and 13.2 percentage points, respectively compared to normal goat milk. Body weight at birth was on average 2.72 kg for females and 2.89 kg for males. At the end of experimental period, body weight of males was 2.15 kg higher compared to females. Average daily gain during the milk feeding period was 41.97 g/day significantly higher (p<0.001 in males (168.85 g/day than in females (126.88 g/day.

  8. Intoxication of goats by Plumbago scandens in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R M; Barbosa, R C; Lima, E F; Simões, S V; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-06-01

    In the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, goat mortality occurred with the ingestion of Plumbago scandens. The fresh plant was then given experimentally to 4 goats at 5, 10, 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. Depression, anorexia, salivation with foamy saliva, bellowing, bruxism, humpbacked posture, bloat, ruminal atony, continuous lateral head movements, tachycardia, dyspnea and dark brown to black urine were observed in the goats given 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. The goats receiving 5 or 10 g/kg bw had less severe signs. The goat dosed with 25 g/kg bw died after 18-20 h. All others recovered in 3-9 d. At necropsy of the high dose goat, the main lesions were dark violet to black discoloration of the mucosa of the tongue, esophagus, reticulum and ventral sac of the rumen, and gelatinous edema in the visceral ruminal peritoneum. Histologically the reticulum and ventral rumen sac had diffuse epithelial necrosis and severe edema and neutrophilic infiltration of the submucosa. Separation of the ruminal epithelium from the submucosa was observed. Epithelial degeneration and necrosis was also seen in the omasum, esophagus and tongue. Reproduction of the disease with clinical signs similar to those observed by the farmer in the spontaneously affected goats suggests that the clinical mortality was caused by ingestion of Plumbago scandens.

  9. Goats on alpine grazing: study on metabolic and hematologic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaviraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summering on alpine pastures from June to October has long been the traditional management of goat flocks in the mountain areas of Lombardy. At present most of the 50.000 goats farmed in Lombardy are still summered, even though only a few thousands - belonging to local breed - are regularly milked. For these goats summering appears to be fundamental not only to allow milk production but also to restore body reserves. The increasing interest in commercial goat milk production in Lombardy involves mainly intensive farming with zero or minimum grazing. However, semi-extensive goat milk production, including summering, could respond to social and environmental goals (Citterio et al., 2002 being able to exploit some economic opportunities...

  10. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  11. Total intravenous anaesthesia in a goat undergoing craniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Verónica; Álvarez Gómez de Segura, Ignacio; López Rámis, Víctor; Santella, Massimo; Ezquerra, Luis Javier

    2017-09-15

    Cerebral coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep and goats, and is usually fatal unless surgical relief is provided. Information regarding neuroanaesthesia in veterinary medicine in goats is scant. We describe anaesthetic management of an intact female goat (2 years; 16 kg) presented for craniectomy. The goat was sedated with xylazine (0.05 mg kg -1 , i.m.) and morphine (0.05 mg kg -1 , i.m.). General anaesthesia was induced 20 min later with propofol and maintained with a constant rate infusion of propofol (0.2 mg kg -1  min -1 ). A cuffed endotracheal tube was placed and connected to a rebreathing (circle) system and mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen was initiated. A bolus of lidocaine (1 mg kg -1 ), midazolam (0.25 mg kg -1 ) and fentanyl 2.5 μg kg -1 was delivered via the intravenous route followed immediately by a constant rate infusion of lidocaine (50 μg kg -1  min -1 ), midazolam (0.15 mg kg -1  h -1 ) and fentanyl (6 μg kg -1  h -1 ) administered via the intravenous route throughout surgery. Craniectomy was undertaken and the goat recovered uneventfully. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol, lidocaine, fentanyl and midazolam could be an acceptable option for anaesthesia during intracranial surgery in goats.

  12. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  13. Effects of Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Yue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268 and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440 breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats and daily milk yield (202 goats were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05. The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05.

  14. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  15. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

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    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  17. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and

  18. Evaluation of MAP-specific peptides following vaccination of goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    species or 2) selected based on “experience”. Peptides predicted to bind bovine MHC II by in silico analysis were included in further studies, resulting in two panels 1) genome-based and 2) selected. Initially, two groups of 15 healthy goats were vaccinated with one of the two panels (50 µg/peptide in CAF......01 adjuvant/CAF04 for boosting). Four MAP-infected goats were also vaccinated. In a second vaccination trail, groups of 8 healthy goat kids were vaccinated with genome-based peptides, selected peptides or selected peptides linked together in a recombinant protein (20 µg/peptide or 50 µg protein...... peptides. IFN-γ responses in healthy goats after the first vaccination were low, but testing of T cell lines from MAP-infected goats identified peptides inducing strong proliferative responses. Peptides for a second vaccination were selected by combining results from this study with a parallel cattle study...

  19. A new polymorphism in goat β-lactoglobulin promoter region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An individual variability in β-lactoglobulin content has been previously observed in Girgentana goat milk by HPLC analysis. To identify eventual mutations affecting the transcription level of the gene, the prooter region was characterized in goats showing an anomalous phenotype, consisting in a reduced content of β-lactoglobulin respect to α-lactoalbumine. A single nucleotide substitution not previously reported has been detected. A PCR-RFLP procedure was developed for fast detection of the mutation in different goat breeds: Girgentana, Garganica, Sarda, Alpine, Montefalcone and Saanen. The Montefalcone goat showed the highest frequency of the mutation, confirming one more the peculiarity of this breed.

  20. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-08

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep.

  1. Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y

    2010-03-01

    Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (Pmeat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (Pgoats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (Pmeat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Embryo transfer using cryopreserved Boer goat blastocysts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of embryo cryopreservation techniques on the survivability of embryos and fertility following transfer to Boer goat does. The oestrous cycles of 27 mature recipients Boer goat does were synchronised using controlled internal drug release dispensers (CIDR's) for 16 days. At CIDR ...

  3. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Inger L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats, 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats and experiment 2 (lactating goats. There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3, the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1 and lactating goats (exp. 2. Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a

  4. Genetic characterization of Istrian goat: the key-point for a long-term conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Istrian goat is an autochthonous Croatian breed which inhabited Istrian peninsula and was important in milk production and human nutrition, especially for poor people. For centuries Istrian goat was a recognizable heraldic symbol of Istria, but in her real form almost disappeared from the breeding area. The revitalization and reaffirmation of Istrian goat began with several dozen remaining breeding animals, after a decade-long breeding ban. Genetic characterization of the Istrian goat population is necessary for providing insight into the state of genetically preserved structure within population as well as positioning Istrian goats within phylogenetically related breeds. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of reproductive individuals of Istrian goat and related breeds, Croatian White goat and Saanen goat was carried out. In the population of Istrian goat, higher allelic variability (nA = 9.7; AR = 7.4 were found as well as significant genetic distance (FST = 0.068 - 0.086 in relation to other two breeds. Such results indicated that Istrian goat constitutes a separate genetic identity. The observed ten haplotype sequences of the D-loop mtDNA also confirm the significant genetic richness of the maternal hereditary component. The observed haplotypes in the population of Istrian goat belong to lineage A. A smaller number of haplotypes shows similarity to the group of “white” goats, indicating traces of earlier limited but targeted crossing of Istrian goats. The genetic profile analysis of Istrian goats indicates a high level of genetic variability and provides guidelines for a long-term conservation program. The preserved genetic and promising potential of milk production of Istrian goat makes a significant basis for her economic reaffirmation. Orientation of the breed towards milk production could be an efficient strategy for its effective preservation.

  5. Growth and performance of indigenous and crossbred goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    breed is the most predominant in the country particularly in. Teso and Lango ... goats are the smallest in body size with average adult body. Uganda Journal of ... from crossbreeding indigenous breeds with exotic goats under different agro-.

  6. Goats in the city: prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in extensively reared goats in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Myhr, Nina; Bajwa, Rajinder Singh; Joshi, Himanshu; Kumar, Anil; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-12-22

    Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur. This study reports an investigation of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in goats being reared in different settings in urban and peri-urban areas in northern India, and addressed the zoonotic potential of these important protozoan parasites shed from goats living close to humans. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 33.8 and 0.5% for Cryptosporidium spp.; the relatively low prevalence of cryptosporidiosis may reflect that most samples were derived from adult animals. The prevalence of G. duodenalis excretion was found to be similar to that reported in other studies. However, although other studies have reported a predominance of non-zoonotic Assemblage E in goats, in this study potentially zoonotic Assemblages predominated [Assemblage A (36%) and Assemblage B (32%)]. The results of this study indicate that in this area where goats and humans are living in close proximity, there may be sharing of intestinal parasites, which can be detrimental for both host species.

  7. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  8. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...

  9. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  10. HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ALPINE GOATS DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present haematological parameters in the Alpine goats during lactation. The study included 15 goats average age of 5 years in the 4th lactation. The blood sampling of goats was conducted on the 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days of lactation. In the blood of goats, significant decrease in the number of red blood cells was determined, as lactation progressed, and their growth in the latter measure, but with no significant difference. Also, a significant decrease was found in the number of leukocytes as lactation progressed, whereas the 120th day of lactation showed their increase compared to the 90th day. A similar trend was found out for the content of hemoglobin and hematocrit. The mean volume of red blood cells and a significant proportion of monocytes were declining as lactation advance, while the mean concentration of hemoglobin significantly increased, and in the end of the study significantly decreased, compared to the measurement of 90th day. The above mentioned changes in hematological parameters indicate the quality of recovery and adjustment of goats in lactation.

  11. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  12. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  13. Production systems of Creole goat and their implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Mandonnet, N; Arquet, R; de la Chevrotière, C; Naves, M; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G

    2010-12-01

    The Creole goat is a local meat breed well adapted to the tropical environment of Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean. A survey of 47 goat farmers was conducted in May 2008 to describe the Guadeloupean goat farming systems. It was the preliminary step for the implementation of a breeding programme for Creole goats. Farmers had 31 does on average. A small number (4%) kept only Creole goats. Most of them (62%) had a mixed herd of Creole and crossbreds. One-third of them (34%) reared only crossbred goats. Farmers appreciate the rusticity and resistance of the Creole goat but consider its growth as too slow. The most desired traits for goat selection were conformation and growth for males (77% of the answers). These traits were also important for females (30% of the answers). Maternal qualities were also frequently cited (maternal behaviour 23%, reproduction 20% and milk production 17%). Disease resistance was not seen as an important trait (10% and 7% of the answers for bucks and does, respectively). A typology constituted of five groups of farmers was also created. Farmers of three groups were retained to participate at a selection programme. They kept Creole goats and have expressed a strong willingness to join a selection programme. The results of the survey suggest that a breeding programme should mostly focus on the Creole goat as a maternal breed. Real consideration should be given to disease resistance. The Creole goat has indeed a key role to play in the sustainability of local farming systems.

  14. Titres of Specific Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Goats and their Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Mišurová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to perform repeated determination of specific antibody levels in mothers and their kids in order to assess indirectly the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis in goats. Twenty-eight goats with their kids were included in the study. The following variables were assessed: number of born kids in relation to antibody titres of goats; levels of specific antibodies in the blood of goats and kids; and concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig, total protein (TP and total globulins (G in order to define the end of colostral immunity and the start of active production of antibodies in kids under 69 days of age. Specific antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in goats were detected by IFAT in titres ranging from 0 to 1 280. Out of a total of 28 animals, 5 goats were negative (17.9% and 23 goats were seropositive (82.1%. The goats delivered 42 kids. A total ratio of number of kids to number of mothers was 1.5. Partial evaluation of results in goats without positive titre against T. gondii before parturition and goats with positive titre showed that negative goats tended to have more kids (p p < 0.01 of monitored non-specific immunity indicators. During this period, we observed increased titres of specific antibodies against toxoplasmosis in 20 kids (5 kids 41 days old, 5 kids 55 days old, and 10 kids 69 days old and thus we could assume the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis.

  15. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  16. Incidence and Pattern of Pneumonia in Goats Slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of pneumonia, in slaughtered goats in Kumasi abattoir, Ghana. One thousand three hundred and fifty lungs of goats; (1,012 Sahelian and 338 West Africa Dwarf goats (WAD) lungs) of different ages (less than a year to above 4 years) were used in this study.

  17. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  18. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  19. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  20. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

    2008-04-01

    A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and

  2. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Income analysis of goat farmers on the farmers group in district of Serdang Bedagai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, J. N.; Hasnudi; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The farmers group are expected to reduce the production cost of goat breeding and improve the income of farmers which impact on the welfare of goat farmers. This research aim to analyze the factors that influence the income of farmers group, in sub-district Dolok Masihul Pegajahan, and Dolok Merawan, Serdang Bedagai. The method used is survey method with 90 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression. The result showed, simultaneously goat cost, sale price of goat, fixed cost and variable cost had significant effect on income of goat farmers. Partially, goat cost, variable cost and sale price of goat had significant effect on income of goat farmers, while fixed cost had no significant effect.

  4. Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression of their male kids in Taihang Black Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Duan, Yunli; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yue, Wenbin; Lei, Fulin

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters. Testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR. Localization and quantification of androgen receptor (AR) in testis of goats were determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The results show that Se supplementation in the diet of dams led to higher (p kids. Excessive Se (4.0 mg/kg) can inhibit the development of testis by decreasing testicular weight and volume. The density of spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the Se treatment groups was significantly (p kids by modulating testosterone synthesis in goats. More attention should be given to the potential role of maternal nutrition in improving reproductive performance of their offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  6. Productive and Reproductive Performances of Female Etawah Crossbred Goats in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Etawah Crossbred (PE goat is considered to be dual purpose (meat and milk goat, it is mainly raised for meat production. Since early 1990, there has been a growing interest of the farmer in some places to raise PE goat for milk production without sacrificing its role to produce kids for meat. The average birth weight of PE kids varied widely (2.8 – 5 kg, resulted in a high variation in weaning weight (9 – 14 kg. A high pre-weaning mortality of 10 – 50% was a major source of lost in goat production in Indonesia, partly due to low birth weight and/or miss mothering ability. Young female PE goat reached puberty at 8 – 12 months of age and at body weight of about 18 – 22 kg or about 53 – 60% of mature body weight. Gestation length varied between 142 – 156 days, and first post partum estrous occurred at 3 – 5 months after parturition took place, resulted in 8 – 10 months of kidding intervals. Lactation period lasted for 5 – 8 months with total milk yield of 177 – 203 kg/lactation (average 0.85 kg/day. Although milk yield of PE goat was not as high as milk yield of some other dairy goats, the ability of PE goat to cope with harsh local environment, particularly climate and feed conditions, was an advantage. Therefore, raising PE goat would still be an important part of farmer activities in the rural areas in Indonesia.

  7. Generation of beta-lactoglobulin knock-out goats using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhou

    Full Text Available Goat's milk, considered a substitute for cow's milk, has a high nutritional value. However, goat's milk contains various allergens, predominantly β-lactoglobulin (BLG. In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the BLG locus in goat fibroblasts for sgRNA optimization and generate BLG knock-out goats through co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and small guide RNAs (sgRNAs into goat embryos at the one-cell stage. We firstly tested sgRNA editing efficiencies in goat fibroblast cells, and approximately 8.00%-9.09% of the cells were modified in single sgRNA-guided targeting experiment. Among the kids, the genome-targeting efficiencies of single sgRNA were 12.5% (10 ng/μL sg1 and 0% (10 ng/μL sg2 and efficiencies of dual sgRNAs were 25.0% (25 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group and 28.6% (50 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group. Relative expression of BLG in BLG knock-out goat mammary glands significantly (p < 0.01 decreased as well as other milk protein coding genes, such as CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA (p < 0.05. As expected, BLG protein had been abolished in the milk of the BLG knock-out goat. In addition, most of the targeted kids were chimeric (3/4, and their various body tissues were edited simultaneously. Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research.

  8. Dataset: Multi Sensor-Orientation Movement Data of Goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    This is a labeled dataset. Motion data were collected from six sensor nodes that were fixed with different orientations to a collar around the neck of goats. These six sensor nodes simultaneously, with different orientations, recorded various activities performed by the goat. We recorded the

  9. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  10. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  11. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fisher; Richard Stock; David A. Mangione; Larry A. Nye

    2009-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaught...

  12. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Mark L.; Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including s...

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  14. Morphometric and Phylogenic Analysis of Six Population Indonesian Local Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batubara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to characterize morphometric and genetic distance between populations of Indonesian local goats. The morphological discriminant and canonical analysis were carried out to estimate the phylogenic relationship and determine the discriminant variable between Benggala goats (n= 96, Marica (n= 60, Jawarandu (n= 94, (Kacang (n= 217, Muara (n= 30 and Samosir (n= 42. Discriminant analysis used to clasify body weight and body measurements. In the analysis of variance showed that body weight and body measurement (body length, height at withers, thorax width, thorax height, hert girth, skull width and height, tail length and width, ear length and width of Muara goats was higher (P<0.05 compared to the other groups, and the lowest was in Marica goats. The smallest genetic distance was between Marica and Samosir (11.207 and the highest were between Muara and Benggala (255.110. The highest similarity between individual within population was found in Kacang (99.28% and the lowest in Samosir (82.50%. The canonical analysis showed high correlation on canon circumference, body weight, skull width, skull height, and tail width variables so these six variables can be used as distinguishing variables among population. The result from Mahalonobis distance for phenogram tree and canonical analysis showed that six populations of Indonesian local goats were divided into six breed of goats: the first was Muara, the second was Jawarandu, the third was Kacang, the fourth was Benggala, the fifth was Samosir and the sixth was Marica goats. The diversity of body size and body weight of goats was observed quite large, so the chances of increasing productivity could be made through selection and mating programs.

  15. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Domínguez-Bello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M, tet(S, tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O and tet(W, but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q. Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota.

  16. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  17. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  18. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (pgoats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (pfarm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (pgoat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  20. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  1. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO GOAT PRODUCERS IN BRAZIL – CAPRITEC EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Cândido Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capritec is a company devoted to dissemination of technology in the form of courses, consulting, lectures and events for producers, students and technicians involved with goat production. Capritec headquarters are located in Espírito Santo do Pinhal, in the state of São Paulo, in Southeastern Brazil. In the state of São Paulo, dairy goat production is well developed. Meat goat production is more modest, but has increased steadily in recent years. The main objective of Capritec is to transfer technology a to enable interested producers, students, technicians and entrepreneurs to invest in goat production, b to give them the necessary tools to avoid business failures in these enterprises and c to contribute to the development of Brazil goat production. The company’s owners and collaborators have extensive experience with goats in the areas of animal production, reproduction and food processing. Between 2003 and 2006, 58 extension courses were offered, attended by 422 participants. The courses themes were goat production for beginners (4 courses, meat goat  production (9 courses, dairy goat production (5 courses, goat milk processing into cheese (12 courses, yoghurt, ice cream and sweets from goat milk (1 course, cosmetics from goat milk (2 courses, artificial insemination (7 courses, ultrasonography (2 courses, semen quality examination and fresh semen processing (2 courses, general handling practices (7 courses, preparation and economical evaluation of projects (6 courses, and goat health (2 courses. Courses emphasize practical hands-on activities and are taught in small groups. Women were in the minority, accounting for 23.51% of course participants, whereas men accounted for 71.49%. Between 2003 and 2006, 4 extension workshops were organized, attended by 826 participants. After each event, the participants were invited to answer a questionnaire, to mention the strengths and weaknesses of the course, and to score and give

  2. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author) 68 refs. , 3 tabs. , 2 figs.

  3. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  4. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  5. Transcervical embryo recovery in Saanen goats | Lima-Verde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the embryo recovery rate using the transcervical technique in Saanen goats raised in the tropics, 20 donors were submitted to an oestrus synchronisation treatment using intravaginal progestagen sponges for 11 days. On the ninth day of treatment, goats received intramuscular injections of 50 µg ...

  6. Physiological and haematological indices of two Nigerian goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing an indigenous or exotic breed to unfamiliar environment paves way for livestock improvement. This study examined the physiological and haematological indices of 24Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) goats reared under uniform condition in Ilorin, to determine adaptability of RS goats over a ...

  7. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 thousand heads in 2009. Sheep/goat ratio changed from 14/1 in 1990 to 9.96/1 in 2009, in the advantage of goats. Sheep and goats are mainly grown in Central, North-Eastern and South-Western Romania. Mutton and goat meat production accounted for 1,443 thousand tons in 2009, being by 40 % lower than in 1990  because of  livestock  decline.  About 23 % mutton and sheep meat is produced in the South-Eastern Romania, 18 % in the Central part and 14 % in North-East. The share of mutton and goat meat declined from 8.38 % in 1990 to 7.21 % in 2009 in total meat production in the country. As a conclusion,  mutton  and goat meat market registered a decline during the last decades, in favour of pork and poultry meat.

  8. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf goats of Ogun State II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf (WAD) goat presents variable coat colours, ranging from black, brown, gray, red and white and sometimes combinations of these variety of patterns. In this study, strains of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the chocolate, white ...

  9. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid a in subacute ruminal acidosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.D. González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal acidosis is a frequent disorder that occurs in goats as a consequence of feedingmistakes in animals not adapted to a diet of easily fermentable carbohydrates. The subacuteform of the disease is difficult to diagnose because no apparent signs are shownand the acid-base parameters may remain within the normal range. The present studyaimed at testing the hypothesis that haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA,the two major acute phase proteins in ruminants, may be useful as markers of subacuteacidosis in goats.A subacute acidosis was induced in six Murciano-Granadina goats through a diet of60% mixed feed-40% alfalfa hay offered during 5 days to goats not adapted to eatmixed feed. Two goats were rumen-fistulated to investigate the effect of feeding onruminal pH. Sampling of blood and urine of all animals was done before the inductionof the acidosis, during 5 days after the onset of induction and for 18 days after theinduction (recovery period.Ruminal pH in the fistulated goats dropped to less than 5.5 during the inductionperiod, and half of the goats had diarrhea on the third day after the induction of acidosis.Acid-base parameters showed that the acid-base compensatory mechanisms wereefficient in maintaining the equilibrium. Serum Hp had a moderate increase duringthe induction period, while SAA did not change. These results suggest that Hp mightbe a potential marker for ruminal acidosis in goats.

  10. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  11. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gül

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greatest slacks were in feedstuff concentrates and labour used. The most significant factors affecting efficiency of goat production were farmer experience, cooperative membership, milk yield per goat, and family and hired labour. Technical efficiency should be improved by providing farmers with well-organised education, an extension program, and research and development programs on goat rearing.

  12. First genotyping of Blastocystis sp. in dairy, meat, and cashmere goats in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ke; Yin, Yan-Ling; Yuan, Ya-Jie; Tang, Huan; Ren, Guan-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Li, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Blastocystis is one of the most common parasites inhabiting in small intestines of human and animals. Although its pathogenicity has been remaining controversial, the possibility of zoonotic transmission between human and animals was recognized. The goat was one of the most important economic animals supplying people with cashmere, meat, and dairy products. However, few studies were to investigate Blastocystis infection in goats. A total of 789 faecal specimens of goats (including 362 of dairy, 193 of meat and 234 of cashmere goats) were collected from multiple regions of Shaanxi province in northwestern China to investigate the colonization frequency and subtypes of Blastocystis, and to assess the zoonotic potential of these goats. The respective colonization frequencies of Blastocystis in dairy, meat and cashmere goats were 54.1% (196/362), 40.4% (78/193) and 78.6% (184/234). The prevalence of Blastocystis in pre-weaned (0-2-month) goats was significantly lower than that in goats of other age groups, and the highest colonization was observed in goats of 7-11-month age group. Sequence analysis of Blastocystis positive samples indicated the presence of seven subtypes in these goats, including six known subtypes (STs1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14) and one possible novel subtype (isolate Sd26), with the subtype 10 as the predominant one. Additionally, zoonotic subtypes were found in dairy (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and cashmere (ST4 and ST5) goats, but not detected in meat goats. These results showed that Blastocystis is highly prevalent, widely distributed and genetically diverse in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, and zoonotic potential of dairy and cashmere goats to transmit Blastocystis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-11-24

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits.

  14. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  15. Smallholder goat farmers' market participation in Choma District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increases in demand for animal products smallholder goat producers have an opportunity to improve their livelihoods by increased market access and market participation. Thus this study was carried out to identify the live goat chain actors, their role, linkages, power relations and practices in the supply chain; ...

  16. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  17. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P goat meat compared with the control groups (P meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  18. Goat for Azazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The rite included in Leviticus 16 belongs to penitential rites of purification. It may be a reminiscence of antic religious medical-magic rites, practiced in multiple regions of ancient world. The rites contained the idea of substitution, “magic elimination.” Sending the goat represents rejection of anything that should not and can not exist among the people of Israel. The desert as an “infertile” place, the theological idea of separating the good from the evil as well as the ancient idea of substitution point at the theology of penance expressed in the rite of separation. The text of Leviticus 16 applies the term sa‘ir for the goat. The same term is also applied in priestly text to describe demons relating to the misshapen form of Israel religion. There is an undoubted connection with the idea of Convenant that constitutes the basic background and point of reference for the rite of Leviticus 16.

  19. Laparoscopic ovarian biopsy pick-up method for goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fabiana A S; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Souza, Samara S; Silva, Yago P; Freitas, Vicente J F; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2018-02-01

    Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, goat ovaries (n = 20) were collected in a slaughterhouse and subjected to in situ BPU. Three needles (16, 18, and 20G) were tested. In Experiment 2, the most efficient biopsy needle from Experiment 1 was used to perform laparoscopic BPU in goats (n = 8). In Experiment 1, the recovery rate was greater (P rate). Overall, 2054 preantral follicles were recorded in 5882 histological sections analyzed. Mean preantral follicular density was 28.4 ± 1.3 follicles per cm 2 . The follicular density differed (P rate in goats. Furthermore, this study described for the first time that goat ovarian biopsy fragments have a high heterogeneity in follicular density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  1. Water requirements and metabolism of Egyptian sheep and goats as affected by breed, season and physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, G.A.; El-Nouty, F.D.; Salem, M.H.; Latif, M.G.; Badawy, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t 1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T 3 and T 4 , and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Antimicrobial residues screening in pigs and goats slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Samples of tissues/organs from pigs and goats slaughtered at the Nsukka. Municipal abattoir .... Pig and goat farming are the major food producing livestock farming in ... Northern part of Nigeria and locally reared West African.

  3. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf Goats of Ogun State I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of West African Dwarf goat is an approach to a sustainable use of its great potentials. In this study, strains of WAD goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the gold (brown), black, buckskin and chaimose of ages 1, 2, 3 and 4 years,raised under extensive system of ...

  4. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  5. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  6. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  7. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  8. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  9. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  10. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  11. Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses.Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A goats with Damascus(D was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1, weaning to 6 months (D2 and from birth to 6 months of age (D3 were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program.Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01 effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01 birth and weaning weights, but ½D½A group kids had a higher (P<0.01 body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01 and D3 (P<0.05 periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01 than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01 than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01 heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth

  12. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  13. Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods: A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results: Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G1 4 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions: The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

  14. A retrospective study of the inheritance of peromelia in Angora goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Kielsgaard, M.E.; Pedersen, Jan W.

    1997-01-01

    in Angora goats, breeding results for goats being daughters of known carriers and which were then mated to a known carrier were analysed. Of 45 kids born in 1993 and 1994, five kids had peromelia. This corresponded to the expected 7:1 segregation. The difference between the number of affected male...... and female kids was not statistically significant. Peromelia affected kids occurred significantly more frequently among goats selected in the breeding study than among other goats in the respective herds. The study demonstrated that peromelia is inherited as an autosomal recessive defect. Based on knowledge......Peromelia, agenesia of the distal parts of the limbs, has been reported as a congenital defect in several animal species. In Angora goats, cases occur in a familiar pattern consistent with an autosomal recessively inherited defect. To obtain further evidence on the inheritance of peromelia...

  15. Fate and metabolism of radiolabelled insecticide Coumaphos in egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.Z.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Hazzaa, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    Our study was initiated to determine the residues of 14 C-coumaphos and its metabolites which might appear in milk, meat and other different organs of lactating goats subjected to coumaphos treatment. 14 C-coumaohos (Asunto) was synthesized and applied dermally on two lactating goats. Two equal dermal applications, with 2 weeks interval, were applied on each goat. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results indicate that coumaphos has a slow absorption rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. After the withdrawal period, liver, kidney, skin and subcutaneous fat were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other different organs and milk. Thin layer chromatography showed the presence of coumaphos, its oxygen analogue, and two unknown metabolites.3 fig.,2 tab

  16. Ultrasonographic findings in goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd

    2017-08-22

    In goats, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a cause of major economic losses in Africa, Asia and in the Middle East. There is no information emphasising the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in goats with CCPP caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). This study was designed to describe the ultrasonographic findings in goats with CCPP caused by Mccp and to correlate ultrasonographic with post-mortem findings. To this end, 55 goats with CCPP were examined. Twenty-five healthy adult goats were used as a control group. Major clinical findings included harried, painful respiration, dyspnoea and mouth breathing. On ultrasonography, a liver-like echotexture was imaged in 13 goats. Upon post-mortem examination, all 13 goats exhibited unilateral pulmonary consolidation. Seven goats had a unilateral hypoechoic pleural effusion. At necropsy, the related lung was consolidated and the pleural fluid appeared turbid and greenish. Pleural abscessiation detected in five goats was confirmed post-mortem. Twenty-eight goats had a bright, fibrinous matrix extending over the chest wall containing numerous anechoic fluid pockets with medial displacement and compression of lung tissue. Echogenic tags imaged floating in the fluid were found upon post-mortem examination to be fibrin. In two goats, a consolidated right parenchyma was imaged together with hypoechoic pericardial effusions with echogenic tags covering the epicardium. At necropsy, the right lung was consolidated in three goats and fibrin threads were found covering the epicardium and pericardium. In goats with CCPP, the extension and the severity of the pulmonary changes could not be verified with clinical certainty in most cases, whereas this was possible most of the time with sonography, thus making the prognosis easier. Ultrasonographic examination of the pleurae and the lungs helped in the detection of various lesions.

  17. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Terrill, T H; Kallu, R R; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats.

  18. ISOLATION, MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GOAT MILK CASEIN AND ITS FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ahmed Salem

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern of goats´ milk has a unique pattern compared to those of cow and human milk. β-casein is the major fraction and comprises 70.2% of total goat-milk caseins, while αs- is a minor fraction (29.85 %. This pattern is similar to that of human casein but different to that of cow casein. Purified casein fractions of goat milk showed different electrophoretic migration compared to those of bovine milk. The corresponding Mr(s of goat αs- and β-casein were estimated at 30.2 for αs and 26.6 & 23.9 for β1 and β2 versus 32.6 and 26.6 for bovine αs- and β-casein, respectively. The amino acid composition of goat-milk whole casein appeared to be similar to those of cow, sheep and camel caseins. Meanwhile, goat casein has the satisfactory balance of essential amino acids equal to or exceeding the FAO/ WHO/ UNU requirements for each amino acid. Goat αs-casein was characterized by the presence of higher contents of both acidic and basic amino acids than β-casein. Peptide mapping profiles of goat, cow and human caseins were completely different. This means that each protein has its own unique peptide mapping.

  19. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  20. Analysis of Income Distribution among Goat Farmer Households in Banjarnegara District, Central Java Province Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Sugiarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the structure of household’s income of goat farmer and analyze the distribution of goat farmer household’s income in Banjarnegara. For this analysis, Banjarnegara district was divided into three agro ecological zones on the basis of altitude, i.e. low, medium and high land. 180 goat farmers were selected using multistage sampling and data were measured using descriptive statistic and Gini Coefficient. The study concluded that goat farming as a side job contributed 29% of total household income. The income from non-goat farming remain dominating a structure of household income by 71%. There was a high inequality household income among goat farmers with Gini Coefficient of 0.562. The high level of total income inequality was due to a greater relative inequality in non-goat farming income. Since there was a relationship between farm size and income, increasing the number of goats must be actualized to the goat farmers with no other livelihood. This would be able to reduce inequality of total income of goat farmers.

  1. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  2. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  3. Characteristics of non-cerebral coenurosis in tropical goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G

    2015-07-30

    The epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical profile of non-cerebral coenurosis in goats and the morphological characteristics of the responsible metacestodes (cysts) were examined in a cross-sectional survey of slaughtered goats in abattoirs of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) originating from Abu Dhabi and various tropical countries. The age, country of origin, and location of each cyst in the body of goats were recorded. Blood samples collected from infected and matching healthy goats were subjected to biochemical analysis. Data on the morphological characteristics of the cysts as well as the clusters, scoleces, and rostellar hooks in one cyst from each affected carcass were collected. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 2,284 slaughtered goats were examined and 40 goats were diagnosed as infected with non-cerebral coenurus cysts. The prevalence of non-cerebral coenurosis was 1.75% and the degree of parasite aggregation (k) was 0.003, which is indicative of overdispersion (kgoats were palpation of large single cysts in thigh muscles and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value. A total of 76 non-cerebral coenurus cysts from 14 different body locations were collected. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord. Cysts located in psoas muscles had on average significantly bigger volumes and higher numbers of scoleces and clusters compared to cysts located in other body parts (P-value=0.000). Significant differences in the morphometric measurements of the rostellar hooks were observed between cysts found in goats from different countries of origin (P-value5; R-Sq=89.4%; P-value=0.000) and between number of clusters and number of scoleces (b=25.13>1; R-Sq=79.8%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a positive allometric growth as well as between number of clusters and volume of cysts (b=0.25<0.5; R-Sq=69.4%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a negative allometric growth. The biological significance of the

  4. Observation of physiological changes after Detomidine administration in Pateri goat

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Tunio; Shamasuddin Bughio; Jam Kashif Sahito; Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Shazia Parveen Tunio

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of detomidine on Pateri goats. A total of six female Pateri goats were randomly treated with three different dose rates of Detomidine at 40 μg, 50 μg and 60 μg/kg body weights. The effects of Detomidine on respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature and serum glucose level were investigated. Following detomidine intravenous administration in goats, it produced dose dependent effect on physiological parameters. Respirato...

  5. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  6. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011–2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanidtha Te-Chaniyom

    2016-12-01

    Several goat farming management practices in the study area may increase the risk of Brucella infection in animals. Livestock officers in the area have a high risk of being infected with Brucella. Improving goat farm biosecurity practices in needed to reduce the risk of brucellosis in this area.

  7. INFLUENCE OF PREGNANCY AND LACTATION ON GLUCOSE METABOLISM OF NUBIAN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chávez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two in vivo metabolic challenges were conducted to assess the changes in glucose metabolism during three intervals prepartum (-6, -4, -2 weeks and three postpartum (+2, +4, +6 weeks in six multiparous pregnant Nubian goats. Challenges consisted of intravenous administration of 1 glucose (62.5 g/goat and 2 L-epinephrine (0.7 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected via jugular cannula from 30 min pre-injection (basal concentrations to four hours post-injection. Response variables for glucose challenge were glucose concentration at zero time (to glucose disappearance rate (t½, insulin and NEFA concentrations; for the epinephrine challenge glucose, NEFA and insulin integrated responses were determined through the four hours of sampling. Data were analyzed according to a repeated-measures design. Dry matter intakes (1.8±0.07 kg/d were not different throughout the study (P>0.1. Average milk production (649±69 g/d was not different among periods (P>0.1. Basal glucose and insulin concentrations were not different (P>0.1 between pregnancy and lactation, with means (± standard error of 77.9±3.7mg/dl, and 0.264±.034ng/dl, respectively. Basal NEFA concentrations were greater (P0.1 and for t½ of 31±15 min (P>0.1. Insulin responses were similar for all periods (63.3±8.2 ngml-1min (P>0.1. The epinephrine challenge resulted in similar changes in glucose and insulin integrated responses throughout the periods evaluated (P>0.1, with corresponding means for glucose of 3886.5±318 mgml-1min, and 21.6±7.7 ngml-1min, but elicited a significant (P

  8. The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species, both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications, and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Char...

  9. Prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in goats slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Tuberculosis in goat and sheep is caused by members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex predominantly. Mycobacterium bovis and. Mycobacterium caprae (Crawshaw et al., 2008) and in some cases by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Cadmus et al., 2009). In goats, the disease normally spread through ...

  10. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems…

  11. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Improvement of meat quality evaluation by ultrasound in Carpathian goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lazar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In goat, the evaluation of carcass quality was mainly done by using the classical method of animal slaughtering. This paper proposes a non-invasive method for goat carcass estimation, very efficient and easy to use, without sacrificing and able to keep the animals for reproduction: ultrasound method. In the present study, the following parameters were measured by ultrasound method: fat layer, muscle depth, eye muscle area, eye muscle perimeter in Longissimus Dorssi, between two measurements point (12th rib and between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebra. Young goats (33.65kg, BW, 9 months of age, and adult female goats (35.99 kg BW, were used. In young goat, fat layer (1.86, 1.94 mm, muscle depth (18.97, 17.34 mm, eye muscle area (8.18, 8.25 cm2 and eye muscle perimeter (123.93, 125.06 mm was similar with those founded in other goat breeds. Very high correlations were found between body weight and ultrasound parameters for muscle depth (0.81, 0.61 and eye muscle area (0.74, 0.67 in young goats. In adults, the ultrasound measurements showed 1.99, 2.04 mm for fat, 19.96, 19.26 mm for muscle depth and 9.02 and 9.17 cm2 for eye muscle area. High correlations were found also for adult goats for the same parameters, body weight and ultrasound for muscle depth (0.61, 0.63 and eye muscle area (0.45, 0.41. In the second phase of this study correlations with carcass derived from slaughtered animals will be carried out.

  13. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... with ≥10 female goats (N=132) according to the Central Husbandry Register, were invited to participate. Of these, 25 herds each submitted faecal samples, collected approximately 1 month after turn out, from 4‐12 kids born earlier the same year. During May‐July, a total of 232 samples were examined using...

  15. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  16. 'Goats that stare at men'--revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Being able to recognise when one is being observed by someone else is thought to be adaptive during cooperative or competitive events. In particular for prey species, this ability should be of use in the context of predation. A previous study reported that goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) alter their behaviour according to the body and head orientation of a human experimenter. During a food anticipation task, an experimenter remained in a particular posture for 30 s before delivering a reward, and the goats' active anticipation and standing alert behaviour were analysed. To further evaluate the specific mechanisms at work, we here present two additional test conditions. In particular, we investigated the effects of the eye visibility and head orientation of a human experimenter on the behaviour of the goats (N = 7). We found that the level of the subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the conditions where the experimenter was directing his head and body towards the goat ('Control' and 'Eyes closed' conditions), but the anticipatory behaviour was significantly decreased when the body ('Head only') or the head and body of the experimenter were directed away from the subject ('Back' condition). For standing alert, we found no significant differences between the three conditions in which the experimenter was directing his head towards the subject ('Control', 'Eyes closed' and 'Head only'). This lack of differences in the expression of standing alert suggests that goats evaluate the direction of a human's head as an important cue in their anticipatory behaviour. However, goats did not respond to the visibility of the experimenter's eyes alone.

  17. Prevalence of Strongyle ova in Goats and comparative studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... Keywords: Goats, Strongyle ova, Faecal Culture Techniques, Prevalence,. The Nigerian goat ... km located in the North eastern corner of Nigeria ... teaching and research farm, Maiduguri metropolitan ... West African Dwarf. 5.

  18. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  19. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  20. A survey of goat production in the developing areas of the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    kidding rate, fecundity, herd health care, herd management, live weight and withers height, coat color, skin condition ... were collected on breed and type of goat, reasons for keeping goats, health care, management, fertility, fecundity, sex, mature ... The main reasons given for keeping goats were for milk, meat and social ...

  1. Leather quality of some Sudan desert sheep and goats

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    Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial is aimed to study leather properties that produced from Sudan Desert sheep and goats in relation to breed type and age category. Thirty pieces of fresh sheep and goats skins were collected randomly (15 for each during January 2015. The collected skins were tanned and the produced leather properties were studied. The Statistix 8 program for variance analysis was used for data analysis. The study samples were taken according to the Complete Randomized Design. Sheep leather results revealed that, lamb's skin was significantly (P ≥ 0.05 produced better quality leather than ram's and ewe's skins in elongation (%, tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, thickness (mm, tear load (kg/cm, flexibility and moisture%. While it was yielded leather with the same characteristics to ram's and ewe's leather in Ash (%, fat (% and chrome (%. Leather properties [elongation (%, tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, tear load (kg/cm, flexibility and Ash (%] were significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed variation. On the other hand thickness (mm, moisture (%, fat (% and chrome (% were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed. Ram's skin was produced better quality leather than ewe's skins. Goat's leather results revealed that, kid goat's skin was significantly (P ≥ 0.05 produced better quality leather than bucks and doe's skin in tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, thickness (mm, tear load (kg/cm and flexibility degree. But kids and buck's skins were produced the same quality leather in elongation % and moisture% with significant variation (P ≥ 0.05 to doe's leather. Kid's skin yields leather with the same characteristics to buck's and doe's leather in Ash (%, fat (% and chrome (%. Generally Desert goats produce slightly better quality leather than Nubian goats. Leather prosperities [cracking load (kg, tear load (kg/cm, and Ash (%] were significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed variation. Elongation (%, tensile

  2. Genetic, histochemical and biochemical studies on goat TSE cases from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Susanne; Eiden, Martin; Toumazos, Pavlos; Papasavva-Stylianou, Penelope; Ioannou, Ioannis; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Panagiotidis, Cynthia; Langeveld, Jan; Bossers, Alex; Kuczius, Thorsten; Kaatz, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Fast, Christine

    2016-10-06

    Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. In total 42 goats from 20 flocks were necropsied from which 25 goats showed a positive result in the rapid test, a spongiform encephalopathy and an accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the obex. PrP Sc deposits were demonstrated in the placenta, peripheral nervous and lymphoreticular system. Two animals showed PrP Sc -accumulations in peripheral tissues only. By discriminatory immunoblots a scrapie infection could be confirmed for all cases. Nevertheless, slight deviations in the glycosylation pattern might indicate the presence of different scrapie strains. Furthermore scrapie samples from goats in the current study demonstrated less long term resistance to proteinase K than ovine or caprine BSE control samples. Reduced scrapie susceptibility according to the PRNP genotype was demonstrated (Fishers Exact test, p goats with at least one polymorphism (p = 0.023) at the six codons examined and in particular for those with polymorphisms at codon 146 (p = 0.016). This work characterizes scrapie in goats having implications for breeding and surveillance strategies.

  3. An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus genome

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    Casadio Rita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goat (Capra hircus represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat, with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs: on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome. These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the

  4. Kudzu -- Goat Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Mount

    1994-01-01

    Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...

  5. Carcass Characteristics of the Libyan Purebred Mahali Goat and their Crosses with Damascus and Morcia Granada Goats

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    Abdelkareem E. Ahtash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the carcass characteristics of Mahali (M, Damascus (D and Morcia Granada (G goats and their crosses. Live weight, carcass weight, dressing-out %, rib eye muscle area, non-carcass components and kidney fat were measured. The results showed significant superiority of Damascus goats in live weight (65.8 kg, carcass weight (34.3 kg, dressing-out %( 52.1%, rib eye muscle areas (22.7 cm² over the Mahali and Morcia Granada goats. The crossbred group (1/2 M ҳ 1/2 D was superior in live weight (50 kg, carcass weight (24.2kg, dressing-out %( 48.4%, and rib eye muscle area (21.2cm² over other crossbreds. The crossbred group (3⁄4D ҳ 1⁄4M was superior in live weight (61.7kg, carcass weight (31 kg and rib eye muscle area (21.3cm² over the other 3⁄4 crossbreds. This study indicated that crossing between Mahali ҳ Damascus breed was beneficial for increasing live weight, carcass weight and meat production.

  6. Development of conditioned taste aversion to Mascagnia rigida in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Raquel Ribeiro; Silva,Idalécio Pacífico da; Soto-Blanco,Benito

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether goats could be averted from consuming Mascagnia rigida, a toxic plant found in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Fourteen male goats not previously familiarized to M. rigida were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: control (treated with 5.5mL water orally by a drenching gun) and lithium group (treated with 100mg LiCl/kg body weight orally by a drenching gun). For conditioning, goats were allowed to feed on M. rigida leaves for 1...

  7. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  8. Design and characterization of a 52K SNP chip for goats.

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    Gwenola Tosser-Klopp

    Full Text Available The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed: Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes, sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years.

  9. Endogenous ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) acylates local ghrelin in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtuza, Mohammad I; Isokawa, Masako

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating peptide. Serine 3 on ghrelin must be acylated by octanoate via the enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) for the peptide to bind and activate the cognate receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR1a). Interest in GHSR1a increased dramatically when GHSR1a mRNA was demonstrated to be widespread in the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, indicating that it has multifaceted functions beyond the regulation of metabolism. However, the source of octanoylated ghrelin for GHSR1a in the brain, outside of the hypothalamus, is not well understood. Here, we report the presence of GOAT and its ability to acylate non-octanoylated ghrelin in the hippocampus. GOAT immunoreactivity is aggregated at the base of the dentate granule cell layer in the rat and wild-type mouse. This immunoreactivity was not affected by the pharmacological inhibition of GHSR1a or the metabolic state-dependent fluctuation of systemic ghrelin levels. However, it was absent in the GHSR1a knockout mouse hippocampus, pointing the possibility that the expression of GHSR1a may be a prerequisite for the production of GOAT. Application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated non-octanoylated ghrelin in live hippocampal slice culture (but not in fixed culture or in the presence of GOAT inhibitors) mimicked the binding profile of FITC-conjugated octanoylated ghrelin, suggesting that extracellularly applied non-octanoylated ghrelin was acylated by endogenous GOAT in the live hippocampus while GOAT being mobilized out of neurons. Our results will advance the understanding for the role of endogenous GOAT in the hippocampus and facilitate the search for the source of ghrelin that is intrinsic to the brain. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Tropical plant supplementation effects on the performance and parasite burden of goats.

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    Romero, Juan J; Zarate, Miguel A; Ogunade, Ibukun M; Arriola, Kathy G; Adesogan, Adegbola T

    2018-02-01

    Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean ( Mucuna pruriens L.; MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. In Experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4±5.7 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: i) BG alone and BG plus; ii) PEA; iii) LES; iv) MUC; and v) PAP. Goats were fed for ad libitum consumption and adapted to the diets for 14 d followed by 7 d of measurement. The PEA, LES, MUC (50%, 50%, and 10% of the diet dry matter [DM], respectively), and PAP (forced-fed at 10 g/d) were fed at rates that would elicit anthelmintic effects. In Experiment 2, goats remained in the same treatments but were allocated to 15 pens (3 pens per treatment) from d 22 to 63. All goats were infected with parasites by grazing an infected bahiagrass pasture from 0800 to 1500 h daily and then returned to the pens. Dry matter intake tended to be greater in goats fed PEA and LES than those fed BG (757 and 745 vs 612 g/d, respectively). Digestibility of DM (59.5% vs 54.9%) and organic matter (60.8% vs 56.0%) were greater in goats fed MUC vs BG, respectively. In Experiment 2, feeding PAP, LES, and PEA to goats reduced nematode fecal egg counts by 72%, 52%, and 32%, reduced abomasal adult worm counts by 78%, 52%, and 42%, and decreased plasma haptoglobin concentrations by 42%, 40%, and 45% relative to feeding BG alone, respectively. Supplementation with PEA, LES, and PAP decreased the parasite burden of goats but did not increase their performance. PAP was the most effective anthelmintic supplement.

  11. Induction of estrus during the non-breeding season in Egyptian Baladi goats.

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    Medan, Mohamed; Shalaby, Abdel-Hamid; Sharawy, Sayed; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The induction of estrus during the non-breeding season was investigated in 100 Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). All animals assigned to treatments had low progesterone concentrations (Baladi goats using norgestomet and PGF2alpha and the injection of GnRH 24 hr after norgestomet implant removal synchronized ovulation in a higher percentage of goats.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism and genetic variation of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goats, using DNA sequencing technology. Sixty dairy goats (20 Saanes, 20 British Alpine, and 20 Toggenburg) and 20 meat-type goats were sequenced with four primers to distinguish among the seven known ...

  13. Feed intake and behavior of dairy goats when offered an elevated feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Heather W; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M; Zobel, Gosia

    2018-04-01

    Goats are browsers and select vegetation at various heights when foraging. On commercial farms, dairy goats are typically fed from low-level feed bunks. The objective of this study was to determine how feed intake and feeding behavior vary when goats are offered feed at variable heights, with the potential of evaluating the benefits of offering an elevated feeder to dairy goats. Thirteen Saanen X dairy goats were housed in a home pen with a lying area of wood shavings, where they were pre-exposed for 24 d to 3 feeder heights designed to result in differences in head height while feeding: floor level (head lowered relative to body), head level (head level relative to body), and elevated level (head and neck angled upward). Nine groups of 3 goats each were randomly selected and housed for 24 h in a test pen identical to the home pen except that it contained 1 of each of the 3 feeder heights. Each feeder contained ad libitum chopped alfalfa silage and a top-dressed corn-based supplement, refreshed twice daily. Refusals from inside and under each feeder were weighed to calculate intake. Feed intake increased with increasing feeder height (mean ± SE; 0.18, 0.29, and 0.34 ± 0.04 kg of DM/goat for floor-level, head-level, and elevated-level feeders, respectively). Total feeding time did not vary with feeder height, but feeding rate tended to be faster at the elevated-level feeder (14.5 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) compared with head-level (9.2 ± 2.3 g of DM/min) and floor-level (8.9 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) feeders. Goats visited the floor-level feeder (36.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) less than the head-level (79.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) and elevated-level (74.8 ± 8.4 visits/goat) feeders. The number of displacements per minute of feeding time (physical removal of another goat from the feeding place) was greater at the elevated-level feeder (0.46 ± 0.06 displacements/min) compared with the floor-level feeder (0.23 ± 0.06 displacements/min) and tended to differ from the head-level feeder (0

  14. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

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    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  15. A report on the metabolism of iron in goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpuse, W.G.; Yumul, B.Y.; Anden, A.

    1976-03-01

    The determination of iron metabolism in goats artificially infected with N. contortus using tracer method has been conducted. Radioferric chloride ( 59 Fe) was given orally and intravenously and the distribution and utilization in goats were determined. Results showed that anemic goats have a higher absorption rate compared to non-anemic goats. Of all the organs examined the bone marrow showed the highest activity

  16. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

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    Fabrine Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

  17. Reproductive performance of the Saanen goat in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianchen; Duan Enkui; Huang Qunshan; Hao Zhiming; Wu Hao

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive endocrinology of Saanen dairy goats in China was studied during puberty, pregnancy, parturition and different breeding seasons. The effect of controlled release melatonin (CRM) on ovarian function in the non-breeding season was also evaluated. The average pubertal live weight, age and length of the pubertal oestrous cycle were 10.2 kg, 54.7 days and 8.3 days, respectively. The average length of pregnancy was 150.6 days. Diurnal changes of plasma concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, cortisol and progesterone during pregnancy and parturition are described. The breeding season began in the middle of August for adult Saanen goats. No significant differences were observed in 17β-oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in the milk of goats treated with CRM during June in the non-breeding season. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  18. The Production of Goat Milk under Organic Requests

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    Roger Stan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has turned into a very important subject who consists in a food production label and it has become very popular. That is because, especially in the EU the majority of the dairy goat farms want or have already applied the organic farming in order to benefit not only from the good price of milk but also from the given positive image. The main issue of this study is the high production of goat milk using organic farming under specific regulations. Therefore, the organic farming is based on a safe environment, 100% organic feedstuffs, healthy animals (by prevention of diseases, natural mating, reduced stress in animal rearing, modern stables and milking equipment. A few feeding rations were established to improve the quantity and quality of goat milk.

  19. Effects of Male on Reproductive Behavior of Markhoz Female Goats in Breeding Season

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    H. Daghigh Kia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of male on reproductive behavior of female goats, 88 Markhoz breed goats with initial body weight of 42±2kg, 3.5 year old, and 10 male goats were used for 6 weeks. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first experiment 48 female goats were allocated in three groups, each group included eight animals with 2 replicate on both sides of male goats, respectively, at intervals of 0-5, 10-15 and 25-30 meters. In the second experiment, 24 female goats having CIDR were used in an order similar to that of first group. However, the goats were located only in one side of the males. The third group was the control group which was treated in a separate saloon in two groups, each of them having eight animals in it. Results showed a significant effect of male animal in estrus synchronization, the earlier beginning of the reproductive cycle and fertility in the early reproductive season. The first group showed better results in creation and synchronization of estrus in comparison to CIDR received animals (respectively 116.7 vs. 91.6%.

  20. Physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture combined with intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine to provide analgesia in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahir; Hu, Man L; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhou, Fei Y; Zeng, Jie; Wan, Juan; Wang, Shao W; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Ming X

    2016-03-01

    To investigate physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture and dexmedetomidine administration to goats. 30 healthy adult goats. Goats were allotted to 5 groups (6 goats/group) and received electroacupuncture, dexmedetomidine (5 or 20 μg/kg, IM), electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM [control treatment]). Pain threshold, cardiorespiratory effects, rectal temperature, and hematologic and biochemical variables were assessed. Dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg) increased pain threshold and decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Pain threshold of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) was higher than that of goats receiving electroacupuncture or of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes, but did not differ from that of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Compared with goats administered dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg, goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg had a higher heart rate from 30 to 60 minutes and a higher respiratory rate from 5 to 60 minutes. Electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) did not affect rectal temperature. Serum glucose concentrations of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) were higher than for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes but not for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Creatinine and BUN concentrations, alanine or aspartate aminotransferase activities, and hematologic variables of treated goats did not change. Electroacupuncture in combination with a low dose of dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM) administered to goats provided antinociception.

  1. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Mevlüt; Demircan, Vecdi; Yilmaz, Hasan; Yilmaz, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greate...

  2. Grazing Behavior and Itineraries of Kacang Goat with Different Coat Color under Semi Intensive Management

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    Slamet Heri Kiswanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of coat color on behavior and itineraries of kacang goat during grazing time. This research used 9 females and 3 males kacang goat. Behavior observed by one zero sampling method and analyzed using t-Test at level 5%. The result indicated that ingestion and browsing of brown goat (30.91±2.87%; 8.75±3.10% higher than black goat (28.57±2.69%; 6.07±4.78%, while black goat showed more locomotion (33.26±4.50% than brown goat (29.70±4.63%. Grazing, panting, and resting behaviors, and distance traveled of black goat (22.56±2.63%; 4.48±4.02%; 2.34±2.97%; 483.48±133.16 m were not different with brown goat (22.16±2.90%; 4.59±3.71%; 2.64±1.52%; 392.29±81.19 m. Result also  indicated that goat showed more grazing than browsing with high preference in you ng grass than old grass,  legume, and weed.

  3. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  4. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  5. Avaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats with help of thermographic precision in the semiarid brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva E.M.N., Souza B.B., Silva G.A., Alcântara M.D.B., Cunha M.G.G. & Marques B.A.A. [Avaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats with help of thermographic precision in the semiarid brazilian.] Avaliação da adaptabilidade de caprinos leiteiros com auxílio da precisão termográfica no semiárido brasileiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinaria, 36(2:231-237, 2014. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Rodovia Patos-Teixeira, Km 01, Jatobá, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: elisangelamns@yahoo.com.br The present study aimed to evaluate the adaptability of dairy goats with help of thermographic precision in the semiarid brazilian. Thirty-six female goats were used in the study, mean age 2.5 years old and mean weight of 45 kg, all of them pure-bred, lactating and not pregnant, distributed in a completely randomized design, in a factorial outline 2 x 2; two genotypes (Anglo Nubian and Alpine vs two shifts (morning and afternoon with 18 repetitions. Analysis of variance showed that the shift had significant effect (P0.05. Also, there was no significant interaction between breed and shift. Regarding the parameters: respiratory rate (RR and surface temperature of the muzzle of cinnamon there was significant effect of breed and shift and significant interaction between breed and shift (P<0.05. Positive correlations between physiological parameters and room temperature and negative correlation between thermal gradients and more parameters. The Anglo Nubian breed had become more adapted to the semi-arid environmental conditions representing a good alternative for breeding programs. The Alpine breed increased respiratory effort required to dissipate heat and maintain homeothermy, proving to be more demanding regarding system creation and management in the semi-arid climatic conditions.

  6. Fermentation optimization of goat milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum by Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Bao, Chunju; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt) was investigated. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11)×107  cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09)×108  cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06)×109  cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.

  7. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  8. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  9. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  10. Consumer Willingness to Pay a Premium for Halal Goat Meat: A Case from Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The growth in goat meat demand is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. This Paper examines the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat. The factors that significantly impact the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat in Atlanta include income, current consumption, household size, and marital status. Results suggest that the mean willingness to pay a premium for the halal attribute is 50 cents per pound of goat meat.

  11. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of furazolidone, sulfadimidine and amprolium to treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avais, Muhammad; Rashid, Ghazanfar; Ijaz, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Nasir, Amar; Jahanzaib, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a protozoal and occasionally fatal diarrheic disease of goats imposing heavy economic losses to farming community. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium against coccidiosis in Beetal goats. Twenty-four (24) Beetal goats naturally infected with coccidiosis were randomly divided into four groups of 6 (A-D). Goats in groups A, B and C were treated orally with Furazolidone (10 mg/Kg), Sulfadimidine (100 mg/Kg) and Amprolium (55 mg/Kg), respectively for 7 days. Goats in-group D served as positive control. Oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces counts of individual goats in each group were performed on Days; 0 (pre-treatment) 7, 14 and 21 (post-treatment). OPG counts amongst goats in all groups at day 0 were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7, 14 and 21, OPG values decreased significantly (P0.05). In conclusion, Furazolidone, Sulfadimidine and Amprolium are well-tolerated and any one of these may be recommended to effectively treat coccidiosis in Beetal goats.

  14. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  15. Observation of physiological changes after Detomidine administration in Pateri goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tunio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of detomidine on Pateri goats. A total of six female Pateri goats were randomly treated with three different dose rates of Detomidine at 40 μg, 50 μg and 60 μg/kg body weights. The effects of Detomidine on respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature and serum glucose level were investigated. Following detomidine intravenous administration in goats, it produced dose dependent effect on physiological parameters. Respiratory and heart rate decreased after intravenous administration in all goats. The heart rate decreased at 5 min with all dose rates and returned to the base line at 60 min. This change in heart rate was dose dependent and there was no significant (P>0.05 change observed with 40 μg and 50 μg/kg of Detomidine. However, there was significant difference (P<0.05 at 75 min between the 40 μg and 60 μg/kg of Detomidine in all goats. However, significant (P<0.01 increase in serum glucose level occurred with all dose rates at 30 min compared with control groups. It is concluded that Detomidine has produced no adverse effect on physiological parameters.

  16. Tropical plant supplementation effects on the performance and parasite burden of goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.; MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. Methods In Experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4±5.7 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: i) BG alone and BG plus; ii) PEA; iii) LES; iv) MUC; and v) PAP. Goats were fed for ad libitum consumption and adapted to the diets for 14 d followed by 7 d of measurement. The PEA, LES, MUC (50%, 50%, and 10% of the diet dry matter [DM], respectively), and PAP (forced-fed at 10 g/d) were fed at rates that would elicit anthelmintic effects. In Experiment 2, goats remained in the same treatments but were allocated to 15 pens (3 pens per treatment) from d 22 to 63. All goats were infected with parasites by grazing an infected bahiagrass pasture from 0800 to 1500 h daily and then returned to the pens. Results Dry matter intake tended to be greater in goats fed PEA and LES than those fed BG (757 and 745 vs 612 g/d, respectively). Digestibility of DM (59.5% vs 54.9%) and organic matter (60.8% vs 56.0%) were greater in goats fed MUC vs BG, respectively. In Experiment 2, feeding PAP, LES, and PEA to goats reduced nematode fecal egg counts by 72%, 52%, and 32%, reduced abomasal adult worm counts by 78%, 52%, and 42%, and decreased plasma haptoglobin concentrations by 42%, 40%, and 45% relative to feeding BG alone, respectively. Conclusion Supplementation with PEA, LES, and PAP decreased the parasite burden of goats but did not increase their performance. PAP was the most effective anthelmintic supplement. PMID:28728358

  17. Enjoy Yourself by Listening in——To Get One’s Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国凤

    1987-01-01

    Like every language American English is full of strange expressions, phrases that come from day to day life of the people and develop in their own way. Where did these expressions come from, and how did they get into the language? Our expression today is 'to get one’s goat' and other phrases that come from the goat. The goat is an ancient creature that has done muck for man, providing milk, meat, cheese, and other good and useful things.

  18. Bacterial diversity in goat milk from the Guanzhong area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxin; Wang, Zhaoxia; Lei, Feiyan; Wang, Bini; Jiang, Shuaiming; Peng, Qiannan; Zhang, Jiachao; Shao, Yuyu

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene from metagenomic DNA were sequenced to identify differences in microbial diversity in raw milk of Saanen and Guanzhong goats from the Guanzhong area of China. The results showed that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 71.31% of all phyla identified in milk from the 2 breeds, and Enterobacter was the predominant genus (24.69%) within the microbial community. Microbial alpha diversity from Saanen goat milk was significantly higher than that of Guanzhong goat milk based on bioinformatic analysis of indices of Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, observed species, and the abundance-based coverage estimator. Functional genes and their likely metabolic pathways were predicted, which demonstrated that the functional genes present in the bacteria in goat milk were enriched in pathways for amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, which represented 11.93 and 11.23% of functional genes, respectively. Physicochemical properties such as pH, protein, fat, and AA levels were also determined and correlations made with microbial diversity. We detected a significant difference in the content of lactose and 6 AA, which were higher in Saanen milk than in Guanzhong milk, and positively correlated with microbial carbohydrate metabolism and AA metabolism. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus, which are lactose-utilizing genera, were more abundant in Saanen milk than in Guanzhong milk. Higher levels of lactose in Saanen goat milk may explain its greater microbial diversity. We also demonstrated that most of the AA metabolism-related bacterial genera (e.g., Massilia, Bacteroides, Lysobacter) were enriched in Saanen goat milk. In this research, both probiotic and pathogenic bacteria were identified in goat milk, which provided the microbial information necessary to direct the utilization of beneficial microbial resources and prevent the development of harmful organisms in

  19. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in goat's milk and goat's jben by the bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium F58 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achemchem, Fouad; Abrini, Jamal; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    The bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium F58 strain, a natural goat's jben cheese isolate, lacks decarboxylase activity involved in most biogenic amine formation. It was also sensitive to 13 antibiotics assayed and free of virulence and vancomycin resistance genes. The F58 strain reached the stationary phase after 12 h of growth in sterile goat's milk, and the production of enterocin F-58 (Ent L50) was first detected after 48 h (400 AU/ml), thereafter remaining stable up to 5 days. The effectiveness of the F58 strain in controlling Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b in reduced fat and whole goat's milk, and in goat's jben has been examined. Coculture experiments of F58-L. monocytogenes in both types of milk demonstrated that listeriae were not eliminated, although reductions by 1 to 4 log units were found. Nevertheless, when the F58 strain was previously inoculated in whole milk and left to grow for 12 h before contamination, the pathogen was completely eliminated after 130 h of coculture. Production of jben cheese contaminated with L. monocytogenes prior to packaging, using preparations of F58-producer strain, caused a significant decrease in the number of viable listeriae, which were undetectable after 1 week of cheese storage at 22 degrees C. Altogether, results from this study suggest that E. faecium F58 strain may be used as an adjunct culture in cheese to control contamination and growth of L. monocytogenes by in situ enterocin production, thus providing an additional hurdle to enhance control of this pathogen.

  20. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nawroth

    Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

  1. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  2. A survey analysis of indigenous goat production in communal farming systems of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monau, P I; Visser, C; Nsoso, S J; Van Marle-Köster, E

    2017-08-01

    A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity. The majority (33%) of respondents were older than 60 years. Over 80% of the farmers kept goats for cash required for tuition, school uniforms and household commodities as well as re-stocking of animals. Most farmers (62%) kept indigenous crossed genotypes. Generally, uncontrolled mating was practised with the majority of farmers (41%) using on-farm reared bucks for more than two years of breeding and communal bucks (36%) as an alternative. The major constraints limiting goat productivity in communal areas included uncontrolled breeding, predators, theft and diseases. Issues raised by farmers should be considered in designing and implementing effective breeding programs for goats to improve their overall productivity and contribution to poverty alleviation in these communities.

  3. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  4. Genome-wide population structure and admixture analysis reveals weak differentiation among Ugandan goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Upadhyay, M.R.; Mukiibi, R.; Kanis, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential

  5. Cardiac fiber orientation in goat measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, L.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Nicolaij, K.; Arts, M.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    We therefore hypothesize that fiber reorientation could be a local adaptive mechanism by which the strain distribution across the cardiac wall is homogenized. To test this hypothesis we measured fiber orientation in normal goat hearts and in goat hearts in which the mechanical load was locally

  6. Primarity and biometric indices of native goats in western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats are well integrally part of communities' livelihoods in both rural and urban regions in Cameroon. Our study intended to contribute to genetic characterization of native goats populations found in one of the highest populated region based on morphometric indices as developed by Lauvergne and COGNOSAG ...

  7. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper

  8. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad O. Aldosari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement “feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming.” Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  10. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Fahad O

    2018-01-01

    Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement "feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming." Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  11. Reproductive and population dynamics parameters of Mbanza-Ngungu's local goat in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gasigwa Sabimana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the development of goat breeding in the Democratic Republic of Congo seem favorable. Knowledge of the characteristics of local goat farming by breeders is a very important factor to control and promote goat production. The objective of this study was to improve the productivity of Mbanza-Ngungu’s local goat by increasing the knowledge of its reproductive performance. To achieve this objective, data were collected by direct observation of the goats. These data were used to simulate reproductive and population dynamics parameters over a five-year period. The study showed the relevance of the model to simulate the reproduction traits of Mbanza-Ngungu’s goats and that it is useless to keep them beyond five years.

  12. Unilateral mastectomy as an alternative treatment for gangrenous mastitis in a Saanen goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sabuncu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A four-year-old Saanen goat, weighing 52 kg, was referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinic with black discoloration of the left mammary gland. The goat’s general condition was not good upon initial examination. The goat was anorexic, lethargic, and febrile (rectal temperature of 40 °C with a palpably cold left mammary gland on which there was an accumulation of pus. Somatic cell count (SCC was measured as 820,000/ml in the milk sample collected from the infected gland, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Gangrenous mastitis was diagnosed on the left mammary gland of the goat based on the clinical findings. To treat the condition, a unilateral mastectomy was performed successfully. The goat was fully recovered a week after surgery. This case aimed to establish a surgical approach of unilateral mastectomy as a treatment option for goats with gangrenous mastitis while allowing the other mammary gland to continue lactation. Thus, it can be concluded that unilateral mastectomy is a viable alternative treatment of goats with gangrenous mastitis.

  13. Amino acid diversity on the basis of cytochrome b gene in Kacang and Ettawa Grade goats

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    D. A. Lestari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of study were to identify and assess the amino acid diversity of Cytochrome b (Cyt b gene, genetic marker and characteristic of specific amino acid in Kacang and Ettawa Grade goat. Nineteen heads of Kacang goat (KG and twelve heads of Ettawa Grade goat (EG were purposively sampled. The genomic DNA was isolated by Genomic DNA Mini Kit (Geneaid and amplified Cyt b using PCR method with CytbCapF and CytbCapR primers and was sequenced. The results showed that there were two specific amino acids that distinguish KG and EG goat with C. hircus and C. aegagrus and four specific amino acids that distinguish KG and EG goat with C. falconeri, but there were no specific amino acids can be used as a genetic marker to distinguish between Kacang and EG goat. In conclusion, specific amino acids in Cyt b gene can be used as a genetic marker among KG and EG goat with 3 goat others comparator.

  14. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  15. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  16. BUILDING LEADERSHIP CAPACITY OF AN EMERGING GOAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Nye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leadership development has been a primary objective of Extension educators directing Ohio Meat Goat Task Force efforts. Producer members have been instrumental in the formation of the Ohio Meat Goat Marketing Alliance. This group has developed by-laws and articles of incorporation for the purpose of promoting and marketing commercial meat goat producers in Ohio. Nationwide market centers have been accessed through the establishment of graded pool sales. Cooperation between producer networks, industry, and the Department of Agriculture were responsible for establishing a certified livestock grader position. Producers have enhanced the effectiveness of their efforts by partnering with agencies such as the Ohio Cooperative Development Center, Somalia and East African Organization, Jewish Family Services and Institute for Social and Economic Development. Extension educators have developed the Ohio Meat Goat Production and Budgeting Fact Sheet as a guide for establishing this value added enterprise. Extension has designed and conducted regional workshops, seminars, and on-farm tours to transfer knowledge to over 2100 participants. Education, production, and marketing topics are discussed in the Buckeye Meat Goat Newsletter. The website http://www.ohiomarketgoat.com has been developed to enhance the exchange of production and marketing information. The task force has received $63,000 in Research and Extension grants to conduct on going feasibility studies of ethnic markets, Ohio’s processing infrastructure, and development of farmer/consumer cooperatives. On-farm meat goat research encompasses breed comparisons, forage utilization, and developing benchmark data. Progress continues in the ability to market fresh and safe chevon products directly to emerging ethnic and faith based consumer populations to capture the most value. This task force is taking a unique approach to building industry infrastructure by utilizing a social approach

  17. Commercial cuts and carcass characteristics of sheep and goats supplemented with multinutritional blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Araújo C

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aimed to identify the weight and yield of the commercial cuts, muscularity, and adiposity in the carcasses of sheep and goats grazing in the Caatinga supplemented with different sources of supplementations; these include feed-blocks. Material and methods. Sixty non-castrated males an initial average body weight of 18.63 ± 1.93 kg were used: 30 goats and 30 sheep all animals did not have a defined breed standard (WDBS. The experimental design used was entirely randomized (DIC, in factorial scheme 3x2 (three types of supplementation: mineral salt, MBs and MBs + buffel hay, and two species: sheep and goats and 10 replications. Animals were raised in a rangeland grazing system in an area with vegetation characteristic of Caatinga ecosystem under three types of supplementation: 1: only mineral salt; 2: Feed blocks (MBs; and 3: MBs + buffel hay There were measured the weight, yield and the components of left half-part of carcass of lambs and kids. Results. The sheep were superior to goats in carcass conformation, loin-eye area, index of muscularity of the leg and compactness index of the leg while the goats were superior to sheep in leg muscles weight. Conclusions. Sheep and Goats, when fed with supplementation of pasture feeding blocks in the Caatinga ecosystem; Supplementation with mineral salt and Multinutritional Blocks with and without Buffel can be used to improve herds in the caatinga, with similar results among the three. Sheep show more adiposity of meat than goats, in contrast, goats have higher musculature than sheep when fed with feed blocks.

  18. Determination of anatomic landmarks for optimal placement in captive-bolt euthanasia of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Paul J; Shearer, Jan K; Kleinhenz, Katie E; Shearer, Leslie C

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal anatomic site and directional aim of a penetrating captive bolt (PCB) for euthanasia of goats. SAMPLE 8 skulls from horned and polled goat cadavers and 10 anesthetized horned and polled goats scheduled to be euthanized at the end of a teaching laboratory. PROCEDURES Sagittal sections of cadaver skulls from 8 horned and polled goats were used to determine the ideal anatomic site and aiming of a PCB to maximize damage to the midbrain region of the brainstem for euthanasia. Anatomic sites for ideal placement and directional aiming were confirmed by use of 10 anesthetized horned and polled goats. RESULTS Clinical observation and postmortem examination of the sagittal sections of skulls from the 10 anesthetized goats that were euthanized confirmed that perpendicular placement and firing of a PCB at the intersection of 2 lines, each drawn from the lateral canthus of 1 eye to the middle of the base of the opposite ear, resulted in consistent disruption of the midbrain and thalamus in all goats. Immediate cessation of breathing, followed by a loss of heartbeat in all 10 of the anesthetized goats, confirmed that use of this site consistently resulted in effective euthanasia. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Damage to the brainstem and key adjacent structures may be accomplished by firing a PCB perpendicular to the skull over the anatomic site identified at the intersection of 2 lines, each drawn from the lateral canthus of 1 eye to the middle of the base of the opposite ear.

  19. Effect of supplementary glycerin on milk composition and heat stability in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deela Thoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was studied the effects of various levels of crude glycerin (CG in dairy goat diet on daily intake, milk yield, milk composition, some physical properties and some quality changes of goat milk after sterilization. Methods Twelve 75% Saanen dairy goats (body weight = 49±3 kg; days in milk = 60±12 d were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of three experimental diets consisting of 0%, 5%, and 10% CG (dry matter basis which were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of goats. Experimental dairy goats were evaluated for feed and milk yield. Milk samples were analyzed for their composition, including fatty acids, casein profile, fat globule size, and color, and were sterilized to evaluate milk heat stability. Results There were no significant differences between 0% and 5% CG treatments infeed. Increasing CG supplementation from 0% to 5% increased milk yield from 2.38±0.12 to 2.64±0.23 kg/goat/d. In addition, milk samples from 5% CG treatment had the highest total solids, fat content and lactose content, and largest fat globule size. Increasing CG to 10% resulted in a decrease in milk fat. After sterilizing at 116°C, F0 = 3 min, goat milk samples from 5% CG treatment had slightly higher sediment content and comparatively higher degree of browning. Conclusion Considering milk yield, milk fat content and quality of sterilized milk, 5% CG supplementation in a total mixed ration has a potential for implementation in dairy goats.

  20. Preliminary investigation into the ventilatory effects of midazolam in isoflurane-anaesthetised goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Stegmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ventilatory effects of intravenous midazolam (MDZ were evaluated in isoflurane- anaesthetised goats. Eight female goats aged 2–3 years were fasted from food and water for 12 h. Anaesthesia was then induced using a face mask with isoflurane in oxygen, whilst the trachea was intubated with a cuffed tracheal tube and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane at 1.5% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was spontaneous. The goats were treated with either a saline placebo (PLC or MDZ intravenously at 0.2 mg/kg. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for the analysis of data. Significance was taken at the 0.05 level. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for tidal volume, ventilation rate, tidal volume/kg (VT/kg and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure. Within treatments, VT and VT/kg differed 5 min after MDZ administration; this was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The occurrence of apnoea in the MDZ-treated goats was statistically significant (p = 0.04 compared with the PLC treated goats. Intravenous MDZ at 0.2 mg/kg administered to isoflurane-anaesthetised goats may result in transient apnoea and a mild decrease in VT and VT/kg.

  1. Preliminary investigation into the ventilatory effects of midazolam in isoflurane-anaesthetised goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Stegmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ventilatory effects of intravenous midazolam (MDZ were evaluated in isoflurane- anaesthetised goats. Eight female goats aged 2–3 years were fasted from food and water for 12 h. Anaesthesia was then induced using a face mask with isoflurane in oxygen, whilst the trachea was intubated with a cuffed tracheal tube and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane at 1.5% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was spontaneous. The goats were treated with either a saline placebo (PLC or MDZ intravenously at 0.2 mg/kg. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for the analysis of data. Significance was taken at the 0.05 level. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for tidal volume, ventilation rate, tidal volume/kg (VT/kg and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure. Within treatments, VT and VT/kg differed 5 min after MDZ administration; this was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The occurrence of apnoea in the MDZ-treated goats was statistically significant (p = 0.04 compared with the PLC treated goats. Intravenous MDZ at 0.2 mg/kg administered to isoflurane-anaesthetised goats may result in transient apnoea and a mild decrease in VT and VT/kg.

  2. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  3. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  4. Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.

  5. Johne's disease: a successful eradication programme in a dairy goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, William G; Porter, Catherine A; Hawkins, Nathan; Schofield, Michael J; Pollock, John M

    2018-04-28

    This retrospective analysis and report describes the successful eradication and posteradication surveillance programme for Johne's disease ( Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)) in a closed herd of dairy goats. In 1994, MAP's presence in the goat herd was first suspected through individual annual serological screening and then subsequently confirmed through faecal culture and histopathology in 1997 when implementation of a more aggressive programme of testing and eradication of the diseased animals began. This programme included frequent serological screening of all adult goats using ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion assays. Faecal cultures for bacteria were performed on suspect or positive animals and for all goats found dead or euthanased, and tissues were submitted for histopathology and acid-fast staining. Additional disease eradication measures included maintaining a closed herd and minimising faecal-oral transmission of MAP. Following a more aggressive testing regimen and euthanasia of goats with positive faecal culture, the herd was first considered free of MAP in 2003 and has remained free to the present day. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  7. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mazzette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  8. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa toestimate the prevalence of Taeniahydatigena. With theaim to determine theprevalence of T. hydatigena inslaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in Aprilto...... with T. solium, but showed no signs of otherinfections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem and theprevalence of T. hydatigena wassimilar in goats and sheep with 45.7% and 51.9%, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from...... a subsample of metacestodesfrom goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. Theprevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conductedin Africa, but for pigs it is one of the highest recorded to date. The presentstudy also confirms the occurrence of T.hydatigena and T. solium...

  9. Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed maize stover based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme additive (containing cellulase, xylanase and beta glucanase) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility parameters of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed total mixed ration in the dry season. A total of sixteen (16) WAD goats were ...

  10. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  11. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region,. Uganda ... 41.2% of the farmers were aged 51 years and more. The average number of .... Business (retail shopping). 24. 0. Regular .... able 5. Sales of goats by district in 12 months preceding the study. District ..... more efficient management practices that.

  12. Nutritional characteristics and consumer acceptability of sausages with different combinations of goat and beef meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef, with either no added rice bran (NRB or 3 percent stabilized rice bran (RB. Proximate analysis, fatty acids, -tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations of the six cooked formulations were determined. The six sausage formulations were compared in a consumer acceptability taste test. Results: The fat concentration of the NRB and RB formulations decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The sum of the saturated fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.01. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid concentrations increased linearly (p < 0.05 with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB sausage formulations. The α-tocopherol concentration of the NRB formulations did not change across the goat meat percentages, but in the RB formulations it increased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The cholesterol concentration decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB formulations (p <0.01, < 0.05 respectively. The tasters preferred the NRB with higher goat meat percentage to the RB formulations. Conclusions: The NRB and RB sausage formulations with higher percentages of goat meat had higher concentrations of -tocopherol, CLA (18:2 cis 9 Trans 11, total n-3, total PUFA, total n-3/total n-6 ratio, and a lower cholesterol concentration. The RB sausage formulations with higher

  13. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  14. Quantitative aspect of the endogenous urea cycle in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Yu

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of plasma urea was studied in goats fed rations with different protein contents by using 14 C- and 15 N-urea as tracers. The biological half-life time of urea determined with 15 N-urea was always longer than that determined with 14 C-urea, reflecting the difference in the metabolic pathway between the urea hydrolysates, ammonia and carbon dioxide. It was roughly estimated from the turnover studies that more than a half the quantity of urea synthesized might be transferred to the alimentary canal, including the rumen, where it underwent dissociation, with a decrease in the protein content of the ration, the percentage of transfer and dissociation increased. The 14 C-urea discharged into the urine was less than 57% of the administered dose. It decreased to 3.9% in goats fed rations with a low protein content. The rate of urea turnover determined with 15 N-urea was nearly consistent with the rate of urea discharge into the urine in goats fed higher protein rations. In goats fed lower protein rations, on the other hand, the rate of urea discharge decreased and its consistency with the rate of turnover determined with 15 N-urea was upset. This was caused by assimilation of urea-nitrogen in rumen microorganisms, as was convinced by studying the incorporation of urea- 15 N into the fraction of rumen microorganisms. It was assumed that in goats fed lower protein rations the bulk of urea synthesized might have entered the endogenous recycling system within the body and assimilated by rumen microorganisms. (auth.)

  15. The rearing system of Black Bengal Goat and their farmers in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Bera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bengal Goat is a precious germplasm of West Bengal. Mostly the women (91.3% of the farming families in West Bengal rear goat. Goat rearing is a subsidiary income source to rural poor along with agriculture. In majority of cases the flock size ranges from 1 to 4 (56%. Male female ratio in adult flock is observed as 1:8 in field condition. The animals are mostly housed along with residential housing (67.1%; houses are mostly kachha type (82.63% with earthen floor (86.47% and straw roof (91.33%. All most all the farmers used to graze their goats for feeding. Ponds water is the major source for drinking water (58.14% of goats. Black Bengal Goats have natural resistant power to many diseases but are vulnerable to cold, water logging situation, diarrhoea, ecto and entro parasitic infestation and respiratory diseases. Under field condition mortality rate is 9.63%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 254-257

  16. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  17. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with 125 I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of 35 S and 125 I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any 125 I or 35 S-labeled surface proteins

  18. Goats and/or cattle on Mopani veld. | C.H. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomenon had a marked influence on the outcome of the results of the trial. It was concluded that the use of both cattle and goats is desirable in order to utilize and control woody plants. A cattle:goat ratio of less than 1:2 should be applied if the goats are to attain optimum production. Keywords: animal performance ...

  19. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  20. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso subregion of Uganda. Data were collected by using a questionnaire administered to 114 purposively selected goat owners in five districts. Majority (87%) of de fecto household heads were male. About 41.2% of the farmers were ...

  1. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  2. Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Chacón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, linear body measures were taken and production indices calculated for 100 Cuban Creole goats and 100 crossbred goats in order to aid in the characterization of animal genetic resources in Cuba. Low variation was found for all indices of the Creole goats, showing homogeneity between the groups of animals studied. Most of the functional indices are related to the milk biotype which is in agreement the possible origin of the breed from animals of the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The crossbreds were more varied, mostly due to undesigned disorganized crossing. These data may help in identifying a commercial niche for the breed and contribute to in situ conservation of the Cuban Creole goat.

  3. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  4. Chromosome Characteristic of Peranakan Etawa (PE) Goat (Capra hircus Linn.) as Indonesian Local Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. R. I.; Ciptadi, G.; Warih, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Chromosome characteristics of Peranakan Etawa (PE) goat needs to be analyzed because information about Indonesian goat races is very limited. The purpose of this research was to determine the characteristics of PE goat chromosome as basic data as one of the genetic local resources. Blood was collected from pair of PE goat at Sumber Sekar Field Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Brawijaya University, Malang. Blood cultured using standard cytogenetic technique and stained with G-Banding. Observations being done in metaphase cells and analyzed using Genus Cytovision Image. Chromosomes arranged and numbered by standard goat karyotype. The result of this research showed that PE goat had number of chromosomes 2n=60, consisting of 29 pairs of autosome and a pair of sex chromosomes. Female goat had average of total length (TL) of autosome ranged from 47.91 µm±6.46 to 22.12 µm±3.33. TL of chromosome X are 45.96 µm±4,59 and 44.45 µm±3,96. Centromeric index (Ci) of chromosome X, 31,74 and 32,80. PE goat had average of TL of autosome ranged from 58.20µm±6.72 to 18.97µm±2.82. TL of chromosome X is 56,42µm±7,38 and Y chromosome is 15,80 µm±3,24. Ci in chromosome X and Y are 19.34 and 46.84. These results concluded that the total of goat chromosome was 60 with types of autosomal chromosomes were acrocentric as many as 58 chromosomes and pair of sex chromosomes XX and XY, X classified as subtelocentric and Y submetacentric.

  5. Consumer perception, health information, and instrumental parameters of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) goat milk yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marion P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Vitor L M; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Chiappini, Claudete C J; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Although the demand for goat milk products has been growing, they have lower consumer acceptability than products derived from cow milk. However, the addition of cupuassu pulp can be used to improve the formulation of these products. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of new goat milk yogurt manufactured with cupuassu pulp on physicochemical properties, consumers' perceptions, and overall consumer acceptance. In addition, the effect of antioxidant health information on consumer acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts was evaluated. The results demonstrated a positive expectation regarding linking and familiarity to goat milk products and products with cupuassu pulp. The pH, total phenolic content, lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity were potentially affected by the addition of cupuassu, with the highest concentration of cupuassu (10%) exhibiting the greatest changes in parameters. Based on principal component analysis, partial least squares regression, and just-about-right and penalty analysis, the addition of cupuassu pulp improved some sensory attributes of goat milk yogurt, such as cupuassu aroma, cupuassu flavor, yellow color, consistency, and viscosity, which positively influenced product acceptance. In addition, antioxidant health information increased the acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Taking into account the parameters investigated in this study, the best scoring formulation was goat milk yogurt with 10% cupuassu pulp. Our results suggest that cupuassu pulp can be considered a potential ingredient to improve the sensory and texture properties of goat milk yogurt. Furthermore, the antioxidant health information could be a sensory strategy to increase the acceptance of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis assemblage E from goat kids in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alamgir Hossain; Sohana Akter Mina; Lolo Wal Marzan; Mohammad Asif Imran Khan Emon; Rasel Das; AMAM Zonaed Siddiki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To molecularly characterize Giardia in goat kids to elucidate the possible zoonotic hazards in Bangladesh and find out the role of Giardia protozoan parasite as a source of human infection. Methods: Fecal samples of 100 goat kids were genotyped by nested PCR amplification of β-giardin gene fragment followed by sequencing and analysis. Results: The total prevalence of Giardia in goat kids was 3% (3/100) and the infection is more widespread in younger (P = 0.36), Bl...

  7. A Development Strategy for Dairy Goat Farms in Bogor Regency - West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrilla, L; Purwanto, B. P; Astuti, D. A; Atabany, A; Sukmawati, A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of present study were to formulate development strategies for dairy goat' farms that capable of supporting goat's milk agribusiness. Three medium scale dairy goat farms located in Bogor Regency which has population of more than 100 heads and has established more than 10 years were purposively selected for the study. Data were collected during February to May 2014. The design of this study was based on descriptive qualitative approach (rapid appraisal approach). Data were analiz...

  8. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Indonesian Local goats using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important information in the process of conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. Thirteen microsatellite markers were used to estimate the degree of genetic diversity on five Indonesian local goats. Results showed the highest average allele diversity present in the locus MAF70 (5.6 ± 2.9, and the lowest was in the locus MAF035 (1.6 ± 0.6, the average number of alleles per locus was 6 ± 2.3. The lowest average alleles diversity present was in the Gembrong goat (2.2 ± 1.1 and the highest was in the Jawarandu goat (4.9 ± 2.2. There is a unique alleles at loci MCM527 and present in all Indonesian local goat with the highest allele frequency on Peranakan Etawa (37.2% and lowest in Gembrong goat (7.9%. H0 ranged from 0.372 ± 0.173 (Gembrong to 0.540 ± 0.204 (Peranakan Etawa, and HE ranging from 0.249 ± 0.196 (Gembrong to 0.540 ± 0.212 (Peranakan Etawa.The genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT, and average genetic differention (FST were 0,0208 (2,08%, 0,1532 (15,32%, and 0,1352 (13,52%, respectively. Locus ILSTS029, BMS1494, MAF035 and INRA0132 had a low PIC value (PIC 0.5. Phylogenetic relationship was consistent with the history of its development based on Kacang goat except was for Gembrong Goat. This research information can be used for conservation strategies and breeding programs on each population of Indonesian local goat.

  9. Complementing endozoochorous seed dispersal patterns by donkeys and goats in a semi-natural island ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitler, Julia Tabea; Drissen, Tim; Stadtmann, Robin; Zerbe, Stefan; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin

    2017-12-19

    Endozoochory is, in grazing systems, a substantial vector for seed dispersal. It can play an important role in vegetation dynamics, especially in colonization processes through seed input on the vegetation and on the soil seed bank. We investigated the endozoochorous seed input of donkeys and goats on a semi-natural island ecosystem in the Mediterranean. Through germination experiments, we assessed the viable seed content of the dung of these grazing animals to estimate their suitability and efficiency for seed dispersal of the vegetation types of the island. We show different dispersal patterns of donkeys and goats. Goats disperse a high number of diaspores from shrubs while donkeys disperse more diaspores of grasses. In addition, goats disperse plants of greater growth height and donkeys plants of shorter height. These dispersal patterns are in accordance with the vegetation types of which donkeys and goats disperse indicator species. Both, donkeys and goats, feed on and disperse species of the vegetation types, open grassland and temporarily wet grassland. In addition, goats feed on and disperse diagnostic species of the semi-open maquis and preforest formations. Overall, our results show that donkeys and goats are complementing each other in their endozoochorous seed dispersal potential. This emphasizes the importance of both grazing animals for the vegetation dynamics of the semi-natural island ecosystem. Therefore, the adaption of the goat management to a traditional land management based on directed transhumance might maintain and enrich vegetation types.

  10. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  11. Farmer perceptions on factors influencing water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdletshe, Zwelethu Mfanafuthi; Ndlela, Sithembile Zenith; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla; Chimonyo, Michael

    2018-05-09

    The objective of the study was to compare factors influencing water scarcity for goats in areas where there are seasonal and perennial rivers under resource-limited communal farming environments. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire (n = 285) administered randomly to smallholder goat farmers from areas with seasonal and perennial rivers. Ceremonies was ranked as the major reason for keeping goats. Water scarcity was ranked the major constraint to goat production in areas with seasonal rivers when compared to areas with perennial rivers (P goat drinking in areas with seasonal and perennial river systems during cool dry and rainy seasons. Rivers were ranked as an important water source for goat drinking where there are seasonal and perennial river systems during the cool dry season. Households located close (≤ 3 km) to the nearest water source reported drinking water for goats a scarce resource. These results show that river systems, season and distance to the nearest water source from a household were factors perceived by farmers to influence water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments. Farmers should explore water-saving strategies such as recycling wastewater from kitchens and bathrooms as an alternative water source. The government may assist farmers through sinking boreholes to supply water for both humans and livestock.

  12. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-Feng; Li, Fen; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-23

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.

  13. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children.

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome (Cobactan 2.5% following Repeated Intramuscular Administrations in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Hewaity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome was studied in sheep and goats following repeated intramuscular (IM administrations of 2 mg/kg body weight. Cefquinome concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341 as test organism. Following intramuscular injection of cefquinome in sheep and goats, the disposition curves were best described by two-compartment open model in both sheep and goats. The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome did not differ significantly between sheep and goats; similar intramuscular dose rate of cefquinome should therefore be applicable to both species. On comparing the data of serum levels of repeated intramuscular injections with first intramuscular injection, it was revealed that repeated intramuscular injections of cefquinome have cumulative effect in both species sheep and goats. The in vitro serum protein-binding tendency was 15.65% in sheep and 14.42% in goats. The serum concentrations of cefquinome along 24 h after injection in this study were exceeding the MICs of different susceptible microorganisms responsible for serious disease problems. These findings indicate successful use of cefquinome in sheep and goats.

  15. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...

  16. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... APHIS-2009-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements... tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by...

  17. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (<0.05. Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (<0.001. ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE ∗, ∗, ∗ values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (<0.05 during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  18. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes in Goats in Hyderabad and Adjoining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Akhter*, A. G. Arijo, M. S. Phulan, Zafar Iqbal1 and K. B. Mirbahar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats (n=1065 in and around Hyderabad using qualitative and quantitative coprological examinations. Results revealed that 43.10% (459 goats were infected with different species of nematodes including Haemonchus contortus (14.65%, Trichuris ovis (8.17%, Trichostrongylus axei (7.61%, Trichostrongylus colubriformis (6.76%, Oesphagostomum columbianum (5.35%, Ostertagia circumcincta (5.35%, Chabertia ovina (4.79% and Strongyloides papillosus (4.51%. Infections with mixed species of nematodes were recorded in 6.54% (n=30/459; T. ovis + H. contortus, 5.23% (n=24/459; C. ovina + H. contortus, 5.88% (n=27/459; S. papillosus + C. ovina, and 12.42% (n=57/459; O. circumcincta + T. ovis goats. Of the total infected (n=459; 51.4, 38.3 and 10.2% goats had light, moderate and heavy infections, respectively. The prevalence, nature and intensity of the helminthiasis in goats warrant an immediate attention to devise strategies for its control to reduce the production losses.

  19. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis assemblage E from goat kids in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To molecularly characterize Giardia in goat kids to elucidate the possible zoonotic hazards in Bangladesh and find out the role of Giardia protozoan parasite as a source of human infection. Methods: Fecal samples of 100 goat kids were genotyped by nested PCR amplification of β-giardin gene fragment followed by sequencing and analysis. Results: The total prevalence of Giardia in goat kids was 3% (3/100 and the infection is more widespread in younger (P = 0.36, Black Bengal breed (P = 0.81 and female goat kids (P = 0.58. Further analysis ofβ-giardin gene locus has shown that the gene clustered in assemblage E rather than assemblages A and B. Conclusions: The present study suggests the low zoonotic transmission frequency from the goat kids and and giardiasis has least epidemiological significance to humans. Further study on this field is prerequisite in terms of broad geographical areas, age groups, sex and evaluation of zoonotic significance along with genetic diversity in other host species as well.

  20. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  1. Metabolism of technetium by dairy cows and goats and laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, M.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide transfer coefficients of Tc to cows milk, goats milk, poultry meat, and eggs were determined. The mean cow milk transfer coefficients of /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 95m/Tc, administered as pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ), were 2.3 x 10 -5 and 1.4 x 10 -4 day/liter, respectively. The goat milk transfer coefficients of /sup 99m/Tc, /sup 95m/Tc, and 99 Tc, administered as pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ), were 1.5 x 10 -4 , 8.5 x 10 -4 , and 1.1 x 10 -2 day/liter, respectively. The differences between the goat milk transfer coefficients of the three isotopes were significant (p 4 - in the same goats. Egg (contents) and poultry meat transfer coefficients of Tc, administered as /sup 95m/TcO 4 - , were 3.0 day/kg and 3.3 x 10 -2 day/kg, respectively

  2. Fuzzy logic and A* algorithm implementation on goat foraging games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsani, P.; Mulyana, I.; Zakaria, D.

    2018-03-01

    Goat foraging is one of the games that apply the search techniques within the scope of artificial intelligence. This game involves several actors including players and enemies. The method used in this research is fuzzy logic and Algorithm A*. Fuzzy logic is used to determine enemy behaviour. The A* algorithm is used to search for the shortest path. There are two input variables: the distance between the player and the enemy and the anger level of the goat. The output variable that has been defined is the enemy behaviour. The A* algorithm is used to determine the closest path between the player and the enemy and define the enemy's escape path to avoid the player. There are 4 types of enemies namely farmers, planters, farmers and sellers of plants. Players are goats that aims to find a meal that is a plant. In this game goats aim to spend grass in the garden in the form of a maze while avoiding the enemy. The game provides an application of artificial intelligence and is made in four difficulty levels.

  3. Efficacy Study of Novel Diamidine Compounds in a Trypanosoma evansi Goat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingwater, Kirsten; Gutierrez, Carlos; Bridges, Arlene; Wu, Huali; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Ali Ekangu, Rosine; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed; Boykin, David; Brun, Reto

    2011-01-01

    Three diamidines (DB 75, DB 867 and DB 1192) were selected and their ability to cure T. evansi experimentally infected goats was investigated. A toxicity assessment and pharmacokinetic analysis of these compounds were additionally carried out. Goats demonstrated no signs of acute toxicity, when treated with four doses of 1 mg/kg/day (total dose 4 mg/kg). Complete curative efficacy of experimentally infected goats was seen in the positive control group treated with diminazene at 5 mg/kg and in the DB 75 and DB 867 groups treated at 2.5 mg/kg. Drug treatment was administered once every second day for a total of seven days. Complete cure was also seen in the group of goats treated with DB 75 at 1.25 mg/kg. DB 1192 was incapable of curing goats at either four-times 2.5 mg/kg or 1.25 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the treatment failures of DB 1192 were due to sub-therapeutic compound levels in goat plasma, whilst compound levels for DB 75 and DB 867 remained well within the therapeutic window. In conclusion, two diamidine compounds (DB 75 and DB 867) presented comparable efficacy at lower doses than the standard drug diminazene and could be considered as potential clinical candidates against T. evansi infection. PMID:21698106

  4. Chemical composition and utilization of rice straw by goats in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuen, A.A.; Mahyuddin Dahan, M.

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the nutritive value of various types of rice straw for use by goats. In Experiment 1, four varieties of rice straw were exposed to heavy rain and sunshine for 10 days to assess the change in chemical composition and degradation in the rumen. The exposure led to a reduction in the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus. The degradation in the rumen of the samples exposed to the above weather conditions varied from 20.9 to 34.5%. In Experiment 2, the intake and digestion of untreated, urea supplemented, and urea treated rice straw of unknown variety were investigated using six male goats. Treating with urea resulted in significantly higher intake (p 3 ) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and negative N retention were obtained when the goats were fed on untreated straw. With urea treated straw, however, higher concentrations of NH 3 and VFAs and positive N retention were obtained. From the isotope dilution measurement it was observed that the amount of dietary P absorbed was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in goats fed untreated straw than in those fed urea treated straw. In Experiment 3, the rate of passage of small particles through the digestive tract of goats fed the diets in Experiment 2 was measured. The mean rumen retention time ranged from 31.2 to 38.7 h. Although not significantly different, there was a tendency for the transit time to be longer in goats fed the urea treated straw than those on other diets. 43 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Dose-effect Curve for X-radiation in Lymphocytes in Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanbasic, D.; Saracevic, L.; Sacirbegovic, A.

    1998-01-01

    Dose-effect curve for X-radiation was made based on the analysis of chromosome aberrations in lympocytes of goats. Blood samples from seven goats were irradiated using MOORHEAD method, slightly modified and adapted to our conditions. Linear-square model was used, and the dose-effect curves were fitted by the smallest squares method. Dose-effect curve (collective) for goats is displayed as the following expression: y(D)= 8,6639·10 -3 D + 2,9748·10 -2 D 2 +2,9475·10 -3 . Comparison with some domestic animals such as sheep and pigs showed differences not only with respect to linear-square model, but to other mathematical presentations as well. (author)

  6. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Improves Bone Geometry Architecture and Metabolism in Red-Bone Guishan Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, TieSuo; Li, Peng; Wang, JianGuo; Liu, GuoWen; Wang, Zhe; Ge, ChangRong; Gao, ShiZheng

    2012-01-01

    Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone. PMID:22624037

  7. Effect of heat stress on adipokines and some blood metabolites in goats from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawood, Amani

    2017-02-01

    To date and to the best of our knowledge, there have been no available data on the interaction between heat stress (HS) and secretion of adipokines and some blood metabolites in Baladi goats from Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the changes in leptin, adiponectin, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in Baladi goats under HS conditions in Jordan. Six goats were exposed to direct solar radiation versus six goats exposed to shade regimen. Blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, NEFA and BHB were measured. Ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and body weight (BW) were recorded. Results indicated that leptin and adiponectin concentrations were significantly increased under HS. The concentration of NEFA was significantly increased under HS at the 7th and 14th days of the experiment, while mean total concentration of NEFA was not significantly affected by HS. Neither weekly nor mean total concentrations of BHB were significantly affected by HS during the experimental period. In conclusion, HS is associated with changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations in Baladi goats. Heat-stressed goats were able to keep their blood NEFA and BHB concentrations similar to those of thermo-neutral goats. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Hemato-biochemical parameters of Pesti-des Petits Ruminants (PPR affected goats in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Bari

    2018-06-01

    Materials and methods: A presumptive diagnosis of PPR was done based on clinical signs and symptoms. A structured record keeping sheet was used for the estimation of prevalence and risk factors of PPR in goat. A total of 103 blood samples were collected randomly and analyzed for hemato–biochemical parameters using automated hemo-analyzer. Results: Out of 103 cases, Black Bengal (59% and young goats aging minimum-12 months (43.85% were recognized as highly susceptible to PPR disease. Strong association was found among all the three factors such as age, breed and sex (RR>1. All the values of hematological parameters such as TEC, TLC, Hb, PCV, and DLC were decreased in PPR affected goat as compared to healthy goats except lymphocyte counts, which was increased significantly (P=0.00. The amount of total protein (3.15 gm/L and albumin (16.88 gm/L were reduced drastically in PPR affected goats. Conclusion: The lymphocyte content in blood was significantly increased where as the total protein and albumin percent were decreased in the goats affected with PPR. Moreover, this variation in blood profile due to PPR virus infected in goat might be a good indicator in this disease diagnosis. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(2.000: 211-217

  9. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  10. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY... testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre...

  11. Growth performance of native goats fed diets containing different levels of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Gomes Barreto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Castrated male goats (n = 40 of the Moxotó (n = 20 and Canindé (n = 20 breeds with an average weight of 15.3 kg were studied to determine intake, nutrient digestibility and weight gain for two diets with different energy levels. The experiment utilized a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two diets, in which goats were randomly allocated. A diet of low energy density and a forage:concentrate ratio of 70:30 was utilized along with a diet of high energy density and a forage:concentrate ratio of 35:64. To determine the nutrient intake and digestibility, at the end of the experiment, goats were kept in metabolism cages for a period of 15 days. Weighing of the goats was conducted weekly over a period of 90 days. The goats that were fed a diet of high energy density displayed significantly increased consumption of metabolic fractions, with the exception of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, when compared with those fed a diet of low energy density. The lack of difference in dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake indicated that goats have a high digestive capacity for the diet containing a greater quantity of Maniçoba hay. Weight gain was significantly greater for those on the diet of greater energy density. Among the breeds, Canindé goats recorded the highest average consumption and weight gain. Coefficients of digestibility were significantly greater for the more energy dense diet, with no difference between breeds. Regardless of diet, the Canindé breed shows greater weight gain than the Moxotó breed.

  12. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A

    2016-02-13

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or

  14. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  15. The first report of prion-related protein gene (PRNT) polymorphisms in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Prion protein is encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP). Polymorphisms of several members of the prion gene family have shown association with prion diseases in several species. Recent studies on a novel member of the prion gene family in rams have shown that prion-related protein gene (PRNT) has a linkage with codon 26 of prion-like protein (PRND). In a previous study, codon 26 polymorphism of PRND has shown connection with PRNP haplotype which is strongly associated with scrapie vulnerability. In addition, the genotype of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 26 of PRND is related to fertilisation capacity. These findings necessitate studies on the SNP of PRNT gene which is connected with PRND. In goat, several polymorphism studies have been performed for PRNP, PRND, and shadow of prion protein gene (SPRN). However, polymorphism on PRNT has not been reported. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the genotype and allelic distribution of SNPs of PRNT in 238 Korean native goats and compare PRNT DNA sequences between Korean native goats and several ruminant species. A total of five SNPs, including PRNT c.-114G > T, PRNT c.-58A > G in the upstream of PRNT gene, PRNT c.71C > T (p.Ala24Val) and PRNT c.102G > A in the open reading frame (ORF) and c.321C > T in the downstream of PRNT gene, were found in this study. All five SNPs of caprine PRNT gene in Korean native goat are in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a D' value of 1.0. Interestingly, comparative sequence analysis of the PRNT gene revealed five mismatches between DNA sequences of Korean native goats and those of goats deposited in the GenBank. Korean native black goats also showed 5 mismatches in PRNT ORF with cattle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genetic research of the PRNT gene in goat.

  16. A genetic polymorphism and its genetic effects on goat myogenin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... higher than those of BB genotype goats for three growth traits, in the order of AA > AB > BB. These results suggest that the myogenin genotype has some effects on partial growth traits of goat, and selecting the individuals with A allele could be favorable to the birth weight, 1-month body weight and.

  17. The Garfagnina goat: a zootechnical overview of a local dairy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M; Salari, F; Altomonte, I; Rignanese, D; Chessa, S; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A

    2010-10-01

    Domestic livestock with a limited distribution are increasingly recognized in the action plans of the European Union as a reason for protecting rural land. The preservation and enhancement of the native germplasm and traits selected through the ages in different areas of farming is the first step in increasing typical products at a time when high quality products are increasingly in demand. This is the first time that a zootechnical overview has been performed on the Italian native goat population named "Garfagnina," which is registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. The aim of the study was to give added value to this population by focusing on particular traits that could be used for promoting typical products. Data on the size of the local goats, zoometric measures, breeding system, milk quality, and genetic polymorphisms were collected to get insight into the current state of the population of this type of goat. The native goat population is reared in Tuscany in central Italy, mostly for its milk. The local goat farms considered in our study are located in the hills and mountains of the northwestern Tuscan Apennine area. For every farm we measured at least 10% of the reproductive females (273), randomly chosen, and all reproductive males (47) for a total of 320 subjects. Regarding the management of the animals and the feeding system, semi-extensive farming is practiced in all the flocks. From a morphological point of view the animals are relatively homogeneous, especially in terms of zoometric data, whereas they show a wider variability regarding coat. Milk gross and fatty acid composition were similar to that reported in the literature for bulk goat milk. Moreover, the average of somatic cell count and standard plate count found in Garfagnina goat milk indicated good hygienic farm management and correct milking practices, although milking is mainly manual. The average number of globules per milliliter found in

  18. Infection rate of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens

  19. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  20. Reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after intrauterine laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen semen. Twenty-four Saanen goats, divided in 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 11 primiparous goats and group 2 consisted of 13 multiparous goats. Estrus was synchronized by 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and the IM administration of 125 mg of cloprostenol (PGF2a) and eCG (400 IU...

  1. Analysis of the energetic metabolism in cyclic Bedouin goats (Capra hircus): Nychthemeral and seasonal variations of some haematochemical parameters in relation with body and ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Mouna; Amirat, Zaina; Khammar, Farida; Khaldoun, Mounira

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have examined changes in some haematochemical parameters as a function of the different physiological status (cyclic, pregnant and lactating) of goats, but no relevant literature has exhaustively investigated these variations from anestrous to estrous stages in cyclic goats. In this paper, we report nychthemeral and seasonal variations in ambient and body temperatures, and in some haematochemical parameters (glycemia, cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, creatininemia and uremia) measured during summer, winter and spring, in seven (7) experimental cyclic female Bedouin goats (Capra hircus) living in the Béni-Abbès region (Algerian Sahara desert). Cosinor rhythmometry procedure was used to determine the rhythmic parameters of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters. To determine the effect of time of day on the rhythmicity of the studied parameters, as well as their seasonality, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The results showed that in spite of the nychthemeral profile presented by the ambient temperature for each season, the body temperature remained in a narrow range, thus indicating a successful thermoregulation. The rhythmometry analysis showed a circadian rhythmicity of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters with diurnal acrophases. A statistically significant effect of the time of day was shown on all studied haematochemical parameters, except on creatininemia. It was also found that only uremia, cholesterolemia and triglyceridemia followed the seasonal sexual activity of the studied ruminant. This study demonstrated the good physiological adaptation developed by this breed in response to the harsh climatic conditions of its natural environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  3. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  4. Generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Domestic Goats - Capra hircus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...

  5. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of South African indigenous goat hair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has over 4 million indigenous goats (Boer, Savannah and Nguni/Mbusi breeds), many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a cashmere like fine down and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk and skin...

  6. Prenatal transmission of scrapie in sheep and goats: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or unwashed in vivo derived embryos are hazards for the transmission of scrapie. Evidence from causal reasoning, including experience from other prion diseases, shows that mechanisms exist for prenatal transmission and transmission by semen and embryos in both sheep and goats. Keywords: Goat, Prenatal, Scrapie, ...

  7. Epidemiology of Q fever in dairy goat herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, L.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; Keilbach Baer, Nícola Maria; van der Zijpp, Akke

    2013-08-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38%) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m(2)), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m(2)). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity.

  9. Evaluation of clinical pathology parameters in fecal PCR-positive or PCR-negative goats for Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Fratini, F; Turchi, B; Cantile, C; Ebani, V V; Colombani, G; Galiero, A; Sgorbini, M

    2017-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is an economically important infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study evaluated the differences in various hematological and biochemical parameters between healthy goats and goats with JD. Forty goats were chosen randomly from a herd endemic for JD. A complete physical examination was performed. Blood and fresh fecal samples were collected from each goat. A complete blood cell (CBC) count and a protein electrophoresis were performed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal samples was performed in order to divide goats into two groups: group A "positive PCR on feces"; and group B "control (negative)." A Student's t test was performed for each parameter to verify differences between groups A vs B. Twenty goats were included in each group. Clinical signs likely related to JD were found in the history of 4/40 (10%) goats, while 36/40 (90%) goats were reported to be asymptomatic. CBC and electrophoresis values were within reference intervals in both groups. No differences were found for CBC parameters between the two groups. Values for alpha 1, beta, gamma globulins, and total protein (TP) were statistically higher in group A vs those in group B, while those for albumin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were lower. An increase in TP, hypoalbuminemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia has been reported in group A, while no abnormalities were found concerning CBC. JD-positive goats seem to show earlier clinical pathological alternations than clinical signs. Protein electrophoresis may help the diagnosis of JD in asymptomatic goat herds, acting as an economical screening method.

  10. Isolation and molecular characterisation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Ahmed O; Goyal, Sagar M; Chander, Yogesh; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Tamam, Sabry M; Madbouly, Hanafy M

    2013-06-01

    Nine fetuses and neonates from sheep and goats in Egypt were screened for pestiviruses using immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two goat kids with typical border disease (BD) were positive for pestivirus infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using polyclonal anti-BDV serum but not when four different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used. On inoculation in MDBK cells, a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was isolated from one of the two kids. PCR amplification followed by sequencing of the 5'-UTR region confirmed it as BVDV subtype 1b. Although the circulating virus in Egypt is considered to be BVDV 1a, this report confirms the existence of BVDV 1b in addition to BVDV 1a. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt and is probably the second report worldwide of a goat kid showing central nervous signs associated with border disease.

  11. Between-breed variations in resistance/resilience to gastrointestinal nematodes among indigenous goat breeds in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Mukiibi, Robert; Ampaire, A.; Benda-Beckmann, von K.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old

  12. Diet preferences of goats in a subtropical dry forest and implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genie M. Fleming; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; David N. Ewert

    2016-01-01

    As part of an experimental study of using controlled goat grazing to manage winter habitat of the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), an endangered Nearctic neotropical migratory bird, we evaluated diet preferences of domesticated goats within early successional subtropical dry forest in The Bahamas. We expected goats would show a low preference for two plants (...

  13. Diagnostic use of blood porphyrin and radiographic changes in lead exposure in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, D.; Maiti, S.K.; Dwivedi, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Blood porphyrin, hematological examination and radiographic changes were evaluated for the detection of lead intoxication in goats given daily po doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg lead acetate (5.43, 8.15 and 10.86 mg lead)/kg body weight for 30, 30 and 31 days, or a total of 91 days. Blood porphyrin was found a sensitive indicator with direct correlation (r = 0.976) to blood lead concentration. Basophilic stippling was not seen in the lead-exposed goats. Radiopaque bands developed at the distal metaphysis of the radius in 7 of the 12 lead-exposed goats at day 30. The usefulness of this sign for the diagnosis of lead exposure in goats requires further investigation

  14. Genetic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates from goat's milk and goat farm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Suárez, María-Elena; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Blanco, Miguel; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Santos, Jesús A

    2016-11-07

    The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 44 Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from goat milk and goat farm environment. Of the 19 STEC isolates, five (26.3%) carried the stx1 gene, four (21.1%) the stx2 gene and 10 (52.6%) presented both stx genes. Six (31.6%) STEC strains were eae-positive and belonged to serotypes related to severe human disease (O157:H7 and O5:HNM). Another seven STEC strains were of serotype O146:H21 and three of serotype O166:H28, also linked to human disease. The STEC strains isolated from goat milk were of serotypes potentially pathogenic for humans. All the 25 EPEC isolates were considered atypical (aEPEC) and one aEPEC strain was of serotype O26:H11, a serotype frequently isolated in children with diarrhea. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 23 sequence types (ST) were detected, 14 of them newly described. Twelve STs grouped STEC isolates and 11 STs grouped EPEC isolates. Genetic typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 38 patterns which grouped in 10 clusters. Well-defined groups were also observed for strains of pathogenic serotypes. In conclusion, strains of STEC and aEPEC belonging to serotypes related to severe human disease have been detected in goat milk and the goat farm environment. Ruminants are an important reservoir of STEC strains and the role of these animals as carriers of other pathogenic types of E. coli seems to be an emerging concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolism of 181W - labeled sodium tungstate in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.; Figueiras, H.D.; Jones, B.E.V.; Myamoto, S.

    1977-11-01

    Radiotungsten was given as Na 2 181 WO 4 orally to 4 goats and intravenously to 3 goats. Blood, milk, urine and faeces were collected regularly during an 8-day period. Thereafter the animals were slaughtered and different tissues were taken for analyses of 181 W. The data obtained suggest that radiotungsten is unlikely to be a significant environmental pollutant source for man, as far as its concentration in milk and meat are concerned

  16. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  17. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Hélder; Alegria, Nuno; Mendonça, Álvaro; Botelho, A.; Alves, A.; Pires, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  19. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies and its associated risk factors in indigenous goats of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  1. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  2. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rulien

    2016-12-24

    Dec 24, 2016 ... variation for αs2-casein in the South African goat populations ... of Pretoria's experimental farm (Saanens) and commercial goat farms in the provinces of Gauteng. (Toggenburg), North West (British Alpine and Toggenburg), ...

  4. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  5. Necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia caused by fungal infection in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapf, P.; Braun, U.; Ossent, P.; Scharf, G.

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and postmortem findings in a 2.5-year-old goat with necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia. The goat was referred to our clinic because of swelling of the head and neck, which was unresponsive to treatment, dysphagia, and deterioration in general condition. Thoracic radiographs showed two soft tissue densities, about 10 cm in diameter, in the left caudodorsal lung. The goat was euthanized and a necropsy was carried out. The two lesions in the left caudodorsal lung were round, firm and clearly demarcated from the surrounding lung tissue. They contained purulent material and compromised about 70 % of the diaphragmatic lung lobe. Histological examination of the lesions revealed a dense network of hyphae characteristic of Mucorales spp

  6. The immunogenic effect of irradiated Hemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, B.; Perfuse, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. The use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables one to take advantage of the special immunological properties of living parasites; the radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. This report deals with our attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Hemonchus contortus infection in adult goats. Hemonchus contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against Hemonchus contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  7. Effects of cyclodextrins on the flavor of goat milk and its yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, O A; Gupta, R B; Sadooghy-Saraby, S

    2012-02-01

    Goat milk fat includes several branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs), like 4-methyloctanoic acid, which when free, are responsible for goaty flavor. This flavor limits the market opportunities for goat milk. Prior research showed that cyclodextrins (CDs) can reduce goaty flavor, presumably by binding free fatty acids. This research extends that observation. In odor ranking trials in citrate buffer at pH 4.8, β-CD concentrations between 0% and 0.35% were increasingly effective in reducing odor intensity due to 4-methyloctanoic acid, but only when present in high molar excess. α-CD was also effective, but γ-CD was not. In lipase-treated goat milk only β-CD was effective but at much lower molar excess, a difference potentially explained by several factors. One was that BCFAs bind to CDs in marked preference to their straight chain isomers. Displacement experiments with phenolphthalein disproved that hypothesis. The ability of β-CD to reduce goaty flavor intensity extended to yogurt. An analytical panel showed that flavor of goat yogurt was reduced by addition of β-CD, but only if added before heating and fermentation. A hedonic trial showed that consumers preferred unsweetened and sweet/vanilla-flavored goat yogurt more when β-CD was included, P = 0.004 and 0.016, respectively. Males liked all yogurts more than females (P yogurt: sweet/vanilla masked the goaty flavor for males but not females. This results parallels previously demonstrated gender effects for sheepmeat flavor caused by BCFAs. β-Cyclodextrin masks goaty flavor in yogurt, and with its GRAS status means it could be used in commercial goat yogurts and similar products so the real or perceived nutritional advantages of goat milk are not lost to goaty flavor. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Productivity of Bedouin goats: Coping with shortages of water and adequate food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choshniak, I.; Brosh, A.; Shkolnik, A.

    1988-01-01

    The study was carried out under outdoor summer conditions on goats that were watered only once every four days and goats that were watered once daily. Under each of the watering regimes the goats were fed on alfalfa hay (a high quality roughage), and Rhodes grass and wheat straw, medium and low quality feed respectively. In all trials except one, the goats maintained constant body weights. When goats were watered infrequently they gulped down volumes of water that often caused the osmolarity of the rumen fluid to drop from 360 mosm/kg to about 80 mosm/kg. Over this entire range of osmotic concentration the bacterial populations in the goats' rumen maintained their viability. By reducing the fluid flow through the gut, infrequent drinking helped to extend the time the digesta were retained along the digestive tract. As a result, digestibility of the roughage, particularly that of the low quality feed, was improved. Infrequent drinking was found to reduce the animals' demand for metabolizable energy and, as a result, enabled the goat to balance its energy metabolism on a low energy intake. It also improved the balance in the utilization of dietary protein while not interfering with the ability to recycle urea. It is concluded that the effects of the two deficiencies dealt with in this study are by no means additive. Frequent watering of ruminants in the desert is likely to increase their demand for food, lower their gain in digestible energy, increase their demand for metabolizable energy and make it more difficult for them to balance their energy budget. Improving feed quality for animals grazing in the desert, when water availability declines, is also not advantageous. It may only increase the animals' needs for water, render them dependent on frequent drinking and restrict their grazing area to the close vicinity of water sources. 30 refs, 10 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Characterization of casein gene complex and genetic diversity analysis in Indian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P K; Kumar, A; Mandal, A; Laloe, D; Singh, S K; Roy, R

    2010-04-01

    Milk protein polymorphism plays an important role in genetic diversity analysis, phylogenetic studies, establishing geographical diversity, conservation decision, and improving breeding goals. Milk protein polymorphism in Indian goat breeds has not been well studied; therefore, an investigation was carried out to analyze the genetic structure of the casein gene and milk protein diversity at six milk protein loci in nine Indian goat breeds/genetic groups from varied agro-climatic zones. Milk protein genotyping was carried out in 1098 individual milk samples by SDS-PAGE at alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), alphaS2-CN (CSN1S2), kappa-CN (CSN3), beta-LG, and alpha-LA loci. Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-casein A allele in higher frequency in the majority of breeds except Ganjam and local goats. The alphaS1-casein A allele frequencies varied from 0.45 to 0.77. A total of 16 casein haplotypes were observed in seven breeds and breed specific haplotypes were observed with respect to geographic region. The average number of alleles was lowest in Ganjam (1.66 +/- 0.81) and highest in Sirohi goats (2.50 +/- 1.05). Expected heterozygosity at six different loci demonstrated genetic diversity and breed fragmentation. Neighbor-Joining tree was built basing on Nei's distance. There was about 16.95% variability due to differences between breeds, indicating a strong subdivision. Principal component analysis was carried out to highlight the relationship among breeds. The variability among goat breeds was contributed by alphaS2-CN, beta-LG and alphaS1-CN. The Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1) A allele in higher frequency in all the breeds indicating the higher casein yield in their milk.

  10. Nematodiasis in sheep and goats kept under traditional farming practice in Batujajar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriajaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relation of age, sex, season and reproduction on gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of the two most commonly kept breeds of sheep and goat in Bogor district. A total of 119 Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep and 130 Peranakan Etawah (PE goats with different age and sex were monitored for 16 months. Age of sheep and goat was divided into 3 groups respectively, i.e. before weaning (8 months 31 and 35. Each 4 weeks, individual faeces were collected and individual animals were weighed. Information on the mortality, morbidity, pregnancy, slaughtered and sold was recorded. The results showed that Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. were dominant species of nematodes found in the faecal cultured. In the period of monitoring, egg counts of nematodes in sheep were higher (P<0.05 than in goats, however both animals have similar pattern of egg counts. In the first three months, the egg counts remained steady relatively in 3 groups of age, but soon after that the egg counts increased and reached its peak (in March of 6186 eggs in sheep and 3434 in goats, there after they decreased along with the onset of dry season. A part from this, the egg counts increased (P<0.05 three months before lambing and remained steady until 2 months after partus in sheep, but not in goats. During the monitoring period, weight gain in wet season was lower (P<0.05 as compared to dry season. There was no effect of sex on faecal egg count in either sheep or goats although male sheep had higher egg counts than female sheep had in November and January. Evidence of diarrhoeic faeces was higher in wet season than in dry season.

  11. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  12. Detection of selection signatures for ear carriage in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Talenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection and breeding practices in goats have led to the fixation of several traits. This is probably due to the standardization of several peculiar morphological characteristics that have always been one of the major exclusion criteria of individuals from selection. Among these, ear carriage is one of the most ancient and considered a signature of domestication in several species, such as the dog, pig, sheep and goat (Boyko et al., 2010. The availability of improved genomic analyses tools for goats may provide useful information on genes involved in this trait. By studying, for example, the homozygosity decay of haplotypes (contiguous length of alleles such information can be detected. In the current study, we focused on the Maltese goat, a breed showing floppy ears, in comparison with other Italian breeds using a goat medium density SNP chip (Nicoloso et al., 2015. A total 48,767 SNP markers for 369 animals belonging to 16 breeds or populations were analyzed. Genotypes were imputed within population excluding markers without known position on the current genome assembly (ARS1, Bickhart et al., 2017. Population analysis using MDS, ADMIXTURE and fastSTRUCTURE confirmed the good differentiation among the populations. Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS, Sabeti et al., 2007 was performed for each population, comparing the regions detected on the Maltese breed with the others considered to detect genes that may be involved into shaping  ear morphology. These results may provide new insights into ear carriage phenotype by detecting genes that play a pivotal role in shaping the goat phenotypic diversity. Acknowledgement The research was funded by INNOVAGEN project.

  13. Assessment of the Kid Production Traits of Kacang Goat Under Smallholders Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiq, A; Priyono, A; Tawfik, ES

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the influence of environmental (non-genetic) factors on kid production traits of Kacang goat under smallholders production system. The study was conducted at the Kacang goat smallholders, located at the centre of Kacang goat in Gundi subdistric, Purwodadi regency, Central Java. The kid production traits evaluated are birth weight, weaning weight, and growth rate till weaning. The environmental factors assessed were: sex (male, female), type of ...

  14. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status and responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge in postnatal young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more susceptible to a bacterial pathogen challenge. The present findings expand the existing knowledge in immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of disease in later life.

  15. Physiological and production response of dairy goats bred in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; Salles, Maria Gorete Flores; da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Carneiro, Hilton Alexandre Vidal; de Souza, Leonardo Peres; Rondina, Davide; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the adaptability of Saanen and ½Saanen × ½Anglo-Nubian (½S½AN) goats bred in tropical climates. The study included 30 goats, 15 Saanen and 15 ½S½AN. The data was collected during the rainy and dry seasons. During the whole experimental period, the environment variables were recorded, as well as rectal temperature (RT), superficial temperature (ST), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) and milk production (MP). The adaptability coefficient (AC) was calculated for both genotypes. The averages were evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability. There was a genotype and period of year effect, as well as the interaction genotype × period of year. Pearson's simple correlation analysis was then carried out between milk production and physiological and environment variables. There was a statistical difference ( p goats, regardless of the season. MP was greater in the dry season ( p goats. Under the conditions of the present study, it is concluded that the goats were influenced by climatic factors, where the rainy period was more likely to cause thermal stress in the animals.

  16. Smallholders' perceptions of goat farming in southern Benin and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, L H; Wollny, C; Gauly, M

    2007-01-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve smallholder's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. This paper identifies the objectives, constraints and needs of goat farmers in southern Benin and discusses their relevance to the development of improvement programmes. Between November and December 2005, structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to collect information from 38 goat farmers in two selected locations. Goats were kept mainly for sale whenever cash was needed. Traits related to reproduction, to behaviour, to health and to meat production were considered equally important and were ranked very highly by goat keepers. Increased net income per flock through increased number of marketable animals is the derived breeding objective from the trait analysis. Disease outbreaks resulting in high mortality, poor housing, and feed shortages were, in descending order, the most important problems. It was concluded that the development of initiatives to improve management practices is an overriding priority. It will lead to increases in productivity in the short term and foster farmers' participation in the development of long-term improvement strategies, which should include selection and controlled mating.

  17. Characterization of goat inner cell mass derived cells in double kinase inhibition condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qiang; Xi, Qihui; Liu, Xiaokun; Meng, Kai; Zhao, Xiaoe; Ma, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    The identification of small molecular inhibitors, which were reported to promote the derivation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), provides a potential strategy for the derivation of domesticated ungulate ESCs. In present study, goat inner cell mass (ICM) derived cells in the double inhibition (2i) condition, in which, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAP2K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) were inhibited by PD0325901 and BIO respectively, were characterized. The results showed that goat ICM derived cells in 2i medium adding leukaemia inhibitor factor (LIF) possessed a mouse ES-like morphology. But these cells had much compromised proliferation capacity, resulting in difficulty in expansion. In 2i alone medium, goat ICM derived cells possessed primate ES-like morphology. These cells expressed pluripotent markers and could differentiate into derivatives of three germ layers in vitro. However, these cells could not be proliferated in long-term (persisted for 15 passages) because of spontaneously neural differentiation. Additionally, goat ICM derived cells could be inducing differentiated into neural lineage in vitro. Although goat ESCs could not be established in PD0325901 and BIO alone medium, this derivation condition provides a useful research system to find signaling molecular those regulate early embryonic development and pluripotency in goat. - Highlights: • Goat inner cell mass derived cells possessed finite pluripotency in 2i condition. • These cells could not be proliferated in long-term in 2i condition. • These cells could spontaneously and inductively differentiate into neural lineage.

  18. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  19. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry A. El-Khodery; Hussein S. Hussein; Mohamed E. El-Boshy; Medhat N. Nassif

    2011-01-01

    As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease) in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy) were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l an...

  1. Characterization of Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome: sequencing, de novo assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    Full Text Available Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology.Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51% unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17% unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes.The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.

  2. Assessing the iron chelation capacity of goat casein digest isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialowska, A; Matia-Merino, L; Carr, A J

    2017-04-01

    We isolated goat phosphopeptides via calcium and ethanol precipitation from a caseinate digest and investigated their feasibility as an iron-fortification ingredient in nutritional foods. Goat tryptic-digested phosphopeptides could bind 54.37 ± 0.50 mg of Fe/g of protein compared with goat milk, which could bind 3.83 ± 0.01 mg of Fe/g of protein, indicating that isolation did increase iron binding. However, the >13-fold increase in iron binding was only partly explained by the increased concentration of phosphoserine-rich residues in the isolated fraction: we observed a 77% increase in serine residue content and a 5.9-fold increase in phosphorus in the goat peptide isolate compared with the starting caseinate material. We investigated the effect of potential industrial processing conditions (including heating, cooling, holding time, and processing order) on iron binding by the tryptic-digested phosphopeptides. In addition, we tested the effect of ionic strength and the addition of peptides to a milk system to understand how food formulations could affect iron binding. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intake and ingestive behavior of goats on marandu-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernando de Oliveira Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Marandu-grass (Brachiaria brizantha pasture height (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm on the canopy structural traits and grazing behavior and forageingestion process by goats. Six goats were used to evaluate behavior during grazing, and four were used to evaluate the ingestion process - all goats were Anglo-Nubian. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Increase in the canopy height resulted in an increase in the masses of forage, leaves, stem, and dead material and tiller density, and reduction in leaf/stem ratio. Grazing time increased and idle time reduced as the canopy height was elevated. The correlation between canopy height and bite depth was positive and linear (r = 0.99. The mass of consumed forage, the intake rate, and the bite mass were higher at 60 cm. The correlation between pasture height and bite rate was negative, whereas the correlation between pasture height and the time per bite was positive. On Marandu-grass pastures, the greatest efficiency in forage harvesting by goats occurs at a canopy height of 60 cm.

  4. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products.

  5. A goat poxvirus-vectored peste-des-petits-ruminants vaccine induces long-lasting neutralization antibody to high levels in goats and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiye; Hu, Sen; Qu, Linmao; Hu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qian; Zhi, Haibing; Huang, Kehe; Bu, Zhigao

    2010-07-05

    Recombinant capripoxvirus (CPV) is a promising candidate differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) vaccine against peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR). In order for recombinant CPV to be successfully used in the field, there should exist dependable indicators for quality control of vaccine products, surveillance and vaccination evaluation. Viral neutralization antibody (VNA) is correlated to protection against PPR and is a technically feasible indicator for this purpose. The immunogenicity of this vectored vaccine in goats and sheep, however, has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we generated two recombinant CPV viruses, rCPV-PPRVH and rCPV-PPRVF, that express PPR virus (PPRV) glycoproteins H and F, respectively. Vaccination studies with different dosages of recombinant viruses showed that rCPV-PPRVH was a more potent inducer of PPRV VNA than rCPV-PPRVF. One dose of rCPV-PPRVH was enough to seroconvert 80% of immunized sheep. A second dose induced significantly higher PPRV VNA titers. There was no significant difference in PPRV VNA responses between goats and sheep. Subcutaneous inoculation also induced a significant PPRV VNA response. PPRV VNA could be detected for over 6 months in more than 80% of vaccinated goats and sheep. Boost vaccination at 6-month intervals induced significant re-boost efficacy of PPRV VNA in goats and sheep. More over, two doses of rCPV-PPRVH could completely overcome the interference caused by pre-existing immunity to the CPV vaccine backbone in animals. Vaccination with rCPV-PPRVH also protected goats from virulent CPV challenge. Our results demonstrate that VNA can serve as a dependent indicator for effective vaccination and immune protection of animals in the field. The recombinant CPV vaccine used in our studies could be a practical and useful candidate DIVA vaccine in countries where PPR newly emerges or where stamp-out plans are yet to be implemented. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein and Amino Acid Profile of Filial Etawah Crossbred and Castrated Filial Boer Crossbred Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Purnomo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the protein content and amino acid profile of filial Etawah and castrated Boer goat meat. The results were expected to be used as information about protein content and amino acid composition of filial Etawah and filial castrated Boer goat meat and  as a reference for further experiment about different livestock. The material of the research were loin meat, front  and back thigh of filial Etawah and filial castrated Boer goat meat. Data were analysed with t-test. The results showed that castrated filial Boer goat meat had significantly higher protein content  and 7 essensial amino acids namely lysine, leucine, arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and histidine compared to the one from filial Etawah goat meat. Key words: protein, amino acid profiles, goat  meat

  7. Variation in udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats with no udder infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose mastitis in goats are available but have not all been investigated in healthy udders and at different stages of lactation....... The purpose of the study was to investigate the variation in some udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats without intramammary infection (IMI). The udder health indicators were: somatic cell counts (SCC) measured by DeLaval Cell Counter (DCC) and estimated by California Mastitis Test...... (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...

  8. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  9. Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

  10. SUSTAINABILITY OF BIODIVERSITY BY VALORIZATION OF SARDA BREED GOAT DRY HAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Melillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is a very important resource, expecially in marginal and unlikely exploitable Mediterranean areas. They are extensively reared, mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat. The meat from adult goats instead is not profitable, because of its very low commercial value. The transformation of the Sarda goat (native breed meat in ripened products (ham would contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. In the present study, in order to characterize the Sarda breed goat dry ham, five batches (L1–L5, processed in a traditional plant, were analyzed. The chemical-physical characteristics were determined in the following stages: fresh ham (MP, after salting (S, after drying (E and at the end of ripening (P. The microbiological parameters were determined in MP and in P. The dynamics of pH during processing were similar to those of cured meat products (in P: 6.58±0.26. The aw value decreased during the processing up to 0.79±0.03. Regarding the microbiological parameters, in P the coagulase negative Staphylococci were the prevalent flora (4.38±1.08 Log10 cfu/g, followed by the Lactic acid bacteria (2.46±1.00. The Moulds and Yeasts were not constant and the presence of pathogens was not highlighted.

  11. The Effect of Heating and Postfermentation on Lactoferrin of Fresh and Kefir Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Kustiawan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determinated of lactoferrin profile in goat milk and kefir. The samples were collected from whey raw milk, pasteurized and kefir. Lactoferrin profile in this study consisted of concentration and molecule weight of lactoferrin. Goat lactoferrin was isolated from whey by fractionation on sephadex     G-100 column, it was eluted at 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Characterization of goat lactoferrin by electrophoretic SDS-PAGE techniques detected molecule weight of goat lactoferrin that the isolate of the fractions from fractionation on sephadex G-100 column. Result of the research  showed that pasteurization during storage after fermentation process were influenced by concentration of lactoferrin significant (P<0.05. The molecule weights of lactoferrin in goat milk and kefir were estimated at 84 kDa and 80 kDa. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin at 1.915 mg/ml (without pasteurized, 1.579 mg/ml (pasteurized at 65oC, 0.954 mg/ml (pasteurized at 73oC and 0.322 mg/ml (pasteurized at 83oC. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin in kefir during storage at 0.663 mg/ml (0 day, 0.448 mg/ml (3  day, 0.249 mg/ml (6 day, 0.142 mg/ml (9 day dan 0.048 mg/ml (12 day.  Pasteurization at temperature 65oC 30’’ can defend concentration of lactoferrin higher than temperature 73oC 15’’  and temperature 83oC 2’’. Concentration of lactoferrin in kefir were defended until 12 day storage.   Keywords : Lactoferrin, goat milks, kefir

  12. Spraying effects on some physiological and behavioural traits of goats in a subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cankaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different spraying methods on goats exposed to high air temperatures. Thirty goats were divided into three groups for the trial (sprayed once per day, OTS; sprayed twice per day, TTS; and non-sprayed, Controls. Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin were taken three times a day (08.00 - 09.00; 16.00 - 17.00 and 00.00 - 01.00 on hot summer days in July 2005 in a Mediterranean climate. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, and daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. Rectal temperatures, pulse and respiration rates, udder and head temperatures differed between the three groups. Rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased at 16.00 relative to 08.00, and at 00.00 had returned to the same level as at 08.00. TTS goats showed smaller increases in all physiological measurements at 16.00 than the other groups. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats eating (P=0.002, ruminating (P=0.032 and walking (P=0.021, but less time drinking (P=0.041 and lying (P=0.001. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (P=0.001 and alfalfa hay (P=0.024 than the other two groups, whereas Control goats consumed more water (P=0.003 than the other groups. Ultimately, the spraying had positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improving animal welfare.

  13. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for growth traits of Hainan Black goat in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Han Lin; Gu, Li Hong; Sun, Yanyan; Xu, Tie Shan; Rong, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic improvement of the growth of Hainan Black goats is a major concern as the breed is an important meat-type goat raised in southern China. To estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits for this breed, a population of 1354 Hainan Black goats born and maintained at the

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factor Assessment of Peste des petits ruminants in Goats in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Peste des petitis ruminants (PPR in goats in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh, and its relation to age, sex, breeds and seasonal influence. In total, 627 goats were examined where 305 were males and 322 were females. The overall prevalence of PPR in goats was found to be 20.57% (n=129. From the various risk factors analysed, age categories of goats, sex, breed and seasonal influence were found to be significantly associated (p<0.01 with the prevalence of PPR. Findings suggested that the seasonal influence on outbreaks of this disease was significantly higher. The clinical prevalence of PPR was highest in the month of December (31.68% and lowest in June (9.52%. The influence of sex on PPR outbreaks was found to be higher in male (28.52% than female (13.04% goats. As regards to age, PPR was significantly higher in young (31.06% compared to sucklers (13.14% and adult (10.15%. The susceptibility of Black Bengal goats to PPR was higher than other breeds. The results of this study showed that PPR is an important goat disease in the studied areas. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied, which could involve prevention of contact with infected goats and vaccination against the PPR virus. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 546-549

  15. Abattoir survey on extra-cerebral coenurosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.

  16. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize the milk yield of the Tswana goat of Botswana. Twenty-one Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a milk yield of either 1.5 kg/d, 1.0 kg/d or 0.5 kg/d. Intake, milk yield and kid growth rate was monitored for 14 ...

  17. Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in West African Dwarf Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, goats play a significant socioeconomic role in the life of rural people. Recently, there had been report of high mortality of goats especially the kids under one year with none of such among sheep reared together in Eruwa, Southwestern Nigeria. An investigation was conducted to ascertain the cause of the deaths.

  18. Diets of angora goats grazing leafy spurge Euphorbia esula-infested rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Kirby; Thomas P. Hanson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    Angora goats have been suggested as biological control agents for leafy spurge, especially in environmentally sensitive or limited access areas. Dietary preferences and dietary nutritive content of herded Angora goats were evaluated over a two-year period in North Dakota. Relative preferences of forages were evaluated by comparing botanical composition of diets as...

  19. Preliminary study on plasma proteins in pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, Marek; Wawrzykowski, Jacek; Dąbrowski, Roman; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Kankofer, Marta

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we used a combined approach based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the plasma protein composition in pregnant female dogs and compared it with non-pregnant female dogs. We used the plasma samples obtained from four female dogs during I, II, and III thirds of pregnancy, three days after parturition, as well as from four non-pregnant female dogs in diestrus phase. Analysis of 2-DE gel image exhibited of 249 protein spots. The intensity of staining of 35 spots differed significantly (P dogs. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify 47 spots corresponding to 52 different proteins. Five identified protein spots, including zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 5, hemoglobin subunit beta-2, integrator complex subunit 7, apolipoprotein A-I, and glutamyl aminopeptidase were differentially presented in the plasma of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the plasma protein profile of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. In this study, we identified proteins that have not been previously identified in dogs. Our findings showed that numerous protein spots were differentially presented in the plasma of female dogs during normal pregnancy. Although we identified only a limited number of differentially presented proteins, our study demonstrated that the plasma protein profile changed during pregnancy in female dogs, which suggests its importance in maintaining pregnancy. Further studies are necessary to define complete plasma protein profile of pregnant female dogs and to identify all proteins that are differentially presented in the pregnant animals compared with the non-pregnant ones. In addition, studies are warranted to explain the role of those proteins in maintaining the pregnancy and their usefulness in detection of early pregnancy

  20. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality.

  1. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

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    Y. Abba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit.

  2. Genetic distance estimates and variable factors distinguishing between goat Kacang, Muara and Samosir

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    Hamdan; Saputra, H.; Mirwandhono, E.; Hasnudi; Sembiring, I.; Umar, S.; Ginting, N.; Alwiyah

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to look the genetic distance and factors distinguishing variable betwen types of goats in North Sumatera. This research have been conducted in PayaBakung, Hamparan Perak and Klambir Lima village, Deli Serdang district, Batu Binumbun, Aritonang, HutaGinjang village, Muarasubdistrict, North Tapanuli district and ParbabaDolok, Siopat Sosor, Sinabulan village, Ronggur Nihuta Pangururan village, Sitonggi-tonggi village in the subdistrict RonggurNihuta, Samosir district of the month of July 2016. The data was analyzed using descriptive, discriminants, canonical, Principal Component Analysis, Distance genetic and Tree Phylogenetic. The result showed that the nearest genetic distance goat found in Kacang and Samosir (1.973), and the farthest genetic distnace find in Samosir and Muara (8.671). The variables made it difference was goat race Base Rim Horn (0.856) and Long Horn (0.878). Genetic distance values most far between Muaragoat with Samosir goat was (8.671). The conclude that the crossing superior result, must be cross between two goat types with value genetics most distance. It will have a better chance heterosis in cross result.

  3. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  4. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Waller, P J; Githiori, J B; Medley, G F

    2009-06-10

    The high prevalence of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in South Africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (COWP) boluses. To assess the efficacy of COWP against H. contortus in indigenous South African goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of H. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. These animals made up an "established" infection group (ESTGRP). At the start of week 7, six goats were each given a 2-g COWP bolus orally; six goats received a 4-g COWP bolus each and six animals were not treated. A further 20 goats constituted a "developing" infection group (DEVGRP). At the beginning of week 1, seven of the DEVGRP goats were given a 2-g COWP bolus each; seven goats were treated with a 4-g COWP bolus each and no bolus was given to a further six animals. During weeks 1-6, each of these DEVGRP goats was given ca. 400 H. contortus larvae three times per week. All 38 goats were euthanized for worm recovery from the abomasa and small intestines in week 11. In the ESTGRP, the 2-g and 4-g COWP boluses reduced the worm burdens by 95% and 93%, respectively compared to controls (mean burden+/-standard deviation, SD: 23+/-33, 30+/-56 and 442+/-518 worms, P=0.02). However, in the DEVGRP goats, both the 2-g and 4-g COWP treatments were ineffective in reducing the worm burdens relative to the controls (mean burdens+/-SD: 1102+/-841, 649+/-855, 1051+/-661 worms, P=0.16). Mean liver copper levels did not differ between the ESTGRP goats treated with 2-g COWP, 4-g COWP or no COWP (mean+/-standard error of the mean, SEM, in ppm: 93.7+/-8.3; 101.5+/-8.3; 71.8+/-8.3, P=0.07) nor did they differ between the DEVGRP goats (mean+/-SEM, in ppm: 74.1+/-9.1; 75.4+/-9.1; 74.9+/-10.0, P>0.99). The copper values were considered adequate, but not high, for goats. The COWP boluses have the potential to be used

  5. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

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    Carla Ibáñez

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day. The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL, another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH. After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average. No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05 fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75. Pentadecanoic acid (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid (17:0 were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average. Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  6. Role of species diversity and secondary compound complementarity on diet selection of Mediterranean shrubs by goats.

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    Rogosic, Jozo; Estell, Richard E; Skobic, Dragan; Martinovic, Anita; Maric, Stanislava

    2006-06-01

    Goats foraging on Mediterranean shrubs containing secondary compounds (toxins) may consume a variety of shrubs that contain different phytotoxins, thereby increasing shrub intake and avoiding toxicosis. We conducted eight experiments to examine whether goats offered different mixtures of shrubs containing different phytotoxins (tannins and saponins) would consume more shrub biomass than goats offered one shrub a single phytotoxin (tannin or saponin). In the first three experiments, goats fed a mixture of three tannin-rich shrubs (Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, and Pistacia lentiscus) ate more foliage than goats offered only one shrub (23.2 vs. 10.7 g/kg BW; 25.2 vs. 13.4 g/kg BW, and 27.9 vs. 7.9 g/kg BW), regardless of tannin concentration in individual shrub species. Goats also consumed more foliage when offered the same three tannin-rich shrubs than when offered the saponin-rich shrub Hedera helix (25.4 vs. 8.0 g/kg BW). However, goats offered a mixture of the same three tannin-rich shrubs consumed less foliage than goats offered a mixture of two shrubs containing tannins and saponins: Quercus and Hedera (21.6 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), Arbutus and Hedera (21.8 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), and Pistacia and Hedera (19.7 vs. 22.0 g/kg BW). Comparison of intake of shrubs containing only tannins or saponins to intake of shrubs containing both tannins and saponins indicated that goats consumed more total biomass when fed with shrubs with both classes of compounds than with either tannins or saponins alone. Our results suggest that goats can increase intake of Mediterranean shrubs high in secondary compounds by selecting those with different classes of phytotoxins. Simultaneous ingestion of shrubs containing tannins and saponins may promote chemical interactions that inhibit toxic effects of these phytotoxins in the intestinal tract. In addition to complementary interactions between tannins and saponins, biological diversity within Mediterranean maquis vegetation also plays a positive

  7. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Seasonal regulation of condensed tannin consumption by free-ranging goats in a semi-arid savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkӧnig, Ignas M. A.; Scogings, Peter F.; Hattas, Dawood; Dziba, Luthando E.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, Willem F.

    2018-01-01

    Although condensed tannins (CTs) are known to reduce forage intake by mammalian herbivores in controlled experiments, few studies have tested these effects in the field. Thus the role of CTs on foraging ecology of free-ranging herbivores is inadequately understood. To investigate the effects of CTs under natural savanna conditions, we pre-dosed groups of goats with polyethylene glycol (PEG, a CT-neutralising chemical), CT powder or water before observing their foraging behaviour. While accounting for the effects of season and time of the day, we tested the hypothesis that herbivores forage in ways that reduce the intake rate (g DM per minute) of CTs. We expected pre-dosing goats with CTs to reduce CT intake rates by (1) consuming diets low in CTs, (2) reducing bite rates, (3) increasing the number of foraging bouts, or (4) reducing the length of foraging bouts. Lastly, (5) expected CT to have no influence the number of dietary forage species. In both wet and dry seasons, pre-dosing goats with CTs resulted in lower CT consumption rates compared to PEG goats which seemed relieved from the stress associated with CT consumption. During dry season, the number of dietary forage species was similar across treatments, although goats that were dosed with PEG significantly increased this number in the wet season. Dosing goats with PEG increased the number and length of browsing bouts compared to goats from the other treatments. Pre-loading goats with PEG also tended to increase bite rates on browse forages, which contributed to increased consumption rates of CTs. Based on the behavioural adjustments made by goats in this study and within the constraints imposed by chemical complexity in savanna systems, we concluded that herbivores under natural conditions foraged in ways that minimised CTs consumption. More research should further elucidate the mechanism through which CTs regulated feeding behaviour. PMID:29293513

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

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    Sabry A. El-Khodery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  10. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

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    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  11. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

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    Acutis Pier Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP. Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002. Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines

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    Ariel Paul M. Rupa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors. Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%, Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%, Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%, Cooperia spp. (6.93%, and Chabertia spp. (0.79%. Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12. Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis

    2013-12-06

    Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (pgoats (pgoats that are kept together in mixed flocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV in vivo

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    Ali Al Ahmad Mohamad Z

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission.

  15. Expression profile of HSP genes during different seasons in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Maurya, Divakar; Yadav, Vijay Prakash; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Singh, Gyanendra; Mohan, Nitai Haridas; Bhure, Sanjeev Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Mahapatra, Ramkrishna; Taru Sharma, Guttalu; Sarkar, Mihir

    2012-12-01

    The present study has demonstrated the expression of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and UBQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in three different age groups (Groups I, II, and III with age of 0-2, 2-5, and >5 years, respectively) of goats of tropical and temperate regions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors. Specificity of the desired products was documented using analysis of the melting temperature and high-resolution gel electrophoresis to verify that the transcripts are of the exact molecular size predicted. The mRNA expression of HSP60, HSP90, and UBQ was significantly higher (P tropical and temperate region goats. HSP70 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P tropical region goats. However, in the temperate region, in goats from all the three age groups studied, a non-significant difference of HSP70 expression between summer and winter seasons was noticed. In conclusion, results demonstrate that (1) HSP genes are expressed in caprine PBMCs and (2) higher expression of HSPs during thermal stress suggest possible involvement of them to ameliorate deleterious effect of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats.

  16. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style a