WorldWideScience

Sample records for pregnant smokers quit

  1. Examining educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting as predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    We investigated three potential predictors (educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting [DD]) of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers. These predictors were examined alone and in combination with other potential predictors using study-intake assessments from controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Data from 349 pregnant women (231 continuing smokers and 118 spontaneous quitters) recruited from the greater Burlington, VT, area contributed to this secondary analysis, including psychiatric/sociodemographic characteristics, smoking characteristics, and performance on a computerized DD task. Educational attainment, smoking rate, and DD values were each significant predictors of spontaneous quitting in univariate analyses. A model examining those three predictors together retained educational attainment as a main effect and revealed a significant interaction of DD and smoking rate (i.e., DD was a significant predictor at lower but not higher smoking rates). A final model considering all potential predictors, included education, the interaction of DD and smoking rate, and five additional predictors (i.e., stress ratings, the belief that smoking during pregnancy will "greatly harm my baby," age of smoking initiation, marital status, and prior quit attempts during pregnancy). The study presented here contributes new knowledge on predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers with substantive practical implications for reducing smoking during pregnancy.

  2. Multicentre, randomised controlled trial of a low-cost smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit)

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Felix; Foster, Katharine; Emery, Jo; Cooper, Sue; Sutton, Stephen; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Ussher, Michael; Whitemore, Rachel; Leighton, Matthew; Montgomery, Alan; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Text message cessation programmes have potential to change smoking behaviour during pregnancy but their effectiveness is unknown. This study aimed to estimate key parameters, including effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, for delivering a definitive effectiveness trial of a pregnancy specific, theory-guided, tailored text message cessation intervention. \\ud \\ud Methods: Multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Pregnant smokers (

  3. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  4. Life gain in Italian smokers who quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

    2014-02-26

    This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10-19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1-9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt.

  5. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  6. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data ana

  7. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  8. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  9. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision tree approach for predicting smokers'quit intentions using the data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Three rule-based classification models are generated from three data sets using attributes in relation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers' beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning label attributes are important in predicting smokers' quit intentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quit intentions is enhanced, if the attributes regarding smokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quitting are included.

  10. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  11. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision treeapproach for predicting smokers' quit intentions usingthe data from the International Tobacco Control FourCountry Survey. Three rule-based classification modelsare generated from three data sets using attributes inrelation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers'beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning labelattributes are important in predicting smokers' quitintentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quitintentions is enhanced, if the attributes regardingsmokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quittingare included.

  12. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-20

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-10

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  14. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence among smokers not currently interested in quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Rates of quitting smoking remain stagnant, and thus it is becoming increasingly important to identify determinants of successful quitting behavior. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of quit attempts and 7-day point prevalence abstinence in a large nationally based sample. The study population consisted exclusively of smokers with minimal interest in quitting in the immediate future, for whom the need to identify facilitating factors of cessation is highly significant. Participants consisted of 849 smokers participating in a nationwide population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote quit attempts and cessation; all participants were not currently interested in cessation. After adjusting for treatment group, and using a multivariate logistic approach, a combination of motivational and self-efficacy variables consistently predicted quit attempts, regardless of how quit attempts were defined (i.e., any self-defined vs. 24 hr). Additionally, a greater number of previous quit attempts significantly predicted making future quit attempts. In terms of achieving short-term abstinence, regardless of whether analyses were restricted to individuals who made prior quit attempts or not, self-efficacy emerged as the only significant consistent predictor. Unlike previous studies, we did not find strong evidence suggesting unique predictors for making a quit attempt compared with achieving abstinence. Our findings demonstrate that even among smokers not currently interested in quitting, self-efficacy and motivation are key factors in the cessation process. Overall, the findings have important implications, as they highlight factors to target for future treatment.

  15. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  16. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  17. Talking About Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers' Quit Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy S L; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants 3 months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and the indirect effects of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns.

  18. Nicotine Therapy Sampling to Induce Quit Attempts Among Smokers Unmotivated to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hughes, John R.; Gray, Kevin M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Saladin, Michael E.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Methods Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N=849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Results Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1–1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9–1.6). Conclusion Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979 PMID:22123796

  19. Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Hughes, John R; Gray, Kevin M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Saladin, Michael E; Alberg, Anthony J

    2011-11-28

    Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N = 849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1-1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979.

  20. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  1. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  2. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Ucinska Romana; Lewandowska Katarzyna; Jassem Ewa; Buczkowski Krzysztof; Sieminska Alicja; Chelminska Marta

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals ...

  3. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  4. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang;

    2015-01-01

    regression analysis. RESULTS: Quitting unaided was reported by 63%. Adjusted analyses showed that men were more likely to quit unaided than women, and younger compared with older were more likely to quit unaided (eg, OR among women age 45-59 versus age 14-29 were 0.18, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.20). Additionally...

  5. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  6. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Morphett

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  7. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  8. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  9. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  10. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  11. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-04-30

    When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28-68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Community, Australia. Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the 'right' or 'better' choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers' beliefs and decisions about quitting. The reasons for smokers' rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers' reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference

  12. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics...

  13. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily ...

  14. [What determines smoking habits in pregnancy? A qualitative study among pregnant smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, S; Haug, K; Wold, B

    1995-06-30

    In this article we present results from a qualitative study among 33 pregnant smokers, who took part in an in-depth interview in the 27th-35th weeks of pregnancy. The aim was to obtain insight into pregnant women's own experience of smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women interviewed were concerned about their smoking habits. In spite of this, they still expressed positive attitudes towards smoking, and many did not experience pregnancy as a favourable time to stop. The study shows that pregnant women still lack important knowledge about the dangers of smoking. Pregnant smokers' attitudes towards scientific facts, and the role cigarettes play in their everyday lives, are considered to be important variables in determining smoking in pregnancy. The pregnant women experienced that their partner and health-personnel played a minor role in changing smoking behaviour. The reasons the women gave for smoking in pregnancy are discussed in the light of current theories on changing health behaviour. Four key questions are proposed which can be used by doctor and midwife to obtain knowledge of pregnant women's perception of the seriousness of smoking and the associated risks, and of the gains and barriers connected with quitting.

  15. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaam, M; Al-Marridi, W; Fares, H; Izham, M; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A

    2016-03-21

    To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar.

  16. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  17. Dependence and motivation to stop smoking as predictors of success of a quit attempt among smokers seeking help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Kakar, Geetanjali; Hajek, Peter; West, Robert

    2016-02-01

    It is not known how well motivation to stop smoking predicts abstinence in a clinical sample relative to the most widely used measure of cigarette dependence. A secondary analysis was conducted from a trial with 864 smokers making quit attempt. Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and motivation to stop smoking (composite of determination to quit and importance of quitting) were measured at baseline. Continuous smoking abstinence, validated by expired-air carbon monoxide, was assessed at 4weeks, 6months and 12months post-quit date. FTCD, HSI, non-HSI items in FTCD, and motivation were assessed as predictors of abstinence. In multiple-logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender and medication use, lower scores for FTCD, HSI and non-HSI all significantly predicted abstinence at all follow-ups, while motivation did not predict abstinence at any time. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the FTCD contributed most to the model at 4weeks and 6months; at 12months FTCD and non-HSI equally contributed most to the model. At 4weeks and 6months, predictions were improved by combining HSI and non-HSI components, compared with using these components alone. Cigarette dependence, measured by the FTCD, or by its HSI or non-HSI components, predicts both short-term and medium-term outcomes of attempts to stop smoking in treatment-seeking smokers involved in a clinical trial, whereas strength of motivation to stop predicts neither. Both the HSI and non-HSI components may be considered as briefer alternatives to the full FTCD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Transitions in Smokers' Social Networks After Quit Attempts: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Bethany C; Smith, Rachel A; Piper, Megan E; Roberts, Linda J; Baker, Timothy B

    2016-12-01

    Smokers' social networks vary in size, composition, and amount of exposure to smoking. The extent to which smokers' social networks change after a quit attempt is unknown, as is the relation between quitting success and later network changes. Unique types of social networks for 691 smokers enrolled in a smoking-cessation trial were identified based on network size, new network members, members' smoking habits, within network smoking, smoking buddies, and romantic partners' smoking. Latent transition analysis was used to identify the network classes and to predict transitions in class membership across 3 years from biochemically assessed smoking abstinence. Five network classes were identified: Immersed (large network, extensive smoking exposure including smoking buddies), Low Smoking Exposure (large network, minimal smoking exposure), Smoking Partner (small network, smoking exposure primarily from partner), Isolated (small network, minimal smoking exposure), and Distant Smoking Exposure (small network, considerable nonpartner smoking exposure). Abstinence at years 1 and 2 was associated with shifts in participants' social networks to less contact with smokers and larger networks in years 2 and 3. In the years following a smoking-cessation attempt, smokers' social networks changed, and abstinence status predicted these changes. Networks defined by high levels of exposure to smokers were especially associated with continued smoking. Abstinence, however, predicted transitions to larger social networks comprising less smoking exposure. These results support treatments that aim to reduce exposure to smoking cues and smokers, including partners who smoke. Prior research has shown that social network features predict the likelihood of subsequent smoking cessation. The current research illustrates how successful quitting predicts social network change over 3 years following a quit attempt. Specifically, abstinence predicts transitions to networks that are larger and afford

  19. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  20. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aree Jampaklay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43% (57% remaining quit; (b surviving at least six months (medium-term (31%; (c relapse between one and six months (45%; (d having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence (14%; and (e relapse from six months on (44% compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%. Predictors for early relapse (<1 month differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West.

  1. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  2. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  3. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic cigarette use is not associated with quitting of conventional cigarettes in youth smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William H; Wu, Yongda; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundTo investigate the association between electronic cigarette (e-cig) use and smoking cessation among smokers who called the Youth Quitline in Hong Kong.MethodsThis longitudinal study collected data on youth smokers' (N=189) use and perception of e-cigs, conventional cigarette smoking behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Self-reported past 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) was assessed in the 6-month telephone follow-up. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the association of e-cig use with quitting cigarette smoking and other cessation-related outcomes.ResultsE-cig users were younger, more addicted to nicotine, and less ready to quit (all Pcig users (13.4% vs. 20.8%) at follow-up. E-cig use was not associated with PPA at the 6-month follow-up (odds ratio (OR): 0.56, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.35), but it was nonsignificantly related to more cessation attempts (raw coefficient (b): 1.26, 95% CI: -0.13 to 2.66). Among those who still smoked, e-cig use was nonsignificantly associated with intention to quit smoking (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.15 to 2.05), nicotine dependence (Fagerström score, b: 0.75, 95% CI: -0.39 to 1.90), and perceptions on quitting cigarette smoking.ConclusionE-cig use was not associated with successful smoking cessation among Youth Quitline smokers.

  5. Autobiographical narratives can be used with confidence to collect information about ex-smokers' reasons for quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuc, Alex; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark Barry; Ruiz, Jessica Joy; Voluse, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Although autobiographical narratives (ABNs) provide rich descriptions of how people change addictive behaviors, psychometric evaluations of such reports are rare. 27 ex-smokers who had quit for 1 to 5 years were interviewed twice about why they quit. Participants' ABN reasons for why they quit smoking were compared with their answers on the Reasons For Quitting (RFQ) scale and found to be similar. Ex-smokers' ABNs are reliably reported for number and types of reasons given for quitting. Reasons ex-smokers gave in their ABNs were similar to their RFQ subscale answers. ABNs, a qualitative measure of quitting smoking, captured more information about how people quit smoking than quantitative scales.

  6. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  7. The views and experiences of smokers who quit smoking unassisted. A systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Smith

    Full Text Available Unassisted cessation - quitting without pharmacological or professional support - is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted.We systematically searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies reporting on smokers who quit unassisted. We identified 11 studies and used a technique based on Thomas and Harden's method of thematic synthesis to discern key themes relating to unassisted cessation, and to then group related themes into overarching concepts.The three concepts identified as important to smokers who quit unassisted were: motivation, willpower and commitment. Motivation, although widely reported, had only one clear meaning, that is 'the reason for quitting'. Willpower was perceived to be a method of quitting, a strategy to counteract cravings or urges, or a personal quality or trait fundamental to quitting success. Commitment was equated to seriousness or resoluteness, was perceived as key to successful quitting, and was often used to distinguish earlier failed quit attempts from the final successful quit attempt. Commitment had different dimensions. It appeared that commitment could be tentative or provisional, and also cumulative, that is, commitment could be built upon as the quit attempt progressed.A better understanding of what motivation, willpower and commitment mean from the smoker's perspective may provide new insights and direction for smoking cessation research and practice.

  8. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bommelé (Jeroen); T.M. Schoenmakers (Tim); M. Kleinjan (Marloes); B. van Straaten (Barbara); E. Wits (Elske); M. Snelleman (Michelle); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to qui

  9. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  10. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  11. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  12. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  13. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  14. Assessing the translational feasibility of pharmacological drug memory reconsolidation blockade with memantine in quitting smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ravi K; Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Lazzarino, Antonio I; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2015-09-01

    Preclinical reconsolidation research offers the first realistic opportunity to pharmacologically weaken the maladaptive memory structures that support relapse in drug addicts. N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism is a highly effective means of blocking drug memory reconsolidation. However, no research using this approach exists in human addicts. The objective of this study was to assess the potential and clinical outcomes of blocking the reconsolidation of cue-smoking memories with memantine in quitting smokers. Fifty-nine dependent and motivated to quit smokers were randomised to one of three groups receiving the following: (1) memantine with or (2) without reactivation of associative cue-smoking memories or (3) reactivation with placebo on their target quit day in a double-blind manner. Participants aimed to abstain from smoking for as long as possible. Levels of smoking and FTND score were assessed prior to intervention and up to a year later. Primary outcome was latency to relapse. Subjective craving measures and attentional bias to smoking cues were assessed in-lab. All study groups successfully reduced their smoking up to 3 months. Memantine in combination with smoking memory reactivation did not affect any measure of smoking outcome, reactivity or attention capture to smoking cues. Brief exposure to smoking cues with memantine did not appear to weaken these memory traces. These findings could be due to insufficient reconsolidation blockade by memantine or failure of exposure to smoking stimuli to destabilise smoking memories. Research assessing the treatment potential of reconsolidation blockade in human addicts should focus on identification of tolerable drugs that reliably block reward memory reconsolidation and retrieval procedures that reliably destabilise strongly trained memories.

  15. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  16. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March-December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned smoking due to ubiquity of risk) and selected "skeptic" beliefs were endorsed by 25%-47% of the sample, indicating these smokers may not fully understand the extensive risks associated with smoking. Smokers with limited quit intentions held significantly stronger self-exempting beliefs than those contemplating or preparing to quit (all p smoking-related variables only "skeptic" beliefs were significantly associated with intention to quit (p = 0.02). Some of these beliefs are incorrect and could be addressed in anti-smoking campaigns.

  17. Chronic perfusion changes and reduction in preeclampsia incidence in pregnant smokers: an ophthalmic artery Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Maria Marta B M; Diniz, Angélica L D

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the hemodynamic profile of the ophthalmic artery in preeclamptic women, pregnant smokers and pregnant controls with no known diseases. A prospective cross-sectional study using the performed ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography in 20 mild preeclamptic women and 20 severe preeclamptic women, 37 pregnant smokers and 51 controls. Data evaluated by using Doppler ultrasonography were as follows: resistance index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, second peak systolic velocity and peak ratio. The Doppler results, gestational age, patient age and systolic and diastolic pressure of groups were subjected to analysis of variance (p pregnant smokers showed vasospasm (0.84 ± 0.04, 2.27 ± 0.43, 4.78 ± 1.28, respectively) indicating divergent vascular pattern between these two groups (p changes in pregnant smokers might reduce the number of sudden and catastrophic events in preeclampsia.

  18. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  19. The Views and Experiences of Smokers Who Quit Smoking Unassisted. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrea L.; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M.; Becky Freeman; Simon Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Background Unassisted cessation – quitting without pharmacological or professional support – is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. Method We systematically searched ...

  20. Doppler study and evidences of perfusion changes in the ophthalmic artery of pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Maria Marta Bini Martins; Diniz, Angélica Lemos Debs; Jorge, Ana Paula Lino

    2013-12-01

    To compare the ophthalmic artery (OA) perfusion of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers by Doppler indexes. Correlate these with the interval of last cigarette, cigarettes per day, years smoking and carbon monoxide expired (COex). Transversal study involving 70 pregnant smokers divided into 33 pregnant who smoked until 2 h: A group (AG) and B group (BG): 37, who smoked between 2 and 24 h before test. Control group (CG) was composed of 51 pregnant nonsmokers. Doppler indexes were assessed: PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity), EDV (End Diastolic Velocity), PI (Pulsatility Index), RI (Resistance Index) and PR (Peak Ratio). Groups were compared using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney and Pearson's correlation coefficient, whereas p pregnant smokers shows a biphasic pattern of perfusion correlated with the time of consumption of the last cigarette. There are signs of vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion to tobacco exposure between 2 and 24 and hyperperfusion in A Group compared to B Group.

  1. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  2. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  3. Prevalence and Frequency of mHealth and eHealth Use Among US and UK Smokers and Differences by Motivation to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Tooley, Erin; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison

    2015-07-04

    Both mHealth and eHealth interventions for smoking cessation are rapidly being developed and tested. There are no data on use of mHealth and eHealth technologies by smokers in general or by smokers who are not motivated to quit smoking. The aims of our study were to (1) assess technology use (eg, texting, social media, Internet) among smokers in the United States and United Kingdom, (2) examine whether technology use differs between smokers who are motivated to quit and smokers who are not motivated to quit, (3) examine previous use of technology to assist with smoking cessation, and (4) examine future intentions to use technology to assist with smoking cessation. Participants were 1000 adult smokers (54.90%, 549/1000 female; mean age 43.9, SD 15.5 years; US: n=500, UK: n=500) who were recruited via online representative sampling strategies. Data were collected online and included demographics, smoking history, and frequency and patterns of technology use. Among smokers in general, there was a high prevalence of mobile and smartphone ownership, sending and receiving texts, downloading and using apps, using Facebook, and visiting health-related websites. Smokers who were unmotivated to quit were significantly less likely to own a smartphone or handheld device that connects to the Internet than smokers motivated to quit. There was a significantly lower prevalence of sending text messages among US smokers unmotivated to quit (78.2%, 179/229) versus smokers motivated to quit (95.0%, 229/241), but no significant differences between the UK groups (motivated: 96.4%, 239/248; unmotivated: 94.9%, 223/235). Smokers unmotivated to quit in both countries were significantly less likely to use a handheld device to read email, play games, browse the Web, or visit health-related websites versus smokers motivated to quit. US smokers had a high prevalence of app downloads regardless of motivation to quit, but UK smokers who were motivated to quit had greater prevalence of app

  4. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  5. Brief Advice on Smoking Reduction Versus Abrupt Quitting for Smoking Cessation in Chinese Smokers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William H; Cheung, Yee Tak; Lam, Oi Bun; Wu, Yongda; Kwong, Antonio C; Lai, Vienna W; Chan, Sophia S; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-02-09

    To compare the efficacy of brief advice about cut-down-to-quit (CDTQ) with that of brief advice about quit immediately (QI), as delivered by trained volunteers, without the use of pharmacological therapy, to outreach-recruited Chinese smokers in Hong Kong who intend to quit smoking. Smokers (N = 1077) who enrolled in the Quit and Win Contest 2014 and intended to quit or reduce smoking were randomized in participation sessions to CDTQ (n = 559) and QI (n = 518) groups. Subjects in the CDTQ group received brief advice and a card about smoking reduction. Subjects in the QI group received brief advice and a leaflet about quitting smoking. All received a smoking cessation booklet and corresponding CDTQ or QI brief telephone advice at intervals of 1 week, 1 month, or 2 months. The primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The secondary outcomes included abstinence rate as validated by biochemical tests, smoking reduction (≥50% reduction from baseline), and quit attempt (QA). The outcome assessors were blinded as to group assignment. By intention to treat, the QI and CDTQ groups showed similar results as regards (i) self-reported PPA (10.6% [95% CI 8.1%-13.6%] vs. 9.1% [95% CI 6.9%-11.8%]), (ii) validated abstinence rate (5.6% [3.8%-7.9%] vs. 5.4% [3.6%-7.6%]), and (iii) QA rate (59.2% [53.5%-64.8%] vs. 54.1% [48.7%-59.3%]) at 6-month. However, the CDTQ group showed a significantly higher reduction rate than the QI group (20.9% [CI 17.6%-24.5%] vs. 14.5% [11.6%-17.8%]). The overall intervention adherence was suboptimal (45.4%), particularly in the CDTQ group (42.3%). Self-efficacy as regards quitting of smoking was similar between the groups at 6 months. Brief advice on CDTQ and QI had similar short-term PPAs. Longer-term follow-up is needed to understand the latent effect of smoking reduction on abstinence. This is the first randomized controlled trial in ethnic Chinese smokers to evaluate the

  6. Doppler measurements of feto-placental blood stream in pregnant smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Doppler analysis of the feto-placental and fetal circulation give dynamic information on the condition of the bloodstream during pregnancy, and early detection of fetal hypoxia. The objectives of the study were: testing whether there is influence of smoking on feto-placental circulation; determining whether there is a link to a number of smoked cigarettes during the day; assessing the benefits of Doppler ultrasonographic screening in detection of fetal hypoxia in pregnant women who smoke during pregnancy.Methods: 300 pregnancies were included in the prospective research. With regard to a number of smoked cigarettes the pregnant women were divided into three groups: I. the first group (moderate smokers consisted of 100 pregnant women who smoked up to 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy; II. the second group (heavy smokers 100 pregnant women who smoked more than 15 cigarettes a day during pregnancy and III. the third group (control group 100 pregnant women who did not smoke during pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent Doppler measurements of blood circulation (determination of resistance index – RI in the umbilical artery, fetal aorta and middle cerebral artery.Results: The intensity of smoking has influence to circulation because RI in the umbilical artery and fetal aorta is increased and RI is decreased in the middle cerebral artery in pregnant women heavy smokers in comparison to pregnant women moderate smokers.Conclusion: Doppler sonography of the blood vessels could have an important role in detection of hypoxia and monitoring of the condition of the fetus of pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy.

  7. The 'quit' smoker and stillbirth risk: a review of contemporary literature in the light of findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; McCutcheon, Helen

    2011-10-01

    to identify existing literature which addresses the topic of detecting, assessing and intervening when a pregnant woman who has quit smoking relapses. This literature review was conducted in the light of findings of a case-control study which suggest that a quit smoking status is associated with increased risk of late stillbirth (odds ratio 3.03, 95% confidence interval 1.27-7.24, p = 0.01). a structured review was conducted to identify literature related to quitting smoking in early pregnancy, prevalence and likelihood of relapse, possible methods for detecting smoking resumption, potential intervention strategies for the relapsed smoker and the societal burden of continuing to smoke in pregnancy. there is a wide variety of evidence for the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at assisting women to quit smoking during pregnancy. However, few studies have specifically aimed to identify strategies to assist those women who report quitting in early pregnancy to maintain that status throughout pregnancy. in light of the results of the case-control study and this literature review, it is important that changes are made to prenatal care in order to enable midwives to better identify women who are struggling with abstinence or who resume smoking during pregnancy. midwives should discuss and monitor smoking status with women at every prenatal visit. If a midwife finds that a woman has relapsed into smoking, they can be offered a range of quit smoking intervention strategies, including referral to a dedicated cessation service, counselling support, alternative therapies and, perhaps, nicotine replacement therapy. Further research aimed at identifying the extent of relapse among these women and the impact this may have on pregnancy outcome is warranted. Research to ascertain the most appropriate interventions to prevent relapse is also needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maximizing the motivational impact of feedback of lung cancer susceptibility on smokers' desire to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, C M; Halabi, S; Bepler, G; Lyna, P; McIntyre, L; Lipkus, I; Albright, J; O'Briant, K

    2000-01-01

    This two-by-two factorially designed study evaluate approaches for communicating feedback of lung cancer susceptibility to smokers as a method for motivating smoking cessation. The study factors were: method of communicating feedback (by mail with telephone follow-up or in-person) and carbon monoxide feedback (yes or no). One-hundred-forty-four smokers were stratified on race and randomized to one of four conditions. Participants were surveyed at baseline and 2-month follow-up. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the absence of the glutathione S transferase mu (GSTM1) gene was the susceptibility marker. Regardless of counseling method or carbon monoxide (CO) feedback, the majority (90%) of smokers accurately recalled the test result and 66% accurately interpreted the meaning of the test result. Smokers who received their result in person were significantly less likely to have read the result booklet than those in the telephone counseling group (OR = .28, 95%; CI .12-.62; p motivate smoking cessation is warranted.

  9. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Sharon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches. This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640 tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1 nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program dispensed at discharge and (2 proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted

  10. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches). This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640) tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1) nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program) dispensed at discharge and (2) proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions) against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial) mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted for with hospital

  11. Tobacco retail availability and risk of relapse among smokers who make a quit attempt: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael O; Mecredy, Graham; Cohen, Joanna

    2017-04-21

    The availability of tobacco is thought to influence smoking behaviour, but there are few longitudinal studies examining if the location and number of tobacco outlets has a prospective impact on smoking cessation. The Ontario Tobacco Survey, a population-representative sample of Ontario adult smokers who were followed every 6 months for up to 3 years, was linked with tobacco outlet location data from the Ontario Ministry of Health. Proximity (distance), threshold (at least one outlet within 500 m) and density (number of outlets within 500 m) with respect to a smokers' home were calculated among urban and suburban current smokers (n=2414). Quit attempts and risk of relapse were assessed using logistic regression and survival analysis, adjusted for neighbourhood effects and individual characteristics. Increased density of tobacco outlets was associated with decreased odds of making a quit attempt (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.85) in high-income neighbourhoods, but not in lower income ones. There was an increased risk of relapse among those who had at least one store within 500 m (HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.88). Otherwise, there was no association of proximity with quit attempts or relapse. The existence of a tobacco retail outlet within walking distance from home was associated with difficulty in succeeding in a quit attempt, while the increased density of stores was associated with decreased attempts in higher income neighbourhoods. The availability of tobacco may influence tobacco use through multiple mechanisms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Recall of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements and Effects on Quitting Behavior: Results From the California Smokers Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C.; Myers, Mark G.; Strong, David R.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether an anti-tobacco television advertisement called “Stages,” which depicted a woman giving a brief emotional narrative of her experiences with tobacco use, would be recalled more often and have a greater effect on smoking cessation than 3 other advertisements with different intended themes. Methods. Our data were derived from a sample of 2596 California adult smokers. We used multivariable log-binomial and modified Poisson regression models to calculate respondents’ probability of quitting as a result of advertisement recall. Results. More respondents recalled the “Stages” ad (58.5%) than the 3 other ads (23.1%, 23.4%, and 25.6%; P advertisements that depict visceral and personal messages may be recalled by a larger percentage of smokers and may have a greater impact on smoking cessation than other types of advertisements. PMID:25521871

  13. Individual differences in self-concept among smokers attempting to quit: Validation and predictive utility of measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, W G; Mermelstein, R

    1996-09-01

    We tested a theoretical model of individual differences in smoking cessation using a social-cognitive conception of the self-concept. We developed and validated measures of the smoker self-concept and the abstainer self-concept. Each scale was shown to have good internal reliability and construct validity and was distinct from other important predictive measures used in smoking research (e.g. Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, smoking rate, motivation, self-efficacy). Importantly, we demonstrated the predictive validity of the self-concept scales. The interaction of baseline measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept predicted smoking status three months after treatment; subjects were most likely to be abstinent if they began treatment with a strong abstainer selfconcept and a weak smoker self-concept. This interaction held over and above baseline smoking rate, Fagerstrom Tolerance scores, and measures of motivation and self-efficacy to quit. The utility of social-cognitive individual difference models and potential patient-treatment matching interventions are discussed.

  14. Using Behavioral Intervention Technologies to Help Low-Income and Latino Smokers Quit: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo F; Bunge, Eduardo L; Barrera, Alinne Z; Wickham, Robert E; Lee, Jessica

    2016-06-14

    The Institute for International Internet Interventions for Health at Palo Alto University proposes to develop digital tools specifically to help low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to quit. Individuals from lower-income countries and those with lower social status quit at lower rates than those from high-income countries and those with higher social status. We plan to launch a project designed to test whether a mobile-based digital intervention designed with systematic input from low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers from a public-sector health care system can significantly improve its acceptability, utilization, and effectiveness. Using human-centered development methods, we will involve low-income patients in the design of a Web app/text messaging tool. We will also use their input to improve our recruitment and dissemination strategies. We will iteratively develop versions of the digital interventions informed by our human-centered approach. The project involves three specific aims: (1) human-centered development of an English/Spanish smoking cessation web app, (2) improvement of dissemination strategies, and (3) evaluation of resulting smoking cessation web app. We will develop iterative versions of a digital smoking cessation tool that is highly responsive to the needs and preferences of the users. Input from participants will identify effective ways of reaching and encouraging low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to use the digital smoking cessation interventions to be developed. This information will support ongoing dissemination and implementation efforts beyond the grant period. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the successive versions of the resulting stop smoking Web app by an online randomized controlled trial. Increased effectiveness will be defined as increased utilization of the Web app and higher abstinence rates than those obtained by a baseline usual care Web app. Recruitment will begin January 2016, the

  15. Reduced nicotine cigarettes: smoking behavior and biomarkers of exposure among smokers not intending to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. FDA has the authority to limit the nicotine content of cigarettes; however, there are concerns that reduced nicotine cigarettes will be smoked more intensely and, therefore, will increase exposure to toxic chemicals in smoke. This study examined changes in consumer behavior and exposure in response to cigarettes with substantially reduced nicotine content. Seventy-two adult smokers completed an unblinded trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes. Participants completed a 7-day baseline period during which they smoked their usual cigarette brand, followed by consecutive 7-day periods smoking cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine levels (0.6, 0.3, and 0.05 mg emission Quest cigarettes). Nicotine dependence and withdrawal, smoking behavior, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed for each 7-day period. Significant reductions in nicotine intake were observed between usual brand smoking (∼1.2 mg nicotine) and the 0.3 and 0.05 mg nicotine emission cigarettes, but not the 0.6 mg cigarette. The findings provide little evidence of compensatory smoking of Quest cigarettes, with no increases in exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels, smoking intensity, or levels of 1-hydroxypyrene across study periods. No significant differences were observed for smoking urges or measures of nicotine dependence. The study adds to the evidence that cigarettes with markedly reduced nicotine content are not associated with increased smoking intensity or exposure to smoke toxicants. The findings add to the evidence base on reduced nicotine content cigarettes and have the potential to inform FDA policy on nicotine levels. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. The role of theory-driven graphic warning labels in motivation to quit: a qualitative study on perceptions from low-income, urban smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-02-07

    Use of communication theories in the development of pictorial health warning labels (graphic warning labels) for cigarette packaging might enhance labels' impact on motivation to quit, but research has been limited, particularly among low socioeconomic status (SES) populations in the U.S. This qualitative study explored perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels and their role in motivation to quit among low-income smokers. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted with 25 low-income adult smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, who were purposively sampled from a community-based source population. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from January to February 2014. Participants were asked about the motivational impact of 12 labels falling into four content categories: negative depictions of the health effects of smoking to smokers and others, and positive depictions of the benefits of quitting to smokers and others. Data were coded using a combined inductive/deductive approach and analyzed thematically through framework analysis. Labels depicting negative health effects to smokers were identified as most motivational, followed by labels depicting negative health effects to others. Reasons included perceived severity of and susceptibility to the effects, negative emotional reactions (such as fear), and concern for children. Labels about the benefits of quitting were described as motivational because of their hopefulness, characters as role models, and desire to improve family health. Reasons why labels were described as not motivational included lack of impact on perceived severity/susceptibility, low credibility, and fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of disease. Labels designed to increase risk perceptions from smoking might be significant sources of motivation for low SES smokers. Findings suggest innovative theory-driven approaches for the design of labels, such as using former smokers as role models, contrasting healthy and

  17. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  18. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  19. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2016-07-19

    Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21-30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6-12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651-6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475-4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  20. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3% agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.651–6.248 and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584 were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  1. Development of SmokeFree Baby: a smoking cessation smartphone app for pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant smokers may benefit from digital smoking cessation interventions, but few have been designed for this population. The aim was to transparently report the development of a smartphone app designed to aid smoking cessation during pregnancy. The development of a smartphone app ('SmokeFree Baby') to help pregnant women stop smoking was guided by frameworks for developing complex interventions, including the Medical Research Council (MRC), Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). Two integrative behaviour change theories provided the theoretical base. Evidence from the scientific literature and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) from the BCT Taxonomy v1 informed the intervention content. The app was developed around five core modules, each with a distinct intervention target (identity change, stress management, health information, promoting use of face-to-face support and behavioural substitution) and available in a 'control' or 'full' version. SmokeFree Baby has been developed as part of a multiphase intervention optimization to identify the optimum combination of intervention components to include in smartphone apps to help pregnant smokers stop smoking.

  2. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes — A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Shiun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7 years for those who develop it. These results: 1 underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2 suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3 have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

  3. Money as motivation to quit: a survey of a non-random Australian sample of socially disadvantaged smokers' views of the acceptability of cash incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, B; Bryant, J; Lynagh, M; Paul, C

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to a) assess acceptability of personal financial incentives to socially disadvantaged smokers and non-smokers; b) examine factors associated with acceptability; and c) examine preferred levels of incentive amounts. A cross-sectional touch screen computer survey was conducted between February and October 2010 in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were clients experiencing financial or social hardship and receiving emergency welfare aid from a non-government social and community service organisation. Of 383 participants (69% response rate), 46% believed personal financial incentives were an excellent/good idea, 47% believed personal financial incentives did more good than harm and 61% agreed they would motivate smokers to quit. High acceptability ratings were associated with participants being female, current smokers, living in low socioeconomic areas, experiencing smoking-induced deprivation, making a previous quit attempt and intending to quit in the next 6 months. When asked what amount of incentive they felt would be acceptable, 23% selected amounts between $50 and $500 AUD and 37% selected amounts over $500 AUD. Given high smoking prevalence among socially disadvantaged groups and consequent health disparities, it is imperative novel methods of encouraging smoking cessation are explored and tested. This survey found financial incentives may be an acceptable method. Further research to understand all possible positive and negative effects is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  5. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  6. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  7. Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, Mariël; Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Yang, Yong; Li, Hong; Zheng, Pinpin

    2016-10-07

    We aim to describe the intention to quit smoking among Chinese male smokers from different educational backgrounds and to explain this intention from their attitude, perceived social norms and self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from workplaces and communities to reflect the occupational distribution in three cities (Shanghai, Nanning and Mudanjiang) in China. In 2013 interviews were conducted with 3676 male smokers aged 18 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression analyses calculated educational differences in the intention to quit smoking as well as the association between the intention to quit smoking and attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Bootstrapping estimated to what extent the educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking were mediated by these three determinants. No educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking within 1 or 6 months were observed among male Chinese smokers (p=0.623 and p=0.153, respectively). A less negative attitude, a higher perceived subjective norm towards smoking cessation, and a higher perceived self-efficacy to quit smoking were all associated with intention to quit (all p values theory of planned behaviour that statistically significantly mediated the differences in the intention to quit smoking (within 1 or 6 months) between the lowest educated Chinese men and the groups with lower (β=0.039, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.071 and β=0.043, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.073), higher (β=0.041, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.075 and β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.077) and the highest education (β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.080 and β=0.050, 95% CI 0.023 to 0.083). In order to prevent future socioeconomic disparities in smoking cessation, investment in a more stimulating social environment and norms towards smoking cessation among particularly the lowest educated Chinese men is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  8. Quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  9. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  10. Use and Effectiveness of Quitlines for Smokers With Diabetes: Cessation and Weight Outcomes, Washington State Tobacco Quit Line, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, Gillian L.; Bush, Terry; Cerutti, Barbara; Mahoney, Lisa; Thompson, Juliet R; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Having diabetes and smoking increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. However, cessation-related weight gain, a common side effect during quitting, can further complicate diabetes. Evidence-based telephone quitlines can support quitting but have not been studied adequately in populations with chronic diseases such as diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of a tobacco quitline among tobacco users with diabetes. Cessation-related weight ...

  11. Secular versus religious norms against smoking: which is more important as a driver of quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Savvas, Steven; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-06-01

    This paper prospectively examined two kinds of social normative beliefs about smoking, secular versus religious norms. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of these beliefs in influencing quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers. Data come from 2,166 Muslim Malaysian and 2,463 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who participated in the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia project. Respondents were followed up about 18 months later with replenishment. Respondents were asked at baseline about whether their society disapproved of smoking and whether their religion discouraged smoking, and those recontacted at follow-up were asked about their quitting activity. Majority of both religious groups perceived that their religion discouraged smoking (78% Muslim Malaysians and 86% Buddhist Thais) but considerably more Buddhist Thais than Muslim Malaysians perceived that their society disapproved of smoking (80% versus 25%). Among Muslim Malaysians, religious, but not societal, norms had an independent effect on quit attempts. By contrast, among the Buddhist Thais, while both normative beliefs had an independent positive effect on quit attempts, the effect was greater for societal norms. The two kinds of normative beliefs, however, were unrelated to quit success among those who tried. The findings suggest that religious norms about smoking may play a greater role than secular norms in driving behaviour change in an environment, like Malaysia where tobacco control has been relatively weak until more recently, but, in the context of a strong tobacco control environment like Thailand, secular norms about smoking become the dominant force.

  12. Coping Mediates the Association of Mindfulness with Psychological Stress, Affect, and Depression Among Smokers Preparing to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cao, Yumei; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Marcus, Marianne T.; Li, Yisheng; Wetter, David W.

    2017-01-01

    It is not surprising that smoking abstinence rates are low given that smoking cessation is associated with increases in negative affect and stress that can persist for months. Mindfulness is one factor that has been broadly linked with enhanced emotional regulation. This study examined baseline associations of self-reported trait mindfulness with psychological stress, negative affect, positive affect, and depression among 158 smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment trial. Several coping dimensions were evaluated as potential mediators of these associations. Results indicated that mindfulness was negatively associated with psychological stress, negative affect and depression, and positively associated with positive affect. Furthermore, the use of relaxation as a coping strategy independently mediated the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, positive affect, and depression. The robust and consistent pattern that emerged suggests that greater mindfulness may facilitate cessation and attenuate vulnerability to relapse among smokers preparing for cessation. Furthermore, relaxation appears to be a key mechanism underlying these associations. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00297479. PMID:28191263

  13. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  14. Protocol for a randomised pragmatic policy trial of nicotine products for quitting or long-term substitution in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Borland, Ron; Gartner, Coral

    2015-10-06

    Smoking is Australia's leading preventable cause of premature mortality and a major contributor to the national disease burden. If quit rates do not dramatically improve, then smoking will continue to be a major public health issue for decades to come. Harm-reduction approaches using novel nicotine products like e-cigarettes as long term replacements for smoking have the potential to improve quit rates. However, little research has assessed such approaches. Three-arm parallel-group pragmatic randomised controlled trial. People living in Australia who are at least 18 years old, smoke five or more cigarettes per day and are willing to try a sample of nicotine products. Participants are randomised to receive standard quit advice and medicinal nicotine (Condition A); quit or substitute advice and medicinal nicotine (Condition B); or quit or substitute advice and medicinal nicotine and e-cigarettes (Condition C). Participants choose which (if any) nicotine products to receive to try in a free sample pack followed by a two to three week free supply of their favourite product(s) and the option to purchase more at a discounted price. Follow-up surveys will assess nicotine product use and smoking. Continuous abstinence for at least 6 months. Target sample size: 1600 people (Condition A: 340; Condition B: 630; Condition C: 630) provides at least 80 % power at p = 0.05 to detect a 5 % difference in abstinence rates between each condition. This trial will provide data on tobacco harm-reduction approaches and in particular the use of e-cigarettes as a replacement for smoking. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612001210864. Date of registration: 15/11/2012.

  15. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes - A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Baker, Timothy; Hung, Rayjean J; Horton, Amy; Culverhouse, Robert; Hartz, Sarah; Saccone, Nancy; Cheng, Iona; Deng, Bo; Han, Younghun; Hansen, Helen M; Horsman, Janet; Kim, Claire; Rosenberger, Albert; Aben, Katja K; Andrew, Angeline S; Chang, Shen-Chih; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Dienemann, Hendrik; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Johnson, Eric O; Pande, Mala; Wrensch, Margaret R; McLaughlin, John; Skaug, Vidar; van der Heijden, Erik H; Wampfler, Jason; Wenzlaff, Angela; Woll, Penella; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Bickeböller, Heike; Brenner, Hermann; Duell, Eric J; Haugen, Aage; Brüske, Irene; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Geoffrey; Mayordomo, Jose; Risch, Angela; Schwartz, Ann G; Teare, M Dawn; Wu, Xifeng; Wiencke, John K; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-09-01

    Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9∗10(-10)). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke. Copyright © 2016

  16. Working alliance and empathy as mediators of brief telephone counseling for cigarette smokers who are not ready to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, Elias M; Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W; Solomon, Laura J

    2017-02-01

    Working alliance and empathy are believed to be important components of counseling, although few studies have empirically tested this. We recently conducted a randomized controlled trial in which brief motivational and reduction counseling failed to increase the number of participants who made a quit attempt (QA) in comparison to usual care (i.e., brief advice to quit). Our negative findings could have been due to nonspecific factors. This secondary analysis used a subset of participants (n = 347) to test (a) whether, in comparison to usual care, brief telephone-based motivational or reduction counseling predicted greater working alliance or empathy; (b) whether changes in these nonspecific factors predicted an increased probability of a QA at a 6-month follow-up; and (c) whether counseling affected the probability of a QA via working alliance or empathy (i.e., mediation). Findings were similar for both active counseling conditions (motivational and reduction) versus usual care. In comparison to usual care, active counseling predicted greater working alliance (p empathy (p empathy predicted a decreased probability of a QA (p empathy (p empathy had opposing effects on quitting. Our analyses illustrate how testing nonspecific factors as mediators can help explain why a treatment failed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Clustering of socioeconomic, behavioural, and neonatal risk factors for infant health in pregnant smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren I Lanting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, including during pregnancy. Although effective ways of promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy exist, the impact of these interventions has not been studied at a national level. We estimated the prevalence of smoking throughout pregnancy in the Netherlands and quantified associations of maternal smoking throughout pregnancy with socioeconomic, behavioural, and neonatal risk factors for infant health and development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data of five national surveys, containing records of 14,553 Dutch mothers and their offspring were analyzed. From 2001 to 2007, the overall rate of smoking throughout pregnancy fell by 42% (from 13.2% to 7.6% mainly as a result of a decrease among highly educated women. In the lowest-educated group, the overall rate of smoking throughout pregnancy was six times as high as in the highest-educated group (18.7% versus 3.2%. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased risk of extremely preterm (smokers were more likely to experience significant alcohol exposure in utero (OR 2.08; 95%CI 1.25 to 3.45 and formula feeding in early life (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.69 to 2.16. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of maternal smoking throughout pregnancy decreased significantly in the Netherlands from 2001 to 2007. If pregnant women were to cease tobacco use completely, an estimated 29% of extremely preterm births and 17% of SGA infants may be avoided annually.

  18. Evaluation of a web-based educational programme on changes in frequency of nurses' interventions to help smokers quit and reduce second-hand smoke exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Zou, Xiao Nong; Wang, Weili; Hong, Jingfang; Wells, Marjorie; Brook, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a web-based educational smoking cessation programme on changes in the frequency of hospital-based nurses' self-reported interventions to help smokers quit using the 5 As (i.e. Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange), to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke and to change attitudes about nurses' involvement in tobacco control. Few nurses in China support smokers' quit attempts using evidence-based smoking cessation interventions based on the 5 As. Limited knowledge is a barrier to intervention. Web-based tobacco cessation programs have the potential to reach a large population of nurses. A prospective single-group design with pre-, 3- and 6-month follow-up after the educational programme evaluated the feasibility of conducting web-based educational programs in two cities in China in 2012-2013. Frequency of interventions was assessed using a valid and reliable web-based survey with a convenience sample of nurses from eight hospitals in Beijing and Hefei, China. Generalized linear models, adjusting for age, clinical setting, education and site were used to determine changes in the consistent (usually/always) use of the 5 As from baseline to 3 and to 6 months. Nurses (N = 1386) had baseline and/or 3- and 6-month data. At 6 months, nurses were significantly more likely to Assess, Assist and Arrange for smoking cessation and recommend smoke-free home environments. There was significant improvement in attitudes about tobacco control. Nurses receiving web-based smoking cessation education significantly increased self-reports of frequency of providing interventions to patients who smoke, including recommending smoke-free home environments to support quit attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adult smokers' perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: a comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.

  20. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core

  1. The role of pain in quitting among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie J; Gritz, Ellen R; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Baum, George P; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2017-01-01

    Smoking rates among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS; PLWHA) are at least twice as high as rates in the general population. Consistent with the reciprocal model of pain and smoking, PLWHA with pain who smoke may use smoking as a means of coping with pain, thus presenting a potential barrier to quitting. The aim of this study is to better understand how pain relates to smoking cessation among 474 HIV-positive adults enrolled in a cell phone-delivered smoking cessation trial. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (cessation advice and self-help materials) or 11 sessions of cell phone-delivered smoking cessation treatment. Pain, as assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), and point prevalence abstinence were collected at the 3-month treatment end and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Self-reported abstinence was biochemically verified by expired carbon monoxide (CO) level of <7 ppm. Using multilevel modeling for binary outcome data, the authors examined the relationship between pain and abstinence, from treatment end through the 12-month follow-up. Consistent with the authors' hypothesis, less pain was associated with greater likelihood of 24-hour (β = .01, t(651) = 2.53, P = .01) and 7-day (β = .01, t(651) = 2.35, P = .02) point prevalence abstinence, controlling for age, gender, baseline pain, nicotine dependence, and treatment group. No pain × treatment group interaction was observed. These results can help us to better identify PLWHA at greater risk for relapse in smoking cessation treatment. Future research may examine the effectiveness of more comprehensive smoking cessation treatment that incorporates aspects of pain management for PLWHA who smoke and have high pain and symptom burden.

  2. A Brief Smoking Cessation Advice by Youth Counselors for the Smokers in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010: a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wong, Yee Man Bonny; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2017-07-28

    Smoking cessation counseling by healthcare professionals is effective, but very few healthcare professionals can deliver these interventions in the busy clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief smoking cessation advice delivered by briefly-trained youth counselors at the enrolment of an incentive-based smoking cessation campaign. The study design was a cluster 2-arm randomized controlled trial of 831 Chinese adult smokers who were recruited in public areas to participate in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010. The intervention group (n = 441) received a 5-min quitting advice from the youth counselors, who were mainly undergraduate nursing students, and a 12-page self-help smoking cessation booklet at the enrolment, while the control group (n = 390) only received the same booklet. Biochemically confirmed quitters at 6-month follow-up could join a lucky draw that offered HK$10,000 (US$1282) cash prize to three winners and HK$4000 gift vouchers to the other 10 winners. Primary outcome was self-reported smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. By intention-to-treat, the intervention group had a non-significantly higher self-reported (18.4 versus 13.8%, OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.96-2.04, p = 0.08) and validated quit rate (9.1 versus 6.7%, OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.84-2.33, p = 0.20) than the control group at 6-month follow-up. The analysis with multiple imputation for missing data also found similar results. We concluded that the brief on-site advice by trained youth counselors had a modest effect on smoking cessation, but the effect was not significant. Future studies with larger sample size and results from higher participation of the biochemical validation to confirm the effectiveness are warranted.

  3. From appetitive to aversive: motivational interviewing reverses the modulation of the startle reflex by tobacco cues in smokers not ready to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantiva, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Vila, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a treatment method that has proven effective for increasing motivation to change and decreasing the consumption of different drugs. However, the results of studies examining the impact of MI on tobacco consumption are contradictory. Moreover, evidence of the effectiveness of MI for modifying well-validated psychophysiological indices of motivational change is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to use the startle probe paradigm and self-report measures of motivational change to assess the effectiveness of MI, compared to Prescriptive Advice (PA) and no treatment, in a sample of 53 smokers (28 male) who were not ready to quit smoking. After the intervention, the MI group reported increased motivation to change compared to both the PA and control groups. MI participants also had a potentiated startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures compared to the other two groups. These findings provide evidence that MI reverses the underlying motivational system activated by tobacco related cues.

  4. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  5. Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Barros Machado

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9-52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0-6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only.

  6. Attitudes towards SMS text message smoking cessation support: a qualitative study of pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Jamison, James; Sutton, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    SMS text messaging shows promise for delivering smoking cessation support. However, little is known about smokers' feelings towards receiving behavioural advice and support on their mobile phones. This article explores the attitudes of women with experience of prenatal smoking towards receiving pregnancy-related smoking cessation support by text message. Data collected by semi-structured interviews and focus group from women who received either tailored smoking cessation texts or no text support (N = 33) were analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: convenience, high expectations and perceived source. Texting was regarded as a highly convenient mode of support delivery leading to high levels of attention to messages, although high convenience sometimes resulted in the value of a text being short-lived. Many who did not receive texts had high expectations for text support to intervene with routine smoking behaviour in real time. Those who received texts (with no real-time intervention element), however, felt they were helpful and supportive. Participants discussed how factors relating to perceived source, including personalization, personal relevance and salience of text automatization, could affect message attention and impact. Our findings provide insight into how maximizing personalization and personal relevance can increase the value of text message support and reduce the risk of disengagement.

  7. Analysis of the influencing factors of smoker's intention to quit smoking in the community%社区吸烟人群戒烟意愿影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃华; 徐玲英; 吴丽红; 李凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the influencing factors of smoker's intention to quit smoking in community. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire was applied to investigate the smoker' s intention to quit smoking, involving the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, period of smoking, period of quitting smoking, reason for restarting smoking. Results A total of 809 smokers in two communities participated in the survey, of which 260 used to have intention to quit smoking, including 190 male smokers and 70 female smokers, with the average age of (31.67±5.64) years. The period of quitting smoking of the 260 smokers was 3-531 days, (48.42±54.89) d in average, 15 (5.8%) of which exceed 180 days. The main reasons for restarting smoking included friends' offer (98 cases, accounting for 37.6%) and work stress (93 cases, 35.8%). Other reasons were getting bored of work, social needs and all kinds of social pressures. According to the tobacco addiction level, it was found that the higher the tobacco addition level, the longer the period of quitting smoking (P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed a positive association between the tobacco addiction level and period of quitting smoking, number of complicated diseases. Conclusion To enhance success rate of quitting smoking, the community health service center needs to provide more publication & education on quitting smoking and more standardized diagnosis & treatment.%目的 分析影响社区吸烟人群戒烟意愿的因素.方法 横断面问卷调查,内容包括:Fagerstrom 尼 古丁依赖性评分表、吸烟时间、停止吸烟时间、再次吸烟原因等.结果 两个居民社区809 名吸烟者参加了调 查.曾经有戒烟意愿者260 人,其中男性190 人,女性70 人,年龄平均(31.67±5.64)岁.260 名吸烟者停止吸烟时 间3~531 d,超过180 d 仅15 人(占总人数的5.8%),平均(48.42±54.89)d.再次吸烟原因主要包括:朋友劝导98 人(37.6%)、工作紧张93 人(35.8%),其他原因包括工作无聊

  8. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  9. Encouraging smoking cessation during pregnancy in West Virginia: using Fax-to-Quit as a cessation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Cindy; Horn, Kimberly A; Anderson, Robert H; Chertok, Ilana; Danek, Robin L; Holmes, Alan; Adkins, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Despite known dangers of smoking, a majority of pregnant women continue to smoke or relapse following delivery. West Virginia women have high unmet needs for smoking cessation, and the prenatal period presents a critical and unique opportunity for education and quitting assistance. West Virginia's Fax-to-Quit program uses provider-faxed referrals to the Quitline to engage smokers and connect them with cessation services. A 12-month feasibility evaluation of this Fax-to-Quit program for pregnant women was conducted. In February 2009, providers and staff from three OB/GYN clinics in three adjoining West Virginia counties were recruited. All participating sites received an intensive half-day training program. Adult pregnant smokers receiving prenatal care in these OB/GYN clinic sites were eligible to participate. Recruitment sites screened pregnant women for smoking; assessed readiness-to-quit; and enrolled consenting participants in the Fax-to-Quit Program. The Quitline measured cessation attempts with six-month follow-up of enrolled participants. Between March-December 2009, 58 referrals were made at these OB/GYN clinic sites, with 15 women (25.9%) enrolling in Quitline services. These enrolled women account for approximately one-quarter of calls from pregnant smokers to the West Virginia Quitline in the past 12 months. Contact, communication, and cooperation with office staff were relevant and important to successful project implementation. Findings indicate that Fax-to-Quit is feasible to engage providers and pregnant smokers with the West Virginia Quitline. Successful referrals and enrollment demonstrate Fax-to-Quit may support cessation by increasing Quitline use and connecting pregnant women who smoke with quitting services through provider-faxed referrals to the West Virginia Quitline.

  10. Smokers at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  11. In Adult Smokers Unwilling or Unable to Quit, Does Changing From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes Decrease the Incidence of Negative Health Effects Associated With Smoking Tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the e-cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices.

  12. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Thomas G; Rigotti, Nancy A; Levy, Douglas E; Schilling, Thad; Warner, Donna; Li, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA) sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, pstrategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  13. A Randomized Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women at a WIC Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates a randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers at the Kent County Health Department in Grand Rapids, (Michigan). Results indicate larger quit rates amongst program participants than those in the usual care group. Suggests that smoking cessation programs for low-income pregnant WIC clients are…

  14. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  15. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  16. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get free help with quitting by calling 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) ... Kreyòl Ayisyen Deutsch 日本語 فارسی English A Federal Government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health ...

  17. The importance of social networks on smoking: perspectives of women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Stephanie N; Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R

    2012-08-01

    While up to 45% of women quit smoking during pregnancy, nearly 80% return to smoking within a year after delivery. Interventions to prevent relapse have had limited success. The study objective was to understand what influences return to smoking after pregnancy among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, with a focus on the role of social networks. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during the postpartum hospital stay with women who quit smoking while pregnant. Over 300 pages of transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common themes. Respondents [n = 24] were predominately white (63%), had at least some college education (54%) and a mean age of 26 years (range = 18-36). When reflecting on the experience of being a smoker who quit smoking during pregnancy, all participants emphasized the importance of their relationships with other smokers and the changes in these relationships that ensued once they quit smoking. Three common themes were: (1) being enmeshed in social networks with prominent smoking norms (2) being tempted to smoke by members of their social networks, and (3) changing relationships with the smokers in their social networks as a result of their non-smoking status. We found that women who quit smoking during pregnancy found themselves confronted by a change in their social network since most of those in their social network were smokers. For this reason, smoking cessation interventions may be most successful if they help women consider restructuring or reframing their social network.

  18. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  19. 上海市嘉定区老年吸烟人群戒烟及复吸原因探讨%Analysis on factors associated with quitting and relapse in elderly smokers in Jiading District,Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霄雯; 陈昊; 薄艳青; 施莉莉; 蔡雨阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the reasons for smoking cessation and relapse among elderly smokers,and pro-vide basis for exploring the focus of tobacco control groups and develop a personalized tobacco control strategy.Methods By using a questionnaire method,a detailed interview was conducted with multi-stage sampling and the elderly were accepted free medical examination.The statistical methods included descriptive analysis,χ2 test and so on.Results 30.8% of 781 elderly smokers had previous smoking cessation.The top three reasons for quitting were being gotten sick (37.4%),to pre-vent disease (34.8%)and doctors’recommendation (9.0%).The top three causes of relapse were being unable to control smoking cravings (40.5%),health status improved (26.2%)and friends persuasion (14.6%).Conclusion Elderly smoker is a special group and their personal and environmental factors which affecting the behavior of smoking cessation and relapse should be considered carefully.Health education must be strengthened.In addition,reasonable and effective targe-ted measures should be taken to promote cessation.%目的:了解上海市嘉定区老年吸烟人群戒烟行为、复吸行为发生原因及其影响因素,为探索重点控烟人群及制定个性化控烟策略提供思路。方法多阶段随机抽样,抽取嘉定区的4个行政区域,按照人口多少分别在行政区域内抽取2~3个行政村,共抽取11个行政村,每个行政村于2014年1—3月对所有60周岁以上老年人群实行免费体检,由经过培训的调查员针对符合纳入标准的调查对象进行一对一问询的问卷调查。统计方法包括描述性分析、χ2检验等。结果781名老年吸烟者中有30.8%曾有过戒烟经历,戒烟原因前3位分别是已患病(37.4%)、预防疾病(34.8%)和医生建议(9.0%),复吸原因前3位分别是控制不住烟瘾(40.5%)、健康状况好转(26.2%)和朋友劝导(14.6%)。结论老年

  20. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  1. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazici AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Bulent Yazici,1 Hilal Uslu Yuvaci,2 Esra Yazici,3 Ebru Halimoglu Caliskan,4 Arif Serhan Cevrioglu,2 Atila Erol3 1Department of Psychiatry, Training and Research Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Background: Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant.  Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy.  Method: This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results: The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively, alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion: Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic

  2. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Kleinjan, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R. van den; Mheen, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to deve

  3. Impact of the 5As brief counseling on smoking cessation among pregnant clients of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Ohio☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Sharma, Andrea J.; Tong, Van T.; Dee, Deborah; Quinn, Celia; Agaku, Israel T.; Conrey, Elizabeth J.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Satten, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed whether smoking cessation improved among pregnant smokers who attended Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics trained to implement a brief smoking cessation counseling intervention, the 5As: ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange. Methods In Ohio, staff in 38 WIC clinics were trained to deliver the 5As from 2006 through 2010. Using 2005–2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System data, we performed conditional logistic regression, stratified on clinic, to estimate the relationship between women's exposure to the 5As and the odds of self-reported quitting during pregnancy. Reporting bias for quitting was assessed by examining whether differences in infants' birth weight by quit status differed by clinic training status. Results Of 71,526 pregnant smokers at WIC enrollment, 23% quit. Odds of quitting were higher among women who attended a clinic after versus before clinic staff was trained (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.29). The adjusted mean infant birth weight was, on average, 96 g higher among women who reported quitting (P < 0.0001), regardless of clinic training status. Conclusions Training all Ohio WIC clinics to deliver the 5As may promote quitting among pregnant smokers, and thus is an important strategy to improve maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:26529063

  4. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  5. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up smoking

  6. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up

  7. Quit4U: The Effectiveness of Combining Behavioural Support, Pharmacotherapy and Financial Incentives to Support Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormston, R.; van der Pol, M.; Ludbrook, A.; McConville, S.; Amos, A.

    2015-01-01

    The "quit4u" stop smoking service (SSS) was developed by National Health Service (NHS) Tayside for smokers in deprived areas of Dundee (UK). quit4u combined behavioural support and pharmacotherapy with financial incentives for each week that participants remained quit. A quasi-experimental study was undertaken with smokers using quit4u…

  8. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  9. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to compare the use by smokers and non-smokers of pamphlets about smoking as delivered from different settings. The study was a nation-wide cross-sectional survey of 1924 randomly selected, Danish men and women, aged 14-77 y, who had answered a mailed questionnaire...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...... and pamphlets for non-smokers need to be more targeted towards this social role....

  10. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers.

  11. Smoke-Free Workplaces Help Smokers to Quit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Reaney; 卓月

    2002-01-01

    【选注者言:本文的内容很简单。主题句就道出了全文的核心内容:Smoke-freeworkplaces encourage more people to cut back or give up smoking than tax increaseson cigarettes.(无烟的工作场所使人不抽烟,或是戒烟的人数超过对烟草从严课税)。文中几处小词用得很活,值得学习。比如以下表达中的斜体字:theill effects of tobacco smoke/It looks at the reality in addition to the health impact./and expose billions more nonsmokers to the carcinogenic chemicals(致癌化学物)等。】

  12. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  13. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Putte; M.C. Yzer; M.C. Willemsen; G.J. de Bruijn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the t

  14. Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Maksimovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs in South Australia (SA, Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5% included quitters (22.4% and never smokers (27.1%. Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  15. Guide to Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for help. You’ll find this information here. Overcoming Tobacco Addiction Remember, tobacco addiction is both mental and physical. For most people, the best way to quit will be some combination of medicine, a method to change personal habits, and emotional support. Deciding to Quit ...

  16. Quitting Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann; Schauer, Gillian; Asman, Kat; Jamal, Ahmed

    2017-01-06

    Quitting cigarette smoking benefits smokers at any age (1). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration-approved medications increase quit rates (1-3). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 objectives of increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who attempt to quit smoking cigarettes to ≥80.0% (TU-4.1), and increasing recent smoking cessation success to ≥8.0% (TU-5.1),* CDC assessed national estimates of cessation behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). During 2015, 68.0% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 55.4% made a past-year quit attempt, 7.4% recently quit smoking, 57.2% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.2% used cessation counseling and/or medication when trying to quit. During 2000-2015, increases occurred in the proportion of smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt, recently quit smoking, were advised to quit by a health professional, and used cessation counseling and/or medication (psmoking. As of 2015, 59.1% of adults who had ever smoked had quit. To further increase cessation, health care providers can consistently identify smokers, advise them to quit, and offer them cessation treatments (2-4). In addition, health insurers can increase cessation by covering and promoting evidence-based cessation treatments and removing barriers to treatment access (2,4-6).

  17. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  18. Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Noella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. Methods Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and its follow-up survey, the Tobacco Callback Survey, were used to assess determinants of having ever attempted to quit smoking and attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. All analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Among 3,560 current smokers, 41.5% reported having tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months while 83.4% reported having ever tried to quit. Having a history of a tobacco-related medical condition was significantly associated with both recent (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.41 [Confidence Interval 1.19–1.65] and lifetime quit attempts (AOR 1.43 [1.15–1.79]. Greater nicotine dependence and being advised by a physician to quit smoking were also positively associated with lifetime quit attempts. Receipt of healthcare provider advice to quit smoking in the past 12 months and a strong belief that quitting following a long history of regular smoking would not result in health benefits and belief that there are health benefits to quitting smoking were associated with lifetime quit attempts. Conclusion Targeted smoking cessation interventions are needed for smokers with selected medical conditions and with high nicotine dependence. The importance of physician advice in encouraging individuals to quit is further highlighted.

  19. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  20. [Quitting the tobacco habit in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Hernández, I; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    1991-06-29

    The tendencies in the cessation from smoking and their determinants provide useful information to developed preventive policies and to predict the evolution of diseases associated with cigarette consumption. Spain is one of the European countries with more prevalent smoking habits in the general population, and thus the study of factors determining cessation from smoking is particularly relevant. The socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables associated with the cessation from smoking were evaluated using the data bank from the National Health Survey carried out by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo in 1987, which includes interviews to 29,647 individuals above 16 years of age. The data were analyzed by the calculation of the quit ratio standardized for age. The quit ratio is influenced by age and sex; it is higher among women and it increases with age. The results are questionable regarding the relation with educational level, family income and occupation. The smokers of less than 10 or more than 25 cigarettes/day are those with a higher quit ratio. The quit ratio is also higher in individuals with health problems, a higher rate of use of health services and in those without usual alcohol consumption. The profile of the individuals who quit smoking in Spain has specific features when compared with other countries, particularly regarding the higher quit rate among women and the lack of a linear correlation with indicators of socioeconomic level.

  1. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your quit plan. Be healthier Be healthier Save money Save money Smell better Smell better My loved ones My ... songs, plan a movie night with friends, or save up your cigarette money for a special treat when you reach a ...

  2. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heminger CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results: Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion: Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. Keywords: mHealth, smoking cessation, pregnancy, text messaging

  3. Characteristics of smoking cessation in former smokers in a rural area of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Personal health concerns in former smokers in Nanao, Japan were the predominant motivation for quitting smoking, with the vast majority of former smokers achieving successful smoking cessation by themselves.

  4. Quit Smoking: 3 Tools to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 3 Tools to Help You Quit Past Issues / ... triggers head on You can prepare to quit smoking by thinking of ways to avoid some triggers ...

  5. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J; Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers' perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers' self-descriptions and nonsmokers' perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers' perceptions rather than smokers' reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

  6. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  7. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  8. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Contrasting snus and NRT as methods to quit smoking. an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffels Janne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Snus is considerably less hazardous to health than cigarettes. Recent data from Scandinavia have indicated that many smokers use snus as a method for quitting smoking. Methods Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys of Norwegian men and women aged 16-74 were pooled (N = 6 262. Respondents were asked about current and former smoking and snus use. Former daily smokers (N = 1219 and current daily smokers who had tried to quit at least once (N = 1118 were asked about the method they had used at their latest quit attempt and how many quit attempts they had made. Former smokers were also requested to report what year they had made their final quit attempt. Results Snus was the most common method used for quitting smoking among men, while NRT was most often used among women. Stratifying the data according to year of quitting smoking (1945-2007 indicated a significant increase in use of the methods for quitting asked about over time. Among men, this was largely due to an increase in the use of snus. Among male quitters under the age of 45 years, 45.8% of those who had used snus on their last attempt to quit were current non-smokers (OR = 1.61, CI 1.04-2.29, while 26,3% of those who had used NRT were current non-smokers. 59.6% of successful quitters and 19.5% of unsuccessful quitters who had used snus as a method for quitting smoking had continued to use snus on a daily basis after quitting. Conclusion Norwegian men frequently use snus as a method for quitting smoking whereas women are more likely to use NRT. The findings indicate that switching to snus can be an effective method for quitting smoking.

  10. Reported planning before and after quitting and quit success: retrospective data from the ITC 4-Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Planning before quitting smoking is widely believed to be beneficial and is usually recommended in cessation counseling, but there is little evidence on the efficacy of specific planning activities. Using data from 1140 respondents who reported quit attempts at Wave 8 of the ITC 4-Country Survey, we analyzed use of 8 specific planning strategies before (5) and after (3) implementation of a quit attempt, in relation to cessation outcomes, delay in implementation of the attempt, and recent quitting history. Most participants reported some planning both before and after quitting, even among those reporting quitting 'spontaneously.' Younger smokers, those who cut down before quitting, and users of stop-smoking medication were more likely to report planning. Those who planned prequit were also more likely to plan postquit. Unexpectedly, we found no clear benefit of planning on short-term (1 month) cessation outcomes, whereas one prequit strategy (practicing not smoking) was negatively related to outcome. There was evidence for a predicted moderating effect of recent quitting experience on planning for the prequit task 'practice replacement strategies.' This predicted quit success among those with multiple quit attempts in the past year, but failure among those without. This finding suggests that the quality of planning may be critical. More research, particularly on the moderating effect of quit experience, and where measures of planning are collected before outcomes become evident, is needed before clear recommendations can be made on the utility of various forms of planning for the success of quit attempts.

  11. Online tobacco websites and online communities-who uses them and do users quit smoking? The quit-primo and national dental practice-based research network Hi-Quit studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; DeLaughter, Kathryn; Kamberi, Ariana; Volkman, Julie E; Cobb, Nathan; Gilbert, Gregg H; Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-12-01

    Online tobacco cessation communities are beneficial but underused. Our study examined whether, among smokers participating in a web-assisted tobacco intervention (Decide2quit.org), specific characteristics were associated with navigating to BecomeAnEx.org, an online cessation community, and with subsequent quit rates. Among smokers (N = 759) registered with Decide2quit.org, we identified visitors to BecomeAnEx.org, examining associations between smoker characteristics and likelihood of visiting. We then tested for associations between visits and 6-month cessation (point prevalence). We also tested for an interaction between use of other online support-seeking (Decide2quit.org tobacco cessation coaches), visiting, and 6-month cessation. One quarter (26.0 %; n = 197) of the smokers visited BecomeAnEx.org; less than one tenth (7.5 %; n = 57) registered to participate in the online forum. Visitors were more likely to be female (73.0 vs. 62.6 % of non-visitors, P Online cessation communities attract smokers with previous cessation website experience and recent quit attempts. Community visiting was not associated with quit rates in our study, but low use may have limited our power to detect differences. Further research should explore whether an additive effect can be achieved by offering community visitors support via online coaches.

  12. Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late To Quit | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late to Quit Past Issues / ... Table of Contents Because most people who get lung cancer were smokers, you may feel that doctors and ...

  13. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

  14. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Quit Smoking? A A A What's in this article? Where ... becoming tobacco-free. Many people don't quit smoking because they think it's too hard, and it's ...

  15. Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romer

    Full Text Available Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297 to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model's prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker's self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit.

  16. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  17. Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Haddad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1 Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150 = 5.594, p = 0.0045. This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2 Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154 = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers.

  18. Staying a smoker or becoming an ex-smoker after hospitalisation for unstable angina or myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emily Christine; Nelson, Mark Raymond

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to better understand processes of ongoing smoking or smoking cessation (quitting) following hospitalisation for myocardial infarction or unstable angina (acute cardiac syndromes). In-depth interviews were used to elicit participants' stories about ongoing smoking and quitting. In total, 18 interviews with smokers and 14 interviews with ex-smokers were analysed. Our findings illustrate the complex social nature of smoking practices including cessation. We found that smoking cessation following hospitalisation for acute cardiac syndromes is to some extent a performative act linked to 'doing health' and claiming a new identity, that of a virtuous ex-smoker in the hope that this will prevent further illness. For some ex-smokers hospitalisation had facilitated this shift, acting as a rite of passage and disrupting un-contemplated habits. Those participants who continued to smoke had often considered quitting or had even stopped smoking for a short period of time after hospitalisation; however, they did not undergo the identity shift described by ex-smokers and smoking remained firmly entrenched in their sense of self and the pattern of their daily lives. The ongoing smokers described feeling ashamed and stigmatised because of their smoking and felt that quitting was impossible for them. Our study provides an entry point into the smokers' world at a time when their smoking has become problematised and highly visible due to their illness and when smoking cessation or continuance carries much higher stakes and more immediate consequences than might ordinarily be the case.

  19. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  20. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non-smokers in Ibadan, Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O Arowojolu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups comprising of 117 smokers (cases and 96 non-smokers (control. Intra oral examination was done using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and Gingival index (GI. Results: The mean age of the smokers was 31.2 ± 12.6 years and that of the non-smokers 32.8 ± 9.5 years. The mean Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S was 1.15 ± 0.51 for the non-smokers and 2.19 ± 0.62 for the smokers (P < 0.05. The mean GI was 1.06 ± 0.55 for the non-smokers and 1.62 ± 0.58 for the smokers (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study shows that smoking is associated with increased severity of gingival disease. It is, therefore, recommended that smokers should be encouraged to visit a dentist for preventive procedure more regularly than the non-smokers and better still, smokers should be encouraged to quit smoking as gingival disease is not without consequences if allowed to persist.

  1. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bold, Krysten W.; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Fucito, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment ...

  2. Age at quitting smoking as a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease incidence independent of smoking status, time since quitting and pack-years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walls Helen L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk prediction for CVD events has been shown to vary according to current smoking status, pack-years smoked over a lifetime, time since quitting and age at quitting. The latter two are closely and inversely related. It is not known whether the age at which one quits smoking is an additional important predictor of CVD events. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of CVD events varied according to age at quitting after taking into account current smoking status, lifetime pack-years smoked and time since quitting. Findings We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event for a cohort of participants in the Framingham Offspring Heart Study who attended the fourth examination between ages 30 and 74 years and were free of CVD. Those who quit before the median age of 37 years had a risk of CVD incidence similar to those who were never smokers. The incorporation of age at quitting in the smoking variable resulted in better prediction than the model which had a simple current smoker/non-smoker measure and the one that incorporated both time since quitting and pack-years. These models demonstrated good discrimination, calibration and global fit. The risk among those quitting more than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those whose age at quitting was prior to 44 years was similar to the risk among never smokers. However, the risk among those quitting less than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those who continued to smoke until 44 years of age (or beyond was two and a half times higher than that of never smokers. Conclusions Age at quitting improves the prediction of risk of CVD incidence even after other smoking measures are taken into account. The clinical benefit of adding age at quitting to the model with other smoking measures may be greater than the associated costs. Thus, age at quitting should be considered in addition to smoking status, time since

  3. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Bastida; Belén Beltrán

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC.Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient.The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death,for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise,encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit.

  4. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Quits, layoffs, and job destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W; Broersma, L

    2003-01-01

    We examine the quit-layoff distinction and its implications for job destruction from the employer's perspective. Using a set of panel data of Dutch firms, we get the following results. First, in addition to layoffs, quits contribute to the speed of downward adjustment of labour. Second, about 22% of

  6. The Association of Spousal Smoking Status With the Ability to Quit Smoking: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Laura K.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Woodward, Mark; Koton, Silvia; Coresh, Josef; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Studies have shown that smoking status tends to be concordant within spouse pairs. This study aimed to estimate the association of spousal smoking status with quitting smoking in US adults. We analyzed data from 4,500 spouse pairs aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort, sampled from 1986 to 1989 from 4 US communities and followed up every 3 years for a total of 9 years. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to calculate the odds ratio of quitting smoking given that one's spouse is a former smoker or a current smoker compared to a never smoker. Among men and women, being married to a current smoker decreased the odds of quitting smoking (for men, odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29, 0.46; for women, OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.68). Among women only, being married to a former smoker increased the odds of quitting smoking (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.53). In conclusion, spouses of current smokers are less likely to quit, whereas women married to former smokers are more likely to quit. Smoking cessation programs and clinical advice should consider targeting couples rather than individuals. PMID:24699782

  7. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  8. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  9. Quit Smoking: Latest NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... with chest X-rays. Clinical Trials Related to Smoking Clinical trials are scientific studies that try to ...

  10. Smoke-free air laws and quit attempts: Evidence for a moderating role of spontaneous self-affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Parascandola, Mark; Harris, Peter R

    2015-09-01

    In addition to their primary goal of protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke, smoke-free air laws may also encourage intentions to quit smoking, quit attempts, and cessation among smokers. However, laws may not encourage quitting if smokers feel threatened by them and react defensively. This study examined whether spontaneous self-affirmation - the extent to which people think about their values or strengths when they feel threatened - may reduce smokers' reactance to smoke-free laws, enhancing the ability of the laws to encourage quitting. We linked state-level information on the comprehensiveness of U.S. smoke-free laws (compiled in January, 2013 by the American Lung Association) with data from a U.S. health survey (Health Information National Trends Survey) collected from September-December, 2013 (N = 345 current smokers; 587 former smokers). Smoke-free laws interacted with self-affirmation to predict quit attempts in the past year and intentions to quit in the next six months: Smokers higher in self-affirmation reported more quit attempts and quit intentions if they lived in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws. There was some evidence of a "boomerang" effect (i.e., less likelihood of making a quit attempt) among smokers low in self-affirmation if living in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws, but this effect was significant only among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. For quit intentions, there was no evidence for a boomerang effect of smoke-free laws even among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. More comprehensive smoke-free laws were not associated with smoking status (former vs. current smoker) or average amount smoked per day, nor did they interact with self-affirmation to predict these outcomes. The impact of smoke-free policies on quit attempts and quit intentions may be moderated by psychological characteristics such as the tendency to spontaneously self-affirm. Follow-ups should experimentally manipulate self

  11. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  12. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  13. Smokers' attitudes and behaviors related to consumer demand for cessation counseling in the medical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Deanne; Wolff, Lisa S; Orleans, Tracy; Mockenhaupt, Robin E; Massett, Holly A; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2007-05-01

    This study describes a new segmentation strategy exploring smokers' interest levels in counseling in the medical care setting in order to understand how public health communications can be designed to increase consumer demand for cessation services within this population. A subsample of 431 smokers from a large, nationally representative mail survey was analyzed and categorized into three cessation-demand groups: Low demand (LD), medium demand (MD), and high demand (HD). HD smokers were most likely to be heavy smokers, to make quitting a high priority, and to have self-efficacy in quitting. MD and LD smokers were less likely than HD smokers to have been told to quit smoking by a health care provider in the past or to believe that counseling is effective. The first step in the regression analysis revealed that age, cigarettes smoked per month, whether smokers were currently trying to quit, and whether they were ever told to quit smoking by their health care provider accounted for 21% of the variance in smokers' interest in smoking cessation counseling, F(4, 234) = 16.49, pconsumer demand for cessation counseling.

  14. Perceptions of emerging tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy among pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lucinda J; Tong, Van T; Koblitz, Amber; Kish-Doto, Julia; Lynch, Molly M; Southwell, Brian G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy. Responses were coded and analyzed to identify key themes using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software (QSR). Several themes emerged from focus groups. Participants generally found snus unappealing, but viewed dissolvables as a discreet and stigma-free way to use tobacco during pregnancy. Participants perceived NRT as ineffective and having undesired side effects. ENDS were thought to offer advantages over cigarettes, including use in smoke-free areas, lower cost, appealing flavors, and fewer health effects, and were seen by some as a potential quit aid. Some participants, however, worried that the lack of natural stopping point could lead to excessive use. Many participants felt that the use of any tobacco or NRT product is harmful during pregnancy. Women seeking to reduce health risks or stigma related to smoking during pregnancy may perceive advantages of using some emerging products over cigarettes. These findings can inform future public health efforts to reduce risks associated with tobacco product use among women of reproductive age.

  15. Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Wan Syaheedah Wan; Romli, Aminah Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2017-03-28

    Honey has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory property. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label trial to determine the effects of 12-week honey oral supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α among chronic smokers. A total of 32 non-smokers and 64 chronic smokers from Quit Smoking Clinic and Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia participated in the study. Smokers were then randomized into 2 groups: smokers with honey group that received Malaysian Tualang honey (20 g/day daily for 12 weeks) and smokers without honey group. Blood was obtained from non-smokers and smokers at pre-intervention, and from smokers at post-intervention for measurement of the inflammatory markers. At pre-intervention, smokers had significantly higher high sensitive C-reactive protein than non-smokers. In smokers with honey group, tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased while high sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly reduced at post-intervention than at pre-intervention. This study suggests that honey supplementation has opposite effects on tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitive C-reactive protein indicating the inconclusive effect of honey on inflammation among chronic smokers which needs further study on other inflammatory markers. The Trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001236583 . Registered 11 November 2015 (Retrospectively Registered).

  16. Just blowing smoke? Social desirability and reporting of intentions to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Nelson, Wendy L

    2013-12-01

    Do cigarette smokers really want to quit smoking or do they simply say they do in order to placate others and avoid criticism? In surveys of smokers, stated quit intentions and reports of quit attempts may be biased by social desirability concerns. This makes it difficult to interpret large-scale state and national surveys of smoking behavior that collect data through telephone and face-to-face interviews, methods that tend to evoke high levels of socially desirable responding. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey used a dual-frame design to query smokers' quit intentions and past quit attempts in 1 of 2 ways: A self-administered mail survey (low pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 563), or an interviewer-administered telephone survey (high pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 499). Estimates derived from the 2 formats were compared to test for social desirability effects. In both survey modes, approximately two thirds of smokers reported seriously considering quitting in the next 6 months (mail: 64.9%; telephone: 68.9%), and approximately half reported making a quit attempt in the past year (mail: 54.9%; telephone: 52.3%). Neither difference approached significance in logistic regressions controlling for demographics (ps > .24). It appears that a large proportion of smokers in the United States aspire to live smoke-free lives and are not simply responding in a socially desirable manner to deflect criticism in an antismoking social climate. Future research should (1) replicate this study with greater statistical power, (2) examine the possible effects of survey context (e.g., health survey vs. smoking pleasure survey), and (3) explore survey mode effects in specific subpopulations.

  17. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, Pshocking images on the pack (OR =1.95, P=0.004). Low-dependent smokers and highly motivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

  18. Advice to Quit Smoking and Ratings of Health Care among Medicare Beneficiaries Aged 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor; Elliott, Marc N; Haas, Ann; Haviland, Amelia M; Orr, Nate; Shadel, William G; Ma, Sai; Friedberg, Mark W; Cleary, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relationship between physician advice to quit smoking and patient care experiences. The 2012 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (MCAHPS) surveys. Fixed-effects linear regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional survey data, which included a nationally representative sample of 26,432 smokers aged 65+. Eleven of 12 patient experience measures were significantly more positive among smokers who were always advised to quit smoking than those advised to quit less frequently. There was an attenuated but still significant and positive association of advice to quit smoking with both physician rating and physician communication, after controlling for other measures of care experiences. Physician-provided cessation advice was associated with more positive patient assessments of their physicians. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Degen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods: Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND, and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results: A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points, 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points and 47.1% a high (5–10 points dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least

  20. Motivating the unmotivated for health behavior change: a randomized trial of cessation induction for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Alberg, Anthony J; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E

    2010-04-01

    Many smokers remain unwilling or unable to make a quit attempt. For these smokers, novel strategies to induce quit attempts are necessary to achieve further reductions in smoking prevalence. This article describes the design and methods of an ongoing nationwide telephone-based clinical trial for cessation induction, the principal aim of which is to test the hypothesis that samples of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), can induce quit attempts among smokers otherwise unmotivated to quit. Smokers are recruited proactively through online channels. A 'behavioral filter' is used to identify and separate motivated versus unmotivated smokers, the latter of whom (N = 750) are formally entered into the clinical trial. Participants are randomized to one of two treatment conditions designed to promote self-efficacy and motivation to quit: (1) practice quit attempt (PQA) or (2) PQA plus NRT sampling. The primary outcome measure tested over a 6-month follow-up is the incidence of additional quit attempts as well as hypothesized mediators of treatment effects. This study details the challenges of identifying and treating smokers who are unmotivated to quit. Strengths include a novel treatment approach, tested among a group of proactively recruited smokers nationwide, with a unique method of identifying cessation-resistant smokers. The omission of a true control group, testing the effect of the PQA itself, is an inherent limitation to the study design. Online recruitment presents additional study challenges, all of which are discussed in detail. The study has translational potential to guide both clinical and policy recommendations for cessation induction. Further, while the focus is on smoking, this trial may serve as an example to researchers and clinicians who focus on other health behaviors, and who themselves are challenged with motivating people who are unmotivated for change.

  1. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  2. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frédérique M; Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine; Uhl, George R

    2010-01-01

    Improving and targeting nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are cost-effective strategies for reducing adverse health consequences for smokers. Treatment studies document the efficacy of precessation NRT and support important roles for level of nicotine dependence and precessation smoking reduction in successful quitting. However, prior work has not identified the optimal precessation dose or means for personalizing NRT. Genome-wide association has identified groups of genomic markers associated with successful quitting, allowing us to develop a v1.0 "quit-success" genotype score. We now report influences of v1.0 quit-success genotype score, level of dependence and precessation smoking reduction in a smoking cessation trial that examined effects of 21 versus 42 mg/24 h precessation NRT. Four hundred seventy-nine smokers were randomized to 21 or 42 mg NRT, initiated 2 wks prior to target quit dates. We monitored self-reported abstinence and end-expired air carbon monoxide (CO). Genotyping used Affymetrix arrays (Santa Clara, CA, USA). The primary outcome was 10-wk continuous smoking abstinence. NRT dose, level of nicotine dependence and genotype scores displayed significant interactive effects on successful quitting. Successful abstinence also was predicted by CO reductions during precessation NRT. These results document ways in which smoking cessation strategies can be personalized based on levels of nicotine dependence, genotype scores and CO monitoring. These assessments, taken together, can help match most smokers with optimal NRT doses and help rapidly identify some who may be better treated using other methods.

  4. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest

  5. Eyelid Malignancies- Always Quite Challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Arumugham

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of eyelid cancers are quite challenging. Eyelid tumours are relatively rare diverse group of diseases varied in their presentation and extent. Many benign tumours and inflammatory conditions quite frequently masquerade eyelid cancers. Eyelid cancers are not single entity but comprise a wide range of tumours with extremes of tumour biology from indolent to very aggressive histopathologic types. Compromise on aesthetics and eyelids’ indispensable function of protecting the eyes during management, may lead to untoward cosmetic disfigurement and loss of vision. On the other hand, inadequate cancer clearance will also be vision threatening and life threatening due to loco regional recurrence and metastasis. To strike an optimal balance is a challenging task, to achieve ‘cancer cure’ with maximum preservation of function and cosmetics. In addition, the integration of other modalities of treatment, judicious selection and their sequencing require multidisciplinary discussion and joint management by different specialists. We are presenting four case scenarios, we met with in our teaching hospital with reference to literature review to emphasize that eyelid malignancies are not always simple with respect to diagnosis and management. PMID:28511494

  6. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A; Mamoun, Michael S; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of β(2)*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the α(4)β(2)* nAChR radioligand 2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9-28% higher α(4)β(2)* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher α(4)β(2)* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36-42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes.

  7. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD.

  8. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  9. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  10. Evaluating the effect of access to free medication to quit smoking: a clinical trial testing the role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Cropsey, Karen L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Gray, Kevin M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Cummings, K Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Although the majority of smokers are ambivalent about quitting, few treatments specifically target smokers lacking motivation to quit in the near future. Most existing interventions are instead predicated on the belief that active treatments should only be distributed to smokers interested in quitting, a largely untested assumption. In the current clinical trial (N = 157), motivated smokers wanting to quit in the next 30 days were given a 2-week nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sample and a referral to a quitline (Group MNQ), while unmotivated smokers were randomized to receive the same treatment (Group UNQ) or a quitline referral only (Group UQ). Participants were tracked via telephone for 3 months to assess quitting behaviors and smoking reduction. Groups significantly differed across all comparisons with regard to incidence of any quit attempt (MNQ: 77%, UNQ: 40%, UQ: 18%, p < .05) and any 24-hr quit attempts (62%, 32%, 16%, p < .05). Clinically meaningful differences emerged in the rates of floating (19%, 17%, 6%) and point prevalence abstinence (17%, 15%, 5%). Compared to participants in Group UQ (11%), a greater proportion of participants in Group MNQ (48%, p = .01) and Group UNQ (31%, p = .01) reduced their daily cigarette consumption by at least half. Proxy measures of cessation readiness (e.g., motivation) favored participants receiving active forms of treatment. Providing NRT samples engaged both motivated and unmotivated smokers into the quitting process and produced positive changes in smoking outcomes. This suggests that motivation should not be considered a necessary precondition to receiving treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  12. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solesse Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1 to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2 to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3 to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4 to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. Results A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889 comprising 809 current smokers (21%. A majority of current smokers (63% had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%, social pressure (39%, wish to improve physical fitness (36%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%, and weariness of smoking (21%. Few attempts (16% were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%, NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%, anxiety/stress (34%, a significant life event (21, weight gain (18%, and irritability (16%. Depression was rarely quoted (5%. Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%, physical fitness improvement (53%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%, weariness of tobacco (34%, and social pressure (30%. Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%, irritability (51%, and anxiety (42%, enjoying smoking (41%, and weight concerns (33%. Conclusion Smoking prevalence

  13. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe smokers among Arab Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shahawy O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omar El-Shahawy,1 Linda Haddad2 1Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131 living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results: There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10 and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42; t(129 = (2.51, P=0.0066.There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07 and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27; t(129 = (2.56, P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion: Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence

  14. Does screening participation affect cigarette smokers’ decision to quit? A long-horizon panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bretteville-Jensen Anne Line

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Despite decades of intensive anti-tobacco initiatives, millions of people are still smoking. The health authorities are seeking new tools and extended knowledge. Screening programs may, in addition to the potential health benefits from early detection of smoking related diseases, also increase smoking cessation among participants. This study examines the effect of screening participation by comparing the smokers’ cessation hazard in screening years to nonscreening years. METHODS - All smokers (n=10,471 participated in a three-wave cardiovascular screening and were followed up over a maximum of 14 years. The panel was merged with administrative registers. We used a flexible discrete-time duration model to investigate the effect of the screening program while simultaneously accounting for the possible influence of personal characteristics, addiction indicators, economic factors, health status and health changes. Specifically, we examined and compared long-term smokers (LT; smoked ≥25 years with short-term (ST; smoked ≤ 5 years and medium-term (MT; smoked 10-20 years smokers. RESULTS - We found that 29% of LT smokers quitted smoking during the follow-up whereas 32% of MT and 48% of ST smokers reported the same. The screening participation years stood out as especially important for all groups. The impact of the first screening was particularly high, and for the first two screenings, the effect was higher for long-term smokers than for the smokers with shorter smoking careers. Receiving an abnormal test result was not associated with a significant increase in cessation hazard for any group of smokers. CONCLUSIONS - The substantial effect of being invited to and participating in a screening appears robust, and may prove useful when discussing future policies for smoking cessation. This paper suggests that further initiatives for consultations with health personnel, in this case through a screening program, could increase the

  15. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, pbranded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1-2 weeks before the December implementation date. The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers.

  16. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, Pmotivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

  17. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  18. The Quit Benefits Model: a Markov model for assessing the health benefits and health care cost savings of quitting smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the lack of comprehensive information about the health and economic benefits of quitting smoking for Australians, we developed the Quit Benefits Model (QBM. Methods The QBM is a Markov model, programmed in TreeAge, that assesses the consequences of quitting in terms of cases avoided of the four most common smoking-associated diseases, deaths avoided, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and health care costs saved (in Australian dollars, A$. Quitting outcomes can be assessed for males and females in 14 five year age-groups from 15–19 to 80–84 years. Exponential models, based on data from large case-control and cohort studies, were developed to estimate the decline over time after quitting in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and death. Australian data for the year 2001 were sourced for disease incidence and mortality and health care costs. Utility of life estimates were sourced from an international registry and a meta analysis. In this paper, outcomes are reported for simulated subjects followed up for ten years after quitting smoking. Life-years, QALYs and costs were estimated with 0%, 3% and 5% per annum discount rates. Summary results are presented for a group of 1,000 simulated quitters chosen at random from the Australian population of smokers aged between 15 and 74. Results For every 1,000 males chosen at random from the reference population who quit smoking, there is a an average saving in the first ten years following quitting of A$408,000 in health care costs associated with AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke, and a corresponding saving of A$328,000 for every 1,000 female quitters. The average saving per 1,000 random quitters is A$373,000. Overall 40 of these quitters will be spared a diagnosis of AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke in the first ten years following quitting, with an estimated saving of 47 life-years and

  19. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong.Daily smokers (N = 1,307 were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win' in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting.Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9% had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5% ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1% and non-users (91.2% did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45. E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05.Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.

  20. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  1. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain.

  2. Predicting Quitting-Related Intentions and Smoking Behavior Using Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Problem Behavior Theory among Various Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Gun

    2014-01-01

    This study consists of three sub-studies. Sub-study 1 and 2 attempted to incorporate environmental variables as precursor background variables of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict quitting-related intentions among Texas adult smokers and university student smokers, respectively. Sub-study 1 and 2 analyzed different data sets and were…

  3. Demographic Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Motivation to Quit as Possible Determinants of Smoking Behaviors and Acceptability of Shocking Warnings in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures to quit or reduce tobacco use. Methods. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc. the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. Results. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (<45 years, who are more motivated to quit (Mondor’s score ≥ 12, and females showed a higher effectiveness of shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P<0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by Italian smokers. Female and younger smokers appear to be more involved by shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  4. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers: Rationale, Program Description, and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

    2008-01-01

    A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement…

  5. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis.

  6. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  7. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  8. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  9. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  10. Does impulsiveness moderate response to financial incentives for smoking cessation among pregnant and newly postpartum women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Skelly, Joan M; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether impulsiveness moderates response to financial incentives for cessation among pregnant smokers. Participants were randomized to receive financial incentives delivered contingent on smoking abstinence or to a control condition wherein incentives were delivered independent of smoking status. The study was conducted in two steps: First, we examined associations between baseline impulsiveness and abstinence at late pregnancy and 24-weeks-postpartum as part of a planned prospective study of this topic using data from a recently completed, randomized controlled clinical trial (N = 118). Next, to increase statistical power, we conducted a second analysis collapsing results across that recent trial and two prior trials involving the same study conditions (N = 236). Impulsivity was assessed using a delay discounting (DD) of hypothetical monetary rewards task in all three trials and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in the most recent trial. Neither DD nor BIS predicted smoking status in the single or combined trials. Receiving abstinence-contingent incentives, lower baseline smoking rate, and a history of quit attempts prepregnancy predicted greater odds of antepartum abstinence across the single and combined trials. No variable predicted postpartum abstinence across the single and combined trials, although a history of antepartum quit attempts and receiving abstinence-contingent incentives predicted in the single and combined trials, respectively. Overall, this study provides no evidence that impulsiveness as assessed by DD or BIS moderates response to this treatment approach while underscoring a substantial association of smoking rate and prior quit attempts with abstinence across the contingent incentives and control treatment conditions.

  11. Prisoners and cigarettes or ‘imprisoned in cigarettes’? What helps prisoners quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Elias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was, despite the special characteristics of prisons, to identify the features which led prisoners who attended the Smoking Cessation Centre at the Kassavetia Detention Centre in Volos (region of Thessaly, in the central part of mainland Greece to quit smoking. Methods Personal interviews with 204 male prisoners irrespective of smoking habitus over the period June 2008 to December 2010 were obtained. Information about medical history, history of tobacco use and addiction to narcotic use was obtained and imprisonment status was recorded. Pharmaceutical treatment (Varenicline and counselling or only counselling were suggested as alternative strategies to them in order to help quit smoking. SPSS v15.0 software was employed, descriptive statistics were used, and a X2 independence test and Student’s t-test were performed. Results Of the sample examined, 75.5% (154 were smokers. They were mainly Greeks (51.5%, single (53.4% and had not gratuated from a high school (secondary education level (70.6%. 59.75% begun smoking early ( ≤14 years of age and 64.9% were highly addicted according to Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. 74% (114 of all smokers at the prison attended the Smoking Cessation Centre. Of them, 30.7% were able to quit smoking at 3 months but 1 year later there were 20.2% ex-smokers. The key characteristics of those who were able to be ex-smokers were a change in smoking habits (decreased compared to when free (p = .001, previous attempts to quit (while incarcerated and in general (p = .001, average dependence levels (p  Conclusions Average dependence, a past free of addictive substance abuse and a better environment of daily living for certain prisoners (as far as the number of cellmates was concerned had a catalytic impact on prisoners finally managed to quit smoking.

  12. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  13. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison J; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2007-10-01

    Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Cohort study. A total of 792 smokers, participating in a trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-assisted smoking cessation. Participants were informed that the trial investigated relationships between genetic markers and smoking behaviour, but personalized genetic feedback was not provided. Primary care in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, UK. Perceived control over smoking and perceived importance of genetic factors in causing smoking assessed pre-quit; abstinence 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment. A total of 515 smokers (65.0%) viewed genetic factors as playing some role in causing their smoking. They had lower perceived control over smoking than smokers who viewed genetic factors as having no role in causing their smoking. Attributing smoking to genetic causes was not associated significantly with a lower probability of quit attempt success. Attributing smoking to genetic factors was associated with lower levels of perceived control over smoking but not lower quit rates. This suggests that learning of one's genetic predisposition to smoking during a pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation intervention may not deter quitting. Further research should examine whether the lack of impact of genetic attributions on quit attempt success is also found in smokers provided with personalized genetic feedback.

  14. Kinetic tremor: differences between smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2007-05-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean+/-S.D.=65.7+/-11.5 years, range=18-92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and whether this difference was influenced by gender. Twenty-seven (9.9%) of 273 subjects were current smokers. Greater tremor was observed in smokers than non-smokers during a variety of activities (drawing a spiral, using a spoon, finger-nose-finger maneuver, all phabits should be considered carefully in order to avoid over- or underestimating the effects of occupational and non-occupational exposures to other tremor-producing neurotoxins.

  15. A comparison of two antismoking interventions among pregnant women in eleven private primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messimer, S R; Hickner, J M; Henry, R C

    1989-03-01

    Despite the dangers of smoking during pregnancy having been widely publicized, few studies have actually examined the effectiveness of antismoking interventions among pregnant women in the private primary care obstetric setting. A randomized experimental study involving 24 private physicians and 109 pregnant smokers was conducted comparing the American Lung Association's Because You Love Your Baby smoking intervention (ALA) to a standard-of-care protocol (non-ALA). The non-ALA protocol was based upon the smoking interventions that study physicians said they commonly used among pregnant women. Self-reported smoking rates were obtained by questionnaire at the first prenatal visit, at 32 to 36 weeks' gestation, and at the six-week postpartum visit. By the time of the first prenatal visit, both groups reduced by half the number of cigarettes smoked. By 32 to 36 weeks, the groups decreased the daily average by an additional 2.3 (ALA) and 1.8 (non-ALA) cigarettes, a nonsignificant difference between the groups. Fifteen (28 percent) of the ALA group compared with 9 (16 percent) of the non-ALA group reported quitting at the 32- to 36-week visit (P = .10). Only 9 percent of the ALA group and 10 percent of the non-ALA were nonsmokers at the postpartum visit. Pregnancy alone is a powerful motivator for women to decrease their smoking. Although the difference between the ALA and non-ALA protocols did not attain statistical significance, the percentage of those who quit was comparable to the results obtained in other controlled trials. The ALA Because You Love Your Baby protocol should be used until more effective methods are available.

  16. Pre-quitting nicotine replacement therapy: Findings from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace-Bell Mark

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT while still smoking in the lead up to quitting could enhance success at quitting, one of the most cost-effective means of improving health, but little is known about its acceptability and tolerability. Aim To test the acceptability and tolerability of using NRT while smoking for two weeks before quitting, to inform a randomised controlled trial of pre-quitting NRT versus usual NRT-based quitting practice. Methods Prospective pragmatic uncontrolled clinic-based pilot study in which 14 adult smokers recruited from a smoking cessation clinic were prescribed nicotine patches or gum with follow up for two weeks. Data were collected on participants' concerns about smoking while using NRT, importance of quitting, urges to smoke, smoking behaviour, previous NRT use and the length of the pre-quitting period. Urine tests were collected weekly for cotinine, and participants recorded smoking activity and noted experiences and changes in their health in diaries. Results Only 21% of 14 participants expressed concerns about using NRT while smoking. All of the nine followed up used it as recommended, 56% of these reporting no unpleasant symptoms. Median urine cotinine levels declined over the two weeks. Urges to smoke averaged 1.8 on a 4-point scale. All participants decreased the number of cigarettes per day. Diary records showed wide variation in smoking and NRT use, with an increased sense of control and determination to quit. Conclusion Smokers using pre-quitting NRT over two weeks appeared to titrate nicotine levels and symptoms of toxicity were uncommon and of low intensity.

  17. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Ariza, Carles; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-09-01

    A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We formed a cohort at baseline, during the 3 months before the law went into effect, with 431 hospitality workers (222 smokers). From them, 288 were successfully followed-up 12 months after the ban (118 were smokers at baseline). We analyzed the quit rate, the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, changes in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores, and changes in salivary cotinine concentrations in smokers from baseline to 1 year after the ban. Among 118 smokers, six (5.1%) quit smoking. Among the 112 remaining smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked decreased by 8.9% after the ban (from 17.9 to 16.3 cigarettes/day, p 6) was reduced by half after the ban (19.5% vs. 9.7%, p = .03). Salivary cotinine decreased by 4.4% after the ban (geometric mean 104.3 vs. 99.7 ng/ml, p = .02). No meaningful differences were found in quit rates and the FTND scores according to type of regulation. The Spanish smoking law has had beneficial effects (reduction in number of cigarettes smoked, cotinine levels, and FTND score) among hospitality workers who smoke.

  18. Characteristics of smokers accessing the Puerto Rico Quitline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORTIZ, ANA PATRICIA; DÁAZ-TORO, ELBA C.; CALO, WILLIAM A.; CORREA-FERNÁNDEZ, VIRMARIE; CASES, ANTONIO; SANTOS-ORTIZ, MARÍA C.; MAZAS, CARLOS; MEJÍA, LUZ; WETTER, DAVID W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the Puerto Rico Department of Health implemented the Puerto Rico Quitline (PRQ), a proactive, telephone-based smoking cessation counseling program. This study examines the demographic and smoking-related characteristics of the individuals served by the PRQ. Methods: Analyses included PRQ participants registered from December 2004-December 2005. PRQ call rates and rate ratios (RR) were calculated overall, among smokers, and stratified by relevant covariates. Associations between sex and relevant characteristics of PRQ participants were compared using regression models. Results: Call rates per 100,000 smokers in PR were lower among men than women (RR=0.50, 95% CI=0.44-0.56), and higher among all age groups ≥ 25 years of age as compared to those aged 15-24 years (RRs=4.34-8.14) and among smokers living in the San Juan metropolitan area relative to smokers residing outside the metropolitan area (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.29-1.63). Mass media was the most common way in which participants learned about the PRQ (>70%), with only 2-3% of callers reporting a physician's referral as the source of their information about the PRQ. With respect to reasons for quitting, men were less likely than women to report concern about a child's health (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46-0.84) and cigarette odor (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.41-0.99). Meanwhile, men were more likely (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.01-1.91) to report the influence of other smokers as a barrier during quitting. Conclusions: PRQ promotion and outreach efforts should target populations underserved by the PRQ including male, young adult, and non-metropolitan area smokers. Initiatives that link the PRQ with primary care providers in promoting smoking cessation should be encouraged. PMID:18782965

  19. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  20. Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy smoking cessation treatment for smokers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen A; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mercer, Laina; Wyszynski, Christopher M; Vilardaga, Roger; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Smokers with depressive symptoms have more difficulty quitting smoking than the general population of smokers. The present study examines a web-based treatment using acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for smokers with depressive symptoms. The study aimed to determine participant receptivity to the intervention and its effects on smoking cessation, acceptance of internal cues, and depressive symptoms. Smokers who had positive screening results for depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 94) were selected from a randomized controlled trial (N = 222) comparing web-based ACT for smoking cessation (WebQuit.org) with Smokefree.gov. Forty-five participants (48%) completed the three-month follow-up. Compared to Smokefree.gov, WebQuit participants spent significantly more time on site (p =.001) and had higher acceptance of physical cravings (p =.033). While not significant, WebQuit participants were more engaged and satisfied with their program and were more accepting of internal cues overall. There was preliminary evidence that WebQuit participants had higher quit rates (20% versus 12%) and lower depressive symptoms at follow-up (45% versus 56%) than those in Smokefree.gov. This was the first study of web-based ACT for smoking cessation among smokers with depressive symptoms, with promising evidence of receptivity, efficacy, impact on a theory-based change process, and possible secondary effects on depression. A fully powered trial of the ACT WebQuit.org intervention specifically for depressed smokers is needed. This was part of a clinical trial registered as NCT#01166334 at www.clinicaltrials.gov .

  1. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers' Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-07-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers' readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses.

  2. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  3. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alison J.; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 792 sm...

  4. Self-related neural response to tailored smoking-cessation messages predicts quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Ho, S. Shaun; Jasinska, Agnes J.; Polk, Thad A.; Welsh, Robert C.; Liberzon, Israel; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Although tailored health interventions can be more effective in eliciting positive behavior change then generic interventions, the underlying neural mechanisms are not yet understood. Ninety-one smokers participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and a tailored smoking-cessation program. We found that increases in activations in self-related processing regions, particularly dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, to tailored messages predicted quitting during a 4-month follow-up. PMID:21358641

  5. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  6. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  7. Illiteracy, ignorance, and willingness to quit smoking among villagers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavarasana, S; Gorty, P V; Allam, A

    1992-04-01

    During the field work to control oral cancer, difficulty in communication was encountered with illiterates. A study to define the role of illiteracy, ignorance and willingness to quit smoking among the villagers was undertaken in a rural area surrounding Doddipatla Village, A.P., India. Out of a total population of 3,550, 272 (7.7%) persons, mostly in the age range of 21-50 years, attended a cancer detection camp. There were 173 (63.6%) females and 99 (36.4%) males, among whom 66 (M53 + F13) were smokers; 36.4% of males and 63% of females were illiterate. Among the illiterates, it was observed that smoking rate was high (56%) and 47.7% were ignorant of health effects of smoking. The attitude of illiterate smokers was encouraging, as 83.6% were willing to quit smoking. Further research is necessary to design health education material for 413.5 million illiterates living in India (1991 Indian Census). A community health worker, trained in the use of mass media coupled with a person-to-person approach, may help the smoker to quit smoking.

  8. Disengagement beliefs in smokers: do they influence the effects of a tailored persuasive message advocating smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, A

    2009-09-01

    Disengagement beliefs function to reduce cognitive dissonance and a number of predictions with regard to disengagement beliefs have been tested and verified. However, the influence of disengagement beliefs on persuasion has not been studied yet. In a field-experiment, 254 smokers were randomly assigned to a persuasive message condition or a no-information control condition. First, it was assessed to what extent disengagement beliefs influenced persuasion. In smokers with low adherence to disengagement beliefs, quitting activity (attempting to quit) in the control condition was high, but this was not further increased by persuasive information on the negative outcomes of smoking. In contrast, smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs showed low quitting activity in the control condition, but significantly more quitting activity when they received the persuasive message. Second, it was studied what smokers do when they experience negative affect caused by the persuasive message. The results show that in smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs, negative affect was associated with less quitting activity. Although these results show that quitting activity as assessed at 2 and 8 months follow-ups was influenced by disengagement beliefs, point prevalence seven-day quitting was not. This study shows that adherence to disengagement beliefs is a relevant individual difference in understanding effects of smoking cessation interventions.

  9. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Tiffany PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-28

    When Tiffany was 16, her mother—a cigarette smoker—died of lung cancer. Tiffany quit smoking at 34 because she wanted to be around for her own daughter, who had just turned 16. In this 60 second PSA from CDC's Tips From Former Smokers campaign, Tiffany offers tips on how to quit.  Created: 3/28/2013 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  10. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  11. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  12. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  13. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topi... ...

  14. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  15. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  16. QuitNowTXT Text Messaging Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Overview: The QuitNowTXT text messaging program is designed as a resource that can be adapted to specific contexts including those outside the United States and in...

  17. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ... 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control ...

  18. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  19. Why Is It So Hard to Quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit? It’s hard to tackle the physical addiction to nicotine . Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive ... a support group can give you comfort and positive reinforcement. Cut back on caffeine . Caffeine is a ...

  20. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Romer, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Wharfield, Leisha; Mertz, C K; Carpenter, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of mortality and medical costs in the United States. More graphic and salient warning labels on cigarette packs as used in Canada may help to reduce smoking initiation and increase quit attempts. However, the labels also may lead to defensive reactions among smokers. In an experimental setting, smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to Canadian or U.S. warning labels. Compared with current U.S. labels, Canadian labels produced more negative affective reactions to smoking cues and to the smoker image among both smokers and nonsmokers without signs of defensive reactions from smokers. A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy.

  1. Blogging to Quit Smoking: Sharing Stories from Women of Childbearing Years in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Noormohamed, Aliya; Dragonetti, Rosa; Maher, Julie; Lessels, Christina; Selby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which the pregnant or postpartum women, in the process of quitting smoking, felt that writing in a blog about their smoking cessation journeys helped them in their efforts to become or remain smoke free. Five women who blogged for Prevention of Gestational and Neonatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (a website designed to help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking) were interviewed about their experiences as bloggers. Participants were asked to complete an online survey, which had closed-ended questions regarding their sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. Once they completed the survey, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted over the phone. Findings suggest that blogging might combine several evidence-based behavioral strategies for tobacco cessation, such as journaling and getting support from others who use tobacco. Being part of a blogging community of women who have experienced or are experiencing similar challenges can be therapeutic and help women gain confidence in their ability to quit smoking. In conclusion, blogging may help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking by increasing their social support and promoting self-reflection.

  2. Desvalorização de ganhos e perdas monetárias em fumantes, fumantes em tratamento e não fumantes Discounting of monetary gains and losses by smokers, smokers seeking treatment and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne de Sá Barbosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumantes tendem a escolher recompensas imediatas de menor valor e desvalorizar as atrasadas de maior valor em modelos de desvalorização pelo atraso (DA. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a escolha temporal de consequências apetitivas e aversivas de fumantes que decidem parar de fumar. Por isso, investigou-se a DA em uma tarefa com perdas e ganhos de valores monetários hipotéticos em fumantes (n = 20, fumantes em tratamento (n = 20 e não fumantes (n = 20, que também responderam o questionário de tolerância de Fagerström e o ASSIST. A DA foi maior para fumantes do que para não fumantes para ganhos (mas não perdas. Fumantes em tratamento não diferiram dos outros grupos, apresentando uma DA intermediária. Estes podem ser um subgrupo de fumantes menos impulsivos ou a decisão de parar de fumar reduziu a DA. A DA pode ser uma preditora do sucesso da cessação do tabagismo.Smokers tend to choose immediate reward of small magnitude and discount delayed reward of larger magnitude in Delay Discounting Models (DD. However, little is known about temporal choice of appetitive and aversive consequences among smokers who seek to quit smoking. DD was examined in a task of hypothetical monetary gains and losses in smokers (n = 20, smokers seeking treatment (n = 20 and non-smokers, who also answered the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire, and ASSIST. Smokers showed a greater DD than non-smokers in the appetitive condition (but not aversive. DD in smokers on treatment to quit was not different from remaining groups, and showed an intermediate DD. These smokers seeking treatment might either be a less impulsive subgroup of smokers or the decision to quit smoking reduced DD. DD might be an outcome predictor in smoking cessation treatment.

  3. Prioritizing the mHealth Design Space: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Smokers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea Lisabeth; BlueSpruce, June; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B

    2016-08-05

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers' preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used. The aim of this study was to understand smokers' preferred design features of mHealth quit-smoking tools. We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of focus groups and written surveys to understand the design preferences of adult smokers who were interested in quitting smoking (N=40). Focus groups were stratified by age to allow differing perspectives to emerge between older (>40 years) and younger (mHealth experience. Their ideal mHealth quit-smoking tool would allow personalized tracking of their progress, adaptively tailored feedback, and real-time peer support to help manage smoking cravings. Based on qualitative analysis of focus group discussion, participants preferred pull messages (ie, delivered upon request) over push messages (ie, sent automatically) and preferred interaction with other smokers through closed social networks. Preferences for entertaining games or other rewarding incentives to encourage program use differed by age group. Based on quantitative analysis of surveys, participants rated the importance of select design features significantly differently (PmHealth cessation aids should be designed with an understanding of smokers' needs and preferences for these tools. Doing so does not guarantee treatment effectiveness, but balancing user preferences with best-practice treatment considerations could enhance program adoption and improve treatment outcomes. Grounded in the perspectives of smokers

  4. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingdan; Winkler, Markus H.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Andreatta, Marta; Li, Yonghui; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with non-smokers (NS) in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether non-deprived smokers (NDS) and deprived smokers (DS) differ from non-smokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 non-smokers, 22 NDS, and 20 DS) were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal, and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial electromyography, and electroencephalograph data indicated that both NDS and DS performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts. PMID:26528213

  5. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended 1 laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified 3 spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture-rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. I'll txt U if I have a problem: how the Societe Canadienne du cancer in Quebec applied behavior-change theory, data mining and agile software development to help young adults quit smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor van Mierlo

    Full Text Available For many organizations, limited budgets and phased funding restrict the development of digital health tools. This problem is often exacerbated by the ever-increasing sophistication of technology and costs related to programming and maintenance. Traditional development methods tend to be costly and inflexible and not client centered. The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of Agile software development and outcomes of a three-phase mHealth program designed to help young adult Quebecers quit smoking.In Phase I, literature reviews, focus groups, interviews, and behavior change theory were used in the adaption and re-launch of an existing evidence-based mHealth platform. Based on analysis of user comments and utilization data from Phase I, the second phase expanded the service to allow participants to live text-chat with counselors. Phase II evaluation led to the third and current phase, in which algorithms were introduced to target pregnant smokers, substance users, students, full-time workers, those affected by mood disorders and chronic disease.Data collected throughout the three phases indicate that the incremental evolution of the intervention has led to increasing numbers of smokers being enrolled while making functional enhancements. In Phase I (240 days 182 smokers registered with the service. 51% (n = 94 were male and 61.5% (n = 112 were between the ages of 18-24. In Phase II (300 days, 994 smokers registered with the service. 51% (n = 508 were male and 41% (n = 403 were between the ages of 18-24. At 174 days to date 873 smokers have registered in the third phase. 44% (n = 388 were male and 24% (n = 212 were between the ages of 18-24.Emerging technologies in behavioral science show potential, but do not have defined best practices for application development. In phased-based projects with limited funding, Agile appears to be a viable approach to building and expanding digital tools.

  7. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.

  8. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the health effects of different tobacco products, excise tax increases on snus relative to cigarettes, and the widespread public misconception that nicotine is the main cause of the adverse health effects associated with tobacco use. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey was done during November 2008 and September 2009 including 2,599 males and 3,409 females aged between 18 and 89 years. The sampling technique was random digit dialing. Data on tobacco habits and quit attempts were collected through structured telephone interviews. Results The proportion of ever smokers was similar among males (47% compared to females (44%. About two thirds of them reported having stopped smoking at the time of the survey. Among the former smokers, the proportion who reported unassisted quitting was slightly lower among males (68% compared to females (78%. Among ever smokers who reported having made assisted quit attempts, snus was the most frequently reported cessation aid among males (22%, whereas females more frequently reported counseling (8%, or pharmaceutical nicotine (gum 8%, patch 4%. Of those who reported using snus at their latest quit attempt, 81% of males and 72% of females were successful quitters compared to about 50-60% for pharmaceutical nicotine and counseling. Conclusions This survey confirms and extends previous reports in showing that, although most smokers who have quit did so unassisted, snus continues to be the most frequently reported cessation

  9. Relation between newspaper coverage of 'light' cigarette litigation and beliefs about 'lights' among American adolescents and young adults: the impact on risk perceptions and quitting intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Romer, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the impact of newspaper use in a year of increased coverage of litigation against the tobacco industry on youths' beliefs about the health risks of 'light' cigarettes, and examine relations between inaccurate beliefs about 'lights', perceptions of risk and intentions to quit smoking. The data come from the 2004 National Annenberg Survey of Youth, a representative random digit dial telephone survey of youths aged 14-22 years in the USA (n=1501; current smokers, n=305; 'lights' smokers, n=112). All youths were asked about newspaper use and beliefs regarding 'light' cigarettes (riskiness, addictiveness, ease of quitting). Smokers reported on risk perceptions and quitting intentions. We also examined changes in newspaper coverage related to 'lights' from January 2001 to April 2004. Newspaper coverage related to 'lights' increased in the first months of 2003, and continued into 2004. Logistic regression analyses suggest that 'lights' smokers with lower levels of newspaper use were most likely to hold inaccurate beliefs about 'lights' (OR=5.93, 95% CI 1.48 to 23.77). Smokers of 'lights' with inaccurate beliefs were less likely to perceive their smoking as risky (OR=0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.87), and smokers with inaccurate beliefs were less likely to have strong quitting intentions (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.96). Inaccurate beliefs about the risks of 'lights' were negatively related to youth smokers' perceptions of risk and intentions to quit smoking. News coverage surrounding the tobacco industry's failure to disclose these risks might help reduce these inaccurate, and potentially dangerous, beliefs.

  10. Evaluating the association between menthol cigarette use and the likelihood of being a former versus current smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Sandra I; Fuller, William G; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E; Curtin, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Menthol in cigarettes has been examined for its potential to affect smoking dependence, measured primarily as number of cigarettes smoked per day and time to first cigarette after waking; the ability to quit smoking constitutes an additional measure of dependence. Successful quitting among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers is difficult to determine from the literature, due in part to the various definitions of quitting used by researchers. Nevertheless, intervention and follow-up studies of smoking cessation treatments generally indicate no differences in quitting success among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while cross-sectional studies suggest some differences within race/ethnicity groups. The association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of being a former versus current smoker was examined based on data from the National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and limited to smokers who had quit at least one year prior to survey participation provided inconsistent results with regard to menthol cigarette use and quitting, both within surveys (i.e., comparing race/ethnicity groups) and between surveys (i.e., same race/ethnicity group across surveys). Evidence suggesting the existence or direction of an association between menthol in cigarettes and quitting depended on the data source.

  11. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  12. Adult smokers' receptivity to a television advert for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; Shafer, Paul; Nonnemaker, James; Makarenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine adult smokers' awareness of and receptivity to an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) television advert, and whether viewing the advert influenced urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. A television advert for ENDS brand blu eCigs was shown to an online convenience sample of 519 Florida adult smokers. We measured current smokers' awareness of and receptivity to the advert, and whether seeing the advert influenced their thoughts about smoking or quitting, urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. Results were stratified by prior ENDS use. Approximately 62.3% of current smokers were aware of the advert. Smokers found the advert informative (73.8%), attention grabbing (67.5%) and innovative (64.5%), with prior ENDS users rating the advert more favourably than non-users. Seeing the advert elicited an urge to smoke (mean 42.1, SD=1.9) and thoughts about smoking cigarettes (75.8%) as well as quitting (74.6%). Prior END users were significantly more likely than non-users to report thinking about smoking cigarettes after seeing the advert (Padvertising and examine how exposure to ENDS adverts influences smokers' use of ENDS, dual use with cigarettes and cessation behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Gender differences in responses to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gray, Kevin M; McClure, Erin A; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Saladin, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Abandono del consumo de tabaco en las fumadoras gallegas durante el embarazo o la lactancia, 1954-2004 Smoking cessation in Galician [Spain] smokers during pregnancy and breast feeding, 1954-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Pérez-Ríos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la proporción de mujeres residentes en Galicia que dejan de fumar durante el embarazo y los 6 primeros meses de lactancia e identificar posibles cambios temporales en el patrón de abandono. Método: Se analizan datos aportados de manera retrospectiva por fumadoras o exfumadoras residentes en Galicia. Resultados: El 31,9% (26,9-37,0 de las fumadoras no abandonó su hábito durante el embarazo y los primeros 6 meses de lactancia. En función del período temporal en el que ocurrió el último embarazo, no se aprecian diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el porcentaje de mujeres que dejan de fumar, aunque se observa una tendencia hacia un menor abandono. Conclusiones: Un alto porcentaje de las gestantes fumadoras gallegas no abandonó el hábito durante el embarazo y los primeros 6 meses de lactancia. Estos datos indican la necesidad de promover y potenciar medidas orientadas al abandono del consumo de tabaco en estas mujeres.Objective: To determine how many women living in Galicia (Spain quit smoking during pregnancy and in the first 6 months of breast feeding. A second objective was to identify possible temporal changes in smoking cessation. Method: Data retrospectively provided by smokers and ex-smokers living in Galicia were analyzed. Results: A total of 31.9% (26.9-37.0 of Galician smokers did not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the 6 first months of breast feeding. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of women who stopped smoking in relation to the period when they became pregnant. A tendency towards lower cessation rates was found. Conclusions: A high percentage of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the first 6 months of breast feeding. These data indicate that health policies on smoking during pregnancy and breast feeding should be improved.

  15. Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess whether smokers adjust their beliefs in a pattern that is consistent with Cognitive Dissonance Theory. This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change. A telephone survey was conducted of nationally representative samples of adult smokers from Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Smokers were followed across three waves (October 2002 to December 2004), during which they were asked to report on their smoking-related beliefs and their quitting behaviour. Smokers with no history of quitting across the three waves exhibited the highest levels of rationalisations for smoking. When smokers quit smoking, they reported having fewer rationalisations for smoking compared with when they had previously been smoking. However, among those who attempted to quit but then relapsed, there was once again a renewed tendency to rationalise their smoking. This rebound in the use of rationalisations was higher for functional beliefs than for risk-minimising beliefs, as predicted by social psychological theory. Smokers are motivated to rationalise their behaviour through the endorsement of more positive beliefs about smoking, and these beliefs change systematically with changes in smoking status. More work is needed to determine if this cognitive dissonance-reducing function has an inhibiting effect on any subsequent intentions to quit.

  16. Demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit as possible determinants of smoking behaviors and acceptability of shocking warnings in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Conti, Vittoria; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Paone, Gregorino; Cafolla, Maria; Saulle, Rosella; Bulzomì, Vincenzo; Antici, Daniele; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Terzano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures) to quit or reduce tobacco use. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc.) the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  17. The female smoker: from addiction to recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-10-01

    Millions of American girls and women have been drawn to smoking by an industry that has been clearly and systematically targeting women of all ages and life circumstances. Big tobacco's well-timed marketing strategies skillfully link cigarette use to typical female values: independence, self-reliance, weight control, stress management, social progress and popularity, personal attractiveness, autonomy, self-fulfillment, youth, happiness, personal success, health, and active, vigorous, and strenuous lifestyles. Biologically speaking, women are especially vulnerable to the legion of health problems of tobacco use. Smoking is a critical hazard for women in their reproductive years, particularly when they are pregnant. The US Public Health Service 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline provides helpful guidance and sound general recommendations for the treatment of women of all ages for tobacco use and dependence. Women and girls who smoke represent diverse subgroups of the population with unique issues and needs. The 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Women and Smoking stresses the importance of multistrategy programs for treating female smokers. This approach includes antitobacco media campaigns, increases in tobacco prices, promotion of nonsmoking in public places, curbs on tobacco advertising and promotion, enforcement of legislation to reduce youth access to tobacco products, and effective tobacco use treatment programs.

  18. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  20. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse. ... 770 views 1:35 Let's quit abusing drug users - Duration: 19:02. TEDMED 216,321 views 19: ...

  1. Transdermal Nicotine During Cue Reactivity in Adult Smokers With and Without Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara W.; Spiegel, David A.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent today’s smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n = 61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n = 38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hours. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hour patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch X Time and Patch X Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but post-absorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances, and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit. PMID:22686966

  2. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  3. Race and Medication Adherence Moderate Cessation Outcomes in Criminal Justice Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L.; Clark, C. Brendan; Zhang; Hendricks, Peter S.; Jardin, Bianca F.; Lahti, Adrienne C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smokers in the criminal justice system represent some of the most disadvantaged smokers in the U.S., as they have high rates of smoking (70%–80%) and are primarily uninsured with low access to medical interventions. Few studies have examined smoking cessation interventions in racially diverse smokers and none have examined these characteristics among individuals supervised in the community. The purpose of this study is to determine if four sessions of standard behavioral counseling for smoking cessation would differentially aid smoking cessation for African American versus non-Hispanic white smokers under community corrections supervision. Design An RCT. Setting/participants Five hundred smokers under community corrections supervision were recruited between 2009 and 2013 via fliers posted at the community corrections offices. Intervention All participants received 12 weeks of bupropion plus brief physician advice to quit smoking. Half of the participants received four sessions of 20–30 minutes of smoking cessation counseling following tobacco treatment guidelines, while half received no additional counseling. Main outcome measures Generalized estimating equations were used to determine factors associated with smoking abstinence across time. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results The end-of-treatment abstinence rate across groups was 9.4%, with no significant main effects indicating group differences. However, behavioral counseling had a differential effect on cessation: whites who received counseling had higher quit rates than whites who did not receive counseling. Conversely, African Americans who did not receive counseling had higher average cessation rates than African Americans who received counseling. Overall, medication-adherent African American smokers had higher abstinence rates relative to other smokers. Conclusions Racial disparities in smoking cessation are not evident among those who are adherent to medication. More research is needed

  4. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  5. Effectiveness of an Intervention to Teach Physicians How to Assist Patients to Quit Smoking in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Kaplan, Celia P; Gregorich, Steven E; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Peña, Lorena; Alderete, Mariela; Schoj, Veronica; Alderete, Ethel

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated an intervention to teach physicians how to help their smoking patients quit compared to usual care in Argentina. Physicians were recruited from six clinical systems and randomized to intervention (didactic curriculum in two 3-hour sessions) or usual care. Smoking patients who saw participating physicians within 30 days of the intervention (index clinical visit) were randomly sampled and interviewed by telephone with follow-up surveys at months 6 and 12 after the index clinical visit. Outcomes were tobacco abstinence (main), quit attempt in the past month, use of medications to quit smoking, and cigarettes per day. Repeated measures on the same participants were accommodated via generalized linear mixed models. Two hundred fifty-four physicians were randomized; average age 44.5 years, 53% women and 12% smoked. Of 1378 smoking patients surveyed, 81% were women and 45% had more than 12 years of education. At 1 month, most patients (77%) reported daily smoking, 20% smoked some days and 3% had quit. Mean cigarettes smoked per day was 12.9 (SD = 8.8) and 49% were ready to quit within the year. Intention-to-treat analyses did not show significant group differences in quit rates at 12 months when assuming outcome response was missing at random (23% vs. 24.1%, P = .435). Using missing=smoking imputation rule, quit rates were not different at 12 months (15.6% vs. 16.4% P = .729). Motivated smokers were more likely to quit at 6 months (17.7% vs. 9.6%, P = .03). Training in tobacco cessation for physicians did not improve abstinence among their unselected smoking patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed.

  7. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  8. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  9. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Periodontal parameters were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P Periodontal inflammatory conditions are comparable among smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  10. Did Nixon quit before he resigned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Beckmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On August 9, 1974, Richard M. Nixon formally resigned the presidency; however, folklore hints Nixon informally quit fulfilling his duties well before then. As Watergate became less “a third rate burglary” than “high crimes and misdemeanors,” rumors of President Nixon’s wallowing, wandering, drinking, and mumbling swirled. Yet evidence for such assertions has been thin, and prevailing scholarship offers compelling reasons to believe Nixon’s institutional protocols overrode his individual proclivities. This study offers a new, systematic look at Nixon’s presidency by coding his public events and private interactions with top government officials during every day of his presidency. Contrary to our expectations, the results corroborate the rumors: Richard Nixon effectively quit being president well before he resigned the presidency. In fact, it turns out there was a defining moment when Nixon disengaged from his administration: on December 6, 1973, the day Gerald Ford was confirmed as Vice President.

  11. A qualitative analysis of smokers' perceptions about lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay; DeGroff, Amy S; Richards, Thomas B; Melillo, Stephanie; Kish-Doto, Julia; Heminger, Christina L; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Allen, Kristine Gabuten

    2017-06-21

    -friendly educational tools to improve patient understanding of screening risks and benefits and the use of best practices to help smokers quit. Further qualitative studies are needed to assess changes in smokers' perceptions as lung cancer screening with CT scan becomes more widely used in community practice.

  12. A qualitative exploration of the reasons for the discontinuation of smoking cessation treatment among Quit Smoking Clinics' defaulters and health care providers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei Lin; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2013-01-01

    Treatment default among the smokers hinders the effectiveness of the delivery of cessation services. While many studies have predicted the defaulters' characteristics, the reasons why these smokers dropped out and continued smoking are seldom explored. This study examined the barriers encountered by such smokers and their respective health care providers (HCPs) in relation to the discontinuation of cessation treatment. From May 2010 to March 2011, 15 current adult smokers and 9 HCPs from 2 Quit Smoking Clinics (QSCs) in the Melaka Tengah District, Malacca, Malaysia were interviewed on smoking, cessation, and the QSC. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subsequently translated into English and analyzed using thematic analysis. The barriers encountered were categorized as Individual- and Clinic-level. Both smokers and HCPs acknowledged that the smokers' low intrinsic motivation was the individual-level barrier. The clinic-level barriers were the mismatched perceptions of smokers and HCPs regarding the HCPs' roles, skills, and attitudes, as well as the availability and efficacy of smoking cessation aids (SCAs). While the smokers viewed the program as not helpful, the HCPs cited the lack of organizational support as their main barrier. The reasons for treatment default centered on the overall dissatisfaction with the treatment (due to the program, HCP, and SCA factors) combined with the smokers' low intrinsic motivation. Optimizing the interplay of the extrinsic motivational cues, such as the HCP and SCA factors, would complement the smoker's low intrinsic motivation and thus encourage treatment retention. However, it is necessary to strike a balance between the individual smoker's needs and the availability of organizational support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smoking Cessation Counselling for Pregnant and Postpartum Women among Midwives, Gynaecologists and Paediatricians in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Hannöver; Kathrin Röske; Jochen René Thyrian; Ulrich John; Hans-Joachim Hannich

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers. The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for smokers in the care for pregnant and parenting women by midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians. A survey of all midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians registere...

  14. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  15. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingall, Georgina; Cropley, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during pregnancy. Electronic databases and journals were searched with seven articles included in this review. The findings demonstrated that women were aware of the health risks to the foetus associated with smoking; however knowledge of potential health risks was not sufficient to motivate them to quit. Several barriers to quitting were identified which included willpower, role, and meaning of smoking, issues with cessation provision, changes in relationship interactions, understanding of facts, changes in smell and taste and influence of family and friends. A further interesting finding was that cessation service provision by health professionals was viewed negatively by women. It was concluded that there is a shortage of qualitative studies that concentrate on the specific difficulties that pregnant women face when trying to quit smoking.

  16. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  17. Mood as a resource in dealing with health recommendations: how mood affects information processing and acceptance of quit-smoking messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny; Vonkeman, Charlotte; Hartmann, Tilo

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study tested the effects of positive and negative mood on the processing and acceptance of health recommendations about smoking in an online experiment. It was hypothesised that positive mood would provide smokers with the resources to systematically process self-relevant health recommendations. One hundred and twenty-seven participants (smokers and non-smokers) read a message in which a quit smoking programme was recommended. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: positive versus negative mood, and strong versus weak arguments for the recommended action. Systematic message processing was inferred when participants were able to distinguish between high- and low-quality arguments, and by congruence between attitudes and behavioural intentions. Persuasion was measured by participant's attitudes towards smoking and the recommended action, and by their intentions to follow the action recommendation. As predicted, smokers systematically processed the health message only under positive mood conditions; non-smokers systematically processed the health message only under negative mood conditions. Moreover, smokers' attitudes towards the health message predicted intentions to quit smoking only under positive mood conditions. Findings suggest that positive mood may decrease defensive processing of self-relevant health information.

  18. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  19. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Contrasting smokers' and snus users' perceptions of personal tobacco behavior in norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne; Lund, Karl Erik; Halkjelsvik, Torleif

    2014-12-01

    In Norway, snus use and cigarette smoking are at different developmental stages as described by the diffusion of innovation model. Concomitant with declining smoking rates, the use of snus is increasing. In light of these differences in use trends, we assumed that snus users and cigarette smokers would have different perceptions of their personal tobacco use. A total of 4,852 smokers and snus users were recruited from a large sample of online panelists (n = 62,000) and a postal database (n = 15,000). The responses to 16 evaluative statements assessing perceptions about tobacco use were compared between exclusive snus users and exclusive smokers and within dual users. The statements concerned self-evaluative emotions, moral judgments, social disapproval, and benefits of quitting. The perceptions of personal tobacco use differed greatly between exclusive smokers and exclusive snus users, even after controlling for age and sex. Smoker's perceptions were more negative compared with snus users' perception. The differences between smoking and snus use were particularly large for indices of social disapproval (Cohen's d = 1.56) and benefits from quitting use of the product (Cohen's d = 1.47) between exclusive users. Dual users exhibited a similar pattern. Smokers have a more negative perception of their own use compared to snus users. Dual users also devaluated smoking in comparison to their snus use. This finding may have important values for prevention strategies targeting smokers, snus users, and dual users. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

  2. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a bran...

  3. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  4. A qualitative exploration of smokers' views regarding aspects of a community-based mobile stop smoking service in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bains Manpreet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing more accessible stop smoking services (SSS is important, particularly for reaching smokers from socio-economically deprived groups who are more likely to smoke and less likely to quit in comparison to their more affluent counterparts. A drop-in mobile SSS (MSSS was piloted across 13 locations in socio-economically deprived areas of Nottingham. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore the views of 40 smokers who registered with the MSSS. Results The MSSS appeared to trigger quit attempts. For some of the participants the attempt was totally unplanned; for others, it built on pre-existing thoughts about quitting which had not yet been acted upon. Smokers interested in quitting were comfortable about approaching the MSSS, whilst acknowledging that they did not feel pressured to register with the service. The drop-in format of the MSSS was found to be more appealing than making an appointment. In addition, several participants articulated that they may not have utilised other SSS had they not come across the MSSS. Conclusions A MSSS may be an effective way to prompt quit attempts for smokers not planning to quit and also reach smokers who would not engage with SSS.

  5. Is snus the same as dip? Smokers' perceptions of new smokeless tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreinifar, Sareh; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-03-01

    Since 2006, leading US cigarette companies have been promoting new snus products as line extensions of popular cigarette brands. These promotional efforts include direct mail marketing to consumers on cigarette company mailing lists. This study examines smokers' reactions to this advertising and perceptions of the new snus products. Eight focus groups (n=65 participants) were conducted in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010 with smokers who received tobacco direct mail advertising. The focus group discussions assessed smokers' perceptions of the new snus products. Focus group videos were transcribed and coded using Transana software to identify common themes. Most participants were aware of snus advertising and many had tried free samples. Most were aware that snus was supposed to be 'different' from traditional chewing tobacco but consistently did not know why. Participants willing to try snus still identified strongly as smokers, and for some participants, trying snus reinforced their preference for smoking. Snus' major benefits were use in smoke-free environments and avoiding social stigma related to secondhand smoke. Participants were sceptical of the idea that snus was safer than cigarettes and did not see it as an acceptable substitute for cigarettes or as a cessation aid. Smokers repeated some messages featured in early snus advertising. Snus was not seen as an acceptable substitute for smoking or way to quit cigarettes. Current smoker responses to snus advertising are not consistent with harm reduction.

  6. smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Weidberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: A pesar de que los cigarrillos electrónicos se han usado cada vez más como alternativa al consumo de tabaco, pocos estudios han explorado los factores psicológicos asociados a su uso. Estudios previos que analizan los correlatos del cigarrillo electrónico se han centrado en las características sociodemográficas y de dependencia del tabaco. Sin embargo, ningún estudio ha analizado características psicológicas como la impulsividad en usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las tasas de impulsividad en cuatro grupos de participantes: usuarios actuales de cigarrillo electrónico que eran ex-fumadores, fumadores de tabaco, ex-fumadores y controles. Método: Una muestra de 136 participantes completó una versión informatizada de la tarea de descuento por demora para reforzadores monetarios hipotéticos. Resultados: El descuento por demora fue mayor entre los usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico que entre los ex-fumadores. Los usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico mostraron un descuento intermedio que no difirió del de los fumadores y los controles. Además, el descuento por demora fue significativamente mayor entre los fumadores en comparación con los ex-fumadores y los controles. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados amplían la literatura previa sobre descuento por demora arrojando nueva evidencia sobre los niveles de impulsividad en los usuarios de cigarrillo electrónico. © 2017 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY−NC−ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by−nc−nd/4.0/.

  7. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  8. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  9. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Representação de gestantes tabagistas sobre o uso do cigarro: estudo realizado em hospital do interior paulista Representaciones de embarazadas fumadoras sobre uso del cigarrillo: estudio realizado en hospital cerca de la ciudad de São Paulo Representation of pregnant smokers on cigarette use: a study carried out at a hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Possato

    2007-09-01

    profesional para informaciones, abordaje y tratamiento adecuado y apoyo para que se alcance el éxito.This study sheds light on the smoking pregnant women's outlook on cigarette use. The Theory of Social Representations was used as a theoretical reference. For data analysis, the Collective Subject Discourse was constructed. Of the 27 women that were interviewed, 18 had finished elementary education, 8 had completed secondary education, and one had college level education; 14 had a stable union and 6 were married. Four themes emerged from the interviews: 1 starting to smoke: a natural, social practice; 2 satisfaction versus guilt; 3 shattering news: effects of smoking on pregnancy; and 4 quitting: between will and ability. Pregnant women revealed negative ideas about smoking, considering smoking the worst of addictions and a potential cause for complications to the fetus and the mother. Smoking was represented in a prejudicial manner, disregarding the existence of treatment and the need for it. Emerging difficulties were related to quitting, for which professionals, information and adequate approaches for treatment and support for achieving success are utmost necessities.

  11. Assessment of different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8 and the quit and win (n = 17. The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers′ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system.

  12. Smoker Identity and Its Potential Role in Young Adults’ Smoking Behavior: A Meta-Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16–34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Results: Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals’ defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Conclusions: Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker’s identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. PMID:25622078

  13. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  14. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  15. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-05-18

    Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Using Facebook's advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ(2)[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers were cost-effective and successful

  16. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  17. Tips From Former Smokers - Becky

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-20

    Becky quit smoking, but only after getting COPD, severe lung disease. Since then, she has undergone multiple medical procedures and needs continuous oxygen to breathe.  Created: 1/20/2016 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 1/20/2016.

  18. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  19. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Kristin E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. Objective To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Methods Data were from the National Cancer Institute’s 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Results Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (PSmartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Conclusions Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the

  20. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  1. Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few smokers realize that there is a third choice: non-combustion nicotine sources, such as smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, or pharmaceutical nicotine, which eliminate almost all the risk while still allowing consumption of nicotine. Widespread dissemination of misleading health claims is used to prevent smokers from learning about this lifesaving option, and to discourage opinion leaders from telling smokers the truth. One common misleading claim is a risk-risk comparison that has not before been quantified: A smoker who would have eventually quit nicotine entirely, but learns the truth about low-risk alternatives, might switch to an alternative instead of quitting entirely, and thus might suffer a net increase in health risk. While this has mathematical face validity, a simple calculation of the tradeoff -- switching to lifelong low-risk nicotine use versus continuing to smoke until quitting -- shows that such net health costs are extremely unlikely and of trivial maximum magnitude. In particular, for the average smoker, smoking for just one more month before quitting causes greater health risk than switching to a low-risk nicotine source and never quitting it. Thus, discouraging a smoker, even one who would have quit entirely, from switching to a low-risk alternative is almost certainly more likely to kill him than it is to save him. Similarly, a strategy of waiting for better anti-smoking tools to be developed, rather than encouraging immediate tobacco harm reduction using current options, kills more smokers every month than it could possibly ever save.

  2. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  3. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  4. Quit Now! A Psychoeducational Expressive Therapy Group Work Approach for At-Risk and Delinquent Adolescent Smokers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…

  5. Nondisclosure of Smoking Status to Health Care Providers among Current and Former Smokers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laurel Erin; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    An unintended consequence of tobacco control's success in marginalizing smoking is that smokers may conceal their smoking from those who are best positioned to help them quit: health care providers (HCPs). The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of, and factors related to, nondisclosure of smoking to HCPs. Data were obtained from…

  6. Personal, social, and cultural correlates of self-efficacy beliefs among South Korean college smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; So, Jiyeon; Lee, Jinro

    2009-06-01

    Much research has documented the significant influence of self-efficacy on smoking cessation, but considerably less is known as to what health communicators can do to promote or address barriers to self-efficacy. This study investigated personal, social, and cultural correlates of smoking self-efficacy. A survey of college smokers was done in South Korea, where the current smoking rate among males is over 56%. At the personal level, the perceived success-fullness of the last quit trial positively predicted self-efficacy. At the social level, interpersonal communication with friends was positively associated with self-efficacy. The cultural orientation of independent self-construal was positively associated with self-efficacy. These results indicate that factors affecting smokers' self-efficacy are operative in multiple domains and levels. Future communication programs should promote positive perceptions about prior quit trials, and segment the audience in terms of their self-construal to effectively enhance self-efficacy.

  7. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  8. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  9. Relation of resistin levels with C-reactve protein, homocysteine and uric acid in smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Esbah

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.

  10. Adaptive angiogenesis in placentas of heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarrer, C; Macara, L; Leiser, R; Kingdom, J

    1999-07-24

    Smoking in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality, suggesting impaired placental function, though placental weight is increased. We used scanning electron microscopy to show adaptive angiogenesis in term placental villi from smokers (n=4) and non-smokers (n=4). These images may aid communication of the dangers of smoking in pregnancy.

  11. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  12. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  13. Harm reduction--a treatment approach for resistant smokers with tobacco-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Solano, Segismundo; Viteri, Soledad Alonso; Ferrero, Miguel Barrueco; Torrecilla, Miguel; Mezquita, Miguel Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to represent a hard-core group, and this presents a dilemma for chest physicians. A reduction in cigarette smoking benefits health, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can aid smoking reduction. Hence we studied the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping hard-core smokers with severe COPD to quit. Seventeen smokers with severe COPD (FEV(1) 38-47% of predicted normal) who smoked >30 cigarettes/day but were unable to quit were encouraged to reduce their smoking as much as possible by using 4-mg nicotine gum. Five gradually reduced their daily tobacco consumption and, 18 months after starting NRT, were smoking an average of 6 cigarettes/day while still using nicotine gum. Compared to baseline, their respiratory symptoms had improved, and both FEV(1) and FVC had increased. There was no improvement in pulmonary function in the group of smokers who did not reduce their cigarette consumption. No adverse events relating to nicotine occurred among the patients who used NRT to reduce their smoking. We propose that this reduction approach should be considered for patients with respiratory disease who are unable or unwilling to stop smoking. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Medicaid Coverage of Smoking Cessation Counseling and Medication Is Underutilized for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Jacobson, Lisette T; Shireman, Theresa I

    2017-05-01

    Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013. We analyzed the number of pregnant women who received physician-provided smoking cessation counseling indicated by procedure billing codes (ie, G0436 and G0437) and medication (ie, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline) located in outpatient managed care encounter and fee-for-service claims data. We estimated the number of Medicaid-insured pregnant smokers using the national smoking prevalence (14%) in this population and the number of live births reported in Kansas. Annually from 2010 to 2013, approximately 27.2%-31.6% of pregnant smokers had claims for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Excluding claims for bupropion, a medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, claims ranged from 9.3% to 11.1%. Following implementation of Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation counseling, less than 1% of estimated smokers had claims for counseling. This low claims rate suggests that simply changing policy is not sufficient to ensure use of newly implemented benefits, and that there probably remain critical gaps in smoking cessation treatment. This study evaluates the use of Medicaid reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling among low-income pregnant women in Kansas. We describe the Medicaid claims rates of physician-provided smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women, an evidence-based and

  15. Smoking Quiz: Do You Need Help to Quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Category Stay Healthy Stay Away from Tobacco Smoking Habits Quiz What kind of smoker are you? Answer the following questions about your smoking habits. Then click the "Score Quiz" button for ...

  16. TControl: A mobile app to follow up tobacco-quitting patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, Marc; Carrera, Adrián; Vilaplana, Jordi; Cuadrado, Josep; Solsona, Sara; Abella, Francesc; Solsona, Francesc; Alves, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for a wide range of respiratory and circulatory diseases in active and passive smokers. Well-designed campaigns are raising awareness to the problem and an increasing number of smokers seeks medical assistance to quit their habit. In this context, there is the need to develop mHealth Apps that assist and manage large smoke quitting programs in efficient and economic ways. Our main objective is to develop an efficient and free mHealth app that facilitates the management of, and assistance to, people who want to quit smoking. As secondary objectives, our research also aims at estimating the economic effect of deploying that App in the public health system. Using JAVA and XML we develop and deploy a new free mHealth App for Android, called TControl (Tobacco-quitting Control). We deploy the App at the Tobacco Unit of the Santa Maria Hospital in Lleida and determine its stability by following the crashes of the App. We also use a survey to test usability of the app and differences in aptitude for using the App in a sample of 31 patients. Finally, we use mathematical models to estimate the economic effect of deploying TControl in the Catalan public health system. TControl keeps track of the smoke-quitting users, tracking their status, interpreting it, and offering advice and psychological support messages. The App also provides a bidirectional communication channel between patients and clinicians via mobile text messages. Additionally, registered patients have the option to interchange experiences with each other by chat. The App was found to be stable and to have high performances during startup and message sending. Our results suggest that age and gender have no statistically significant effect on patient aptitude for using TControl. Finally, we estimate that TControl could reduce costs for the Catalan public health system (CPHS) by up to € 400M in 10 years. TControl is a stable and well behaved App, typically operating near

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Smokers are prone to develop Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD than non-smokers. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD includes chronic bronchitis, bronchial Asthma, and emphysema. Pulmonary function test is a routine procedure for assessment and monitoring diseases. OBJECTIVE To estimate the Pulmonary function test like Forced Vital Capacity(FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second(FEV₁, FEV₁/FVC ratio and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFRamong smokers and non-smokers. Also, to study the effect of age and body mass index (BMI on the pulmonary function of these groups of people. MATERIAL AND METHOD It is a cross sectional study. The study was conducted among students and staff of Silchar Medical College and Hospital 121 subjects were selected, among them 60 were smokers and 61 non-smokers. Spirometric tests were carried out to assess pulmonary function. EXCLUSIONS CRITERIA Subjects having cardio pulmonary diseases. RESULT Mean FVC, FEV₁ and PEFR were found to be of lower value in smokers than non-smokers. There were significant differences between mean spirometric values among smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function declines in smokers.

  18. Effects of message framing and visual-fear appeals on smoker responses to antismoking ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungsuk; Lin, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of antismoking ads on Korean adult male smokers. An experiment was conducted to explore how message framing and visual-fear appeals embedded in antismoking ads may influence ad-evoked fear, threat appraisals, and intention to quit smoking. Results showed that (a) antismoking ad exposure increased ad-evoked fear and cessation intention; (b) optimistic bias was stronger when the visual-fear appeal was absent in antismoking ads; and

  19. Autonomous Motivation as a Critical Factor in Self-Efficacy among Rural Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Edward F. Ellerbeck

    2008-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been related to intent to stop smoking, abstinence success, and risk for relapse. Because limited attention has been given to self-efficacy among rural smokers, the current study examined correlates of self-efficacy among rural primary care patients smoking ≥ 10 cigarettes per day. Participants completed a telephone survey assessing demographics, smoking and medical history, social environment, self-efficacy, nicotine dependence, motivation for quitting, and depression. Amon...

  20. A controlled trial of a Quit and Win contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Warnick, Todd A; Chirila, Costel; Rasnake, Robert T; Paul, Todd P; Christie, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a state-of-the-art Quit and Win contest on tobacco quit rates at 3, 6, and 12 months after the 30-day quit period. Quasi-experimental with a volunteer sample of 494 Quit and Win contest registrants (treatment group) and 512 randomly selected tobacco users not exposed to the promotional media campaign (control group). Intervention included a 30-day quit period to be eligible for large cash prizes; provider advice via weekly mailings; online and telephone quit assistance; media campaign; and community support. Community-based intervention in Kentucky. A total of 1006 adult tobacco users. Quit rates were measured using 7-day point prevalence for tobacco use. Urine cotinine measurements confirmed self-reported quitting. Treatment group participants were significantly more likely than controls to experience quitting during the 1-year follow-up, as determined by both self-report and urine confirmation. After adjusting for baseline differences in demographics, tobacco use, and stage of change, those in the treatment group had 2.6 times the odds of reporting quitting in the postintervention period and 5.3 times the odds of experiencing quitting confirmed by urine cotinine, relative to controls. Women, minorities, and low-income tobacco users had equal odds of quitting as men, whites, and those with higher incomes. That the contest was minimally intensive and yielded a relatively high, quit rate demonstrates the potential effectiveness of the intervention.

  1. Tips From Former Smokers - Rebecca

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-20

    Rebecca struggled with depression for years. She also smoked. Finally, she realized that smoking wasn’t helping her, so she got care for her depression and quit for good.  Created: 1/20/2016 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 1/20/2016.

  2. Basement membrane and vascular remodelling in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller H Konrad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies (BB in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted an initial pilot study comparing BB from COPD patients with nonsmoking controls. This pilot study suggested the presence of reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in COPD. Methods To determine whether Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in BB were specific for COPD we designed a cross-sectional study and stained BB from 19 current smokers and 14 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD and compared these to 15 current smokers with normal lung function and 17 healthy and nonsmoking subjects. Results Thickness of the Rbm was not significantly different between groups; although in COPD this parameter was quite variable. The Rbm showed fragmentation and splitting in both current smoking groups and ex-smoker COPD compared with healthy nonsmokers (p Conclusions Airway remodelling in smokers and mild to moderate COPD is associated with fragmentation of the Rbm and altered distribution of vessels in the airway wall. Rbm fragmentation was also present to as great an extent in ex-smokers with COPD. These characteristics may have potential physiological consequences.

  3. Use of varenicline for 4 weeks before quitting smoking: decrease in ad lib smoking and increase in smoking cessation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden J; Myers, Katie E; Stapleton, John; Dhanji, Al-Rehan

    2011-04-25

    The use of varenicline tartrate alleviates postquit withdrawal discomfort, but it also seems to reduce the "reward" associated with smoking. The current treatment schedule, which commences 1 week before quitting, relies primarily on the first mechanism. We set out to determine whether increasing the prequit medication period renders cigarettes less satisfying and facilitates quitting. One hundred one smokers attending a stop-smoking clinic in London, United Kingdom, were randomly allocated to receive varenicline for 4 weeks before the target quit date (TQD) or to receive placebo for 3 weeks before the TQD, followed by varenicline for 1 week before the TQD. In both groups, standard varenicline treatment was given for 3 months after the TQD. Measures included smoking satisfaction and smoke intake before quitting, urges to smoke and withdrawal discomfort after quitting, and sustained abstinence from the TQD to 3 months. Varenicline preloading reduced prequit enjoyment of smoking (P = .004) and smoke intake (P lib smoking and enhance 12-week quit rates. Current treatment schedules may lead to suboptimal treatment results. Trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to corroborate these findings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00789074.

  4. Targeting smokers at increased risk for relapse: treating women and those with a history of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stevens S; Jorenby, Douglas E; Leischow, Scott J; Nides, Mitchell A; Rennard, Stephen I; Johnston, J Andrew; Jamerson, Brenda; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2003-02-01

    Some studies have shown that female smokers and smokers with a history of depression have an increased risk of relapse following smoking cessation treatment. This study examined the efficacy of bupropion sustained-release (SR) and the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in subgroups of smokers at possible risk for relapse. Data for this study were from a previously published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 893 smokers were randomized to four treatment conditions: placebo tablet + placebo patch, placebo tablet + 21 mg/24-hr nicotine patch, 300mg bupropion SR + placebo patch, and 300mg bupropion SR + 21 mg/24-hr nicotine patch. Study medication continued for 8 weeks after the quit day; brief individual cessation counseling was provided during weekly clinic visits. In comparison to the placebo tablet, bupropion SR approximately tripled 1-year non-smoking rates among women and previously depressed individuals. In contrast, the nicotine patch did not significantly improve cessation rates for any group. We conclude that bupropion SR is a first-line treatment for smoking that has the potential to benefit all smokers, especially women and the previously depressed.

  5. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W

    2016-06-17

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers' decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers' efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation.

  6. Anxiety and Depressed Mood Decline Following Smoking Abstinence in Adult Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point-prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (panxiety (pAnxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (Pvegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the association with younger age and higher socioeconomic status. Apps for smoking cessation could potentially capitalize on smartphone owners' efforts at multiple health behavior changes and interest in communicating with health care providers via technology. These data also highlight the importance of accessible treatment options for smokers without

  8. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-12

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.  Created: 1/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/12/2017.

  9. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  10. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Health evaluation of the 2nd International "Quit and Win" Antinicotine Campaign participants ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Krakowiak, Jan; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Pikala, Małgorzata; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Drygas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most often noticed types of negative behaviour among the Poles. In the work, the results of the health evaluation are presented of the participants of the 'Quit and Win' competition ten years after making a decision to refrain from smoking, also the dependency between this evaluation and behaviour connected with smoking among the people living in big cities and small towns and villages was analysed. Among the 648 respondents, majority, which is 302 people (46.6%) evaluated their health as good, 236 (36.4%) as average, and 76 of the questioned (11.7%) as very good, 29 people (4.5%) as bad, and 5 of the questioned (0.8%) as very bad. The respondents most often evaluated negatively their health in the group of the still smoking living in the big cities, and the least often in the group of the non-smokers living in small towns and villages.

  12. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  13. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  14. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: baseline design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Phyllis A; Klesges, Robert C; Talcott, Gerald W; Debon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2012-09-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial "Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military". Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services.

  15. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. Methods The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: “Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18, “Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire” (SEQ-12, “Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy” scale (ANRT-12, number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Results A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker. Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. Conclusions The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  16. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Prezzemolo, Roberto; Zebouni, Fadi; Edel, Yves; Jacquet, Johan; Ruggeri, Ornella; Burnens, Emilie; Monney, Grégoire; Protti, Anne-Sylvie; Etter, Jean-François; Khan, Riaz; Cornuz, Jacques; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-01-17

    The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: "Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale" (ATS-18), "Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" (SEQ-12), "Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy" scale (ANRT-12), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker.Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  17. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  18. A Pilot Study of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) in Non-Treatment Seeking Smokers with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Jardin, Bianca; Clark, C. Brendan; Katiyar, Nandan; Willig, James; Mugavero, Michael; Raper, James L.; Saag, Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction PLHIV have higher rates of smoking and lower motivation to quit smoking; thus to impact smoking rates, cessation interventions need to be acceptable to a wider range of PLHIV smokers as well as feasible to implement in a busy clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and effects of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) model in an HIV/AIDS clinic among a sample of PLHIV. Methods PLHIV smokers (N = 40) were randomized at baseline, irrespective of their self-reported discrete smoking cessation motivation status, to receive either 8-weeks of combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in conjunction with brief counseling (SBIRT framework) (n = 23) or usual care (n = 17). Smoking outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms. Results The SBIRT intervention appeared to be acceptable and feasible, and produced medium to large reductions in cigarettes smoked per day, physical nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms, even for smokers not ready to quit within 6 months. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for the integration of an SBIRT model in an HIV/AIDS clinic setting to screen and provide active treatment to all smokers, regardless of readiness to quit smoking. Given the high prevalence and incredible health burden of continued smoking in this population, identifying brief and effective interventions that are easily translated into clinical practice represents an enormous challenge that if met, will yield significant improvements to overall patient outcomes. PMID:23787030

  19. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  20. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P < 0.001). Mean gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher in the presence of gingival inflammation for both groups (P = 0.001), whereas smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P < 0.001). Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  1. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  2. Workplace smoking restrictions: smoking behavior and the intention to change among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüge, Jeannette; Broda, Anja; Ulbricht, Sabina; Klein, Gudrun; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the association between three levels of workplace smoking restrictions and smoking behavior and variables related to the intention to quit among continuing smokers was examined. Adult smokers were recruited from consecutive patients attending a random sample of 34 general medical practices from a pre-defined, north-eastern German region. Self-reported data were gathered in the waiting room by questionnaire. Cross-sectional data of 1,012 employees were analyzed using ordered logistic regression analyses. Among the sample, 12% reported a smoke-free workplace, 51% had partial, and 37% no smoking restrictions. Daily cigarette consumption was lower when there were higher levels of restriction. No association was found between smoking restrictions and previous attempts to quit, nicotine dependence, or indicators of adjusted inhalation to compensate for the lower number of cigarettes (e.g. puffs per cigarette, darker coloring of filter). Smoking restrictions were positively associated with single psychological measures related to the intention to quit. Employees who continue to smoke may benefit from workplace smoking restrictions in terms of reduced, active smoke exposure and psychological effects increasing their readiness to quit.

  3. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S; Evans, W Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette-warning labels, warning-label message framing and plain cigarette packaging, on young adult smokers' motivation to quit. Smokers aged 18-30 years (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomised to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of four cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning-message framing (gain vs loss) and packaging (branded vs plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behaviour, covariates and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pretest motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer and mortality warnings (ppackaging regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    considering smokers with ≥ 2 visits, the maintained abstinence rates were respectively 27.6 and 17.2%. With a severe smoking profile, frequent co-addictions and anxiodepressive symptoms, our results suggest that behavioral techniques combined with nicotine replacement therapy or varenicline(®) among HIV-infected smokers can help severe smokers to quit. Our data underline the need to take into account the co-addictions and to maintain such patients in treatment to achieve smoking cessation in real-world settings. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyemi Kolawole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans experience significant tobacco-related health disparities despite the fact that over half of African American smokers are light smokers (use ≤10 cigarettes per day. African Americans have been under-represented in smoking cessation research, and few studies have evaluated treatment for light smokers. This paper describes the study design, measures, and baseline characteristics from Kick It at Swope III (KIS-III, the first treatment study of bupropion for African American light smokers. Methods Five hundred forty African American light smokers were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (150mg bid (n = 270 or placebo (n = 270 for 7 weeks. All participants received written materials and health education counseling. Participants responded to survey items and provided blood samples for evaluation of phenotype and genotype of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 enzymes involved in nicotine and bupropion metabolism. Primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at Week 26 follow-up. Results Of 2,628 individuals screened, 540 were eligible, consented, and randomized to treatment. Participants had a mean age of 46.5 years and 66.1% were women. Participants smoked an average of 8.0 cigarettes per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide of 16.4ppm (range 1-55 and a mean serum cotinine of 275.8ng/ml. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was 3.2, and 72.2% of participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking. The average number of quit attempts in the past year was 3.7 and 24.2% reported using pharmacotherapy in their most recent quit attempt. Motivation and confidence to quit were high. Conclusion KIS-III is the first study designed to examine both nicotine and bupropion metabolism, evaluating CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 phenotype and genotype in conjunction with psychosocial factors, in the context of treatment of African American light smokers. Of 1629 smokers screened for study participation, only

  6. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  7. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  8. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally ta...

  9. Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2017-06-30

    It has been established that mass media campaigns can increase smoking cessation rates, but there is little direct evidence estimating associations between government expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns and smoking cessation. This study assessed the association over 8 years between mass media expenditure in England and quit attempts, smoking cessation and smoking prevalence. Autoregressive integrated moving average modelling with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) was applied to monthly estimates from the Smoking Toolkit Study between June 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association between the trends in mass media expenditure and (1) quit attempts in the last two months, (2) quit success among those who attempted to quit and (3) smoking prevalence. Analyses were adjusted for trends in weekly spending on tobacco by smokers, tobacco control policies and the use of established aids to cessation. Monthly spending on mass media campaigns ranged from nothing to £2.4 million, with a mean of £465 054. An increase in mass media expenditure of 10% of the monthly average was associated with a 0.51% increase (of the average) in success rates of quit attempts (95% CI 0.10% to 0.91%, p=0.014). No clear association was detected between changes in mass media expenditure and changes in quit attempt prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -2.05% to 2.00%, p=0.979) or smoking prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.09% to 0.03%, p=0.299). Between 2008 and 2016, higher monthly expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns in England was associated with higher quit success rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. PMID:21198227

  11. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  12. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  13. Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (pmotivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation.

  14. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Li, Chien-Ching; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Cesario, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people's response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N = 198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association's “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS) and were tailored to LGBT smokers' needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5) were mostly White (70.4%) and male (60.5%) and had at least a college degree (58.4%). Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions). Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45), use of NRT (OR = 4.24), and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73) were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake. PMID:23840237

  15. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT.

  16. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  17. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  18. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  19. Quit Behavior and the Role of Job Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Gielen (Anne); K. Tatsiramos (Konstantinos)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractJob protection reduces job turnover by changing firms’ hiring and firing decisions. Yet the effect of job protection on workers’ quit decisions and post-quit outcomes is still unknown. We present the first evidence using individual panel data from 12 European countries, which differ both

  20. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  1. PULMONARY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKER AND NON-SMOKER MODERN DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Agopyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the harmful effects of smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been established for a long time, the effect on physiological and physical parameters in modern female dancers is not well documented. Objective: To determine differences in selected pulmonary functions, biochemical parameters, and body composition in female smoker and non-smoker modern dancers who are university or graduate students. Methods: A total of twenty-two female modern dancers (mean age of 24.6 ± 4.3 years, who were non-smokers (n = 11 and smokers (n = 11, voluntarily participated in the study. The smokers had been smoking 1 to 20 cigarettes per day for an average period of seven years. The pulmonary function test Mir Spirobank Spirometer, (Italy was applied; selected biochemical parameters were tested, and various anthropometric measurements (height, weight and seven skinfold thickness were performed. The results of body composition were evaluated using Jackson-Pollock equations. Intergroup comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Result: No significant differences were found between smoker and non-smoker dancers in terms of body composition (body fat, % body fat, lean body fat and selected biochemical parameters (p > 0.05. However, non-smokers had prediction values of forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow (PEF significantly better (p < 0.05. The effect of smoking on the performance of female modern dancers should be examined in a longitudinal study, with a higher number of participants. Conclusion: It was observed that smoking reduces lung pulmonary capacity at a certain rate, although the biochemical parameters and body composition of the female smoker and non-smoker dancers were similar.

  2. Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD.

  3. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS;

    2013-01-01

    tobacco smoking: (1) non-smokers (n = 64), (2) ex-smokers (n = 39) and (3) active smokers (n = 26). For imaging of the DAT availability, we used [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Data were collected in collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10...

  4. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship.

  5. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...

  6. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  7. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. [In-patient smoker? - Providing appropriate intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco use is the most avoidable cause of death. Other than provoking multiple diseases requiring hospitalisation, Tobacco Use is also a disease requiring management in the hospital setting, not only in terms of controlling the withdrawal symptoms of the patient, who has been abruptly prohibited from smoking, but also for fulfilling legislation which prohibits tobacco use in the health services, the only efficient way of preventing exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke. Treating the in-patient smoker in an appropriate way also provides a window of opportunity for promoting not just a temporary but a complete smoking cessation.

  9. Characterizing and Comparing Young Adult Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H.; Forster, Jean L.; Rode, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine young adult smoking patterns, we interviewed 732 smokers (from five U.S. upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers—low (smoked 1–14 days in past 30) and high (smoked 15–29 days in past 30), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely than high intermittent smokers to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends. Daily smokers we...

  10. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-02-14

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  11. Effects of varenicline versus transdermal nicotine replacement therapy on cigarette demand on quit day in individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James; Martin, Rosemarie A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2017-08-01

    Cigarette demand is a behavioral economic measure of the relative value of cigarettes. Decreasing the value of cigarette reinforcement may help with quitting smoking. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of initial use of varenicline (VAR) versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on demand for cigarettes on quit day among smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) and to determine whether reduced demand was associated with subsequent abstinence from smoking at 1 and 3 months. Participants (N = 110) were randomized to double-blind, double-placebo conditions: VAR with placebo NRT or NRT with placebo capsules. The cigarette purchase task (CPT) was used to assess demand for cigarettes at baseline and on quit day, following a 1-week medication dose run-up/placebo capsule lead-in and first day use of the patch. Demand for cigarettes decreased from baseline to quit day without significant differences between medications. Reductions in CPT intensity (number of cigarettes that would be smoked if they were free) and CPT breakpoint (lowest price at which no cigarettes would be purchased) predicted greater likelihood of abstaining on quit day. Reduced intensity predicted length of abstinence at 1 and 3 months while reduced breakpoint predicted only 1 month length of abstinence. Initial therapeutic doses of VAR and NRT resulted in similar reductions in cigarette reinforcement. Larger initial reductions in demand on quit day were associated with early success with abstaining from cigarettes. Behavioral economic approaches may be useful for identifying individuals who benefit less from pharmacotherapy and may need additional treatment resources. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00756275.

  12. Characteristics of Participants Enrolled in a Brief Motivational Enhancement for Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Copeland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily smoking is associated with elevated blood pressure, CO toxicity, and impaired pulmonary lung functioning. The benefits of successful smoking cessation are readily apparent, given the health improvements associated with cessation, as well as the reduction of secondhand smoke to which nonsmoking coworkers and family members are exposed. Previous literature indicates that providing personalized information to smokers (versus general base rates without engaging in confrontational pressure to quit smoking, leads to increased interest in quitting smoking and willingness to enter smoking cessation programs. The goal of this study was to examine the pre-treatment characteristics of the smokers entering a brief motivational enhancement intervention based on personally tailored health feedback. Participants (N = 28 were 88.2% Caucasian, 59% male, and were an average of 23.0 years of age. On average, they smoked 20.08 cigarettes per day (CPD, for a mean of 6.6 years, a mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND score of 4.7, and obtained a mean breath carbon monoxide (CO reading of 19.1 ppm. Smoking related adverse health outcomes were predictive of stages of change (SOC motivation to quit smoking. Implication for cessation programs are discussed.

  13. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  14. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  15. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (ECs are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43 though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46. Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2 decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144 to 130 (123.5, 138.5 mmHg; p < 0.001 and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90 to 80 (74.5, 90 mmHg; p = 0.006. No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control.

  16. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Battaglia, Eliana; Russo, Cristina; Ciampi, Claudio; Adams, George; Bruno, Cosimo M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP) changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43) though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46). Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2) decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile) systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144) to 130 (123.5, 138.5) mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90) to 80 (74.5, 90) mmHg; p = 0.006). No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control. PMID:27845734

  17. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Serif; Senturk, Gozde Erkanli; Ercan, Feriha

    2013-05-01

    Smoking causes subfertility due to deterioration of spermatozoa including decreased concentration and abnormal morphology. Although evidence on the deleterious effects of smoking on spermatozoa parameters is well known, its interference with cryopreservation is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in non-smokers and smokers. Semen samples were obtained from 40 normospermic male volunteers of whom 20 were non-smokers and 20 smokers. Samples were analyzed in terms of motility, concentration, morphology, and DNA fragmentation before freezing and 1 and 3 months after freezing and thawing. Ultrastructural alterations were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Sperm morphology seemed to be more affected after cryopreservation in samples obtained from smokers. Ultrastructural examination showed alterations in the integrity of the membranes and increased subacrosomal swelling. Before freezing, the increase in DNA fragmentation rate in smokers was not statistically significant compared to that of non-smokers. However, after thawing, the DNA fragmentation rates were significantly high in both non-smokers and smokers compared to their respective rates before freezing. The extent of the increase in DNA fragmentation rate was significantly higher in smokers after thawing compared to that of non-smokers. In conclusion, cryopreservation causes alterations in membrane integrity and increases DNA fragmentation, thus triggering relatively negative effects on the sperm samples of smokers compared to that of non-smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Project Exhale: preliminary evaluation of a tailored smoking cessation treatment for HIV-positive African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Conrad, Megan; Kuhns, Lisa; Vargas, Maria; King, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers. Eligible smokers were enrolled in a seven-session group-based treatment combined with nicotine patch. The mean age of participants was M=46 years. The majority were daily smokers (71%), smoked a mentholated brand (80%), and averaged 8.6 (standard deviation [SD]=8.1) cigarettes per day. Baseline nicotine dependency scores (M=5.8) indicated a moderate to high degree of physical dependence. Of the 31 participants enrolled, the majority completed treatment (≥3 sessions; 68%), 1-month follow-up (74%), and 3-month follow-up (87%) interviews. Program acceptability scores were strong. However, adherence to the patch was low, with 39% reporting daily patch use. The majority of participants (80%, n=24) made a quit attempt. Furthermore, over the course of the intervention, smoking urge, cigarettes smoked, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and depression scores all significantly decreased. Follow-up quit rates at 1 and 3 months ranged from 6% to 24%, with treatment completers having better outcomes. This first of its kind intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers was feasible, acceptable, and showed benefit for reducing smoking behaviors and depression scores. Smoking cessation outcomes were on par with other similar programs. A larger trial is needed to address limitations and to confirm benefits.

  19. [Impact of cigarette package health warnings with pictures in Mexico: results from a survey of smokers in Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2012-06-01

    Evaluate the impact of the first pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in Mexico. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1 765 adult smokers from Guadalajara, Mexico, 2010. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between recall of having purchased a pack with a pictorial HWL and psychosocial variables indicating their impact. 58% reported having purchased a pack with one of the pictorial HWLs, and these were considered the exposed population. Exposed smokers reported a greater frequency of thinking about smoking-related risks (34 vs. 25% p=0.003), and thinking about quitting smoking (23 vs. 14% p=0.001). Exposure to pictorial HWLs was also associated with a greater acceptability of HWLs as a means of communicating with smokers (93 vs. 87% p<0.001), as was the perception that the government communicates well about tobacco-related health risks (68 vs. 55% p<0.001). Pictorial HWLs have made smokers think more about these risks and about quitting smoking. This policy should continue to be exploited as a cost-effective educational intervention.

  20. Effects of a family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on motivational interviewing among low-motivated smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei Fei; Jiao, Na Na; Zhang, Liu Yi; Lei, Yang; Zhang, Jing Ping

    2015-08-01

    To test the efficacy of a family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on Motivational interviewing (MI) among low-motivated Chinese smokers. A two-armed randomized controlled trial study design was utilized. 159 Smoker-supporter pairs were randomly allocated to the intervention (a family-assisted MI intervention-77) or control (an intensity-matched health education-82) group (IG & CG). Change in smoking characteristics, communication characteristics, Partner Intervention Questionnaire (PIQ), Decisional Balance Scale (DBL), and Situational Temptations Scale (STP) were measured at baseline, post-intervention, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Compared to CG, IG had more significant increase over time in self-report quitting attempts of at least 24h, biochemically verified 7-day smoking abstinence, the Positive dimension of PIQ and the Cons in DBL, whereas the daily cigarettes smoked, the Pros in DBL and STP were showed more significant decrease over time in IG (Peffective in changing the smoking behaviors and increasing the communication between smokers and family, than health education. Using the family-assisted smoking cessation intervention based on MI, community health service providers can influence and empower low-motivated smokers positively for quit smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Barriers and motivators to gaining access to smoking cessation services amongst deprived smokers – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Andrew

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is strongly associated with disadvantage and is an important contributor to inequalities in health. Smoking cessation services have been implemented in the UK targeting disadvantaged smokers, but there is little evidence available on how to design services to attract this priority group. Methods We conducted focus groups with 39 smokers aged 21–75 from the most socio-economically deprived areas of Nottingham UK who had made an unsuccessful attempt to quit within the last year without using smoking cessation services, to identify specific barriers or motivators to gaining access to these services. Results Barriers to use of existing services related to fear of being judged, fear of failure, a perceived lack of knowledge about existing services, a perception that available interventions – particularly Nicotine Replacement Therapy – are expensive and ineffective, and negative media publicity about bupropion. Participants expressed a preference for a personalised, non-judgemental approach combining counselling with affordable, accessible and effective pharmacological therapies; convenient and flexible timing of service delivery, and the possibility of subsidised complementary therapies. Conclusion We conclude that smokers from these deprived areas generally had low awareness of the services available to help them, and misconceptions about their availability and effectiveness. A more personalised approach to promoting services that are non-judgemental, and with free pharmacotherapy and flexible support may encourage more deprived smokers to quit smoking.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Infant birth outcomes among substance using women: why quitting smoking during pregnancy is just as important as quitting illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A; McCook, Judy G; Hodge, Alexis; McGrady, Lana

    2012-02-01

    Poor birth outcomes are associated with illicit drug use during pregnancy. While prenatal cigarette exposure has similar effects, cessation of illicit drug use during pregnancy is often prioritized over cessation of smoking. The study goal was to examine the impact of pregnancy tobacco use, relative to use of illicit drugs, on birth outcomes. Women were recruited at entry to prenatal care, with background and substance use information collected during pregnancy. Urine drug screens were performed during pregnancy, and the final sample (n = 265) was restricted to infants who also had biologic drug testing at delivery. Participants were classified by pregnancy drug use: no drugs/no cigarettes, no drugs/cigarette use, illicit drugs/no cigarettes, and illicit drugs/cigarette use. Groups differed significantly on infant birthweight, but not gestational age at delivery after control for confounders including background and medical factors. Among women who smoked, the adjusted mean birthweight gain was 163 g for those not using hard illicit drugs, while marijuana use had no effect on birth weight beyond the effect of smoking cigarettes. Women who used hard illicit drugs and did not smoke had an adjusted mean birthweight gain of 317 g over smokers. Finally, women who refrained from hard illicit drugs and smoking had a birthweight gain of 352 g. Among substance using pregnant women, smoking cessation may have a greater impact on birthweight than eliminating illicit drug use. Intervention efforts should stress that smoking cessation is at least as important to improving pregnancy outcomes as abstaining from illicit drug use.

  4. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  5. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  6. STUDY OF ECG CHANGES IN SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamala Devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to evaluate the changes in Electrocardiogram (ECG in apparently healthy adult male smokers. This cross-sectional study covers 40 smokers, who smoked on an average 10 cigarettes per day for at least 5 years, and 40 non-smokers to find out the possible risk factors for cardiovascular disorders. This study was conducted during April 2011 to April 2012 in the Department of Physiology of Andhra Medical College, on subjects whose age ranged from 20 to 60 years. The ECG results were evaluated for different parameters like heart rate, P-wave, P-R interval, QRS complex, QT interval, and T-wave. The results were analyzed using student’s t-test. The probability (p value was calculated. The analysis showed that QRS and QT interval were shortened and that the QTc interval was widened in the smokers, although the values did not show any statistical significance. From the statistical analysis of the results obtained in the present study and their comparison with those of published reports, it appears that smoking 10 cigarettes per day for 5 Years does not cause major change in ECG wave forms.

  7. Australian smokers' support for plain or standardised packs before and after implementation: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Partos, Timea R; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2015-11-01

    Plain packaging (PP) for tobacco products was fully implemented in Australia on 1 December 2012 along with larger graphic health warnings. Using longitudinal data from the Australian arm of the ITC Four Country Survey, we examined attitudes to the new packs before and after implementation, predictors of attitudinal change, and the relationship between support and quitting activity. A population-based cohort study design, with some cross-sectional analyses. Surveys of Australian smokers assessed attitudes to PP at four time points prior to implementation (from 2007 to 2012) and one post-implementation wave collected (early/mid-2013). Trend analysis showed a slight rise in opposition to PP among smokers in the waves leading up to their implementation, but no change in support. Support for PP increased significantly after implementation (28.2% pre vs 49% post), such that post-PP more smokers were supportive than opposed (49% vs 34.7%). Multivariate analysis showed support either before or after implementation was predicted by belief in greater adverse health impacts of smoking, desire to quit and lower addiction. Among those not supportive before implementation, having no clear opinion about PP (versus being opposed) prior to the changes also predicted support post-implementation. Support for PP was prospectively associated with higher levels of quitting activity. Since implementation of PP along with larger warnings, support among Australian smokers has increased. Support is related to lower addiction, stronger beliefs in the negative health impacts of smoking, and higher levels of quitting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The Relationship Between Young Adult Smokers' Beliefs About Nicotine Addiction and Smoking-Related Affect and Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R; Peterson, Laurel M; Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stock, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (n = 333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use.

  9. Intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anecia Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a higher education institution (HEI to maintain a long-term trajectory of excellence, a strong focus on retaining a younger generation of skilled academics is needed.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in HEIs.Motivation for the study: Higher education institutions are more dependent on the abilities and commitment of their staff than most other organisations. More than 4000 academics will retire and need to be replaced by 2018, providing justification for the study of intention to quit of academics.Research design, approach and method: An ex post facto quantitative research design was followed. Academics at six HEIs in South Africa were sampled. Measurement instruments included abridged versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Arnold and Feldman Intention to Quit Scale, Job Descriptive Scale and Chew’s reward scale.Main findings: Employee engagement, job satisfaction, remuneration, reward, recognition and transformational leadership were significantly related to intention to quit. In the partial model, three of these variables explained 45% of the variance in intention to quit. Partial least square path modelling revealed that employee engagement and job satisfaction have significant negative impacts on intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: The findings serve as input for the development of efficacious strategies to retain Generation Y academics at HEIs in South Africa.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to our knowledge of intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics. It provides evidence of the complexity and inter-relatedness of variables in the phenomenological network of intention to quit.

  10. HD DVD:“I Quit!”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扁毅

    2008-01-01

    美国有一档娱乐体育节目叫WWE——美国职业摔跤,受到广大摔跤爱好者的追捧,而其中有一种比赛就被命名为 I Quit Match,没有任何规则,直到对方自己口中说出"I Quit"为止。

  11. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Rodriguez, Theresa M.S.; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook’s Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 – 7/29/13), targeted by age (18–25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  12. Facebook recruitment of young adult smokers for a cessation trial: Methods, metrics, and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Ramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms, previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette, appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo. Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13–7/29/13, targeted by age (18–25, location (U.S., and language (English, and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2024 ($0.34/click. Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5895 unique clicks, 586 (10% were study eligible and 230 (39% consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n = 79 was largely Caucasian (77% and male (69%, averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD = 8.3 and 2.7 years smoking (SD = 0.7. Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  13. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  14. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Christobher

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... Results: Increased CA is observed in heavy smokers compared to light and non smokers ... amines, and trace metals [4], which act as important mutagenic ... parameters for assessing genotoxic effects of chemical or phys-.

  15. A COMPARISON OF AGGRESSION AND IMPULSIVITY BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Zaidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the role of aggression and impulsivity in smoking among male adult students. It was hypothesized that there would be significant difference between smokers and  non- smokers on the traits of aggression and impulsivity. The sample of two hundred male adult students was selected from different universities of Islamabad. Two subscales of Impulsiveness and Aggression  were administered to measure the personality traits of aggression and impulsivity. Descriptive statistics and  t-test was calculated for analysis of data. Results showed that there is significant differences in aggression and impulsivity between smokers and non-smokers. The result can be helpful for psychologist and other professionals to plan public health therapeutic and social reengineering interventions for youth.

  16. Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms in Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Kelly, Deanna L.; Boggs, Douglas L.; Gorelick, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. Objectives Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. Subjects Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. Methods Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their “most difficult” cannabis quit attempt. Results 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported ≥1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported ≥10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of ≥ moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5 %) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment. PMID:20510550

  17. ALPHA – 1 ANTITRYPSIN IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal Mittal A, Shaikh Sahema M, Sadariya Bhavesh R, Bhoi Bharat K, Sharma Hariom M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to correlate and compare alpha-1 antitrypsin level in smoker and non smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Material and Methods: A comparative study was carried out in 200 subjects, more than 40 years of age and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for more than 1 year with a history of smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day (Group A and without a history of smoking (Group B. Pulmonary function tests were used to diagnose the disease as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification. Alpha-1 antitrypsin level was done by turbidimetry method on fully auto analyzer I-Lab 650 (Instrumentation Laboratory, USA at Clinical Biochemistry Section, Laboratory Services Sir Takhtsinhji Hospital, Bhavnagar. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Results of present study shows that alpha-1 antitrypsin level was decreased in smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (150.83±18.853 when compared to non smokers (183.97±29.383. There was statistically significant difference in alpha-1 antitrypsin level between the two groups with ‘p’ value of <0.0001. Pearson’s correlation test show negative correlation between smoker and non-smoker chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Conclusion: The values of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were more significantly decreased in smokers indicating an important role of smoking in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin can act as a predictor for future development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers and in nonsmokers.

  18. A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY ON LIPID PROFILE IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the environmental factors which can alter normal lipid profile. It is one of the major risk fa ctors in the genesis of coronary atherosclerosis and development of coronary heart disease. AIMS: To evaluate and compare the lipid profile in both groups and to evaluate the existence of dose de pendent relationship and durational significance between smoking and lipid profile among smokers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Out of 100 apparently healthy male subjects of age group 21-4 0yrs, 50 were smokers and 50 were non smokers. All the subjects were non alcoholic, non – obese, normotensives and from same socioeconomic status. Subjects who smoke more than equal 10 cigarettes for more than 2 years were considered as smokers group. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The subjects were asked to fast overnight and early morning blood samples colle cted and analyzed for lipid profile by appropriate methods. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The student’s unpaired “t” test was used for statistical analysis. P-value of < 0.05 or P va lue <0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In our study we found serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL w ere higher in smokers as compared to non smokers and the serum HDL level was significantly decreased in smokers compared to non smokers showing greater risk of thes e persons to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Conclusions: - We conclude our study with the obser vation that smoking causes alteration in lipid profile. Increased amount and duration of smok ing causes more dyslipidaemia .This alteration in serum lipid levels increases risk for coronary artery disease.

  19. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  20. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Perez-Rios

    Full Text Available A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006 and after (2011 the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010.Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (≥ 18 years old Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change.The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76% showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%.The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit.

  1. ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AND MOTIVATION TO QUIT SMOKING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chetverkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to study of features of the status of smoking in patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Degree of nicotine addiction, types of smoking behavior in various age groups of patients are determined. The interrelation at sick HOBL between motivation to refusal of smoking and the attitude towards health is analyzed. The directions of psychotherapeutic impacts for increase in efficiency of the techniques directed to refusal of smoking are offered.Objective  – to study the motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards health in patients with COPD. Materials  and  methods. A questionnaire by D. Horney for determining the type of smoking behavior; Fagerstrem test for the determination of nicotine dependence; the questionnaire for determining the motivation to refuse to smoke; the questionnaire of N.E. Vodopyanova «Assessment of the level of satisfaction with the quality of life» (2005 and the methodology «Attitude to health» by R. A. Berezovsky.Results.  The average age for the entire sample of respondents was 65.3±7.6 years, the length of smoking in smokers was 33.5±14.3 years. The predominant type of smoking behavior in the survey sample was «Support». In patients with high motivation, the assessment of the level of satisfaction with the overall «quality of life index» (ICI was 26 points. In patients with low motivation to quit smoking, the mean value (ICR was 21.Conclusion. Patients with high motivation to quit smoking were older than patients with low motivation. A group of patients with COPD with high motivation to quit smoking was characterized mainly by low or medium degree of nicotine dependence; the dominant type of smoking behavior of them was «Support.» On the contrary, in the group of patients with low motivation, physical dependence on nicotine prevailed; the «thirst» was the dominant type of smoking behavior.

  2. Putamen functional connectivity during inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Sophie E A; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Daan; Franken, Ingmar H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-12-05

    The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted on fMRI data from a Go-NoGo study, using the generalized form of psychophysiological interaction with anterior and posterior putamen seed regions. In the context of inhibition, the anterior putamen exhibited connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus (pFWE  putamen showed connectivity with regions implicated in sensorimotor processing. When we compared smokers to non-smokers, we did not observe the expected weaker connectivity between the anterior putamen and ACC during inhibition in smokers. Instead, our study revealed stronger inhibition-related connectivity between the anterior putamen and right insula in smokers. This finding highlights the involvement of putamen - insula interactions in addiction and impulse control.

  3. Assessment of changes in nicotine dependence, motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among smokers in the initial process of smoking reduction or cessation: a short-term follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first days of a quit attempt represent an important challenge to long-term abstinence, especially because of the changes that take place over this period. Objective: To examine whether smokers who have recently changed their smoking behavior show changes in the intensity of nicotine dependence, motivational stage, or symptoms of anxiety and depression relative to smokers without recent changes in smoking behavior. Methods: Smokers attending a support group for smoking cessation in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were invited to participate. The program consisted of four weekly sessions. Smokers answered questionnaires covering intensity of nicotine dependence, stage of motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression at baseline and in the fourth week. Urine was collected at both time points, tested for cotinine concentration, and used to determine the final status of smokers. Results: Of the 54 smokers included in the study, 20 (37% stopped smoking or decreased tobacco use. Both smokers who stopped or reduced tobacco use and those who did not change their behavior presented a decrease in nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.001. Conversely, only the smokers who changed behavior presented an increase in scores in the maintenance stage (p < 0.001. Conclusion: When modifying tobacco use, smokers face a difficult process, marked by several changes. A better understanding of these changes and their implications for treatment are discussed.

  4. [Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers.

  5. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza...

  6. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  7. E-cigarette advertisements, and associations with the use of e-cigarettes and disapproval or quitting of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Heijndijk, Suzanne M; Cummings, K Michael; Willemsen, Marc C; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-03-01

    Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviours of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of a Pregnancy Smoking Intervention: The Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of pregnancy smoking, rates remain high, especially in the rural, Southern United States. Interventions are effective, but few have been developed and tested in regions with high rates of pregnancy smoking, a culture that normalizes smoking, and a hard-to-reach prenatal population. The goals were to describe a smoking…

  9. Clustering of socioeconomic, behavioural, and neonatal risk factors for infant health in pregnant smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Crone, M.R.; Segaar, D.; Gravenhorst, J.B.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, including during pregnancy. Although effective ways of promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy exist, the impact of these interventions has not been studied at a national level. We estimated the prevalence of smoking throu

  10. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; M C Ramos, Ercy

    2017-04-08

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  12. Relapse situations according to Marlatt's taxonomy in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-01-01

    Relapse is common during the process of giving up smoking. The aim of the present study is to explore the relapse situations, according to Marlatt's relapse taxonomy, in a sample of 428 smokers (43.9% men and 56.1% women) who participated in a cognitive-behavior psychological treatment for quitting smoking. At the end of the treatment, 221 participants were abstinent, of whom 119 (41.2% men and 58.8% women) relapsed in the course of the 12-month follow-up, the majority in the first 3 months (69.74%). Most of the relapses were attributed to intrapersonal and environmental determinants (61.33%), the most common of which were "coping with negative emotional states" (38.65%), followed by "giving in to temptations or urges" (9.24%) and "testing personal control" (8.40%). Interpersonal determinants occurred in 38.66% of relapses, this percentage being made up mostly of "social pressure", which was the relapse situation in 34.46% of all relapses. These results, similar to those of Marlatt's original studies and others, contribute to improving our knowledge of the relapse situations process, with a view to interventions that may help to avoid it.

  13. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  14. Persistence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder risk among former smokers: Results from a contemporary, prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Hotaling, James M.; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the persistence of an increased risk for UC following smoking cessation is not well established. We assessed the risk of UC among former smokers using a recent, prospective cohort with a high proportion of former smokers. Materials and methods Study participants were members of the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort (VITAL), a group of 77,719 men and women between the ages of 50 and 76 years from western Washington State. Smoking history and other risk factors were obtained at the time of recruitment. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of UC (n = 385), as determined through linkage to a population-based cancer registry. Results and limitations The cohort included 8% current and 44% former smokers, and among the UC cases, 15% were current and 60% former smokers. Both the current and former smoker had an increased risk of UC compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HRs]: 3.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.71–5.35 and 2.0; 95% CI 1.55–2.58, respectively). Among former smokers, the risk of UC increased with the pack-years smoked and decreased with the years since quitting. When both the measures of smoking were considered together, the risk of UC was similar for long-term quitters and recent quitters for a given level of pack-years. For example, for those with pack-years of 22.5–37.5, the HR of UC was 1.91 (95% CI 1.17–3.11) for the distant quitters (≥23.5 y before baseline) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.26–2.94) among the recent quitters. Limitations include the small number of cases at the extremes of smoking history and errors in self-reported smoking history. Conclusions The risk of bladder cancer in former smokers remains elevated >32 years after quitting, even among those with moderate smoking histories. This argues that a history of smoking confers a lifelong increased risk of UC. PMID:23506963

  15. Persistence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder risk among former smokers: results from a contemporary, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Wright, Jonathan L; Hotaling, James M; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the persistence of an increased risk for UC following smoking cessation is not well established. We assessed the risk of UC among former smokers using a recent, prospective cohort with a high proportion of former smokers. Study participants were members of the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort (VITAL), a group of 77,719 men and women between the ages of 50 and 76 years from western Washington State. Smoking history and other risk factors were obtained at the time of recruitment. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of UC (n =385), as determined through linkage to a population-based cancer registry. The cohort included 8% current and 44% former smokers, and among the UC cases, 15% were current and 60% former smokers. Both the current and former smoker had an increased risk of UC compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HRs]: 3.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.71-5.35 and 2.0; 95% CI 1.55-2.58, respectively). Among former smokers, the risk of UC increased with the pack-years smoked and decreased with the years since quitting. When both the measures of smoking were considered together, the risk of UC was similar for long-term quitters and recent quitters for a given level of pack-years. For example, for those with pack-years of 22.5-37.5, the HR of UC was 1.91 (95% CI 1.17-3.11) for the distant quitters (≥ 23.5 y before baseline) and HR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.26-2.94) among the recent quitters. Limitations include the small number of cases at the extremes of smoking history and errors in self-reported smoking history. The risk of bladder cancer in former smokers remains elevated>32 years after quitting, even among those with moderate smoking histories. This argues that a history of smoking confers a lifelong increased risk of UC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2011-10-26

    Social and community service organisations (SCSOs) are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate). Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking) was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77%) and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2) lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8%) reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%), cash rewards (52%) and non-cash rewards (47%) for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%). Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  17. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  18. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja; Golka, Klaus; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  19. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schwender

    Full Text Available Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC. However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031, in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971 being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28 and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  20. THE PREGNANT MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet‟ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age”

  1. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  2. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  3. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC) China survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejun; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Hitchman, Sara C

    2017-05-19

    Health warnings labels (HWLs) have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Adult non-smokers (n = 1324) were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011-November 2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers' demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012), differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42-4.13, p = 0.001) noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99, p = 0.04) were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24-3.33, p = 0.005). The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health information and pictures. Additionally, because the HWLs are noticed

  4. Tobacco Usage in Uttarakhand: A Dangerous Combination of High Prevalence, Widespread Ignorance, and Resistance to Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan John Grills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.

  5. Tobacco in the news: associations between news coverage, news recall and smoking-related outcomes in a sample of Australian smokers and recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Chapman, Simon

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to track smokers' and recent quitters' recall of tobacco news, compare patterns of recall with patterns of news coverage and assess associations between news recall and smoking-related cognitions and behaviours, by using a quantitative analysis. The Cancer Institute New South Wales (NSW)'s Tobacco Tracking Survey, a continuous tracking telephone survey of adult smokers and recent quitters, was used to monitor recall of tobacco news and smoking-related cognitions and behaviours from January to September 2010 (approximately 50 interviews per week; n = 1952). Thirty per cent of respondents reported semi-prompted recall of tobacco news with patterns of recall closely following peaks in news coverage. Television was the most frequently cited source of tobacco news. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that, controlling for individual characteristics, smokers with high levels of tobacco news recall were significantly more likely to have strong beliefs about harms from smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38] and frequent thoughts about quitting (OR = 1.32). The results show that the news media are an important source of information for smokers, with the potential to influence beliefs and to put or keep quitting on the smokers' agenda. Media advocacy remains an important component of tobacco control.

  6. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T Evans

    Full Text Available Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge.Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7, did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text.Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention. Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention. Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later.In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective than text-only warnings

  7. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Betzner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers’ decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers’ efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation.

  8. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Caraballo, Ralph S; Promoff, Gabbi R

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non-American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations.

  9. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollay, R W

    2000-06-01

    To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen. Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada. Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent. The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence.

  10. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  12. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  13. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  14. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  15. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Countering Craving with Disgust Images: Examining Nicotine Withdrawn Smokers' Motivated Message Processing of Anti-Tobacco Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Russell B; Leshner, Glenn; Tomko, Rachel L; Trull, Timothy J; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of research examining whether smoking cues in anti-tobacco advertisements elicit cravings, or whether this effect is moderated by countervailing message attributes, such as disgusting images. Furthermore, no research has examined how these types of messages influence nicotine withdrawn smokers' cognitive processing and associated behavioral intentions. At a laboratory session, participants (N = 50 nicotine-deprived adults) were tested for cognitive processing and recognition memory of 12 anti-tobacco advertisements varying in depictions of smoking cues and disgust content. Self-report smoking urges and intentions to quit smoking were measured after each message. The results from this experiment indicated that smoking cue messages activated appetitive/approach motivation resulting in enhanced attention and memory, but increased craving and reduced quit intentions. Disgust messages also enhanced attention and memory, but activated aversive/avoid motivation resulting in reduced craving and increased quit intentions. The combination of smoking cues and disgust content resulted in moderate amounts of craving and quit intentions, but also led to heart rate acceleration (indicating defensive processing) and poorer recognition of message content. These data suggest that in order to counter nicotine-deprived smokers' craving and prolong abstinence, anti-tobacco messages should omit smoking cues but include disgust. Theoretical implications are also discussed.

  17. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  18. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm...

  19. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia K. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N=198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5 were mostly White (70.4% and male (60.5% and had at least a college degree (58.4%. Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions. Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45, use of NRT (OR = 4.24, and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73 were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  20. Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Ross, Hana

    2015-02-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, sociodemographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of roll-your-own tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to overestimates of a sin tax's health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses.

  1. A new instrument to predict smoking cessation among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational longitudinal study of the Trying To Quit smoking questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lena; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Törnkvist, Lena; Gilljam, Hans; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-14

    The Trying To Quit smoking questionnaire (TTQ), was developed to measure pressure-filled mental states, use of destructive pressure-relief strategies and ambivalent thoughts about quitting smoking among patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the TTQ (available in an extended and in a reduced version) can be used to predict smoking cessation outcomes in smokers with COPD. As higher TTQ scores indicate higher degree of psychological distress, we hypothesised that TTQ scores at baseline would be negatively correlated with the probability of making a quit attempt, reducing the intensity of smoking and achieving complete abstinence during the 3 months. Smokers with COPD were recruited during planned or unplanned visits to primary healthcare centres, and 109 completed the TTQ at baseline and 85% participated in the follow-up after 3 months. Logistic regression was used to measure the association between the original (19 items) and the brief (14 item) version of TTQ scores and three outcomes: making at least one quit attempt, reducing the intensity of smoking and achieving complete abstinence. In a primary analysis among all the participants higher total score in the original version of TTQ was significantly associated with a lower probability of quit attempts. In a secondary analysis of subgroups of patients classified according to their readiness to quit, high TTQ scores at baseline were associated with lower probability of complete abstinence among patients not ready to quit (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.99). Among patients ready to quit, high score on pressure-filled mental states was associated with lower probability of quit attempts (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.66-0.94) but with higher probability of reduced smoking (OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.05-1.66). Ambivalent thoughts were associated with lower probability of all outcomes, but estimates were not statistically significant. Destructive coping strategies were

  2. Additive and subtractive resilience strategies as enablers of biographical reinvention: a qualitative study of ex-smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul Russell; Muller, Robert; Tsourtos, George; Hersh, Deborah; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Coveney, John

    2011-04-01

    The notion of developing resilience is becoming increasingly important as a way of responding to the social determinants of poor health, particularly in disadvantaged groups. It is hypothesized that resilient individuals and communities are able to 'bounce back' from the adversities they face. This paper explores the processes involved in building resilience as an outcome in relation to both quitting smoking and never smoking. The study involved 93 qualitative, oral-history interviews with participants from population groups with high and enduring smoking rates in Adelaide, Australia, and was essentially interested in how some people in these groups managed to quit or never start smoking in the face of adversities, in comparison to a group of smokers. Our key findings relate to what we call additive and subtractive resilience strategies, which focus on the practices, roles and activities that individuals either 'took on' or 'left behind' in order to quit smoking or remain abstinent. The theoretical lenses we use to understand these resilience strategies relate to biographical reinforcement and biographical reinvention, which situate the resilience strategies in a broader 'project of the self', often in relation to attempting to develop 'healthy bodies' and 'healthy biographies'.

  3. The combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a smoke-free air law on taking measures to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jay, Stephen J; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2012-07-01

    Because of the large burden of disease attributable to cigarette smoking, a variety of tobacco control interventions, some focused on changing individual behavior and others focused on influencing societal norms, have been introduced. The current study tested the combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law as a prospective predictor of taking measures to quit smoking. Participants were 187 adults living in 7 Texas cities, 3 with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and 4 without such a law, who reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and completed a 1-month follow-up interview. Data were collected by telephone administration of a questionnaire. Results showed that, compared with smokers with low behavioral intention to take measures to quit smoking and no exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law, the smokers with high behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive law had the greatest odds of taking measures to quit smoking. This longitudinal study provides further evidence that the most successful smoking cessation campaigns will be multifaceted addressing individual factors with educational strategies designed to change beliefs and intentions and environmental factors with policy-based interventions.

  4. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  5. Reaching out, inviting back: using Interactive voice response (IVR technology to recycle relapsed smokers back to Quitline treatment – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlini Beatriz H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence is a chronic, relapsing condition that typically requires multiple quit attempts and extended treatment. When offered the opportunity, relapsed smokers are interested in recycling back into treatment for a new, assisted quit attempt. This manuscript presents the results of a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of interactive voice response (IVR in recycling low income smokers who had previously used quitline (QL support back to QL support for a new quit attempt. Methods A sample of 2985 previous QL callers were randomized to either receive IVR screening for current smoking (control group or IVR screening plus an IVR intervention. The IVR intervention consists of automated questions to identify and address barriers to re-cycling in QL support, followed by an offer to be transferred to the QL and reinitiate treatment. Re-enrollment in QL services for both groups was documented. Results The IVR system successfully reached 715 (23.9% former QL participants. Of those, 27% (194/715 reported to the IVR system that they had quit smoking and were therefore excluded from the study and analysis. The trial’s final sample was composed of 521 current smokers. The re-enrollment rate was 3.3% for the control group and 28.2% for the intervention group (p  Conclusion Proactive IVR outreach is a promising tool to engage low income, relapsed smokers back into a new cycle of treatment. Integration of IVR intervention for recycling smokers with previous QL treatment has the potential to decrease tobacco-related disparities. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01260597

  6. Australian urban Indigenous smokers' perspectives on nicotine products and tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuke, Kym; Ford, Pauline; Foley, Wendy; Mutch, Allyson; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2017-05-10

    Indigenous Australians experience a significant gap in life expectancy compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous communities have high-smoking prevalence and low engagement with cessation therapies. This qualitative research, conducted in an urban Australian Indigenous community, explored smokers' views on smoking, quitting and engagement with current nicotine replacement therapies. Opinions on acceptability of tobacco harm reduction were sought. We explored the acceptability of novel nicotine products, that is, new or unfamiliar products, including non-therapeutic options, such as e-cigarettes. Focus groups and individual interviews with adult Indigenous daily smokers (n = 27) were used. Current and novel nicotine products were displayed and demonstrated. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Participants expressed interest in trying existing and novel nicotine products. Short-to-medium term use of nicotine replacement therapy for quitting was generally acceptable; views on long-term use were mixed. Interest in use of tobacco substitutes depended on their perceived effectiveness, providing a 'kick' and 'relieving stress'. Desirable qualities for tobacco substitutes were identified with gender differences and product preferences noted. The unpleasant taste of existing products is a barrier to both short-term and long-term use. We found substantial interest in trying some existing and novel nicotine products, mostly for short-term use. A number of attributes were identified that would make nicotine products potentially acceptable as a long-term substitute. Some participants were interested in long-term substitution if acceptable products were available. Improvements in current products and access to novel products are needed if tobacco harm reduction is to be acceptable. [Yuke K, Ford P, Foley W, Mutch A, Fitzgerald L, Gartner C. Australian urban Indigenous smokers' perspectives on nicotine products and tobacco harm

  7. Other tobacco product and electronic cigarette use among homeless cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Campbell, Eric G; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of other tobacco product and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a clinic-based sample of homeless cigarette smokers. In April-July 2014, we used time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional, in-person survey of 306 currently homeless adult cigarette smokers recruited from 5 clinical sites at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. We assessed past-month use of large cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Among those who had used e-cigarettes, we assessed the reasons for doing so. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the participant characteristics associated with the use of each product. Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated in the survey. In the past month, 37% of respondents used large cigars, 44% used little cigars, 8% used smokeless tobacco, 24% used an e-cigarette, and 68% used any of these products. Reasons for e-cigarette use included curiosity (85%) and to help quit conventional cigarettes (69%). In multivariable regression analyses, homeless smokers with greater subsistence difficulties were more likely to use little cigars (p=0.01) and less likely to use e-cigarettes (p=0.001). Non-Hispanic black (p=0.01), Hispanic (pcigarette use to help quit smoking (p=0.02). Health care providers who serve homeless people should consider routine screening for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes to help guide smoking cessation discussions and tobacco treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing a Nicotine Patch Adherence Intervention for HIV-positive Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G.; Galvan, Frank H.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two phases of formative research that were undertaken to develop a smoking cessation treatment module that has the goal of improving adherence with the nicotine patch in HIV-positive Latino smokers. Each research phase (Phase I and II) was conducted independent of the other and used different methods to inform the development of the intervention. Phase I interviewed n=14 smokers who had previous experience using the nicotine patch to gain detailed understanding of how, when, and why they used it; their perceived barriers to using it; and their perspective on ways to improve adherence to it. Phase II provided n=35 smokers with brief smoking cessation treatment and nicotine patches, then interviewed them in “near real time” over a two month period about their use of the patch during a quit attempt (e.g., perceived barriers and facilitators). Authors of the paper conducted a qualitative analysis of the themes emerging from the interview transcripts across these two phases. Results indicated that consistent use of the nicotine patch was associated with maintaining high motivation for use (i.e., not necessarily motivation to quit, but motivation to continue patch use); linking its use with established daily routines (e.g., with taking other medications, with brushing teeth); and maintaining realistic expectations for patch efficacy (e.g., that users may still experience some level of craving and/or withdrawal). This information will used to develop and pilot test a brief treatment module that focuses on improving nicotine patch adherence. PMID:27070097

  9. The Perception towards National Anti-Smoking Initiatives among Malay Male Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani ISMAIL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS, Malaysia 2011 reported that the prevalence of smoking was highest among Malays male i.e., 24.6% (CI:22.1,27.3. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of a group of smokers towards various national anti-smoking initiatives as well as its association with age and education level.Methods: The study was conducted in a randomly selected pre-dominantly Malay settlement in Malaysia using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The national anti-smoking initiatives assessed were ‘anti-smoking campaign’, ‘labelling on cigarette pack’, ‘increment of cigarette price’, ‘smoke free zone policies’ and ‘Quit smoking clinic’ initiatives.Results: A total of 136 Malay male smokers participated in this study. The percentage of respondents agreeing with the questions asked were very low, ranging from only 5.9% to 24.3%, except for one i.e., 99.3% agreed that the information on cigarette packs can be trusted. Assessing the success of various types of national anti-smoking initiatives in helping smokers to quit, the percentage of those who agreed ranged between 17.6% - 24.3% and in helping to reduce numbers of cigarette smoked, the range was from 12.5% to 18.4%. There was a significant association between ‘increment of cigarette price’ initiative with level of education (P=0.02.Conclusion: The percentage of positive perceptions towards all anti-smoking efforts was low and perception towards ‘increment of cigarette price’ was associated with level of education. Keywords: Perception, Anti-smoking initiatives, Malaysia

  10. Impulsivity and cigarette craving among adolescent daily and occasional smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Burris, Jessica L; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. 106 smokers (ages 16-20) completed the questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p's>.16). Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  12. Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packaging: a pilot naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Hastings, Gerard; Ford, Allison

    2011-09-01

    To explore the impact, if any, that using plain (non-branded) cigarette packs in real-life settings has on young adult smokers. Naturalistic-type research was employed, where smokers used brown 'plain' packs for 2 weeks and their regular packs for 2 weeks, in real-life settings. Participants were recruited in Glasgow, Scotland. Of the 140 smokers aged 18-35 years who participated in the naturalistic study, 48 correctly completed and returned all questionnaires. Over the 4-week study period, participants completed a questionnaire twice a week assessing pack perceptions and feelings, feelings about smoking, salience of health warnings and smoking-related behaviours. A subsample of 18 participated in a post-study interview, which employed a semistructured topic guide to assess perceptions and experiences of using plain packs. Trends in the data show that in comparison with branded packaging, plain packaging increased negative perceptions and feelings about the pack and about smoking. Plain packaging also increased avoidant behaviour (hiding the pack, covering the pack), certain smoking cessation behaviours, such as smoking less around others and forgoing cigarettes, and thinking about quitting. Almost half (n=8) of those in the post-study interview, predominantly women (n=6), reported that the use of plain packs had either increased avoidant behaviour or reduced consumption. This pilot naturalistic study suggests that plain packaging could potentially help reduce tobacco consumption among some young adult smokers, and women in particular. Employing an innovative research methodology, the findings of this study are consistent with, and indeed support, past plain packaging research.

  13. Adverse effects of pharmacological therapy for nicotine addiction in smokers following a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrueco, Miguel; Otero, María José; Palomo, Luis; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Torrecilla, Miguel; Romero, Pedro; Riesco, Juan Antonio

    2005-06-01

    This multicenter, community-based, prospective, longitudinal study evaluated the safety of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, and combined therapy of NRT and bupropion for smokers seeking to quit, when these therapies were used under real-world conditions following a smoking cessation program. Participants were smokers aged 18 years or older who attended five smoking cessation clinics. Evaluations were made at 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. We investigated the possible existence of adverse effects as well as the severity of each adverse effect and its influence on the treatment course. The study included 904 smokers: 370 received NRT, 413 received bupropion, and 121 received combined therapy. At 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, adverse effects were reported by 43.8%, 33.1%, 22.3%, and 5.7% of subjects, respectively. Adverse effects were significantly more frequent in subjects receiving combined therapy or bupropion alone than in NRT-treated subjects at the 15-, 30-, and 60-day follow-ups. A total of 83 smokers (9.3%) withdrew from treatment and 116 (12.8%) stopped temporarily because of adverse effects. No differences were found in the percentages of discontinuation among the different treatment options. Adverse effects rarely were severe (n=10). Nevertheless, 41 subjects (4.5%) discontinued drug therapy indefinitely and 55 (6.1%) discontinued it temporarily because of mild adverse effects. Pharmacological therapies for smoking cessation are safe as long as they are appropriately prescribed and supervised by clinicians according to clinical practice guidelines. Adverse effects are primarily mild. Nonetheless, mild adverse effects may be perceived by patients as a serious enough problem to cause them to discontinue treatment.

  14. Correlation between tobacco control policies, consumption of rolled tobacco and e-cigarettes, and intention to quit conventional tobacco, in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Analsysis of frequency of tuberculosis in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škodrić-Trifunović Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smoking and tuberculosis are among the most important problems of public health. Smoking and tuberculosis are responsible for 5 million and 2 million deaths per year, respectively, whereas smoking is responsible for half a million deaths in patients with tuberculosis. Discussion and Review of Literature. Nicotine is a significant suppressor of function of macrophages, dendritic cells and T-cells, which explains the immunosuppressive features of smoking that help develop the infection. Tobacco smoke contains many substances with immunomodulatory effects, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, peroxynitrite and many others. The dominant immune and pathophysiological mechanism is the reduction of synthesis of tumor necrosis factor in lung macrophages, leading to increased susceptibility of persons who are exposed to tobacco smoke for developing active tuberculosis after infection and increased susceptibility to the development of other infections, such as infections of Gram-negative bacteria. Based on epidemiological studies and studies on this problem in the past 50 years, the World Health Organization has published the finding that smoking increases the risk of infection with M. tuberculosis, increases the risk of progression of infection to active disease and the risk of death. The prevalence of tuberculosis is higher in smokers and former smokers than in nonsmokers. The risk of tuberculosis depends on the number of cigarettes smoked and length of period the person has been a smoker. Passive smoking accelerates the development of active tuberculosis. in children who live with persons suffering from active tuberculosis, Conclusion. Given the multiple consequences of the association between smoking and tuberculosis, prevention of smoking may be an important measure in the control of tuberculosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175046 i br. 175081

  16. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  17. Does Short Message Service Increase Adherence to Smoking Cessation Clinic Appointments and Quitting Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önür, Seda Tural; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; İliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Bahadır, Ayşe; Hattatoğlu, Didem Görgün; Ortaköylü, Mediha Gönenç; Bağcı, Belma Akbaba; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using innovative and scientific methods increases the rate of quitting in smokers. Short message service (SMS) is a communication tool widely used and well integrated in many people’s daily lives. To increase adherence to appointments in smoking cessation clinics (SCC), it is thought that increased compliance could be achieved by falling outside the traditional methods. SMS has been shown to increase the compliance of patients with SCC appointments. Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of SMS in the compliance of patients with SCC follow-up visits and smoking cessation success. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Our study was a controlled, open, prospective study. We enrolled 436 cases applied to SCC of Yedikule Training and Research Hospital between 01.10.2013–30.06.2014 and agreed to follow-up with SMS. SMS was sent to the patients to remind them of appointments at the SCC and to query their smoking state. Results: Two hundred-and-eighty seven (65.8%) of the patients were male and 149 (34.2%) were female. The mean age was 45±12 years. In this study, 296 (67.9%) patients had graduated from primary school. Our patients’ smoking state was queried by telephone at the 6-month follow-up and we contacted 348 patients. According to this, 88 (25.3%) patients were not smoking, and 260 (74.7%) patients were smokers. Therefore, the smoking cessation rate was 24% (n=60) in patients who did not respond to SMS reminders at all, and 28.6% (n=28) in patients answering any SMS at least once (p=0.377). Smoking cessation rate of the patients invited by SMS but who did not attend any control visits was 19.1%, and it was 34.5% in patients coming to a control visit at least once. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there was increased success of smoking cessation in patients coming to control visits. We think that this may result from the possibly increased compliance to SCC appointments following

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim and objective of this study is to compare the pulmonary function variables with the help of spirometer among beedi smokers, cigarette smokers and subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. BACKGROUND Smoking is a major public health problem and a major cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths all over the world. Pulmonary function variables will differ based on the type of smoking i.e. Beedi smokers, cigarette smokers, subjects who smoked both beedi and cigarette. METHODS Cross sectional study done on 90 male smokers attending the Pulmonary Outpatient Department of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital. Spirometry was done to assess the pulmonary function. CONCLUSION Pulmonary function values showed significant reduction in beedi smokers than people who smoke both beedi and cigarette, followed by subjects who smoked cigarette alone.

  19. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in four Mexican cities. Main outcome measures: Purchase of single cigarettes last time cigarettes were bought, frequency of purchasing single cigarettes in the previous month and intention to quit in the next 6 months. Results: Focus group data indicated that smokers bought single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy. Survey data indicated that 38% of participants purchased single cigarettes in the last month and 10% purchased them the last time they bought cigarettes, with more frequent consumption among young adults and those with lower income. Purchasing single cigarettes was independently associated with the frequency of using single cigarettes to reduce consumption and, less consistently, with the frequency of being cued to smoke after seeing single cigarettes for sale. Using single cigarettes to reduce consumption was positively associated with quit intention, whereas being cued to smoke by single cigarettes was negatively associated with quit intention. Conclusions: Study results suggest that some adult Mexican smokers purchase single cigarettes as a method to limit, cut down on and even quit smoking. Nevertheless, promotion of the availability of single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy could provide additional smoking cues that undermine quit attempts and promote youth smoking. PMID:19671535

  20. [Reference Intervals of Thyroid Hormones in Normal Pregnant Women and Effects of Thyroid Autoantibodies on Thyroid Hormone Levels in Pregnant Women in Chengdu Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Zeng, Jing; Yan, Yue-Rong; Luo, Dan; Huang, Lu; Huang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    thyroid autoantibodies, the incidences of clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were 0.85%, 15.38% and 0.85%, respectively. The thyroid hormone reference ranges of pregnant women is quite different from those of non-pregnant women. It is necessary to establish the reference intervals of thyroid hormones in normal pregnant women. Thyroid function of pregnant women with positive thyroid autoantibodies should be monitored during the pregnant period.

  1. Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, W.; Stock, C.

    2012-01-01

    degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely...... who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables daily, and those who had never taken illicit drugs, but less likely among daily smokers. Conclusion: Favourable health practices and positive attitudes towards smoking ban were associated with each other...

  2. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  3. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smoke