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Sample records for pregnant rats treated

  1. Surperoxide-mediated glomerulopathy in the endotoxin-treated pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Valkhof, N; Baller, JWF; Bakker, WW

    1998-01-01

    In the present study the role of superoxide in the glomerular damage in the low-dose endotoxin-infused pregnant rats was investigated. On day 14 of pregnancy, 12 rats were infused for 1 h with 1.0 mu g/kg bw endotoxin via a permanent jugular vein cannula. Of these rats, 6 were treated with SOD both

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OVARY AND UTERUS OF EARLY PREGNANT RATS AND WOMEN TREATED WITH MIFEPRISTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWen-Jian; ZHANGLong-Sheng; YANGXin-Li; SHENGJi-Yun; ZHOUJie-Ling; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, morphological studies of uterus and ovary during terminating early pregnancy with mifcpristonc Were reported. In the experimental studies, 24 hrs after inhering 10 mg / kg mifcpristonc to early pregnant rats, all embryos wcrc dead, with decidual cells

  3. Corticosterone treatment of pregnant low dose endotoxin-treated rats : Inhibition of the inflammatory response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Slot, K; Koiter, TR; Schuiling, GA

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM: Can the endotoxin-induced inflammatory response, underlying experimental pre-eclampsia, in pregnant rats be inhibited by corticosterone? METHOD OF STUDY: On day 10 of pregnancy, rats were implanted with pellets containing 25% corticosterone and 75% cholesterol (n = 10) or with 100% choleste

  4. Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, I; Shibata, K; Makino, Y; Kangawa, K; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-12-03

    The hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide, was examined in conscious pregnant (6, 13 and 20 days of pregnancy) and non-pregnant rats. The intravenous administration of adrenomedullin (0.01-3.0 nmol/kg) produced a dose-dependent depressor response in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. At low doses (0.01-0.1 nmol/kg), the maximum decrease in blood pressure was significantly higher in pregnant rats (20 days pregnant) than in non-pregnant rats. At high doses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Furthermore, the administration of adrenomedullin did not significantly affect the basal mean blood pressure (MBP) at any dose when compared to the non-pregnant group at 6 and 13 days of pregnancy. In the ovariectomized rats, the depressor responses in 17beta-estradiol-treated, progesterone-treated and 17beta-estradiol+progesterone-treated rats were not significantly different from that in the control rats, suggesting that the augmented effect on the depressor response to adrenomedullin in pregnant rats may not be due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. The adrenomedullin receptor mRNA level of the descending thoracic aorta was significantly higher in the late-pregnancy rats (20 days of pregnancy). However, the levels did not show any difference between the early-pregnant rats (6 and 13 days of pregnancy) and the non-pregnant rats. These findings suggested that the changes in the depressor response to adrenomedullin which occur at term in pregnant rats may be mediated by changes of adrenomedullin receptor gene expression rather than by sex hormones.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  6. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  8. Morphological, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in the Pregnant Rat Placenta and the Liver of their Fetuses Treated with Folic Acid and / or Gamma Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma, L. Ramadan and Seham M. Abu Nour

    2007-01-01

    Backgrounds: The efficacy of antioxidant supplementation and oxidative stress of gamma irradiation for and during pregnancy is poorly established. The present study aimed to detect the toxic effects of high dose of folic acid and / or gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rat and the liver of their fetuses. Material and Methods: Pregnant albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, the second group received oral intake of folic acid (5 mg/kg) from the ...

  9. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis ... the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by .... Hematological analysis .... rats are subjected to the additional stress of hypoxia to.

  10. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  12. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  13. Dopaminergic modulation of grooming behavior in virgin and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Serafim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptors are involved in the expression of grooming behavior. The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. This study focuses on the role of dopamine receptor subtypes in grooming behavior of virgin and pregnant female rats. General and mammary gland grooming were measured in virgin rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg of the D1-like agonist SKF-81297 and antagonist SKF-83566 and the D2-like agonist lisuride and antagonist sulpiride. The effects of 0.01 and 0.25 mg/kg doses of the same agonists and antagonists were evaluated in pregnant rats as well. In virgin animals both SKF-83566 and sulpiride treatments significantly reduced the time spent in general grooming, while none of the dopamine agonists was able to significantly change any parameter of general grooming. Time spent in grooming directed at the mammary glands was not affected significantly by any of the drug treatments in virgin rats. All drugs tested significantly decreased the frequency of and the time spent with general grooming, while SKF-81297 treatment alone did not significantly reduce the duration of mammary gland grooming in pregnant rats. These data show that in female rats the behavioral effects of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor stimulation and blockade differ according to physiological state. The results suggest that dopamine receptors may play specific roles modulating grooming behavior in pregnant rats. Since grooming of the mammary gland during pregnancy may influence lactation, this aspect is relevant for studies regarding the perinatal use of dopamine-related drugs.

  14. Phenobarbital (PB)-induced changes in blood coagulationrelated parameters in pregnant rats, lactating rats and pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Kidokoro, Yuri; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Kishi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Emi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi

    2009-12-01

    Effects of repeated administration of phenobarbital (PB) on blood coagulation-related parameters were examined in non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats, and also in pups born to PB-treated lactating dams. PB was orally administered at a dose level of 80 mg/kg/day to pregnant (from gestation day (GD) 13), postpartum (from postpartum day (PPD) 7) and non-pregnant rats (from 13 weeks of age) for 7 days. Blood was collected on GD20 or PPD14 to perform blood coagulation examination. Concurrently, the blood coagulation parameters were examined in the pups. Increases in liver weight and/or hepatic cytochrome P450 content were observed in the PB-treated non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was prolonged and anti-thrombin III (ATIII) concentration was increased in the lactating rats, while there were no changes in prothrombin time (PT) or APTT in the non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Moreover, prolongation of PT and APTT and decreases in factors VII and IX activities were observed in their pups. Thus, prolongation of blood coagulation time was confirmed in both dams and their pups following PB-administration to lactating dams. Effects of vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) on PB-induced changes in blood coagulation-related parameters of both dams and their pups were examined by co-administration with PB and VK(2) to lactating dams. PT and APTT were comparable to the control and PB-induced prolongation of blood coagulation time was improved in the pups while APTT was prolonged in dams, suggesting that VK(2) was beneficial to pups but not to dams.

  15. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  16. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

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    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  17. Selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin modulates diabetes-induced blood oxidative damage and fetal outcomes in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mehmet; Erdemoglu, Evrim; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of diabetic complications. In the current study, we investigated the effect of selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and scavenging enzyme activity in the blood of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second groups were used as the non-pregnant control and pregnant control groups, respectively. The third group was the pregnant diabetic group. Vitamin E plus selenium and melatonin were administered to the diabetic pregnant rats consisting fourth and fifth groups, respectively. Diabetes was induced on day 0 of the study by STZ. Blood samples were taken from all animals on the 20th day of pregnancy. LPO level was higher in diabetic pregnant rats than in control, although superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in diabetic pregnant animals than in control. LPO levels were lower both in the two treatment groups than in the diabetic pregnant rats, whereas selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes (pmelatonin in diabetic pregnant rats. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic pregnant treated with melatonin group. Vitamin E plus selenium may play a role in preventing diabetes-related diseases of pregnant subjects.

  18. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Combined exposure to stressors and chemicals may result in synergistic effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent toluene resemble those observed in offspring of gestationally stressed dams, a possible common mechanism being transfer of stress-/toluene-induced increments...... of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...... being enhanced by maternal stress. A depressant effect of toluene on maternal corticosterone was observed, hence the study does not provide immediate evidence that transfer of elevated levels of corticosterone from the maternal to the foetal compartment mediates the effects of prenatal exposure...

  19. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  20. Polyaromatic compounds alter placental protein synthesis in pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiverick, K.T.; Ogilvie, S.; Medrano, T. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The administration of the polyaromatic compounds {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) to pregnant rats during mid-gestation has been shown to produce marked feto-placental growth retardation. This study examined secretory protein synthesis in placental tissue from rats following administration of {beta}NF on gestation days (gd) 11-14 or 3MC on gd 12-14. Explants of placental basal zone tissue were cultured for 24 hours in serum-free medium in the presence of ({sup 3}H)leucine. Secreted proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either fluorography or immunostaining. Total incorporation of ({sup 3}H)leucine into secreted proteins was not altered in BZ explants from {beta}NF or 3MC-treated animals. However a selective decrease was observed in ({sup 3}H)leucine incorporation into a major complex of proteins with apparent molecular weight of 25-30,000 and isoelectric point between 5.3 to 5.7. This group of proteins has been further identified as being related to rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) using N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of individual spots from 2-D SDS-PA gels. This is the first report that synthesis of GH-related proteins by rat placenta is decreased following {beta}NF and 3MC administration, a change which may underlie the feto-placental growth retardation associated with these polyaromatic compounds.

  1. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  2. Disposition of stiripentol in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizis, J C; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Gillardin, J M; Lepage, F; Labarre, P; Dupuy, J M; Veyre, A

    1993-12-01

    1. The disposition of stiripentol labelled with 14C and 3H on two positions has been studied in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat after p.o. administration of a 200 mg/kg dose. 2. For both labelled species radioactivity was eliminated mainly in the faeces (69% within 72 h). Urinary excretion was rather low (22% within 72 h). No significant difference was found between the disposition of the two labelled species. 3. For both labelled species concentrations of radioactivity reached a plateau in the plasma and tissues between 1 and 6 h after administration. The liver, fat, mammary gland and adrenal gland were the most extensively-labelled organs. The affinity for the mammary gland was significantly greater in pregnant rats and for the adrenal gland was significantly greater in the non-pregnant rats. The fact that the concentration in the placenta was higher than in the foetus demonstrated that this membrane acts as a barrier for the penetration of the drug in the amniotic fluid. 4. Chromatographic analysis of the faeces and urine showed that an important portion of the dose remained unabsorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. The absorbed fraction undergoes an extensive first-pass metabolism involving mainly the oxidative cleavage of the methylenedioxy ring. Comparison with the results of other work conducted on the non-pregnant rat demonstrated that pregnancy did not affect the disposition and metabolic process.

  3. Histomorphometric changes of small intestine in pregnant rat

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and lo...

  4. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  5. Swimming of pregnant rats at different water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, R A L; Silveira, V L F; Maldjian, S; Morales, A; Christofani, J S; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C

    2003-08-01

    We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups according to water temperature during exercise (P22 and NP22; P35 and NP35; P40 and NP40). The animals were submitted to daily swimming sessions of 10-15 min, for 19 days of pregnancy (P) or experimental conditions (NP). Plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and corticosterone were determined 24 h after the last exercise session. Weight gain and rectal temperature pre- and post-swimming session were also determined. The offspring were examined just after caesarian section on the 20th day of pregnancy to check weight, length and litter size. Pregnant rats showed an increase of triglycerides, reduction of glycemia, total protein and albumin and cholesterol (at 35 degrees C) when compared to non-pregnant animals. Such effects probably lead to an adequate delivery of substrate to the fetus and prepare the mother for lactation. Daily thermal stress did not modify metabolic responses to exercise in pregnant rats. Results also show a deleterious effect on offspring when the mother is exposed daily to extreme temperatures during swimming. These results suggest that water temperature (cold and hot) in swimming have to be considered to avoid damage in fetal development.

  6. Effect of obesity on the acute inflammatory response in pregnant and cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, J; Luheshi, G N; Woodside, B

    2013-05-01

    Nonpregnant female rats have a lower inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than males and, at late stages of gestation, the fever response to this immunogen is almost completely suppressed. We have shown in males that obesity exacerbates sickness responses to pathogenic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether obesity would have a similar effect in females and reverse some of the suppressive effects of pregnancy on the innate immune response. Lean and diet-induced obese adult Wistar rats were randomly separated into either cycling or mated groups. On day 18 of pregnancy or in the metestrous/dioestrous phase in cycling rats, a single injection of LPS (100 μg/kg) was administered and rats were sacrificed 8h or 24 h later. In pregnant females, LPS induced a higher increase in body temperature in obese rats only at the 24-h time point and lower hypothalamic interleukin (IL)-1β expression and higher circulating levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) than their cycling counterparts. Conversely, there was no suppression of inflammatory signals in the white adipose tissue of pregnant rats. At 24 h post LPS, the cell surface marker CD11c and IL-6 mRNA expression were increased in white adipose tissue from obese rats regardless of reproductive state, whereas IL-1ra was highest in the LPS-treated obese pregnant group. In cycling females, LPS induced a higher fever response in obese rats accompanied by higher circulating levels of IL-6 and IL-1ra, as well as an increase in circulating leptin only in the obese cycling group. In the hypothalamus, obese rats showed significantly higher expression of nuclear factor-IL-6 in at the 8-h time point. Collectively, these results show that diet-induced obesity in females is associated with a similar pattern of response to that previously observed in males. On the other hand, obesity had limited effects in pregnant rats, with the exception of white adipose tissue.

  7. Cadmium toxicity in the thyroid gland of pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, M.; Mori, N.; Hamasaki, K.; Tanaka, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Hara, K.; Doi, Y.; Umezu, Y.; Araki, H.; Sakamoto, Y. (Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium on the thyroid gland of pregnant rats were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were also analyzed. Deterioration of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum occurred in the thyroid follicular epithelium on the fifth day of cadmium treatment. Large intracellular vacuoles, which arose from dilated cisternae of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, were fused together, and marked swelling of the mitochondria was also noted. Thyroglobulin-secreting granules at the apical cytoplasm were decreased in number. By energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially obtained from swollen mitochondria in the follicular epithelial cells. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were significantly decreased in cadmium-treated rats dams when compared to those of controls. In the present experiment, cycloheximide also caused degenerative changes in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and the disappearance of thyroglobulin-secreting granules. Cycloheximide is a known inhibitor of protein synthesis on cytosolic ribosomes. These results indicated that accumulated cadmium in the mitochondria of thyroid follicular epithelial cells might disturb the oxidative phosphorylation of this organelle and the loss of energy supply possibly caused the inhibition of the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.

  8. Minor pathological changes are induced by naltrexone-poly(DL-lactide) implants in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, W O; McCallum, D; Tait, R J; Dunlop, S A; Hulse, G K

    2009-12-15

    Oral naltrexone is used to treat alcohol and heroin dependence but is associated with poor patient compliance. Sustained-release preparations have been developed to overcome noncompliance. Many sustained-release preparations are composed of polymers combined with naltrexone. Limited data indicate that polymers induce variable levels of tissue reactivity and that naltrexone may increase this effect. A slow-release subcutaneous naltrexone-poly (DL-lactide) implant is currently being trialed to treat heroin dependence in Western Australia. A minority of women fall pregnant and, although tissue reactivity in nonpregnant humans is relatively minor, detailed chronological data during pregnancy are lacking. Histological changes in pregnant rats were assessed; a single active tablet containing poly[trans-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxyane-2,5-dione] (DL-lactide) loaded with 25 mg of naltrexone was implanted subcutaneously, and tissue response was compared with inactive polymer implantation. Rats were timed mated at 13-26 days postimplant. Tissue assessment up to 75 days by a pathologist showed that naltrexone induced chronic inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner, although still at a low level. Furthermore, for inactive implants, minimal foreign body reaction and fibrosis, together with low-level inflammation, suggested good long-term biocompatibility. We conclude that the Australian naltrexone-poly(DL-lactide) implant is tolerated in pregnant rats, reinforcing its potential role for managing alcohol and heroin dependence in pregnant humans.

  9. Arsenite in drinking water produces glucose intolerance in pregnant rats and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, María Marta; Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Rodriguez, Diego; Ventura, Clara; Cocca, Claudia; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela

    2017-02-01

    Drinking water is the main source of arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure has been associated with metabolic disorders. Here we studied the effects of arsenic on glucose metabolism, in pregnant and post-partum of dams and their offspring. We administered 5 (A5) or 50 (A50) mg/L of sodium arsenite in drinking water to rats from gestational day 1 (GD1) until two months postpartum (2MPP), and to their offspring from weaning until 8 weeks old. Liver arsenic dose-dependently increased in arsenite-treated rats to levels similar to exposed population. Pregnant A50 rats gained less weight than controls and recovered normal weight at 2MPP. Arsenite-treated pregnant animals showed glucose intolerance on GD16-17, with impaired insulin secretion but normal insulin sensitivity; they showed dose-dependent increased pancreas insulin on GD18. All alterations reverted at 2MPP. Offspring from A50-treated mothers showed lower body weight at birth, 4 and 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in adult females, probably due to insulin secretion and sensitivity alterations. Arsenic alters glucose homeostasis during pregnancy by altering beta-cell function, increasing risk of developing gestational diabetes. In pups, it induces low body weight from birth to 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in females, demonstrating a sex specific response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  11. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Animal experiment. This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7(th) day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  12. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour (/sup 203/Hg)-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total /sup 203/Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood /sup 203/Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater /sup 203/Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals /sup 203/Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain /sup 203/Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing /sup 203/Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system.

  13. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity.

  14. Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age

    OpenAIRE

    CORVINO,SILVANA B.; Damasceno, Débora C; Yuri K Sinzato; NETTO,ALINE O.; MACEDO,NATHÁLIA C.D.; Zambrano, Elena; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA). Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1) consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3...

  15. Neonatally induced diabetes: liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Lovizutto Iessi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this sstudy was to evaluate the liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats presenting neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes and to establish a relation with glycemia and insulin levels. Wistar rats were divided in to two groups: 1 Mild Diabetes (STZ - received streptozotocin (glycemia from 120 to 300 mg/dL, 2 Control - received vehicle (glycemia below 120 mg/dL. At days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy, body weight and glycemia were evaluated. At day 21 of the pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized for blood and liver collection so as to determine insulin and liver glycogen, which showed no changes in the STZ group as compared to the controls. In the STZ group, maternal weight gain were lower as compared to those in the control group. Significantly increased glycemia was observed at days 0 and 14 of the pregnancy in the STZ group. Therefore, neonatally induced diabetes in the rats did not cause metabolic changes that impaired insulin and liver glycogen relation in these rats.

  16. Biochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in the liver of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Zhang, Y; Yin, S; Jia, Z; Shan, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the toxic influence of different doses of zearalenone (ZEN) on the liver, especially oxidative stress induced by ZEN on the liver. A total of 48 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 treatments groups with 12 animals in each. The rats were fed with a normal diet treated with 0 mg/kg (control), 50 mg/kg (treatment 1), 100 mg/kg (treatment 2), or 150 mg/kg (treatment 3) ZEN in feed on gestation days (GDs) 0-7 and then all the rats were fed with a normal diet on GDs 8-20. The experimental period lasted 21 days. The results showed that exposure to ZEN induced increase in aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and decrease in total protein and albumin content in a dose-dependent manner and also induce decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increase in malondialdehyde content in a dose-dependent manner in the serum and the liver. The increased transcription of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was detected in the liver after exposure to ZEN. These results suggested that ZEN not only caused damage in the liver of pregnant rats in a dose-dependent manner but also induced the messenger RNA expression of CYP2E1 in the liver. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Time-course changes of hematology and clinical chemistry values in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tatsuya; Honda, Katsuya; Kokubun, Chisato; Nishimura, Tomonari; Hasegawa, Mina; Nishida, Atsuyuki; Inui, Toshihide; Kitamura, Kazuyuki

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report how pregnancy alters hematology and clinical chemistry values in rats. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were mated; the day of copulation was designated as Day 0. Hematology and clinical chemistry measurements were conducted on Days 7, 14, 17 and 21 in pregnant rats. Measurements were also conducted in non-pregnant rats. Red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), total protein and albumin decreased on Days 7, 14, 17 and 21; sodium, chloride and glucose decreased on Days 14, 17 and 21; iron decreased on Days 17 and 21; hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr), calcium, inorganic phosphorus and the albumin/globulin ratio decreased on Day 21; and total cholesterol, phospholipid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased on Day 14 in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant rats. Reticulocyte increased on Days 7, 14 and 17; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil count and rate increased on Days 14, 17 and 21; platelets, fibrinogen, triglyceride and free fatty acid increased on Days 17 and 21; and activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged on Days 17 and 21 in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant rats. The decreased RBC, Hb, Ht, CHr and iron in pregnant rats indicated that they suffered from iron deficiency anemia. These data can be used as background information for effective evaluation in reproductive toxicology studies.

  18. Why does a high-fat diet induce preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats?*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ge; Jun Wang; Dan Xue; Zhengsheng Zhu; Zhenyu Chen; Xiaoqiu Li; Dongfeng Su; Juan Du

    2013-01-01

    Changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain play an important role in epilepsy-like attacks after pregnancy-induced preeclampsia-eclampsia. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 participates in the onset of lipid metabolism disorder-induced preeclampsia. Pregnant rats were fed with a high-fat diet for 20 days. Thus, these pregnant rats experienced preeclampsia-like syndromes such as tension and proteinuria. Simultaneously, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 mRNA and protein ex-pressions were upregulated in the rat hippocampus. These findings indicate that increased sion of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 promotes the occurrence of high-fat diet-induced preec-lampsia in pregnant rats.

  19. Histomorphometric changes of small intestine in pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and longitudinal layers) were measured on transverse sections. During pregnancy increasing villi length and muscular layer thickness was observed in duodenum. Furthermore, along with the progress of gestation greatest histomorphometric change in small intestine was observed in the jejunum. The reduction in the ileum histomorphologic indices was observed during pregnancy. In conclusion, increase in histomorphologic indices of duodenum and jejunum supplies more capacity of duodenum to digest food intake during pregnancy and decrease in these indices in ileum controls the absorption of excess produced amino acids and glucose by hyperphagia.

  20. Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a general anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures, including those in pregnant women. Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause neuronal injury to the offspring of primates if it is administered during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether those neuronal changes would lead to long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring. In this study, propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min, IV, 2 h, saline, or intralipid solution was administered to pregnant rats on gestational day 18. We detected increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 in fetal brain at 6 h after propofol exposure. The neuronal density of the hippocampus of offspring was reduced significantly on postnatal day 10 (P10 and P28. Synaptophysin levels were also significantly reduced on P28. Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28 were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring.

  1. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP-mediated vascular relaxation and hypertension in IL-6-infused pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshal, Julia M; Khalil, Raouf A

    2004-02-01

    Placental ischemia during pregnancy is associated with increased plasma cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may contribute to increased vascular resistance and hypertension of pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in plasma IL-6 during pregnancy is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, enhanced vascular contraction, and hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was measured in virgin and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats non-treated or infused with IL-6 (200 ng/kg per day for 5 days). Isometric contraction was measured in isolated aortic strips, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was measured in aortic homogenate using Western blots. Blood pressure was greater in IL-6-infused (146+/-3) than in control pregnant rats (117+/-2 mm Hg). In endothelium-intact vascular strips, phenylephrine (Phe) caused greater increase in active stress in IL-6-infused (maximum: 10.6+/-0.6) than in control pregnant rats (maximum: 4.1+/-0.3x10(4) N/m2). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of Phe contraction and vascular eNOS protein and nitrite/nitrate production were less in IL-6-infused than in control pregnant rats. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-4) mol/L), inhibitor of NOS, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3]-quinoxalin-1-one (10(-5) mol/L), inhibitor of cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not IL-6-infused pregnant rats. Endothelium removal enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in IL-6-infused pregnant rats. The blood pressure and vascular Phe-induced contraction, ACh relaxation, and eNOS protein were not different between control and IL-6-infused virgin rats. Thus, an endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation pathway is inhibited in systemic vessels of pregnant rats infused with IL-6. The results support a role for IL-6 as a possible mediator of the increased vascular resistance during hypertension of pregnancy.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine in Pregnant Rat Increased Inflammatory Marker in Newborn Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosouf Mohsenzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate any inflammatory effect of nicotine on rat embryo by exposing their mothers to different dosages of nicotine during pregnancy. During this experimental study, 32 pregnant healthy Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups, including a control and 3 nicotine exposure groups. Injections were performed subcutaneously starting at the first day of pregnancy until parturition. As the dosages of nicotine were increased, the weight gain by pregnant rats and the mean weight of their newborns were significantly reduced. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP was significantly higher among groups exposed to various dosages of nicotine (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg compared to the control group (P<0.0001 and its increasing rate was also dose dependent. Mean ± SD serum level of IL-6 and TNF-α among all groups exposed to nicotine, except for 2 mg/kg nicotine injected group, was increased significantly (P<0.0001. Mean ± SD of serum level of TGF-β and nitrite oxide among exposure groups showed significant differences compared to the control group only at the dosage of 6 mg/kg (P<0.0001. The current study showed that exposing pregnant rats to nicotine causes a dose dependent increase in the rate of all the studied inflammatory serum markers among their newborns.

  3. Reproductive toxicity study with a novel deoxyguanosine analogue (Metacavir) in pregnant SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qihui; Chen, Zhengli; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Tang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Our preliminary studies demonstrated that Metacavir has potential to become a new anti-HBV agent. The main targets of the toxic effects of Metacavir, in rhesus monkeys, were gastrointestinal tracts, liver, blood, and kidneys, which were not related to mitochondrial effects. In this study, the maternal toxicity, embryo-fetal developmental toxicity and teratogenicity were studied in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats after intragastric administration of Metacavir (200, 100, 50, 0 mg/kg body weight) during the first 6-15 days of pregnancy. Slower weight gain was observed in 5 out of 21 rats subjected to a 200 mg/kg dose, as well as 2 out of 20 subjected to a 100 mg/kg dose. Compared with the solvent control group, the calibration weight gain in the 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dosage groups respectively, during first 6-20 pregnant days were significantly different (P changes were observed. The present research indicated that at a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) (i.e., 40 times the effective dose in rats), Metacavir shows some maternal toxicity to SD rats. The embryotoxicity in the 200 mg/kg group encompass decreased fetal body weight, and higher fetal mortality rates, compared with the control group. However, the litter incidence showed no statistical difference. All the treated rats displayed normal bone development, no teratogenicity and without adverse effects on fetal development, thus indicating that below a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) there is no teratogenic side effects.

  4. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  5. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BETA-ADRENO RECEPTORSINNONPREGNANT AND PREGNANT RAT UTERUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENZhi-Fang; CHENZhi-Chong

    1989-01-01

    The effects of bcta-advenoreceptor agonist isoprenaline on 138 nonpregnant, pregnant and postpartum rat uterus in vitro were observed. The adrenoreceptor response in estrus appeared to be stronger than in diestrus, but not statistically significant, and that in preg-

  6. Effect of caffeine on rat offspring from treated dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, H U; Milon, H; Poot, A; Würzner, H P

    1980-11-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given caffeine at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/kg diet during gestation and lactation. At birth, half of the pups from control and treated rats at each dose level were exchanged and cross fostered. Two litters were produced by each animal from each of the experimental groups. Caffeine at dietary concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 g/kg throughout gestation and lactation had no significant effect on birth weight, litter size or development. There was also no effect at these doses following treatment during either gestation alone, or lactation alone. At 1.0 g/kg there was a slight reduction of birth weight, as well as a trend towards lower weight gain in litters from dams fed the test diet throughout gestation and lactation.

  7. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura; Nelson Sass; Sérgio Botelho Guimarães; Paulo Roberto Leitão de Vasconcelos; Rosiane Mattar; Luis Kulay Jr.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1). Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0). Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1). SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10): Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine...

  8. The effect of Bromelia pinguin extract on the pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matadial, L; West, M E; Gossell-Williams, M; The, T L

    1999-12-01

    A non proteinaceous extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit was examined for activity on the rat uterus in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo experiments involved pregnant rats given the extract intraperitoneally. These rats did not abort nor were any foetal deformities observed. The extract inhibited spontaneous activity of the pregnant rat uterus in vitro. These results do not support the claimed folklore use of the plant as an abortifacient. The extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit may have some utero-active compound which inhibits uterine motility.

  9. [Application of Monural to treat pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michova, M; Ivanov, St; Batashki, I

    2009-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and cystitis affect 4-9% of pregnancies and are associated with pyelonephritis and preterm labor. Screening for AB and adequate antimicrobal therapy prevent most of these serious complications. Twenty- nine pregnant patients, suffering from AB and 9 cases with cystitis were treated with single dose Monura (Fosfomycin trometamol) in a prospective study.

  10. Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANA B. CORVINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA. Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1 consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3 days a week before and during pregnancy. Another program (Ex2 was applied during 60 minutes uninterrupted a day, 6 days/week during pregnancy. The pregnant rats presented no interference on body weight and glycemia. The rats submitted to Ex2 model showed decreased insulin and blood glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance test, and reduction in area under curve values. The offspring from dams submitted to both exercise protocols presented an increased rate of newborns SPA. However, the offspring from Ex2 dams showed percentage twice higher of newborns SPA than Ex1 offspring. Our data suggests that continuous exercise of 60 min/day ameliorated the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth-restricted females. However, this protocol employed at pregnancy leads to intrauterine growth restriction.

  11. Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Silvana B; Damasceno, Débora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Netto, Aline O; Macedo, Nathália C D; Zambrano, Elena; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA). Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1) consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3 days a week before and during pregnancy. Another program (Ex2) was applied during 60 minutes uninterrupted a day, 6 days/week during pregnancy. The pregnant rats presented no interference on body weight and glycemia. The rats submitted to Ex2 model showed decreased insulin and blood glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance test, and reduction in area under curve values. The offspring from dams submitted to both exercise protocols presented an increased rate of newborns SPA. However, the offspring from Ex2 dams showed percentage twice higher of newborns SPA than Ex1 offspring. Our data suggests that continuous exercise of 60 min/day ameliorated the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth-restricted females. However, this protocol employed at pregnancy leads to intrauterine growth restriction.

  12. The stereological ratio of stromal/parenchymal components in postnatal prostate tissue of rats prenatally treated with diclofenac sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Mikail; RAĞBETLİ, Cennet; Koyun, Necat; ÇÖLÇİMEN, Neşe; RAĞBETLİ, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Since diclofenac sodium extends the pregnancy and affects the fetus, our study aimed to stereologically investigate the components of the rat prostate with prenatally treated with diclofenac sodium. The rats were left overnight to mate. Pregnant animals were kept in a room tempreture with normal light and dark cycles and fed with normal diet. After injections to sham and treated groups for 15 days, 18 male offsprings were housed in three groups (6 placebo; 6 control; 6 treated). The 20 weeks-...

  13. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine☆

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; YANG, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the fronta...

  14. Mu opioid modulation of oxytocin secretion in late pregnant and parturient rats. Involvement of noradrenergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Selim; Yilmaz, Bayram; Canpolat, Sinan; Sandal, Suleyman; Ozcan, Mete; Kumru, Selahattin; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated effects of micro- and kappa-opioid agonists and antagonists on plasma oxytocin levels and noradrenaline content in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of 20-day pregnant rats. beta-Endorphin, oxytocin, estrogen and progesterone profiles in late pregnant and parturient rats were also sought. Stage of estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal smear, and pro-estrous animals were left overnight with male. In the first set of experiments, pregnant rats were monitored and decapitated on days 20 and 21 and after the delivery of second pup. In the second set, 20-day pregnant rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with morphine (50 microg/10 microl), U50,488H (kappa-agonist; 50 microg/10 microl), clocinnamox (micro-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl). Controls received saline alone. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and plasma oxytocin and beta-endorphin by radioimmunoassay. Noradrenaline and its metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol) were determined in micropunched hypothalamic nuclei by HPLC-ECD. In parturient rats, oxytocin levels were increased (p oxytocin levels (p oxytocin secretion. We suggest that noradrenaline may mediate the inhibitory effects of micro-opioids on oxytocin release. Our findings have also shown that kappa-opioid receptors are not involved in modulation of oxytocin neurons in late pregnant rats. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Interleukin-6 impairs endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation and enhances contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshal, Julia M; Khalil, Raouf A

    2004-06-01

    IL-6 is elevated in plasma of preeclamptic women, and twofold elevation of plasma IL-6 increases vascular resistance and arterial pressure in pregnant rats, suggesting a role of the cytokine in hypertension of pregnancy. However, whether the hemodynamic effects of IL-6 reflect direct effects of the cytokine on the mechanisms of vascular contraction/relaxation is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 directly impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation and enhances vascular contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats. Active stress was measured in aortic strips isolated from virgin and late pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and then nontreated or treated for 1 h with IL-6 (10 pg/ml to 10 ng/ml). In endothelium-intact vascular strips, phenylephrine (Phe, 10(-5) M) caused an increase in active stress that was smaller in pregnant (4.2 +/- 0.3) than virgin rats (5.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) N/m(2)). IL-6 (1,000 pg/ml) caused enhancement of Phe contraction that was greater in pregnant (10.6 +/- 0.7) than virgin rats (7.5 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) N/m(2)). ACh and bradykinin caused relaxation of Phe contraction and increases in vascular nitrite production that were greater in pregnant than virgin rats. IL-6 caused reductions in ACh- and bradykinin-induced vascular relaxation and nitrite production that were more prominent in pregnant than virgin rats. Incubation of endothelium-intact strips in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-4) M) to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthase, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10(-5) M) to inhibit cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in nontreated but to a lesser extent in IL-6-treated vessels, particularly those of pregnant rats. Removal of the endothelium enhanced Phe-induced stress in nontreated but not IL-6-treated vessels, particularly those of pregnant rats. In endothelium-denuded strips, relaxation of Phe contraction with

  16. Follicular atresia and infertility in rats treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, K L; Bertero, M C; Lyon, B P; Muse, K N; Vernon, M W

    1990-07-01

    Adverse effects of the GnRH antagonist Antide on folliculogenesis and fertility were noted when we were evaluating the therapeutic value of Antide on endometriosis in a rat model. Cyclic rats with (n = 56) and without (n = 18) surgically induced endometriosis received Antide (2 mg/kg) or vehicle at noon on days 0 (proestrus), 3, 6, and 9. Rats were killed at noon on days 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 42, and 165. The number of antral follicles and the number of atretic antral follicles evaluated did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between endometriosis and control rats. Antide-treated rats had more (P less than 0.05 ) atretic antral follicles (64.7%) than vehicle-treated rats (15.3%). Antide-treated rat ovaries contained fewer corpora lutea than those of vehicle-treated rats on days 6, 12, and 18. No corpora lutea were found in Antide-treated rat ovaries after day 18. The abnormal ovarian morphology of the Antide-treated rats persisted for the duration of the project (165 days). Fertility (rats without endometriosis) was assessed by mating vehicle-and Antide-treated rats at spontaneous proestrus (n = 8) for eight posttreatment cycles as well as after follicular stimulation (n = 2). All vehicle-treated and no Antide-treated rats became pregnant. No oocytes were found in the oviducts of Antide-treated rats after eight cycles, indicating that ovulation had not occurred. The serum FSH and estradiol concentrations in the rats treated with Antide were lower (P less than 0.05) on days 6, 12, and 18, but rose to values equal to (days 24 and 30) or greater than (day 42) those in vehicle-treated rats. Serum progesterone levels in rats treated with Antide were lower (P less than 0.05) than those in vehicle-treated rats on all days tested. In conclusion, at a dosage sufficient to suppress reproductive cyclicity (and elicit the regression of endometriosis), Antide also caused long term follicular atresia and infertility.

  17. Effects of L-NAME on morphometric parameters of stomach parietal cells in pregnant rats

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    Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori Mugahi

    2014-05-01

    Results: Results of this study after analysis showed the significant changes in parietal cells count (mean 61.3±4.32 and its diameters (mean 16.12±1.18 µm in L-NAME group in comparison to control and the sham groups in pregnant rats (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed L-NAME with effects on NO synthesis can reduce the count of parietal cells and increase its diameter in pregnant rats and has destructive effects on structure of stomach parietal cells in pregnancy rats.

  18. Effect of transverse aortic constriction on cardiac structure, function and gene expression in pregnant rats.

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    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of heart failure and pulmonary edema in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. However, in a previous study we found that pregnancy protects against fibrosis and preserves angiogenesis in a rat model of angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy. In this study we test the hypothesis that pregnancy protects against negative effects of increased afterload. METHODS: Pregnant (gestational day 5.5-8.5 and non-pregnant Wistar rats were randomized to transverse aortic constriction (TAC or sham surgery. After 14.2 ± 0.14 days echocardiography was performed. Aortic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV pressure-volume loops were obtained using a conductance catheter. LV collagen content and cardiomyocyte circumference were measured. Myocardial gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Heart weight was increased by TAC (p<0.001 but not by pregnancy. Cardiac myocyte circumference was larger in pregnant compared to non-pregnant rats independent of TAC (p = 0.01, however TAC per se did not affect this parameter. Collagen content in LV myocardium was not affected by pregnancy or TAC. TAC increased stroke work more in pregnant rats (34.1 ± 2.4 vs 17.5 ± 2.4 mmHg/mL, p<0.001 than in non-pregnant (28.2 ± 1.7 vs 20.9 ± 1.5 mmHg/mL, p = 0.06. However, it did not lead to overt heart failure in any group. In pregnant rats, α-MHC gene expression was reduced by TAC. Increased in the expression of β-MHC gene was higher in pregnant (5-fold compared to non-pregnant rats (2-fold after TAC (p = 0.001. Nine out of the 19 genes related to cardiac remodeling were affected by pregnancy independent of TAC. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the hypothesis that pregnancy is cardioprotective against the negative effects of increased afterload. Some differences in cardiac structure, function and gene expression between pregnant and non-pregnant rats following TAC indicated that

  19. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

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    Reza Salarinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa, which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation. Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.  Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.

  20. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

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    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  1. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus

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    Adrienn Csányi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen.

  2. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-08-22

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen.

  3. Histological changes in kidney structure following a long-term administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucheya, R E; Igweh, J C

    2006-01-01

    Histological changes in kidney structure following paracetamol administration in pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were studied. Ten (10) Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into two groups (A and B). Group A served as a control group, while group B received 7.3 mg x 3/kg/day of paracetamol from 10th day of gestation till the 13th day after parturition. The drug was administered by gavage. They were allowed free access to feed and water ad libitum. The maternal rats were then sacrificed for tissue processing. Three deaths were recorded amongst the maternal rats in the paracetamol treated group during parturition and a prolonged gestation period was also observed in the same animals while two maternal rats had a normal gestation period and a safe parturition. Histopathology results of the maternal control animals showed normal kidney architecture (very minimal capsular spaces and rounded glomeruli intimately surrounded by the Bowman's capsule). Two of the paracetamol treated maternal rats that had a safe parturition at the end of the normal gestation period and showed vascular congestion and glomeruli haemorrhage, while one of the maternal rats that had prolonged gestation period (44 days) with signs of abnormally high bleeding during parturition showed higher degree of kidney derangement which was evidenced by shrunken glomerulus's plus droplets in the tubules, vascular congestion, haemorrhage and tubular necrosis. These findings reflect derangement of kidney architecture. The results suggest that paracetamol though considered safe at a considerable low dose especially in pregnant state, could cause kidney derangement during pregnancy.

  4. Reproductive performance of dibromochloropropane-treated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, I; Sod-Moriah, U A; Kaplanski, J; Potashnik, G; Buchman, O

    1988-01-01

    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) is an effective nematocide which has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis and cause infertility in both men and male rats. There are no similar reports concerning the effects of DBCP on female reproduction. The purpose of the present study was to attempt to interfere with the various phases of oogenesis. Proestral or pregnant rats were injected subcutaneously once with 40 mg/kg DBCP on one of each days of L12-L20 of gestation; a double dose (80 mg/kg) was injected in eight consecutive days (L11-L18). In addition, L13 fetuses were injected--directly into the amniotic sac--with 0.1 mg DBCP. Pooled data from the various days of gestation revealed that postimplantation losses were three times as high in the DBCP-treated animals as in DMSO-treated controls. Perinatal deaths were 58% higher and mean pup weights were 30% lower in the DBCP-treated rats than in controls. The reproductive performance of females exposed to DBCP while in utero was affected only to a limited degree (reduced number of ovulations and implantations) as compared with their DMSO counterparts. Doubling the dose (80 mg/kg) seriously reduced the birth weight of pups (50% of controls), all of which died within several hours post-partum. Direct injection of DBCP into embryos or to proestral rats did not have any adverse effects on their future reproductive performance. In contrast to the effect on spermatogenesis, it appears that oogenesis and ova are unaffected by DBCP.

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

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    Yixing Feng

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and prolactin (PRL were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1, estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR, estrogen receptor (ERα and androgen receptor (AR were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth.

  6. Toxic effects of zearalenone on oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, biochemical and pathological changes induced by this toxin in the kidney of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Min; Qu, Zhe; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan

    2014-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEN) on oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, biochemical and pathological changes in the kidney of pregnant rats, and to explore the possible mechanism in ZEN induced kidney damage. The rats were fed a normal diet treated with 0.3, 48.5, 97.6 or 146 mg/kg ZEN in feed on gestation days (GDs) 0 through 7, and then all the rats were fed with a normal diet on GDs 8 through 20. The results showed that ZEN induced kidney dysfunction, oxidative damage, pathological changes and increased mRNA and protein expression of TLR4 and inflammatory cytokines in kidney in dose-dependent manner. The results indicated that ZEN caused kidney damage of pregnant rats and TLR4-mediated inflammatory reactions signal pathway was one of the mechanisms of ZEN mediated toxicity in kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental toxicity following oral administration of a high-boiling coal liquid to pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Rommereim, D.N.; Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy distillate (HD), the highest-boiling coal liquid from the solvent-refined coal-II process (SRC-II), was administered by intragastric (IG) intubation to pregnant rats. Five dose levels of HD (0.09, 0.14, 0.18, 0.36 and 0.74 g kg/sup -1/), were given daily from 12 to 16 days of gestation and the rats were killed at 20 days of gestation. Maternal body weights and weights of the liver, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, thymus, ovaries and the gravid uterus were obtained. Gravid uteri were evaluated for prenatal mortality. Live fetuses were examined for malformations and weighed; fetal lungs were excised and weighed. Maternal (extragestational) weight gains and thymic weights diminished in all groups that received the SRC material. Adrenal weights were increased in all treated animals, except for those in the lowest-dose group (0.9 g kg/sup -1/). There was significant maternal mortality at 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ and increased intrauterine mortality at doses of 0.37 and 0.74 g kg/sup -1/. Placental weight was depressed, and the incidence of fetal anomalies was increased at 0.14 g kg/sup -1/ and all higher dose levels. 19 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  8. Zinc influences on brain development, pituitary an thyroidfunction iniodine-deficient pregnant and neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Yang; Jianchao Bian; Xin Wang; Haiming Wang; Yongping Liu; Shuzhen Wang; Zhichun Mu; Xinluan Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) has been shown to greatly influence brain development. Zn supplements may reduce injury to cell membranes of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency. OBJECTIVE: To establish an iodine deficiency rat model using low-iodine food, which was supplemented with compound Zn and Zn gluconate, to observe the effects of Zn on brain development, as well as pituitary gland and thyroid gland function in iodine-deficient rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping study of neural development was performed in the central laboratory of Shandong Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease from 1998 to 1999. MATERIALS: A total of 270 Wistar, female rats, one month after weaning, were used in this study, including 150 pregnant and 120 neonatal rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model, iodine, compound Zn, iodine and compound Zn, and zinc gluconate. Each group contained 25 pregnant rats and 20 nenoatal rats. METHODS: The pregnant rats and 20 neonatal rats, and well as the normal group, were fed standard chow and allowed free access to tap water (containing 5 μ g/L iodine and 1 mg/L Zn). The remaining five groups were fed low-iodine chow. However, the model group received distilled water, the iodine group received potassium-iodide distilled water (containing 300 μ g/L iodine), the compound Zn group received distilled water and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day, the iodine and compound Zn group received distilled water with 300 p g/L iodine and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day. All treatments lasted 90 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All pregnant rats were sacrificed on the day 21 of pregnancy. Body mass, number and rate of fetal absorption, as well as fetal death and malformation, were determined. Thyroid and pituitary gland weights were measured, as well as serum levels of thyroid hormone, gonadotropin, and sex hormones. In the

  9. Hypothyroid state reduces calcium channel function in 18-day pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, S C; Mishra, S K; Raviprakash, V

    2006-01-01

    Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the mean amplitude and increased the mean frequency of spontaneous rhythmic contractions in 18 day pregnant rat uterus. Nifedipine (10(-12)-10(-9) M) and diltiazem (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused concentration related inhibition of the myogenic responses of the uterine strips obtained from both pregnant and hypothyroid state. However, nifedipine was less potent (IC50:2.11 x 10(-11) M) in pregnant hypothyroid state as compared to pregnant control (IC50: 3.1 x 10(-12) M). Similarly, diltiazem was less potent (IC50: 3.72 x 10(-9) M) in inhibiting the uterine spontaneous contractions in hypothyroid than in pregnant rat uterus (IC50:5.37 x 10(-10) M). A similar decrease in the sensitivity to nifedipine and diltiazem for reversal of K+ (100 mM)-induced tonic contraction and K(+)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx was observed with these calcium channel antagonists in uterus obtained from hypothyroid pregnant rats compared to the controls. Nifedipine-sensitive influx of 45Ca(2+)-stimulated either by K+ (100 mM) or by Bay K8644 (1,4-dihydro-2,6-methyl-5-nitro-4-[2'-(trifluromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridine carboxylic acid methyl ester) (10(-9) M) was significantly less in uterine strips from hypothyroid rats compared to controls. The results suggest that the inhibition of uterine rhythmic contractions may be attributable to a reduction in rat myometrial Ca2+ channel function in the hypothyroid state.

  10. [Cycloferon in treating duodenal ulcers in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kuznetsova, N N; Anikin, V B; arinenko, R Iu; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of using cycloferon (interferon inductor) for a complex treatment (in combination with the main drug solcoseryl possessing pronounced therapeutic properties) of duodenum ulcers was experimentally studied in male rats. The experiments showed a considerable difference in the interferon status of animals with model duodenum ulcers treated with cycloferon, solcoseryl, their combination, and placebo (control). The healing effect of solcoseryl administered in combination with cycloferon exceeded that of each component administered separately.

  11. Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats: Electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, M.; McCarthy, K.J.; Kaye, G.I.; Fujimoto, S. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats was studied using the electron microscope and x-ray microanalyzer. In in-vivo experiments, severe corneal edema occurred in pregnant dams that received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulphate for 4 days during gestation, but not in nonpregnant rats. Prominent swelling of mitochondria and the occurrence of intra- and intercellular vacuoles in the corneal endothelium were observed only in pregnant dams. In in-vitro experiments, electron-dense deposits consisting of cadmium-oxine complexes were preferentially found in swollen mitochondria of the endothelial cells. Cadmium peaks were obtained from these deposits with x-ray microanalysis. These data suggest that the corneal edema observed after administration of cadmium may imply the disturbance of pump function and barrier function of the corneal endothelium due to the primary toxic effects of this metal on mitochondria.

  12. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  13. Endotoxin Treatment of Pregnant Rats Affects Sexual Behavior of the Male Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, S.; Valkhof, N.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Schuiling, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The offspring of endotoxin-infused pregnant rats (0.2 µg endotoxin, 53.3 min, day 18 of pregnancy) did not exhibit different behavior in the Hebb-Williams-type maze test, but the males showed aberrations in the sexual behavior test. Because endotoxin did not cross the placental barrier, it was concl

  14. Determinants of insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah Augustine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. This paper is aimed at highlighting key predictors of the ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and its use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods A total of 2348 pregnant women were selected by a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics, ITN ownership, use, knowledge, behaviour and practices. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of two indicators: ITN ownership, and ITN use in pregnancy among those who owned ITNs. Results ITN ownership was low; only 28.8% owned ITNs. Key predictors of ITN ownership included women who knew that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 3.85; p p = 0.003. The use of ITNs was equally low with only 7.5% of all pregnant women, and 25.7% of all pregnant women who owned ITNs sleeping under a net. The predictors of ITN use in pregnancy among women who owned ITNs (N = 677 identified by logistic regression were: urban residence (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001; knowledge that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 2.93; p p = 0.036. Educational level was not significantly related to any of the two outcome variables. Although registration at ANC is significantly associated with ownership of a bednet (perhaps through free ITN distribution this does not translate to significant use of ITNs. Conclusions ITN use lagged well behind ITN ownership. This seems to suggest that the current mass distribution of ITNs at antenatal facilities and community levels may not necessarily lead to use unless it is accompanied by behaviour change interventions that address the community level perceptions, misconceptions and positively position ITN as an effective prevention device to prevent malaria

  15. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7(th) and 8(th) rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy.

  16. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. Results: A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7th and 8th rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Conclusion: Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy. PMID:27298495

  17. Differential expression of uterine NO in pregnant and nonpregnant rats with intrauterine bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Nowicki, B; Yallampalli, C

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the uterine host defense against bacterial infection. In nonpregnant rats, NO production in the uterus was shown to be lower, and inducible NO synthase (NOS) expression was undetectable. However, studies in pregnant rats show abundant expression of inducible NOS with significant elevation in NO production in the uterus. We have recently reported that intrauterine Escherichia coli infection caused a localized increase in uterine NO production and inducible NOS expression in the nonpregnant rat. In our present study, we examined whether the uterine NO production, NOS expression, and uterine tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein are increased in pregnant rats with intrauterine pathogenic Escherichia coli infection. Unlike the nonpregnant state, the NO production in the infected uterine horn of pregnant rats was not significantly elevated after bacterial inoculation compared with the contralateral uterine horn. The expression of uterine NOS (types II and III) also did not show significant upregulation in the infected horn. This is in contrast to that in nonpregnant animals, in which type II NOS was induced in the uterus on infection. Moreover, intrauterine infection induced an elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein in the infected horn both of nonpregnant and of pregnant rats. These data suggest that the sequential stimulation of NOS expression, especially the inducible isoform, and generation of uterine NO are lacking during pregnancy despite an elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha after infection. In summary, NO synthesis response may be maximal at pregnancy, and infection may not further induce the NO system. Present studies, together with our previous report that intrauterine infection-induced lethality in pregnancy rats was amplified with the inhibition of NO, suggest that pregnancy is a state predisposed for increased complications associated with intrauterine infection and

  18. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry, and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1

  19. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Luo, Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.S.; Zhou, J.; Gao, F.; He, L.T.; Xu, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells

  20. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezire O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Onoriode Ezire,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Omokhudu Idogho,3 Elijah A Bamgboye,4 Ernest Nwokolo5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, 3Enhancing Nigeria’s Response to HIV & AIDS, Abuja, 4Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 5Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN among pregnant women in Nigeria.Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.Results: A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural, confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net

  1. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezire, Onoriode; Adebayo, Samson B; Idogho, Omokhudu; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Nwokolo, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN) available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural), confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net is owned, age, and marital status were not significant. Multiple logistics regression shows that pregnant women who are confident to hang or use a net were almost ten times more likely to use a net than those who do not know, while those who know that the use of an ITN/LLIN can protect a pregnant woman from malaria were almost two times more likely to use a net than those who do not know

  2. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  3. Effect of i1 imidazoline receptor agonist, moxonidine, in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairard, Alexis; Lopez-Miranda, Visitacion; Pernot, Fanny; Beck, Jean F; Coumaros, Geneviève; Van Overloop, Bruno; La Roche, Benoît; Koehl, Christian; Christen, Marie O

    2004-05-01

    Decreased nitric oxide production has been reported in preeclampsia, which is also frequently associated with glucose intolerance. It was thus considered of interest to investigate the effects of moxonidine, a centrally acting antihypertensive drug that reduces insulin resistance, in a rat model of preeclampsia. Hypertension was induced in Wistar rats by dietary l-NNA (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, 0.063%, 31 mg/kg/d, days 13-19 of gestation) and, over the same period, moxonidine or vehicle was administered orally (2 mg/kg/d by gavage). On day 20, blood pressure was measured in the pentobarbital anesthetized animals, glucose tolerance was tested (2 g/kg glucose i.p.), and morphologic studies were conducted on the litter to determine the benefits with respect to fetal outcome. Hypertension was reduced with daily moxonidine treatment (P < 0.05). Basal plasma insulin and insulin/glucose index were decreased with moxonidine treatment evidencing improved insulin sensitivity in the control and l-NNA-treated pregnant rats (P < 0.05). After glucose challenge, plasma insulin increased in all the groups as expected and plasma insulin and insulin/glucose index were significantly higher in the l-NNA group than in the control, moxonidine, or l-NNA + moxonidine groups (P < 0.05 for time 60 minutes). Thus, moxonidine improved glucose tolerance in l-NNA-treated pregnant rats. Moreover, moxonidine treatment very effectively decreased the number of necroses (1 necrosis in 71 fetuses in the l-NNA + moxonidine group versus 15 necroses in 79 fetuses in the l-NNA group, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the 7-day treatment with moxonidine suppressed hypertension and reduced glucose intolerance and fetal necrosis, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of moxonidine in the preeclamptic model.

  4. Prediction of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women treated for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulasouchidou, Maria K; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Poulakos, Pavlos; Mintziori, Gesthimani; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Grimbizis, Grigorios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether the concentrations of maternal serum TSH and free thyroxine (fT4) through pregnancy, the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) or the dose of levo-thyroxine (LT4) replacement can predict the occurrence of maternal or fetal/neonatal complications in pregnant women treated for maternal hypothyroidism. The study included 92 women with singleton pregnancies and primary hypothyroidism on LT4 replacement. Maternal serum TSH, fT4, thyroid auto-antibodies and doses of LT4 were monitored throughout pregnancy. All maternal and fetal/neonatal complications were recorded. The overall prevalence of maternal and neonatal complications was 24.1%. Neither maternal TSH/fT4 concentrations, presence of TAI nor dose of LT4 could predict the occurrence of complications. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was higher in women who developed maternal complications [odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.5, p=0.007) and gestational week at delivery was lower in pregnancies complicated by neonatal (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8, p=0.001) or any type of complications (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, p=0.008). The occurrence of maternal or fetal/neonatal complications in pregnant women treated for hypothyroidism cannot be predicted by maternal TSH/fT4 through pregnancy, presence of TAI or dose of LT4 replacement.

  5. Attenuated neuroendocrine responses to emotional and physical stressors in pregnant rats involve adenohypophysial changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, I D; Johnstone, H A; Hatzinger, M; Liebsch, G; Shipston, M; Russell, J A; Landgraf, R; Douglas, A J

    1998-01-01

    The responsiveness of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) to emotional (elevated plus-maze) and physical (forced swimming) stressors and to administration of synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) was investigated during pregnancy and lactation. In addition to pregnancy-related adaptations at the adenohypophysial level, behavioural responses accompanying the neuroendocrine changes were studied. Whereas basal (a.m.) plasma corticosterone, but not corticotrophin (adrenocorticotrophic hormone; ACTH), levels were increased on the last day (i.e. on day 22) of pregnancy, the stress-induced rise in both plasma hormone concentrations was increasingly attenuated with the progression of pregnancy beginning on day 15 and reaching a minimum on day 21 compared with virgin control rats. A similar attenuation of responses to both emotional and physical stressors was found in lactating rats. Although the basal plasma oxytocin concentration was elevated in late pregnancy, the stress-induced rise in oxytocin secretion was slightly lower in day 21 pregnant rats. In contrast to vasopressin, oxytocin secretion was increased by forced swimming in virgin and early pregnant rats indicating a differential stress response of these neurohypophysial hormones. The blunted HPA response to stressful stimuli is partly due to alterations at the level of corticotrophs in the adenohypophysis, as ACTH secretion in response to CRH in vivo (40 ng kg−1, i.v.) was reduced with the progression of pregnancy and during lactation. In vitro measurement of cAMP levels in pituitary segments demonstrated reduced basal levels of cAMP and a lower increase after CRH stimulation (10 nm, 10 min) in day 21 pregnant compared with virgin rats, further indicating reduced corticotroph responsiveness to CRH in pregnancy. The reduced pituitary response to CRH in late pregnancy is likely to be a consequence of a reduction in CRH receptor binding as

  6. Barrier Effect of Placenta Membrane of Pregnant Rat on Mixed Rare Earth Changle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉; 陈辉; 黄可欣; 李树蕾; 聂毓秀

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential health risks of mixed rare earths Changle for human embryo, whether it crosses placenta membrane or placenta barrier should be determined. In order to arrive at the aim placenta tissue was observed after contamination with optical and electron microscope to show distribution and destiny of mixed rare earth Changle in placenta tissue. Meanwhile the amount of rare earths in serum of pregnant rat, amniotic fluid and extract of embryo tissue were measured by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The rats were administered to 0.3, 2, 5 and 20 mg*kg-1 mixed rare earths Changle every day, respectively by oral from the 6th to 18th day after pregnancy. The results show that many particles are found in syncytiotrophoblast around capillaries of placental villi in contaminated groups under light microscope, and there are more particles following increased dose. It also was observed that some dense bodies with the envelope in placenta membrane and to difference extent damages the mitochondria crista within syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm in contaminated groups under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results of ICP-MS assay indicate that the level of Ce increases with contamination dose in the serum of pregnant rats, and the level of total rare earth element remarkably rises in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant rats for 20 mg*kg-1 group as compared with the control without change for the other groups.

  7. The glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy : Saline infusion enhances the glomerular filtration rate in the pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Klok, PA; Valkhof, N; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of pregnant rats is generally believed to exceed non-pregnant values. This notion is primarily based upon standard inulin clearances. However, the inulin clearance requires continuous infusion of inulin usually dissolved in saline. Since saline infusion per se in

  8. Effect of a leucine-supplemented diet on body composition changes in pregnant rats bearing Walker 256 tumor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. Ventrucci; M.A.R. Mello; M.C.C. Gomes-Marcondes

    2001-01-01

    .... Since leucine is one of the principal amino acids used by skeletal muscle for energy, we investigated the changes in body composition of pregnant tumor-bearing rats after a leucine-supplemented diet...

  9. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-10-05

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex. Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 diminished in the frontal cortex. In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis, increase nerve excitability, and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats.

  10. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jing Ge; Liu Yang; Haiyan Zhang; Xuli Li; Dan Xue

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia.This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia,in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats.TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia.In addition,immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex.Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2diminished in the frontal cortex.In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis,increase nerve excitability,and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats.

  11. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex. Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 diminished in the frontal cortex. In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis, increase nerve excitability, and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats. PMID:25538740

  12. C-Psilocin tissue distribution in pregnant rats after intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C.P. Law

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many species of hallucinogenic mushrooms have been found in the genus Psilocybe. The main psychoactive chemicals of Psilocybe mushrooms are psilocin and its phosphoryloxy derivative, psilocybin. In addition to its psychedelic effects, psilocybin is an effective agent to lift the mood of depressed patients with terminal cancers. Objective: To study the dispositional kinetics of 14C-psilocin in pregnant rats after intravenous injection, to calculate tissue dose surrogates i.e., tissue 14C concentration and area under the concentration-time curve using the experimental data, to quantify trans-placental passage of psilocin and/or its metabolites, and to identify new psilocin metabolite(s in rat urine. Methods: A group of 15 pregnant Wistar rats weighing between 0.30-0.36 kg was used in the study. Each rat was given a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg 14C-psilocin i.v. Three rats were randomly selected and sacrificed at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 hr post-dosing. The maternal and fetal tissues were quickly removed and the radioactivity in these tissues determined by liquid scintillation counting. In a separate study, urine samples were collected from 6 male Wistar rats after administering 15 mg/kg of unlabeled psilocin i.p. The urine samples were collected and extracted by chloroform-methanol (9:1 v/v and analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Results: 14C-Psilocin crossed the placental barrier of pregnant rats readily after i.v. administration; maternal tissue 14C concentrations were found to be much higher than those in fetal tissues. The areas under the curve for maternal tissues also were much higher than the fetal tissues. In general, maternal tissues could be divided into the fast eliminating organ group, which included the brain (elimination half-life 13 hr. A new psilocin metabolite tentatively identified as dihydroxyindoleacetic acid was found in the urine. Conclusion: Our study showed that psilocin readily crossed the

  13. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Kazemi; Hedayat Sahraei; Mahnaz Azarnia; Leila Dehghani; Hossein Bahadoran; Elaheh Tekieh1

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap ...

  14. [Main factors determining the functional state of pregnant rat's uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomasuridze, Kh P; Bekaia, T G; Bekaia, G L

    2009-09-01

    In a review article the authors based on the analysis of the literature, conclude that the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibits myometrial contractility at the background of the nonselective Nitric Oxide Synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) action. Along with this, there are evidences that in NOS-deficient rats the process of pregnancy proceeds normally. Thus, literature data indicate that CGRP, independently of Nitric Oxide is included in the myometrium relaxing system, which of course does not exclude its joint action with both Nitric Oxide and other relaxing factors. Moreover, according to our data L-Arginine, causes complete inhibition of spontaneous contractile activity of the rats' myometrial strips, but the administration of L-NAME, eliminates the inhibitory effect - contractile activity was restored.

  15. Adaptive plasticity of vaginal innervation in term pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2011-12-01

    Changes in reproductive status place varied functional demands on the vagina. These include receptivity to male intromission and sperm transport in estrus, barrier functions during early pregnancy, and providing a conduit for fetal passage at parturition. Peripheral innervation regulates vaginal function, which in turn may be influenced by circulating reproductive hormones. We assessed vaginal innervation in diestrus and estrus (before and after the estrous cycle surge in estrogen), and in the early (low estrogen) and late (high estrogen) stages in pregnancy. In vaginal sections from cycling rats, axons immunoreactive for the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) showed a small reduction at estrus relative to diestrus, but this difference did not persist after correcting for changes in target size. No changes were detected in axons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (parasympathetic), or calcitonin gene-related peptide and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV-1; sensory nociceptors). In rats at 10 days of pregnancy, innervation was similar to that observed in cycling rats. However, at 21 days of pregnancy, axons immunoreactive for PGP 9.5 and each of the subpopulation-selective markers were significantly reduced both when expressed as percentage of sectional area or after correcting for changes in target size. Because peripheral nerves regulate vaginal smooth muscle tone, blood flow, and pain sensitivity, reductions in innervation may represent important adaptive mechanisms facilitating parturition.

  16. Prostaglandin F receptor expression in intrauterine tissues of pregnant rats

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    Kanca, Halit; Yar, Atiye Seda; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Menevşe, Sevda; Çalgüner, Engin; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the expression and localization of rat prostaglandin F (FP) receptor in uterine tissues of rats on gestational Days 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 21.5 and postpartal Days 1 and 3 using Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. A high level of immunoreactivity was observed on gestational Days 20, 21, and 21.5 with the most significant signals found on Day 20. FP receptor protein was expressed starting on gestational Day 15, and a fluctuating unsteady increase was observed until delivery. Uterine FP receptor mRNA levels were low between Days 10 and 18 of gestation (p < 0.05). The transcript level increased significantly on Day 20 and peaked on Day 21.5 just before labor (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between FP receptor mRNA expression and serum estradiol levels (rs = 0.78; p < 0.01) along with serum estradiol/progesterone ratios (rs = 0.79; p < 0.01). In summary, we observed an increase FP receptor expression in rat uterus with advancing gestation, a marked elevation of expression at term, and a concominant decrease during the postpartum period. These findings indicate a role for uterine FP receptors in the mediation of uterine contractility at term. PMID:24136214

  17. The effect of potassium channel opener pinacidil on the non-pregnant rat uterus.

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    Novakovic, Radmila; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Protic, Dragana; Djokic, Jelena; Heinle, Helmut; Gojkovic-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the K(+) channel opener, pinacidil on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions and contractions provoked by electrical field stimulation (50 Hz) or by oxytocin were investigated in the isolated uterus of the non-pregnant rat in oestrus. Pinacidil produced more potent inhibition of oxytocin-elicited contractions than of spontaneous rhythmic contractions or electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Glibenclamide, a selective blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, antagonized the pinacidil-induced inhibition of contractions elicited by oxytocin in a competitive manner. However, the pinacidil-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation-elicited contractions and spontaneous rhythmic contractions was antagonized non-competitively by glibenclamide. In the uterine strips pre-contracted with 80 mM K(+), the pinacidil-induced maximal relaxation was not affected. The present data show that pinacidil exhibits potent relaxant properties in the rat non-pregnant uterus in oestrus and therefore should be taken into account as a possible agent for treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Based on glibenclamide affinity, it appears that the inhibitory response to pinacidil involves K(ATP )channels. We need further investigations to explain why the interaction between glibenclamide and pinacidil in this experimental model depends on the nature of contractions. The ability of pinacidil to completely relax the rat non-pregnant uterus pre-contracted with K(+)-rich solution suggests that K(+) channel-independent mechanism(s) also play a part in its relaxant effect.

  18. Coenzyme Q in pregnant women and rats with intrahepatic cholestasis.

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    Martinefski, Manuela R; Contin, Mario D; Rodriguez, Myrian R; Geréz, Estefanía M; Galleano, Mónica L; Lucangioli, Silvia E; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Tripodi, Valeria P

    2014-08-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a high-risk liver disease given the eventual deleterious consequences that may occur in the foetus. It is accepted that the abnormal accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in maternal serum are responsible for the disease development. Hydrophobic bile acids induce oxidative stress and apoptosis leading to the damage of the hepatic parenchyma and eventually extrahepatic tissues. As coenzyme Q (CoQ) is considered an early marker of oxidative stress in this study, we sought to assess CoQ levels, bile acid profile and oxidative stress status in intrahepatic cholestasis. CoQ, vitamin E and malondialdehyde were measured in plasma and/or tissues by HPLC-UV method whereas serum bile acids by capillary electrophoresis in rats with ethinyl estradiol-induced cholestasis and women with pregnancy cholestasis. CoQ and vitamin E plasma levels were diminished in both rats and women with intrahepatic cholestasis. Furthermore, reduced CoQ was also found in muscle and brain of cholestatic rats but no changes were observed in heart or liver. In addition, a positive correlation between CoQ and ursodeoxycholic/lithocholic acid ratio was found in intrahepatic cholestasis suggesting that increased plasma lithocholic acid may be intimately related to CoQ depletion in blood and tissues. Significant CoQ and vitamin E depletion occur in both animals and humans with intrahepatic cholestasis likely as the result of increased hydrophobic bile acids known to produce significant oxidative stress. Present findings further suggest that antioxidant supplementation complementary to traditional treatment may improve cholestasis outcome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Suppression of erythrocyte production in zinc deficient pregnant rats

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    Morgan, P.N.; Wehr, C.M.; King, J.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Rat dams fed zinc (Zn) deficient diets during pregnancy accumulate excessive liver iron (Fe) concentrations. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of Zn deficiency on erythropoiesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50 {mu}g (ZnAd) or less than 0.5 {mu}g (Zndef) Zn/g diet from d0 to d19 of gestation; food intake and weight were recorded daily. Dams were killed by CO{sub 2} asphyxiation on d19 of pregnancy. Smears were made from dam femur bone marrow and analyzed for erythrocyte (RBC) number and maturity. Plasma, liver and bone were analyzed for Zn and Fe concentrations by AAS. In the ZnAd and Zndef dams, mean ({plus minus}sem) bone Zn was 140 {plus minus} 3 and 104 {plus minus} 2 {mu}g/g; plasma Zn was 112 {plus minus} 3 and 41 {plus minus} 4 {mu}g/dl; and liver Fe was 104 {plus minus} 10 and 185 {plus minus} 16 {mu}g/g, respectively. During gestation, mean weight gain of ZnAd was 91 {plus minus}4 g, and Zndef dams had no weight gain. Mean number of fetuses/dam of ZnAd were 12 {plus minus} 2 and Zndef were 7 {plus minus} 2. Fetal weight was 2.3 {plus minus} 0.1 g in ZnAd and 1.4 {plus minus} 0.1 g in Zndef. Zndef dams resorbed 44% of their implantation sites and 34% of their fetuses had gross teratology. Compared to ZnAd dams, the newly formed RBCs of Zndef dams show marked reduction, indicating suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis. Thus, severely Zn deficient rat dams were unable to mobilize their excessively high liver Fe stores and could not maintain normal erythropoiesis.

  20. Effect of ether inhalation by adrenalectomized pregnant rats on the adrenal corticosterone concentration in norma, decapitated, and encephalectomized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negellen-Perchellet, E; Cohen, A

    1975-01-01

    The influence of decapitation or encephalectomy (total removal of the brain leaving the pituitary in place) on the adrenal corticosterone concentration of the 20-day-old rat fetus has been studied in normal pregnant rats, in adrenalectomized pregnant rats, and in adrenalectomized pregnant rats subjected to the stress conditions of inhalation of ether for 40 min. Decapitation or encephalectomy of the fetus always results in a drop in adrenal corticosterone concentration within 4 h which is prevented in 15 min by injecting 3.2 mU of hog ACTH into the decapitated fetus. In mothers adrenalectomized in order to avoid a negative feedback reaction of maternal corticosteroids on the fetal pituitary-adrenal system, ether inhalation causes an important rise in adrenal corticosterone concentration in normal fetuses but not in decapitated or encephalectomized ones. Thus ether, which crosses the placental barrier, is a stressor agent for the fetal rat.

  1. Decreased seizure threshold in an eclampsia-like model induced in pregnant rats with lipopolysaccharide and pentylenetetrazol treatments.

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    Qian Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia is a poorly understood but potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. Research to date on this disorder has been hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model. To correct this deficiency, this report describes the generation of a rat eclampsia-like model using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ in a previously established rat preeclampsia model. METHOD: Rats were administered lipopolysaccharide (1.0 µg/kg by tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to establish preeclampsia (PE. PE and control rats (non-pregnant, NP; normal-pregnant, P were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with PTZ (40 mg/kg to induce seizures. In separate experiments, MgSO4 (270 mg/kg IP was injected in advance of PTZ into PE rats to observe its effect on PTZ-induced seizures. RESULTS: PE conditions were verified in rats after LPS administration by significantly higher blood pressure (P<0.01 and urinary albumin excretion (P<0.05, elevated sFlt-1 (P<0.05 and decreased PlGF serum levels (P<0.05, and evidence of hepatic dysfunction compared to control groups. PTZ successfully induced seizure activity in all groups studied. Latency to seizure was significantly (P<0.01 less in the PE-PTZ group (73.2 ± 6.6 sec. than in PTZ-treated controls (107.0 ± 7.4 sec.. Pretreatment with MgSO4 prolonged (P<0.05 latency to seizure, shortened seizure duration and decreased seizure rates. Significant increased (P<0.05 in the serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in PE and PE-PTZ groups, and decreased (P<0.05 in their levels following MgSO4 administration. CONCLUSION: This PTZ-induced eclampsia-like rat model is comparable to the human condition of eclampsia and may serve as a useful research tool for future studies of this disease. The increased inflammatory cytokines in preeclampsia are coincident with a decreased threshold for PTZ-induced seizures, suggesting that an inflammatory mechanism may contribute to the susceptibility to seizure activity and

  2. Smooth muscle pharmacology in the isolated virgin and pregnant rat uterus and cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget; Watts, Stephanie W

    2012-06-01

    Uterine smooth muscle function is established, but comparatively little is known about cervical smooth muscle pharmacology. We performed a proof-of-principle experiment that smooth muscle was expressed in the cervix in both virgin and pregnant rats, using the uterus as a comparator. We tested whether all tissues were pharmacologically responsive to contractile and relaxant agonists. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of smooth muscle α-actin in all tissues. The isolated tissue bath was used to measure isometric contractility of uterine strips and whole cervices from virgin and pregnant (day 11 ± 2) female Sprague-Dawley rats. We tested classic activators of uterine smooth muscle contraction and relaxation in both uterus and cervix. All tissues contracted to the depolarizing agent potassium chloride, prostaglandin F2α, muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol [2-[(aminocarbonxyl)oxy]-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride], and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Unlike other tissues, the pregnant cervix did not contract to oxytocin, but the oxytocin receptor was present. Both cervix and uterus (virgin and pregnant) had concentration-dependent, near-complete relaxation to the adrenergic agonist norepinephrine and adenylate cyclase activator forskolin [(3R,4aR,5S,6S,6aS,10S,10aR,10bS)-6,10-10b-trihydroxy-3,4a,7,10a-pentamethyl-1-oxo-3-vinyldodecahydro-1H-benzo[f] chroment-5-yl acetate]. The β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol was less potent in pregnant cervix versus virgin by ∼10-fold. All tissues, particularly the cervix, responded poorly to the nitric-oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, relaxing ∼20% maximally. These findings support the importance of smooth muscle in the cervix, the use of the isolated cervix in pharmacological studies, and a similarity between smooth muscle pharmacology of the nonpregnant uterus and cervix. This work highlights the unappreciated smooth muscle function of the cervix versus uterus and cervical changes in pharmacology during

  3. Iron deficiency without anemia causes maternal hypothyroxinemia in pregnant rats.

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    Hu, Xiaona; Teng, Xiaochun; Zheng, Hongzhi; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Jing; Jin, Ting; Xiong, Chuhui; Zhang, Hongmei; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2014-07-01

    Because of increased total red blood cell mass and the demands of the fetus, iron requirements are greater during pregnancy than at most other times. Previous experiments in nonpregnant women have shown that iron deficiency (ID) can reduce circulating thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels; therefore, we hypothesized that ID before pregnancy can reduce thyroid hormone levels in maternal circulation and in the thyroid gland during pregnancy. In the present study, 2 types of rat models with ID were established using diets with different iron concentrations. Levels of thyroid hormone, hemoglobin, serum iron, liver iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone as well as thyroid peroxidase activity were measured throughout pregnancy, and thyroid structure was analyzed. Both mild ID with anemia and ID without anemia resulted in maternal hypothyroxinemia from midgestation to the end of the pregnancy. Thyroid peroxidase activity significantly decreased, even before the reduction of liver iron concentrations in ID groups. Iron deficiency reduced the size of follicular cavities but did not destroy the follicular structure. Linear regressions were performed to compare total levels of maternal serum thyroxine to indices of iron status for individual dams. This is the first rat study to report our results stating that ID can cause maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy.

  4. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

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    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

  5. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

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    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pfat diet group was significantly increased compared with that of normal control rats (6.62 mmol/L vs. 4.96 mmol/L, Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  6. Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: maternal repercussions.

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    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I de Mattos Paranhos; Aguilar, R; Rudge, M V Cunha

    2004-02-01

    Bauhinia forficata, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazil folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. The purposes of present study were to determine the repercussions of diabetes on the defense system against oxidative stress in pregnant female rats and to characterize the influence of the treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract on the antioxidant system, glycemic control, hepatic glycogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and lipids. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats in 3 doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. All the females were killed on the day 21 of pregnancy. A maternal blood sample was collected by venous puncture and the maternal liver was removed for biochemical measurement. The diabetic pregnant rats presented hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased determinations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with B. forficata extract did not interfere in the albumin, total protein and lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD determinations. Increased hepatic glycogen, decreased uric acid concentration and increased GSH activity was observed. This last fact suggests that the plant may have some action on antioxidant defense system. However, the demonstration of the active component present in B. forficata responsible for its antioxidant effect and the increase in hepatic glycogen deserve further investigation.

  7. Evaluation of postpartum behaviour in rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during gestation

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    Vinícius A. Vieira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestational depression is detrimental to the health of the mother and the offspring and contributes to the appearance of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the postnatal period. Traditional antidepressants have undesirable side effects when utilised during gestation, but Hypericum perforatum has been characterised as an efficient and safe antidepressant that prevents the recurrence of symptoms. This study verified the effects of Hypericum perforatumon the behaviour of Wistar rats that were treated during gestation and evaluated 10 and 60 days post-treatment. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each: one control group that received distilled water and three treatment groups that were treated orally with 36, 72 or 144 mg/kg Hypericum perforatumextract. At 10 and 60 days after parturition and post-treatment, the rats were submitted to the holeboard, the tail suspension, and the forced swim tests. The animals treated with 144 mg/kg Hypericum perforatumexhibited greater head-dipping activity in the hole-board test and reduced immobility in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, suggesting less anxiety and depression 10 and 60 days post-treatment.The results indicated that treating rats with Hypericum perforatumduring the gestational period decreased depressive behaviour and anxiety 10 and 60 days post-treatment.

  8. [Protective Effect of Schisandra Extract on Embryotoxicity and Reproductive Toxicity in Early Pregnant Rats Exposed to Benzo [a] pyrene].

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    Liang, Jing; Hou, Hai-yan; Sun, Yang; Chen, Ya-qiong

    2016-02-01

    To observe protective effects of Schisandra extract (SE) on embryotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of early pregnant rats exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene (Bap). Pregnant rat model was prepared using periodic screening cage method. Totally 50 female pregnant SD rats were divided into five groups by randomized block design according to the weight, i.e., the BaP model group, the low dose SE group, the middle dose SE group, the high dose SE group, the normal control group, 10 rats in each group. Rats in the BaP model group were administered with BaP at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg by gastrogavage. Rats in low, middle, and high dose SE groups were administered by gastrogavage with BaP (at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg) plus SE at a daily dose of 40, 200, and 1 000 mg/kg, respectively. Equal volume of olive oil was administered to rats in the normal control group by gastrogavage. All medication was performed for 8 successive days. Changes of rat body weight in each period were observed. The uterus embryonic total quality and ovary quality were measured, and organ index calculated. The number of corpus luteum, the number of embryo implantation, and the number of absorbed embryo were statistically calculated respectively. The implantation rate and the absorbed embryos rate were calculated. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin β (β-HCG) and progesterone (PROG) were detected by ELISA. Compared with the normal control group, the weight of 9-day pregnant rats, the number of embryo implantation, the uterus embryonic total index, ovary index, serum levels of β-HCG and PROG all decreased in the Bap model group with significant difference (P body weight, the uterus embryonic total index, and the PROG level increased in 3 dose SE groups (P pregnant rats exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene.

  9. Inflammatory processes enhance cAMP-mediated uterus relaxation in the pregnant rat: the role of TNF-alpha.

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    Klukovits, Anna; Márki, Arpád; Páldy, Eszter; Benyhe, Sándor; Gálik, Márta; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Róbert

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro uterus relaxing potency of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) agonists in pregnant rats after in utero administration of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS). The LPS (100 microg/kg) was injected into the uterine lumen on day 16 of pregnancy. The effects of beta(2)-AR agonist terbutaline was tested in vitro, in isolated uterine rings precontracted by electric field stimulation. Uterine beta(2)-AR densities were detected by radioligand binding assay, the activated G-protein levels were investigated by a radiolabelled GTP binding assay. Uterine cAMP accumulation and the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The endotoxin-evoked preterm delivery occurred on day 21. Higher pD(2) values of terbutaline (p 0.05) in LPS-treated vs. control animals. Serum TNF-alpha level rose threefold after LPS treatment, but this rise was abolished by thalidomide. In LPS + thalidomide-treated rats, the effect of terbutaline became similar to that in sham-operated controls. By the measurement of myometrial cAMP levels, we documented that the concentration-response curve of terbutaline on cAMP accumulation was shifted to the left in the LPS-treated rats, with a significant rise in the pD(2). We concluded that in the case of uterine inflammation, the in vitro uterus-relaxing potency of beta(2)-agonists enhances, which is possibly mediated by TNF-alpha and uterine cAMP levels and that may serve as a rationale for the use of beta(2)-AR agonists in the attenuation of preterm uterine contractions on an inflammatory basis.

  10. Effect of Erythromycin on Albendazole-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Rats

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Albendazole is utilized as an anthelmentic agent. One its side effect is teratogenicity. This effect apparently is related to its metabolites especially albendazole sulfoxid. The aim of present study was evaluation effect of erythromycin (as enzyme inhibitor in biotransformation on albendazole biotransformation and consequently fetal malformation. Materials and Methods: Four groups of female pregnant wistar rats (8 rats each group were used. First group received normal saline (as control group. A single oral dose 30 mg/kg of albendazole was administered to rats on day 10 of gestation in group 2. Rats in group 3 received albendazole similar group 2 and erythromycin at dose 60 mg/kg. Rats in group 4 received only erythromycin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were euthanatized on day 20 of gestation. The skeletal malformation of fetus was studied by stereomicroscope after staining by Alizarin red-Alcian blue.Results: The length and weight of fetuses were significantly decreased by albendazole but erythromycin did not prevent this effect. In group that received only erythromycin, the length and weight of fetuses was similar to control group. Erythromycin decreased albendazole effect on weight of placenta. There was an increase in resorption by erythromycin when co-administrated with albendazole. The incidence of skeletal malformations (mostly of the limbs, vertebrae and palate decreased significantly by erythromycin when co-administrated with albendazole.Conclusion: Thus, erythromycin may inhibit albendazole biotransformation and decrease teratogenicity of it metabolites; but this subject needs more detailed evaluation.

  11. Role of the availability of substrates on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis in the fasted late pregnant rat

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    Zorzano, A.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1986-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the role of gluconeogenetic substrate availability on glucose production in the fasted late pregnant rat. Virgin and 21-day pregnant rats were studied after 24 hours' food deprivation. Pregnant animals showed decreased circulating glucose and gluconeogenic amino acid and increased plasma glycerol concentration. Glucose formation was studied in vivo two, five, and ten minutes after the intravenous administration of two concentrations of /sup 14/C-alanine, /sup 14/C-pyruvate, or /sup 14/C-glycerol. Concentrations of 0.2 mmols of /sup 14/C-glycerol or /sup 14/C-pyruvate, but not of /sup 14/C-alanine, enhanced /sup 14/C-glucose production in pregnant rats, whereas 1 mmol of any of the three /sup 14/C-substrates always enhanced /sup 14/C-glucose production in these rats. Both 1 mmol/L and 5 mmol/L /sup 14/C-alanine increased /sup 14/C-glucose formation in 90-minute-incubated liver slices of fasted pregnant rats, in spite of decreased cytosolic activity of alanine aminotransferase. The three substrates enhanced in vitro renal gluconeogenesis in pregnant rats. Under all experimental conditions studied, labeled glycerol was converted more efficiently into glucose than equivalent amounts of any other substrate used, and this difference was greater in pregnant, than in virgin animals. Results indicate that, in spite of enhanced gluconeogenetic activity, maternal glucose production in the fasted state at late gestation is limited by the deficiency of certain substrates, such as amino acids. It is proposed that glycerol derived from enhanced maternal adipose tissue lipolysis constitutes a preferential gluconeogenetic substrate in comparison with others, such as alanine, that are more efficiently transferred through the placenta to the fetus.

  12. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP vascular relaxation pathway during TNF-alpha-induced hypertension in pregnant rats.

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    Davis, Justin R; Giardina, Jena B; Green, Gachavis M; Alexander, Barbara T; Granger, Joey P; Khalil, Raouf A

    2002-02-01

    Placental ischemia during pregnancy is thought to release cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. We have reported that a chronic twofold elevation in plasma TNF-alpha increases blood pressure in pregnant but not in virgin rats; however, the vascular mechanisms are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that increasing plasma TNF-alpha during pregnancy impairs endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and enhances vascular reactivity. Active stress was measured in aortic strips of virgin and late-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats untreated or infused with TNF-alpha (200 ng x kg(-1) x day(-1) for 5 days) to increase plasma level twofold. Phenylephrine (Phe) increased active stress to a maximum of 4.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(3) and 9.9 +/- 0.7 x 10(3) N/m2 in control pregnant and TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats, respectively. Removal of the endothelium enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats. In endothelium-intact strips, ACh caused greater relaxation of Phe contraction in control than in TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats. Basal and ACh-induced nitrite/nitrate production was less in TNF-alpha-infused than in control pregnant rats. Pretreatment of vascular strips with 100 microM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthase, or 1 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-]quinoxalin-1-one, to inhibit cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats. Phe contraction and ACh relaxation were not significantly different between control and TNF-alpha-infused virgin rats. Thus an endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated vascular relaxation pathway is inhibited in late-pregnant rats infused with TNF-alpha. The results support a role for TNF-alpha as one possible mediator of the increased vascular resistance

  13. Association of Baseline Proteinuria and Adverse Outcomes in Pregnant Women With Treated Chronic Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jamie L; Nelson, David B; Roberts, Scott W; Wells, C Edward; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary

    2016-08-01

    To assess the importance of baseline proteinuria in women treated for chronic hypertension during pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study included women with chronic hypertension who received antihypertensive therapy in the first half of pregnancy and completed urine protein quantification before 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed according to the presence or absence of baseline proteinuria, defined as 300 mg or greater per 24 hours identified before 20 weeks of gestation. Frequencies of superimposed preeclampsia, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age neonates were further evaluated according to stratified urine protein excretion levels from less than 50 mg to greater than 1,000 mg/24 hours. Between January 2002 and December 2014, a total of 447 women met inclusion criteria. Of these, 56 (13%) had baseline proteinuria. Women with baseline proteinuria were statistically significantly more likely to develop superimposed preeclampsia (79% compared with 49%), deliver preterm (18% compared with 6% 30 weeks of gestation or less, 34% compared with 17% 34 weeks of gestation or less, and 48% compared with 26% less than 37 weeks of gestation), and deliver an small-for-gestational-age neonate (41% compared with 22% less than the 10th percentile, 20% compared with 9% less than the third percentile) when compared with women who did not have proteinuria (all Pproteinuria levels less than 300 mg/d were analyzed separately, a significant association was observed for rates of superimposed preeclampsia and preterm birth. In pregnant women with treated chronic hypertension, baseline proteinuria was significantly associated with increased rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, and growth restriction-even at proteinuria values previously considered to be within normal range (less than 300 mg/d).

  14. Renal NCC is unchanged in the midpregnant rat and decreased in the late pregnant rat despite avid renal Na+ retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal A; McDonough, Alicia A; Masilamani, Shyama M E; Verlander, Jill W; Baylis, Chris

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by plasma volume expansion due to Na(+) retention, driven by aldosterone. The aldosterone-responsive epithelial Na(+) channel is activated in the kidney in pregnancy. In the present study, we investigated the aldosterone-responsive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in mid- and late pregnant rats compared with virgin rats. We determined the abundance of total NCC, phosphorylated NCC (pNCC; pT53, pS71 and pS89), phosphorylated STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (pSPAK; pS373), and phosphorylated oxidative stress-related kinase (pOSR1; pS325) in the kidney cortex. We also measured mRNA expression of NCC and members of the SPAK/NCC regulatory kinase network, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1, total with no lysine kinase (WNK)1, WNK3, and WNK4. Additionally, we performed immunohistochemistry for NCC kidneys from virgin and pregnant rats. Total NCC, pNCC, and pSPAK/OSR1 abundance were unchanged in midpregnant versus virgin rats. In late pregnant versus virgin rats, total NCC and pNCC were decreased; however, pSPAK/OSR1 was unchanged. We detected no differences in mRNA expression of NCC, SGK1, total WNK1, WNK3, and WNK4. By immunohistochemistry, NCC was mainly localized to the apical region in virgin rats, and density in the apical region was reduced in late pregnancy. Therefore, despite high circulating aldosterone levels in pregnancy, the aldosterone-responsive transporter NCC is not increased in total or activated (phosphorylated) abundance or in apical localization in midpregnant rats, and all are reduced in late pregnancy. This contrasts to the mineralocorticoid-mediated activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel, which we have previously reported. Why and how NCC escapes aldosterone activation in pregnancy is not clear but may relate to regional differences in aldosterone sensitivity the increased K(+) intake or other undefined mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Progesterone and gravidity differentially regulate expression of extracellular matrix components in the pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Tsampalieros, Anne; Langille, B Lowell; Lye, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    Myometrial growth and remodeling during pregnancy depends on increased synthesis of interstitial matrix proteins. We hypothesize that the presence of mechanical tension in a specific hormonal environment regulates the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the uterus. Myometrial tissue was collected from pregnant rats on Gestational Days 0, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23 (labor), and 1 day postpartum and ECM expression was analyzed by Northern blotting. Expression of fibronectin, laminin beta2, and collagen IV mRNA was low during early gestation but increased dramatically on Day 23 during labor. Expression of fibrillar collagens (type I and III) peaked Day 19 and decreased near term. In contrast, elastin mRNA remained elevated from midgestation onward. Injection of progesterone (P4) on Days 20-23 (to maintain elevated plasma P4 levels) delayed the onset of labor, caused dramatic reductions in the levels of fibronectin and laminin mRNA, and prevented the fall of collagen III mRNA levels on Day 23. Treatment of pregnant rats with the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 on Day 19 induced preterm labor on Day 20 and a premature increase in mRNA levels of collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin. Analysis of the uterine tissue from unilaterally pregnant rats revealed that most of the changes in ECM gene expression occurred specifically in the gravid horn. Our results show a decrease in expression of fibrillar collagens and a coordinated temporal increase in expression of components of the basement membrane near term associated with decreased P4 and increased mechanical tension. These ECM changes contribute to myometrial growth and remodeling during late pregnancy and the preparation for the synchronized contractions of labor.

  16. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed on gestational days (GDs 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr, and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1 in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females.

  17. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Li, Chong; Zhang, Jiacai; Xiao, Zhuohui; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1) in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females. PMID:28067781

  18. Ameliorating effect of vitamin C and selenium against nicotine induced oxidative stress and changes of p53 expression in pregnant albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadiga A. Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of daily intake of vitamin C or selenium against deleterious effects of nicotine toxicity on pregnant albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty albino pregnant rats were equally distributed into four groups. Group A was considered as control. Group B was administered with nicotine dosed at 1 mg/kg body weight (bwt daily for 7 weeks (wks from 1st day of gestation until the postnatal 4 wks. Group C was treated with nicotine and vitamin C dosed at 1 mg/kg bwt orally for 7 wks, group D was treated with nicotine and sodium selenite dosed at 1 ug/100 g bwt concurrently for 7 wks. The levels of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, protein carbonyl (PC and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, were estimated in homogenates of the lung, kidney and liver. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin and eosin as well as immunohistochemical studies using p53 antibody were also done. Results: Nicotine significantly elevated the levels of TBARS and PC as compared to control rats. Groups C and D showed decrease in these levels significantly. CAT and SOD activities of group B were decreased significantly. Significant elevation of CAT and SOD activities was detected in both groups C and D. Vitamin C elevated the antioxidant enzymes activities to normal levels, however selenium administration improved these levels but still lower than those of group A. Expression of p53 was decreased in group B as compared to group A. Vitamin C completely reversed the expression of p53 as group A. However, group D did not showed any significant changes in expressions as compared to group B. Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin C intake was useful than selenium in prevention against nicotine-induced oxidative stress including p53 expression in the lung, kidney and liver of pregnant rats. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 321-331

  19. /sup 1/H-NMR of the uterine muscle in pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Eiichi

    1987-09-01

    By using JEOL FX-90Q FT-NMR (observation frequency = 90 MHz) and Bruker pulse NMR minispec pc 20 (observation frequency = 20 MHz), water proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/) and water proton spin-spin relaxation time (T/sub 2/) were measured in pregnant rat uterine muscle and the water content of the subjects were measured, and obtained the following results. 1) The T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ value showed the most increased from 4th in pregnancy to 7th. 2) The changes of the relaxation time in pregnancy were observed much greater for T/sub 2/ than for T/sub 1/. 3) The changes in T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ were more marked at an observation frequency of 20 MHz than at 90 MHz. 4) The water content of pregnant uterine muscle correlated with their T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/. 5) There was correlation between observation frequency of 20 MHz and 90 MHz for T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ value of the pregnant uterine muscle.

  20. Stimulation of fetal hypothalamus induces uterine contractions in pregnant rats at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Hisashi; Fujioka, Takashi; Endo, Hideki; Inazuka, Yukiko; Furukawa, Susumu; Nakamura, Shoji

    2008-10-01

    The fetal brain is thought to have a role in the onset and progression of labor. Evidence also exists for fetal oxytocin release just before and during parturition. The present study examined whether activation of the fetal brain could induce uterine myometrial contractions through oxytocin receptors in the dam. Under urethane anesthesia, electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus of fetal rats that were still connected with the dams by an intact umbilical cord induced uterine contractions in term pregnant rats. Intraperitoneal injections of synthetic oxytocin in fetuses induced uterine contractions in the dams similar to those induced by electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. Maternal intravenous injections of an oxytocin antagonist immediately attenuated uterine contractions induced by fetal oxytocin injections and electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. These findings suggest the possibility that oxytocin released from the fetal hypothalamus is involved in parturition.

  1. Use of intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in four Kenyan districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, H L; Noor, A M; Ochola, S A; Snow, R W

    2004-02-01

    The roll back malaria (RBM) movement promotes the use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) and intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT) of malaria infection as preventive measures against the adverse effects of malaria among pregnant women in Africa. To determine the use of these preventive measures we undertook a community-based survey of recently pregnant women randomly selected from communities in four districts of Kenya in December 2001. Of the 1814 women surveyed, only 5% had slept under an ITN. More than half of the 13% of women using a bednet (treated or untreated) had bought their nets from shops or markets. Women from rural areas used bednets less than urban women (11% vs. 27%; P commodity supply and service costs to clients will be the greatest impediments to reaching RBM targets.

  2. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong N. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats.Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND 1, 7, 14 and 21. Total bile acids were determined by the enzymatic method, total RNA was isolated and subjected to real time RT-PCR analysis. Liver protein was extracted for western-blot analysis.Results. Under physiological conditions hepatic bile acids were not elevated during pregnancy but increased during lactation in rats. Bile acid synthesis rate-limiting enzyme Cyp7a1 was unchanged on gestational days, but increased on PND14 and 21 at mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1 and Cyp7b1 was also higher during lactation. The mRNA levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP and protein levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR were increased during pregnancy and lactation. Bile acid transporters Ntcp, Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4 were lower at gestation, but increased during lactation. Hepatic Oatp transporters were decreased during pregnancy and lactation.Conclusion. Hepatic bile acid homeostasis is maintained during normal pregnancy in rats, probably through the FXR-SHP regulation. The expression of bile acid synthesis genes and liver bile acid accumulation were increased during lactation, together with increased expression of bile acid efflux transporter Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4.

  3. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  4. The effects of vitamin D3 on lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissue of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Eon; An, Sung-Min; Lee, Jae Ho; Kwon, Hyeog Soong; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Seon Jong; Kim, Joo Man; Hwang, Dae Youn; Jung, Young-Jin; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung Chul; An, Beum-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a worldwide individual and public health issue, and contributes to the development of numerous chronic diseases. In particular, maternal obesity has harmful effects on both the mother and child during and after pregnancy. The digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon and estrogen. These hormonal factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy due to the specialized hormonal environment during this period. In the present study, we examined the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active hormonal form of nutritional vitamin D3, on lipid metabolism in pregnant rats. The body weight of rats treated with VD3 was significantly reduced compared to that of the rats in the control group. In addition, histological analysis demonstrated that the amount of fat stored in adipocytes was reduced by treatment with VD3. To determine the role of VD3 in lipid metabolism, the expression levels of lipid metabolism‑associated genes were measured in the rat adipose tissue and liver. VD3 negatively regulated the expression of various lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), in both the adipose tissue and liver. However, the regulators of lipogenic enzymes such as, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) were differentially regulated by VD3 in a tissue‑specific manner. On the whole, these findings suggest that VD3 regulates lipid metabolism and deposition in the liver and adipose tissue, and thereby reduces fat in pregnant animals, as well as body weight. Our results suggest that the alteration of lipogenesis through the administration of VD3 may help to reduce excessive weight gain during pregnancy and prevent obesity‑related pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes

  5. Effects of low doses of alcohol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol's effects in pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L.; Subramanian, M.G. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with 50 mg/kg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or with THC plus alcohol to determine if a low dose of alcohol would significantly increase blood levels of THC. On the basis of this study, a second study was conducted in which pregnant rats were intubated with THC plus alcohol from gestation day six to parturition. THC reduced birth weights but did not significantly affect litter size or passive avoidance learning. Alcohol did not have a significant effect on offspring birth weight nor did it interact with THC to affect offspring.

  6. Effect of a leucine-supplemented diet on body composition changes in pregnant rats bearing Walker 256 tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Ventrucci G.; Mello M.A.R; Gomes-Marcondes M.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer patients present high mobilization of host protein, with a decrease in lean body mass and body fat depletion occurring in parallel to neoplastic growth. Since leucine is one of the principal amino acids used by skeletal muscle for energy, we investigated the changes in body composition of pregnant tumor-bearing rats after a leucine-supplemented diet. Sixty pregnant Wistar rats divided into six groups were fed a normal protein diet (18%, N) or a leucine-supplemented diet (3% L-leucine, ...

  7. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, retinoyl {beta}-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates.

  8. Drotaverine interacts with the L-type Ca(2+) channel in pregnant rat uterine membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tömösközi, Zsuzsanna; Finance, Olivier; Arányi, Péter

    2002-08-02

    The effect of the isoquinoline derivative, drotaverine on the specific binding of [(3)H]nitrendipine and [(3)H]diltiazem to pregnant rat uterine membranes was examined. Drotaverine inhibited the specific [(3)H]nitrendipine and [(3)H]diltiazem bindings with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 2.6 microM, respectively. Saturation studies showed that diltiazem caused a significant increase in the maximum binding density without changing the K(D) of [(3)H]nitrendipine while drotaverine increased both the K(D) and the B(max) of [3H]nitrendipine. The dissociation kinetics of both [3H]nitrendipine and [(3)H]diltiazem were accelerated by drotaverine. These results suggest that drotaverine has a negative allosteric interaction with the binding sites for 1,4-dihydropyridines and 1,5-benzothiazepines on the L-type Ca(2+) channel in pregnant rat uterine membranes, which may have implications as to the potential usefulness of this drug in aiding child delivery.

  9. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05. Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.

  10. Reactive oxygen species in pregnant rats: effects of exercise and thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, R A L; Christofani, J S; D'Almeida, V; Russo, A K; Piçarro, I C

    2003-05-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of interaction between physical training or exercise only during pregnancy and thermal stress on oxidative stress, and antioxidant mechanism sedentary pregnant rats (PS), exercised pregnant rats only during pregnancy (PE) and trained rats submitted to also exercise during pregnancy (PT) were compared (N=63). Exercise sessions consisted of swimming at 80% of maximal work load supported into water at 28 degrees C (hypothermia, PS 28, PE28, PT28) or 35 degrees C (thermal neutrality, PS35, PE35, PT35) or 39 degrees C (hyperthermia, PS39, PE39, PT39), for 30 min. The initial body weight in all groups of rats was from 177 to 207 g. On the 20th day of pregnancy, 24 h after the last immersion or swimming session venous blood was collected to determine oxidative stress. Plasma concentrations of means malondialdehyde (MDA) values measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); total glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E were determined. The oxidative stress index was calculated from the ratio TBARS/GSH and TBARS/Vitamin E. TBARS did not change on the group PE at different temperatures of water; TBARS were higher for PS28 than PS35 and PS39; PT35 had higher values than PT28 and PT39. For GSH, PS39 was lower than PS35; PE28 was higher than PE35 and PE39 and PT35 were lower than PT28 and PT39. Plasma concentration of vitamin E did not present any difference for sedentary rats at different water temperatures, but for PE28, the values were lower than for PE35 and PE39, whereas PT39 was lower than PT35 and PT28. In relation to TBARS/GSH, it was verified an increase in oxidative stress for PS28 (in relation to PS35 and PS39), PE35, and PT35 (in relation to PE28 and PE39 or PT28 and PT39); regarding the ratio TBARS/vitamin E, the highest values were obtained at 35 degrees C for PS and PT groups and at 39 for PE group. These results have shown the great complexity of the interaction between physical training, thermal stress and pregnancy

  11. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... male reproductive functions. For instance ... had been observed to protect human epididymis and ... Animal model ... to the development of resistance against it induced by ... and differentiation in rats and other animal species.

  12. Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse birth outcomes in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Middleton, Philippa; Esposito, Marco; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-12

    Periodontal disease has been linked with a number of conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes and adverse pregnancy outcomes, all likely through systemic inflammatory pathways. It is common in women of reproductive age and gum conditions tend to worsen during pregnancy. Some evidence from observational studies suggests that periodontal intervention may reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is need for a comprehensive Cochrane review of randomised trials to assess the effect of periodontal treatment on perinatal and maternal health. To assess the effects of treating periodontal disease in pregnant women in order to prevent or reduce perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 6 October 2016), Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (to 7 October 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 9) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 6 October 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 6 October 2016), and LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 6 October 2016). ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials on 6 October 2016. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of periodontal treatment in preventing or reducing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We excluded studies where obstetric outcomes were not reported. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and extracted data using a prepiloted data extraction form. Missing data were obtained by contacting authors and risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool. Where appropriate

  13. Suppression by developing ovarian follicles of the low-dose endotoxin-induced glomerular inflammatory reaction in the pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA; Valkhof, N; Faas, MM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the current study the role of developing ovarian follicles in the control of the endotoxin-induced pregnancy-specific inflammatory reaction was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Follicular development was induced in pregnant rats (n = 20) by means of daily intraperitoneal injections of follicle

  14. Methylmercury chloride induces learning deficits in prenatally treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muesch, H.R.; Bornhausen, M.; Kriegel, H.; Greim, H.

    1978-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MMC) was given to pregnant rats on the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day after conception in doses of 0.05 and 2.0 mg/kg/day. The female offspring of these animals were tested 90 days after birth for learning ability using operant conditioning procedures. The rats were kept at 90% of their normal body weight and trained in a lever-box to press a bar in order to obtain a food pellet. Significant differences in the acquisition speed became apparent when the ratio of bar presses to reward was increased in a classical contingency of differential reinforcement of high rates even at MMC-doses of 4 x 0.05 mg/kg. These differences were not found in the general motility level nor in motor coordination.

  15. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-α and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1α were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1α in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals.

  16. Moderate Exercise Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Associated Maternal and Fetal Morbidities in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Kasawara

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR and coagulopathies are often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation. Moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase utero-placental blood flow and to enhance fetal nutrition as well as fetal and placental growth. Furthermore, exercise is known to reduce inflammation. To evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on inflammation associated with the development of maternal coagulopathies and FGR, Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise regime before and during pregnancy. To model inflammation-induced FGR, pregnant rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on gestational days (GD 13.5-16.5 and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Control rats were injected with saline. Maternal hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Moderate-intensity exercise prevented LPS-mediated increases in white blood cell counts measured on GD 17.5 and improved maternal hemostasis profiles. Importantly, our data reveal that exercise prevented LPS-induced FGR. Moderate-intensity exercise initiated before and maintained during pregnancy may decrease the severity of maternal and perinatal complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation.

  17. Action of phyllanthus niruri on the hormones of pregnant female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, G.M.L; Bezerra, A.L; Carvalho, E.F.N.B; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia]. E-mail: mariajansem@hotmail.com; Galdino, M.F.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: egmoura@uerj.br

    2002-07-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is used for treatment of renal diseases, among others. This work aims to evaluate the regulation of the thyroid and estrogenic hormones, under the influence of the extract of Phyllanthus niruri in pregnant female rats. Wistar rats, after copulation and verification of pregnancy, were divided into groups of 10 rats each and were administered 0,05-2,5 mg/mL of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri, intraperitoneally. All the animals after 14 days of treatment, were sacrificed under ether anesthesia, blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture for attainment of serum, concentrations of T3, T4, 17 {beta}-estradiol, progesterone hormones were determined and macroscopical visualization of the embryos was evaluated. Those hormones serum levels were evaluated by RIA. The extract altered the serum concentration of T{sub 4} , and {beta}-1,7 estradiol, which presented an increase of 333,3 % and more than 272,8%,respectively,when related to group. It is verified that progesterone is reduced of 82,9%,in related to control group. Probably extract of Phyllanthus niruri provokes alterations on the somatic-gonadal development, that modifies the corpus luteum function on synthesis and secretion of estrogenic hormones, a reduction in the number of embryos and morpho physiological dysfunctions are caused, which leads to miscarriage. Chemical study continues to determinate the structure of the active principles isolated. (author)

  18. Hypertension produced by placental ischemia in pregnant rats is associated with increased soluble endoglin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Sara A B; Arany, Marietta; Granger, Joey P

    2009-02-01

    Recent clinical studies indicate that an excess of angiostatic factors, such as soluble endoglin (sEng), is related to the occurrence of preeclampsia. Although recent clinical studies report that sEng is increased in preeclamptic women, the mechanisms underlying its overexpression remain unclear. Evidence suggests that hypoxia and induction of heme oxygenase-1 have opposing effects on sEng expression, the former stimulatory and the latter inhibitory. Hence, we hypothesized that placental ischemia because of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) in the pregnant rat would increase sEng expression and decrease heme oxygenase-1. Mean arterial pressure was obtained via arterial catheter, and serum and placental proteins were measured by Western blot. Mean arterial pressure was increased (132+/-3 mm Hg versus 102+/-2 mm Hg; Papu] versus 0.05+/-0.01 apu; Papu versus 1.45+/-0.42 apu; Papu versus 0.68+/-0.09 apu; Papu versus 2.5+/-0.1 apu; P<0.05) expression decreased in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant dams. The present findings support our hypothesis that placental ischemia because of RUPP increases the expression of sEng and shifts the balance of angiogenic factors in the maternal circulation toward an angiostatic state. The present study provides further evidence that placental ischemia is a strong in vivo stimulus of angiostatic factors during pregnancy.

  19. Effect of physical training on metabolic responses of pregnant rats submitted to swimming under thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alexis Lazo-Osorio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pre-pregnancy physical training on metabolic responses and its effects on offspring.
    • METHODS: Three groups of rats (n = 7 in each group: sedentary pregnant rats (PS, exercised during  regnancy (PE and pregnant rats trained before and during pregnancy (PT were compared. They were separated  nto three subgroups regarding water temperature: 28°C, 35°C or 39°C. Plasma triglycerides and glucose levels,  eight gain during pregnancy and rectal temperature pre and post exercise (swim, as well as the offspring size and weight were analysed.
    • RESULTS: Rectal temperature post exercise was lower than pre exercise at 28°C and 35°C, and higher at 39°C.  eight gain was lower at 39°C for the PT group and at 35°C for the PT and PE groups compared to the PS group. Plasma glucose, at 28°C and 39°C for PS and PE groups, was higher than those obtained at 35°C, while triglycerides  ere lower. For trained rats, plasma glucose and triglycerides were similar at all water temperatures.  rained rats presented lower triglyceride values at 35°C, and higher triglyceride values at 39°C compared to PS  roup. Glucose presented inverse results. None of the groups presented fetal reabsorption. However, in the PS group, the offspring presented lower weight gain at 28

    • T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shinya Sehata

      2008-11-01

      Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-03-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct.

  2. Embryo development alteration in rats treated with lapachol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maganha

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Lapachol, a naphthoquinone extracted from plants of the genus Tabebuia (family Bignoneaceae, showed multiple therapeutic activities. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with Lapachol from the 1st to the 4th (pre-implantation period and from 5th to 7th (implantation period post insemination day (PID. Mothers were sacrificed on the 5th or on the15th PID. Number of corpora lutea, preimplantation embryo, blastocysts, live and dead fetuses and resorptions were counted. There were no signs of maternal toxicity. The number and the morphology of embryos, during oviduct development (pre-implantation period, did not seem to be affected by this drug, but during the implantation period, lapachol was toxic causing the death of embryos and intrauterine growth retardation.O Lapachol é uma naftoquinona, extraída de plantas do gênero Tabebuia (família Bignoneaceae, que apresenta múltiplas atividades terapêuticas. Estudos prévios sobre o efeito do lapachol no início do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratas são controversos. No presente trabalho ratas Wistar prenhes foram tratadas com lapachol do 1º ao 4º dias pós-inseminação (período de pré-implantação e do 5º ao 7º dias (período de implantação do blastocisto. As mães foram sacrificadas no 5º o e no 15º dia pós-inseminação. Contaram-se corpos lúteos, embriões em fase de pré-implantação, blastocistos, fetos vivos e mortos e reabsorções.Fetos e placentas foram pesados. Não ocorreram indícios de toxicidade materna.O número e a morfologia dos embriões durante o desenvolvimento tubário não foi afetado pela droga, mas durante o período de implantação o lapachol foi tóxico, causando morte de embriões e retardo de crescimento intra-uterino.

  3. Estradiol inhibits Ca2+ and K+ channels in smooth muscle cells from pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, K; Inoue, Y; Soeda, H

    1999-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actions of 17beta-estradiol on the electrical activity of pregnant rat myometrium. The longitudinal layer of the myometrium was dissected from pregnant rats (17 to 19 days of gestation), and single cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion. Calcium currents and potassium currents were recorded by the whole-cell voltage-clamp method, and the single calcium-dependent potassium current was recorded by the outside-out patch-clamp method. The effects of 17beta-estradiol on these currents were investigated. When a myometrial cell was held at -50 mV, depolarization to a potential more positive than -30 mV produced an inward current followed by a slowly developing outward current. Application of tetraethylammonium inhibited the outward current while the inward current was completely abolished in a calcium-free solution. Estradiol at high concentrations (> 3 microM) inhibited both inward and outward currents in a voltage-dependent manner. Removal of estradiol restored the amplitude of the outward but not of the inward current. Estradiol (30 microM) also inhibited the activity of single calcium-dependent potassium channels without changing single channel conductance. In conclusion, estradiol at high concentrations inhibited: (1) voltage-dependent calcium, (2) calcium-dependent potassium and (3) voltage-dependent potassium currents. These actions of estradiol would prevent action potential generation and after-hyperpolarizations. Suppression of the after-hyperpolarization might further prevent spike generation due to slowing of the calcium channel's recovery from the inactivated state.

  4. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which was not excessive, so the process of apoptosis did not occur excessively, especially in PE models. In this case, Hsp70 served as as an anti-apoptotic and it’s is suggested to further research to observe the relationship of Hsp70 and apoptotic index.

  5. Access and use of interventions to prevent and treat malaria among pregnant women in Kenya and Mali: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I; Hamel, Mary J; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15-49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women they serve.

  6. Behavioral and Physiological Analyses of Parturition In Pregnant Rats: Insights Derived from Intrauterine Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, J.; Mallery, E.; Lynch, A.; Mills, N.; Baer, L.; Wade, C.; Ronca, A.; Dalton, Donnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During labor and birth, fetuses are exposed to considerable physical stimulation associated with labor contractions and expulsion from the womb These forces are important for the neonates' adaptation to tile extrauterine environment. To further our understanding of the relationship between labor and postpartum outcome, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats that enables us to make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small (1.25 x 4 cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day (G) 19 of the rats' 22/23 day pregnancy, each dam was anesthetized and a balloon/sensor unit surgically implanted within the uterus following removal of two fetuses. Comparisons were made between sensor-implanted dams (IMPL) and a control conditions: 1) LAP-R, laparotomy with two fetuses removed or 2) LAP-NR, laparotomy with no fetuses removed. IUP signals were sampled at 10s intervals from the IMPL dams during labor and birth. Dams in all three conditions were videorecorded enabling us to analyze the effect of the implant on behavioral expressions of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured from one hour prior to the first pup birth until the birth of the third pup were unaffected by the sensor implant. Intrauterine telemetry of freely-moving dams offers significant advantages over conventional hardwired IUP measurement techniques. These findings establish and validate intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying pressures associated with parturition.

  7. Access and use of interventions to prevent and treat malaria among pregnant women in Kenya and Mali: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hill

    Full Text Available Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage.Focus group discussions (FGDs were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15-49 years, pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data.Women and men's perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy.Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable

  8. Toxicokinetic assessment of methylphenidate (Ritalin) enantiomers in pregnant rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray; Tse, Francis L S

    2004-06-01

    Ritalin or methylphenidate (MPH) is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. The present report describes the determination of plasma concentrations of D-threo- and L-threo-enantiomers of MPH in toxicokinetic (TK) studies in pregnant Wistar Hannover rats and New Zealand white rabbits following repeated daily oral dosing of D,L-MPH (racemate). A previously reported chiral liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.09 ng/mL was utilized. Oral (gavage) doses of 7, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day of racemic MPH were selected for the rat study. An over-proportional increase in exposure was observed with increasing doses of MPH racemate, the effect being more profound with the D- than the L-enantiomer. In contrast, Cmax values of both enantiomers were approximately proportional to the dose. Oral (gavage) doses of 20, 60 and 200 mg/kg were selected for the rabbit study. In general, for the D-isomer, an over-proportional increase in exposure was observed with increasing doses of MPH racemate. Conversely, for the L-isomer, a slight under-proportionality was detected in exposure with increasing doses of D,L-MPH. For mean Cmax, while L-isomer exhibited dose proportionality with increasing doses of MPH racemate, the D-isomer appeared to be over-proportional. Herein, the experimental design and observed TK parameters in each study are presented.

  9. Raising the Pregnant Rate of Rats and Comparison of Methods for Inspecting Pregnant Rats%两种大鼠受孕方法及两种判断受孕方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕晓洁; 李兴; 杨国珍; 潘卫

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the method for increasing pregnant rate of rats, and to explore the methods for judging pregnant rats. Methods; Twenty-four female rats were randomly divided into 2 groups; screening sexual cycle for copulating group (screening group) and prolonging time for copulating group ( prolonging time group). Rats in screening group copulated with male rats for two days in proestrus stage and their sexual cycle was detected with vaginal smear. Rats in prolonging time group copulated with male rats for 10 days directly. Whether female rats were pregnant was judged by 2 methods; vaginal sperm examination method and vaginal sperm combined with cuticular epithelium examination method. Delivery served as judging pregnancy standards. Pregnant rates of rats in screening group and in prolonging time group in the 1 st to 5th days and in the 6th to 10th days were observed. Two judgmental methods were compared. Results: There was significant difference in rat pregnant rates(F 0. 05). The false negative rates of vaginal sperm examination method and vaginal sperm combined with cuticular epithelium examination group were 0 and 11. 76% , and the false positive rates of them were 14. 29% and 0. Conclusions; Screening sexual cycle with vaginal smear method in improving pregnant rate is better than prolonging time method. Vaginal smear combined with screening sexual cycle helps to judging pregnant rats accurately.%目的:探讨提高实验大鼠受孕率的方法及准确判断大鼠受孕的检测方法.方法:24只SD雌鼠随机分为性周期筛选合笼组(筛选组)和延长时间合笼组(延长时间组),筛选组雌鼠根据阴道涂片于发情前期与雄鼠合笼2d,延长时间组雌鼠直接与雄鼠合笼10 d,采用阴道精子检查法和阴道精子合并角化上皮检查法判断合笼后雌鼠是否受孕,以分娩作为受孕成功的标准,观察两组受孕率,并比较两种判断受孕的方法.结果:筛选组受孕率(91.67

  10. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarim Neto, Arthur; Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Biophysics and Biometry

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. Methods: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium) group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control) group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1 ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25 {mu} Ci. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI / g) was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland). Results: On the ninth day after the administration of the second chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50 +- 22.09 g) compared (p<0.5) to pre-treatment weight (353.66 {+-} 22.8). The % ATI/g in the samples of rats treated with samarium-153-EDTMP had a significant reduction in the right femur, left femur, kidney, liver and lungs of animals treated with docetaxel, compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and samarium-153-EDTMP was associated with a lower response rate in the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical to targeted tissues. Further investigation into the impact of docetaxel on biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP would complement the findings of this study. (author)

  11. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  12. Cadmium causes delayed effects on renal function in the offspring of cadmium-contaminated pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Barbier, O; Rubera, I; Tauc, M; Borderie, A; Namorado, M C; Martin, D; Sierra, G; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P; Cougnon, M

    2007-11-01

    In the adult rat, chronic cadmium intoxication induces nephropathy with Fanconi-like features. This result raises the question of whether intoxication of pregnant rats has any deleterious effects on renal function in their offspring. To test this hypothesis, we measured the renal function of 2- to 60-day-old postnatal offspring from female rats administered cadmium chloride by the oral route (0.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) throughout their entire gestation. Investigations of rat offspring from contaminated pregnant rats showed the presence of cadmium in the kidney at gestational day 20. After birth, the cadmium kidney concentration increased from postnatal day 2 to day 60 (PND2 to PND60), presumably because of 1) milk contamination and 2) neonatal liver cadmium content release. Although the renal parameters (glomerular filtration, U/P inulin, and urinary excretion rate) were not significantly affected until PND45, renal failure appeared at PND60, as demonstrated by a dramatic decrease of the glomerular filtration rate associated with increased excretion of the main ions. In parallel, an immunofluorescence study of tight-junction protein expression of PND60 offspring from contaminated rats showed a disorganization of the tight-junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-5, specifically expressed in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively. In contrast, expression of a distal claudin protein, claudin-3, was not affected. In conclusion, in utero exposure of cadmium leads to toxic renal effects in adult offspring. These results suggest that contamination of pregnant rats is a serious and critical hazard for renal function of their offspring.

  13. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    1997-01-01

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant r

  14. Artesunate and artelinic acid: association of embryotoxicity, reticulocytopenia, and delayed stimulation of hematopoiesis in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L; Brannen, Kimberly C; Sanders, James E; Hoberman, Alan M

    2011-02-01

    The artemisinin antimalarials cause embryo death and malformations in animals by killing embryonic erythroblasts. Groups of pregnant rats (N = 4) were administered 35 and 48 µmol/kg artesunate and 17.2, 28.7, 48, 96, and 191 µmol/kg artelinic acid as a single oral dose on gestational day (GD) 12. Litters were examined on GD21. The ED(50) for embryo death with artelinic acid (23.4 µmol/kg) was just slightly lower than that for decreased reticulocyte count at 24 hr postdose (33.5 µmol/kg) and both had similarly steep dose responses (maximal effects of total litter loss and ∼60% decreases in reticulocyte count at 48 µmol/kg). Results with artesunate were similar. The correlation coefficient between embryo death and decreased reticulocyte count was 0.82 (pembryotoxicity and reticulocytopenia is suggestive of a common mechanism-artemisinin-induced mitochondrial damage leading to cell death. At 9 days postdose, treatment with artesunate and artelinic acid also caused increases in counts of reticulocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and monocytes (up to 3.7 ×, 1.7 ×, 4.7 ×, and 1.7 × control, respectively). This stimulation of hematopoiesis may have been mediated by the direct oxidative conversion of artesunate or artelinic acid to the artemisininyl hydroperoxide within the bone marrow cells or by an indirect increase in reactive oxygen species. The high correlation between embryotoxicity and reticulocytopenia further supports the assertion that therapeutic dosage regimens of artemisinins that cause decreases in reticulocyte count in pregnant women during the putative critical period (approximately postconception wk 3 to 9) are at risk of also causing adverse effects on the embryo.

  15. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  16. A Swedish Population-based Study of Adverse Birth Outcomes among Pregnant Women Treated with Buprenorphine or Methadone: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Keele E.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Joyce, Andrew R.; Sasinowski, Maciek; Murrelle, E. Lenn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Untreated opioid dependence in pregnant women is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Buprenorphine and methadone are options for opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe adverse birth outcomes observed with buprenorphine or methadone treatment compared to the general population in Sweden. METHODS Pregnant women and their corresponding births during 2005–2011 were identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Data on stillbirth, neonatal/infant death, mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, Apgar score, growth outcomes, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and congenital malformations were examined. Frequencies were compared using two-sided Fisher’s exact tests. Unadjusted estimates of birth outcomes for women treated with buprenorphine or methadone were compared to the registered general population. RESULTS A total of 746,257 pregnancies among 538,178 unique women resulted in 746,485 live births. Among the 194 women treated with buprenorphine (N = 176) or methadone (N = 52), no stillbirths or neonatal/infant deaths occurred. Neonatal abstinence syndrome developed in 23.3% and 38.5% of infants born to mothers treated with buprenorphine and methadone, respectively. The frequency of the selected adverse birth outcomes assessed in women treated with buprenorphine as compared to the general population was not significantly different. However, a significantly higher frequency of preterm birth and congenital malformations was observed in women treated with methadone as compared to the general population. Compared with the general population, methadone-treated women were significantly older than buprenorphine-treated women, and both treatment groups began prenatal care later, were more likely to smoke cigarettes, and did not cohabitate with the baby’s father. CONCLUSIONS An increased frequency of the selected adverse birth outcomes was not observed with buprenorphine treatment

  17. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

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    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  18. Appearance of circulating and tissue /sup 14/C-lipids after oral /sup 14/C-tripalmitate administration in the late pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiles, J.; Herrera, E.

    1989-02-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether and/or how dietary lipids participate in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late gestation in the rat. After oral administration of glycerol-tri(1-14C)-palmitate, total radioactivity in plasma increased more rapidly in 20-day pregnant rats than in either 19-day pregnant rats or virgin controls. At the peak of plasma radioactivity, four hours after the tracer was administered, most of the plasma label corresponded to 14C-lipids in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (d less than 1.006), and when expressed per micromol of triglyceride, values were higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. The difference was less after 24 hours, although at this time the level of 14C-lipids in d less than 1.006 lipoproteins was still higher in 20-day pregnant rats than in virgins. Tissue 14C-lipids, as expressed per gram of fresh weight, were similar in pregnant and virgin rats, but the values in mammary glands were much higher in the former group. Estimated recovery of administered radioactivity four hours after tracer in total white adipose tissue, mammary glands, and plasma lipids was higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. No difference was found between 20-day pregnant and virgin rats either in the label retained in the gastrointestinal tract or in that exhaled as 14C-CO2 during the first four hours following oral administration of 14C-tripalmitate. These findings plus the known maternal hyperphagia, indicate that in the rat at late pregnancy triglyceride intestinal absorption is unchanged or even enhanced and that dietary lipids actively contribute to both maternal hypertriglyceridemia and lipid uptake by the mammary gland.

  19. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  20. Functional expression of purinergic P2X7 receptors in pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Kaoru; Urabe, Satoshi; Kodama, Miho; Kudo, Yoshiki

    2010-04-01

    ATP has been reported to enhance the membrane conductance of myometrial cells and uterine contractility. Purinergic P2 receptor expression has been reported in the myometrium, using molecular biology, but the functional identity of the receptor subtype has not been determined. In this study, ATP-induced currents were recorded and characterized in single myometrial cells from pregnant rats using whole cell patch clamping. Extracellular ATP was applied in the range of 10 muM-1 mM and induced currents with an EC(50) of 74 muM, with no desensitization, time dependency, or voltage dependency. The currents induced carried multiple monovalent cations, with conductances ranked as K(+) > Cs(+) > Li(+) > Na(+). They were activated by P2X receptor agonists, with their effectiveness ranked as 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP > ATP > alphabeta-methylene-ATP > 2-methylthio ATP > or = UTP > or = GTP > ADP. These currents were blocked by the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist 3-[5-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1 H-tetrazol-1-yl]methyl pyridine (A-438079). We therefore concluded that ATP-induced currents in rat myometrial cells crossed cell membranes via P2X7 receptors. We further showed that the ATP-induced currents were blocked by extracellular Mg(2+) (IC(50) = 0.26 mM). Clinically, administering extracellular Mg(2+) is known to inhibit uterine contraction. It therefore seems likely that uterine contraction may be induced by raised extracellular ATP and suppressed via Mg(2+) inhibiting P2X7 receptors. Further research is needed into the P2X7 receptor as a therapeutic target in abnormal uterine contraction, as a possible treatment for premature labor.

  1. Fate of orally administered radioactive fatty acids in the late-pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Luna, Pilar; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; López-Soldado, Iliana; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the biodisponibility of placental transfer of fatty acids, rats pregnant for 20 days were given tracer amounts of [(14)C]palmitic (PA), oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), α-linolenic (LNA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) orally and euthanized at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 8.0 h thereafter. Maternal plasma radioactivity in lipids initially increased only to decline at later times. Most of the label appeared first as triacylglycerols (TAG); later, the proportion in phospholipids (PhL) increased. The percentage of label in placental lipids was also always highest shortly after administration and declined later; again, PhL increased with time. Fetal plasma radioactivity increased with time, with its highest value at 8.0 h after DHA or LNA administration. DHA initially appeared primarily in the nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and PA, OA, LA, and LNA as TAG followed by NEFA; in all cases, there was an increase in PhL at later times. Measurement of fatty acid concentrations allowed calculation of specific (radio)activities, and the ratio (fetal/maternal) of these in the plasmas gave an index of placental transfer activity, which was LNA > LA > DHA = OA > PA. It is proposed that a considerable proportion of most fatty acids transferred through the placenta are released into the fetal circulation in the form of TAG.

  2. The disposition of /sup 14/C-trimethyltin in the pregnant rat and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, J.C.; Paule, M.G.; Slikker, W. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant. For unknown reasons, age at exposure to TMT may dramatically influence the severity of TMT-induced neuropathology. We have demonstrated previously that radiolabel derived from (/sup 14/C)-TMT given to pregnant dams on gestational day (GD) 17 is found in fetal brain and blood. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of radiolabel derived from (14C)-TMT to brain and other tissue in fetuses from dams dosed on either GD 12 or 17 with 7.0 mg/kg TMT chloride. Radioactivity in GD 12 and GD 17 maternal whole blood peaked 1 hour after IP treatment. Whole blood elimination half-lives were 12-15 days. Peak radiolabel concentrations in GD 12 maternal and fetal brain were only 11-30% of those from GD 17 animals, however, peak fetal brain concentrations of radiolabel were not different from their respective maternal brain concentrations. Radiolabel concentrations in liver, kidney, and adrenal of GD 17 dams were higher than those in corresponding GD 12 tissues. Combined urinary and fecal elimination of radiolabel for two weeks after dosing accounted for 31 and 22% of the GD 12 and 17 doses, respectively. It appears that gestational age influences the distribution and elimination of TMT in the rat.

  3. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masakazu; Hattori, Akira; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Ma, Xiuyang; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Sigehiko

    2009-09-01

    We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney. We used recombinant human APA, which has been recently shown to work as an antihypertensive agent in SHRs (n=5). Each drug was administered from gestational day 10 to day 20 and each dose was increased daily up to 10 fold until the end of treatment except for MgSO(4) (n=5 per each group). Blood pressure (BP) was monitored and fetal kidneys and heart were histologically examined. The antihypertensive effects of the drugs were in the following order: hydralazine>aminopeptidase A and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), candesartan>MgSO(4) and methyldopa. Microscopic examination showed that fetal exposure to candesartan is associated with poor proximal tubular differentiation in the kidney and that to MgSO(4) is associated with poor blood vessel formation in the heart, respectively. Our present study showed that APA is one of the candidates for antihypertensive agents in hypertension during pregnancy.

  4. Anticarcinogenic effects of curry leaves in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, F; Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshana Krishna, K R; Viswanathan, K R; Santhanam, K

    2000-01-01

    Curry leaves are one of the spices used in Indian dishes for aroma and preservation. There are no reports on the antioxidant properties of curry leaves. In this study, the antioxidant potential of curry leaves in rats treated with a known chemical carcinogen, dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) was investigated. Food intake was reduced in the rats fed curry leaf-supplemented diet but the body and the organ weights were not affected. Vitamin A content in the liver was significantly increased whereas glutathione (GSH) content was not altered. A 50% reduction was seen in the micronuclei induced by DMH and a 30% reduction in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase when the rats were fed a curry leaf-supplemented diet. These results indicate that curry leaves have high potential as reducer of the toxicity of DMH.

  5. Frankincense improves memory retrieval in rats treated with Lipopolysaccharide

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    Beheshti Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frankincense has been shown to possess anti-inf lammatory activity. In this studythe effect of pretreatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of frankincense on memory retrievalwas assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS treated rats.Methods: Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were distributed into 7 groups of 6 each. One groupreceived LPS (1 mg/kg; i.p pre-test. The control group received saline (1 ml/kg; i.p. 2 groups ofanimals received frankincense (50 mg/kg; P.O or DMSO 5% (1 ml/kg; P.O and 30 minutes laterLPS (1 mg/kg; i.p. Two other groups of animals received frankincense (50 mg/kg; P.O or DMSO5% (1 ml/kg; P.O and 30 minutes later saline (1 ml/kg; i.p. Another group of rats received LPS(1 mg/kg; i.p and 30 minutes later Ibuprofen (100 mg/kg; P.O. In all the experimental groups,memory retrieval was assessed 4 hours following the last injection, using a passive avoidancetask (PAT. Hippocampal TNF-α levels were measured by ELISA as an index of LPS-inducedneuroinf lammation.Results: LPS impaired memory retrieval by decreasing step-through latency (STL, significantly.LPS also increased levels of TNF-α in the hippocampus as compared to the control group.Administration of frankincense (50 mg/kg; P.O before LPS (1 mg/kg; i.p improved memoryretrieval as compared to the control group. Frankincense reduced hippocampal TNF-α level in theLPS treated rats, significantly, compared to the control group.Conclusion: The results indicate that the hydro-alcoholic extract of frankincense has the potentialto improve memory retrieval in LPS treated rats, possibly via an anti-neuroinf lammatory activity.

  6. Norepinephrine-induced diuresis in chronically ethanol-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A. (Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from this laboratory indicated that noradrenergic mechanisms might mediate ethanol diuresis. Experiments described here examined changes in sensitivity of noradrenergic mechanisms in animals chronically treated with ethanol. Norepinephrine hydrochloride (0-12 ug intracerebroventricularly) produced dose-dependent diuresis in control and ethanol treated rats on the first day of treatment. Tolerance to ethanol diuresis was present after 10 day of ethanol treatment. Lack of responsiveness to norepinephrine-induced diuresis was evident only on the 20th day of treatment in both the ethanol and dextrin-maltose groups of rats. These results indicate a temporal dissociation between the tolerance to ethanol-induced and norepinephrine-induced diuresis and suggest that norepinephrine may not play a primary role in the development of tolerance to the diuretic action of ethanol.

  7. Effects of rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's Wort and Thyroxine on maternal and foetal expression of Abcb1 and organ distribution of talinolol in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljé, Karen; Lederer, Kirstin; Oswald, Stefan; Dazert, Eike; Warzok, Rolf; Siegmund, Werner

    2012-08-01

    It is well accepted that ABCB1 plays a critical role in absorption, distribution and elimination of many xenobiotics and drugs. Only little is known about the regulation and function of ABCB1 during pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate maternal, placental and foetal Abcb1 expression and function in pregnant rats after induction with rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's wort (SJW) or thyroxine. Wistar rats were orally treated with rifampicin (250 mg/kg), SJW (1.0 g/kg), thyroxine (9 μg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or 0.5% methylcellulose suspension (control) for 9 days during late pregnancy (each N = 5). Afterwards, organ mRNA expression and protein content of Abcb1a were determined. Tissue concentrations of the ABCB1 probe drug talinolol were measured after repeated administration of the drug (100 mg/kg, 9 days) and after induction with oral rifampicin (250 mg/kg, 9 days, N = 5). Abcb1 expression was substantially lower in foetal than in maternal organs. Abcb1 was significantly induced by SJW in the maternal jejunum and placenta, by dexamethasone in foetal brain and liver and by thyroxine in the placenta and maternal and foetal brain. Rifampicin induced Abcb1 in all maternal and foetal organs. However, organ distribution of talinolol was not influenced by comedication of rifampicin. In conclusion, maternal and foetal Abcb1 organ expression in pregnant rats is inducible by nuclear receptor agonists. Although rifampicin regulates maternal and foetal Abcb1 expression, organ distribution of talinolol remains unchanged most likely caused by the known inhibitory effect of rifampicin on Abcb1 function.

  8. Effects of methyl-deficient diets on methionine and homocysteine metabolism in the pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona A; Holtrop, Grietje; Calder, A Graham; Anderson, Susan E; Lobley, Gerald E; Rees, William D

    2012-06-15

    Although the importance of methyl metabolism in fetal development is well recognized, there is limited information on the dynamics of methionine flow through maternal and fetal tissues and on how this is related to circulating total homocysteine concentrations. Rates of homocysteine remethylation in maternal and fetal tissues on days 11, 19, and 21 of gestation were measured in pregnant rats fed diets with limiting or surplus amounts of folic acid and choline at two levels of methionine and then infused with L-[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)-methyl]methionine. The rate of homocysteine remethylation was highest in maternal liver and declined as gestation progressed. Diets deficient in folic acid and choline reduced the production of methionine from homocysteine in maternal liver only in the animals fed a methionine-limited diet. Throughout gestation, the pancreas exported homocysteine for methylation within other tissues. Little or no methionine cycle activity was detected in the placenta at days 19 and 21 of gestation, but, during this period, fetal tissues, especially the liver, synthesized methionine from homocysteine. Greater enrichment of homocysteine in maternal plasma than placenta, even in animals fed the most-deficient diets, shows that the placenta did not contribute homocysteine to maternal plasma. Methionine synthesis from homocysteine in fetal tissues was maintained or increased when the dams were fed folate- and choline-deficient methionine-restricted diets. This study shows that methyl-deficient diets decrease the remethylation of homocysteine within maternal tissues but that these rates are protected to some extent within fetal tissues.

  9. Rats Born to Mothers Treated with Dexamethasone 15 cH Present Changes in Modulation of Inflammatory Process

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    Leoni V. Bonamin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As little information about the effect of ultra high dilutions of glucocorticoid in reproduction is available in the literature, pregnant female Wistar rats (N=12 were blindly subcutaneously treated during all gestational and lactation period with: dexamethasone 4 mg/kg diluted into dexamethasone 15 cH (mixed; or dexamethasone 4 mg/kg diluted in water; or dexamethasone 15 cH, or vehicle. Parental generation had body weight, food and water consumption monitored. The F1 generation was monitored regarding to newborn development. No birth occurred in both groups treated with dexamethasone 4 mg/kg. After 60 days from birth, 12 male F1 rats were randomly selected from each remaining group and inoculated subcutaneously with 1% carrageenan into the footpad, for evaluation of inflammatory performance. Edema and histopathology of the footpad were evaluated, using specific staining methods, immunohistochemistry and digital histomorphometry. Mothers treated with mixed dexamethasone presented reduced water consumption. F1 rats born to dexamethasone 15 cH treated females presented significant increase in mast cell degranulation, decrease in monocyte percentage, increase in CD18+ PMN cells, and early expression of ED2 protein, in relation to control. The results show that the exposure of parental generation to highly diluted dexamethasone interferes in inflammation modulation in the F1 generation.

  10. Distribution and Biomarker of Carbon-14 Labeled Fullerene C60 ([14C(U)]C60) in Pregnant and Lactating Rats and their Offspring after Maternal Intravenous Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rodney W.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Wingard, Christopher J.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Holland, Nathan A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Lewin, Anita H.; Sumner, Susan C. J.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive distribution study was conducted in pregnant and lactating rats exposed to a suspension of uniformly carbon-14 labeled C60 ([14C(U)]C60). Rats were administered [14C(U)]C60 (~0.2 mg [14C(U)]C60/kg body weight) or 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-saline vehicle via a single tail vein injection. Pregnant rats were injected on gestation day (GD) 11 (terminated with fetuses after either 24h or 8d), GD15 (terminated after 24h or 4d), or GD18 (terminated after 24h). Lactating rats were injected on postnatal day 8 and terminated after 24h, 3d or 11d. The distribution of radioactivity in pregnant dams was influenced by both the state of pregnancy and time of termination after exposure. The percentage of recovered radioactivity in pregnant and lactating rats was highest in liver and lungs. Radioactivity was quantitated in over 20 tissues. Radioactivity was found in placenta and in fetuses of pregnant dams, and in the milk of lactating rats and in pups. Elimination of radioactivity was <2% in urine and feces at each time point. Radioactivity remained in blood circulation up to 11 days after [14C(U)]C60 exposure. Biomarkers of inflammation, cardiovascular injury and oxidative stress were measured to study the biological impacts of [14C(U)]C60 exposure. Oxidative stress were elevated in female pups of exposed dams. Metabolomics analysis of urine showed that [14C(U)]C60 exposure to pregnant rats impacted the pathways of vitamin B, regulation of lipid and sugar metabolism and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that [14C(U)]C60 crosses the placenta at all stages of pregnancy examined, and is transferred to pups via milk. PMID:26081520

  11. Toluene-induced hearing loss in acivicin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Grossman, Stephane; Ferrari, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Toluene can be considered an ototoxic chemical compound in the rat. Outer hair cells are particularly sensitive to this aromatic organic solvent or to one of its metabolites. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible role played by cysteine S-conjugates in the ototoxic process in Long-Evans rats. To this end, renal and hepatic metabolism of toluene was modified by treatment with acivicin, an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT). First, the efficacy of the acivicin treatment was established from a dose-response investigation in which urinary gamma-GT was measured daily in rats exposed to 1750 ppm toluene, 6 h per day for five days. A twice weekly 5 mg/kg dose was reduced urinary gamma-GT by 70-78%. In a subacute experiment, rats were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for four consecutive weeks, in which the efficacy of the acivicin treatment was monitored by quantifying the urinary end product of the conjugate pathway: benzyl mercapturic acid (BMA). A 38.5% decrease in BMA was measured at the end of the exposure period. Hearing impairment was evaluated using auditory (inferior colliculus) evoked potentials and completed with conventional histological approaches. The toluene-exposed and the acivicin-treated rats exposed to toluene both had a 7-dB permanent auditory threshold shift at 16-20 kHz. Hair cell loss was not dependent on acivicin treatment. Therefore, the partial inhibition of gamma-GT did not modify the toluene ototoxicity, suggesting that toluene-induced hearing loss is not strongly mediated by the production of cysteine S-conjugates. However, the data do not rule out the possibility that these metabolites may play a minor role.

  12. Effect of valproic acid on /sup 65/Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, C.L.; Peters, J.M.; Hurley, L.S.

    1989-04-01

    The effect of valproic acid on the distribution of gavaged /sup 65/Zn in maternal and embryonic tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 h after gavaging of the drug on d 13 of pregnancy. Valproic acid treatment resulted in a significantly higher retention of /sup 65/Zn in maternal liver and lower amounts in uterus, placenta and embryos than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from valproic acid-treated dams showed higher /sup 65/Zn counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight of 6,500, the approximate molecular weight of the Zn-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the teratogenicity of valproic acid is in part due to an induction of embryonic Zn deficiency secondary to a drug-induced sequestering of Zn into maternal liver that results in a decrease in maternal plasma Zn and subsequent reduction in embryonic Zn uptake.

  13. Phasic oscillations of extracellular potassium (K(o in pregnant rat myometrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger C Young

    Full Text Available K-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure K(+ within the extracellular space (K(o of pregnant rat myometrium. Contractile activity was monitored by measuring either force or bioelectrical signals. Single and double-barreled electrodes were used. Double-barreled electrodes allowed monitoring of electrical activity 15 microns from the site of K(o measurement. From double-barreled electrode experiments, the bioelectrical burst started first, and then K(o began to rise 0.6 ± 0.1 seconds later. This delay indicates that K(+ leaves the cells in response to local electrical activity rather than vice versa. Four control experiments were performed to assess the influence of electrical artifacts caused by tissue motion on K(o values. When observed, artifacts were negative and transient, and hence would result in an underestimation of K(o rises. Artifacts were minimized when tissue motion was minimized by fixing the tissue at both ends. At 37°C, 7 single barreled experiments and 45 contractions were analyzed. Resting K(o was within 1 mM of bath K(+ (5 mM at the beginning and end of the experiments. K(o rose during the contraction, fell after the completion of the contraction, and normalized before the next contraction began. Peak K(o values observed during force production were 18.8 ± 5.9 mM, a value high enough to modulate tissue-level electrical activity. K(o required 15.7 ± 2.8 seconds to normalize halfway (t50. Six experiments expressing 38 contractions were performed at 24°C. The contraction period was longer at 24°C. Values for peak K(o (26.2 ± 9.9 mM and t50 (29.8±16.2 sec were both larger than at 37°C (p<0.0003 for both. The direct relationships between peak K(o, t50 and the contraction period, suggest elevations in K(o may modulate contraction frequency. The myometrial interstitial space appears to be functionally important, and K(o metabolism may participate in cell-cell interactions.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota in a pregnant rat model

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    Imran eKhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyse the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus and Helicobacter were significantly (p<0.05 more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment

  15. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  16. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-04-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  18. Studies on apoptotic changes in combined toxicity of citrinin and endosulfan in pregnant wistar rats and their fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Dwivedi, P; Telang, A G; Kumar, M; Patil, R D

    2012-05-01

    Citrinin (mycotoxin) and endosulfan (pesticide) both environmental contaminants easily enter the food chain and are caoomon causes of various toxicities. In the present investigation, citrinin (CIT) (10 mg/kg feed) and endosulfan (1 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally alone and in combination to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 to 20 to study their effect to cause apoptosis in the pregnant Wistar rats and their fetuses. Apoptosis was assessed in dams by agarose gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and electron microscopy, while in the fetuses it was assessed by flow cytometry only. Citrinin and endosulfan in the combination group caused apoptosis in an additive manner as there was increased number of apoptotic cells as compared to the individual toxin and control groups. The fetuses also showed increased number of apoptotic cells in the combination groups, which also indicated that both the toxins crossed the placental barrier. So it was concluded that apoptosis played a significant role in the pathogenesis of endosulfan and citrinin toxicity.

  19. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  20. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama,Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno,Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki,Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  1. Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control. The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W, while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt. Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05 in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail, prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P0.05 in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, testes, epididymal (head, body weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05 in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of

  2. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD, 100 mg (2x CD, 250 mg (5x CD and 500 mg (10x CD/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Results: Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2x CD, 5x CD and 10x CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. Conclusion: The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  3. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. I: Dose-dependent effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    Five hundred and eight mature female Wistar rats divided into 35 different groups were stimulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG) (0, 5, 10, 20 & 40 IU) at the late diestrus stage to induce multiple follicular development. No chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) was used for ovulation induction. The quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of fetuses on Day 14 of gestation and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 and 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. However, concurrent with the larger number, higher proportions of abnormal oocytes and embryos were found. High doses of PMSG caused lower in vitro fertilisability of oocytes and greater degrees of embryonic degeneration. Although, the number of oocytes and Day 2-embryos were higher in the 20PMGS dose group, the pregnancy rate was significantly reduced to 27%. In the 40PMSG group no viable pregnancy was noted. Most embryo demise occurred by day 3-5 of pregnancy, probably within the oviducts and before the implantation stage. In rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 and 40 IU of PMSG, the number of morphologically normal looking embryos was greatly reduced by Day 3-5 of pregnancy. In the 40PMSG group, there were no embryos retrieved by Day 4 and 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Differential body weight, blood pressure and placental inflammatory responses to normal versus high-fat diet in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Frank T; Palei, Ana C; Granger, Joey P

    2016-10-01

    Although obesity increases the risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the mechanisms remain unclear. Neural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency causes hyperphagia and obesity. Effects of MC4R deficiency on body weight, blood pressure (BP) and placental inflammatory responses to high-fat diet (HFD) are unknown. We tested two hypotheses: MC4R deficiency results in higher body weight, BP and placental inflammation under normal-fat diet (NFD) conditions and HFD exaggerates these responses in MC4R-deficient pregnant rats. MC4R and MC4R rats were maintained on NFD (13% kcal fat) or HFD (40% kcal fat) for ∼15 weeks, then measurements made on gestational day 19. MC4R pregnant rats had greater body mass and total body fat and visceral adipose tissue weights along with greater circulating total cholesterol (TC) and leptin levels than MC4R rats regardless of diet. On NFD, circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP (conscious with carotid catheter) were higher in these heavier rats. Circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP were higher in MC4R rats compared with NFD controls. These parameters were not affected by HFD in the already heavier and hypertensive MC4R pregnant rats. Obesity in MC4R deficiency and HFD in MC4R rats result in higher BP and placental inflammation during pregnancy. However, HFD did not exaggerate these responses in already obese MC4R pregnant rats. These data suggest that obesity and HFD are independently related to hypertension and placental inflammation in pregnancy.

  5. Unexpected depletion in plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations in a pregnant woman with bipolar affective disorder being treated with lithuim, haloperidol and benztropine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Patients with bipolar affective disorder can be effectively managed with pharmacological intervention. This case report describes a pregnant woman with a ten-year history of bipolar affective disorder that was being treated with lithium, haloperidol and benztropine. Case presentation The patient had a normal pregnancy, but developed an elevated blood pressure and started to lose weight at 36 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy, plasma concentrations of choline and phosp...

  6. Trapped blood elements within the decidua of the rat pregnant uterus generate a lipoxygenase product(s) which inhibits myometrial prostacyclin synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    El Tahir, K.E.H.; Williams, K I

    1981-01-01

    1 Prostacyclin (PGI2) production by chopped segments of rat pregnant uterus was low compared with synthesis by separated myometrial tissue. Incubation of separated myometrium with decidua (2:1 by weight) led to an inhibition of myometrial PGI2 output.

  7. The increased endotoxin-sensitivity of pregnant rats, as reflected by glomerular Ecto-ADP-ase activity, is not dependent on the presence of decidual cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Baller, JFW; Valkhof, N; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the possible role of decidual cells in the pregnancy-associated increased sensitivity of glomerular ecto-ADP-ase to endotoxin was investigated. Early (day 5) pregnant (E-Pr; n = 10), pseudopregnant (E-PSP; n = 10), (day 5), pseudopregnant rats with a decidualized uterus (E-DEC;

  8. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P≤0.001. This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.

  9. [Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Meliksetian, I B; Akopian, R R; Saakian, A A

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character unlike those in cervical parts of the tubes and in the middle part of the uterine body, so the latter parts can be grouped together owing to peculiarities of their changes. The longest duration of genesis of electric discharges has been shown for the ovarian part of uterine tubes at a concentration of 10 microg/kg of oxytocin. Morphological experiments revealed that among all studies areas the ovarian parts of uterine tubes were characterized by the highest amount of atypical cells that have the maximally pronounced functional activity.

  10. The effects of adjuvant arthritis on the myometrial adrenergic functions in the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csik, G; Spiegl, G; Minorics, R; Falkay, G; Zupko, I

    2010-10-01

    The beneficial effects of pregnancy on the symptoms of inflammatory diseases are well documented. The modulation in the uterine functions in the presence of generalized inflammation, however, is much less characterized. The aim of the present study was to explore the modulatory action of adjuvant arthritis on the adrenergic functions of the uterus in nonpregnant and late pregnant rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by the subplantar injection of M. butyricum. Presynaptic functions were characterized by a superfusion technique and by registration of the contractions of isolated uterine rings elicited by electric field stimulation. The functions of the adrenoceptors were characterized by constructing concentration-response curves with agonists for both α- and β-receptors. Where these curves differed significantly from the control, the expressions of these receptors at the mRNA level were additionally determined. Adjuvant arthritis substantially decreased the uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline in myometrial samples from nonpregnant rats, but caused no change at term. The electrically induced contractions were decreased by inflammation in both gestational states. Arthritis resulted in decreased β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation (in both the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant animals) and an increase in α-mediated contraction at term. It can be concluded that adjuvant arthritis deteriorates the adrenergic innervation of the uterus. The effects of exogenous sympathomimetics are shifted, favoring a state of higher contractility. If similar mechanisms are operative in humans, the present results could imply that β-adrenoceptor agonists are not ideal tocolytics when pregnancy is complicated by generalized inflammation.

  11. 莪术对正常和血瘀证孕大鼠血液流变学的影响%Effect of Curcumae Rhizoma on Hemorheological Parameters in Normal and Blood-stasis Pregnant Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天娇; 赵学梅; 郭丽娜; 洪博; 王晓丽; 李晓明; 李刚; 牛英才

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察莪术对正常和血瘀证孕大鼠血液流变学的影响。方法采用皮下注射盐酸肾上腺素与冷刺激的方法制备血瘀证模型,造模后将正常组随机分为空白对照组和高、中、低剂量莪术组,将血瘀证模型组随机分为模型对照组和高、中、低剂量莪术组。受孕后第6~19 d给予不同剂量的莪术水煎液。检测受孕雌鼠血液流变学指标。结果莪术高、中、低剂量组均能降低正常组与血瘀证模型组在不同切变率下全血黏度。与正常对照组相比较,正常+莪术高剂量组在不同切变率下全血黏度有显著性差异(P<0.05),而在中切变率下,各剂量血瘀+莪术组的全血黏度与正常对照组相比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论莪术+血瘀证模型组能使全血黏度降至正常孕大鼠水平,证明了中医“有故无殒,亦无殒”的中药辨证减毒理论。%Objective This study aims at evaluating the effect of curcumae rhizoma on hemorheological parameters between normal and blood -stasis pregnant rats .Methods A model of blood -stasis in rats was established by injecting adrenalin and being immersed in ice water .Normal Wistar female rats were randomly divided into blank control group and low , medium and large dose curcumae rhizoma groups , blood-stasis model rats were divided into model control group , low, medium and large dose curcumae rhizoma groups .Curcumae Rhizoma was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day ( GD) 6 through 19 at different doses .The hemorheological parameters were used to monitor the pregnant rats .Results Curcumae rhizoma could significantly reduce the hemorheological indexes in whole blood viscosity .Compared with normal group , whole blood viscosity at high , middle and low shear rate were decreased in rats of normal group treated with Curcumae Rhizoma(P<0.05), and We only could find blood viscosity changes at middle shear

  12. Selenium and vitamin E modulates radiation-induced liver toxicity in pregnant and nonpregnant rat: effects of colemanite and hematite shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençel, Osman; Naziroglu, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Yalman, Kadir; Bayram, Dilek

    2010-06-01

    The levels of liver lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamins A and E were used to follow the level of oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation in pregnant rats. The possible protective effects of selenium and vitamin E supplemented to rats housed in concrete-protected cages using hematite and colemanite were tested and compared to untreated controls. Ninety-six rats were randomly divided into four main equal groups namely control (A), normal concrete (B), concrete containing colemanite (C), and concrete containing hematite (D). Except group A, all groups exposed to 7 Gy radiation. The four main groups were divided into four subgroups each as follows: subgroups 1 (n = 6): nonpregnant control rats. Subgroups 2 (n = 6): selenium and vitamin E combination was intraperitoneally (i.p.) given to the nonpregnant rats for 20 days. Subgroups 3 (n = 6): pregnant control rats. Subgroups 4 (n = 6): selenium and vitamin E combination was i.p. given to the pregnant rats for concessive 20 days. Lactate dehydrogenate, alkaline phosphates, and lipid peroxidation values were higher in subgroups 1 and 3 than in no radiation group although glutathione peroxidase and vitamin E levels in liver were lower in radiation group than in no radiation group. Lactate dehydrogenate activity and lipid peroxidation levels were found to be decreased in subgroups 2 and 4 protected with concrete containing hematite and colemanite when compared to subgroup 1 and 3 with normal concrete. The radiation doses in rats housed by concrete without colemanite and hematite exposed radiation clearly showed liver degeneration. In conclusion, selenium and vitamin E supplementations and housing by concrete with colemanite was found to offer protection against gamma-irradiation-induced liver damage and oxidative stress in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against liver necrosis via its free radical scavenging and membrane stabilizing. Protective effects of

  13. Análise morfológica e fisiológica dos fígados e rins de ratas prenhes e seus fetos tratados pela associação zidovudina, lamivudina e ritonavir durante toda a prenhez Morphological and physiological analysis of livers and kidneys of pregnant rats and their fetuses treated by the association of zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir for the whole period of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Wagner

    2010-11-01

    em sua(s dose(s de aplicação. A avaliação estatística foi realizada por análise de variância (ANOVA, completada pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of administration of three different doses of the zidovudine/lamivudine/ritonavir combination on the liver and kidneys of pregnant rats and their concepts from a morphological and physiological standpoint. METHODS: 40 pregnant EPM-1 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1 control (Ctrl: drug vehicle control, n=10 and 3 experimental groups: Exp1x, Exp3x and Exp9x. An oral solution of the zidovudine/lamivudine/ritonavir combination was administered to the experimental groups from the day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy: Exp1x=10/5/20 mg/kg; Exp3x=30/15/60 mg/kg; Exp9x=90/45/180 mg/kg. On the 20th pregnancy day the rats were anesthetized and blood was taken directly from the ventricular chambers for further biochemical determinations: aspartate-(AST and alanine-(ALT aminotransferases (Calorimetric method, urea nitrogen (BUN by an enzymatic-kinetic method, and creatinine by a kinetic-calorimetric method. Maternal and fetal liver and kidney samples were taken, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed histologically for paraffin embedding. Five µm-thick fragments of maternal and fetal livers and kidneys were stained with hematoxilyn-eosin, being analyzed by light microscopy. To interpret the results, the well-known pattern of normality for livers and kidneys was considered on the basis of the following structures: hepatocytes, portal structure, hepatic veins, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and loop of Henle. Regarding the fetal livers, we also considered the erythrocytes in their different stages of development as well as the megacariocytes. If there was a change in the established staining pattern for liver and kidney structures, changes in nuclear morphology, rupture of some cytoplasmic organelles, and presence of vascular congestion, this was considered to be due to the drug doses

  14. Identification of Site of Morphine Action in Pregnant Wistar Rat Placenta Tissue: A C14-Morphine Study

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    Leila Dehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In previous studies it has been emphasized that the site of morphine action may be either in the embryo or the placenta. In the present study, we attempt to identify the site of morphine action on the fetal section of Wistar rat placenta by using C14-morphine.Materials and Methods: In this study (experimental, female Wistar rats (weights: 170-200 g were mated with male rats and their coupling times recorded. Experimental groups received daily doses of 0.05 mg/ml of C14-morphine in their drinking water. On the 9th and14th embryonic days, the pregnant rats were anesthetized and the placenta and uterus surgically removed. Placentas were fixed in 10% formalin for two weeks, then processed, sectioned in 5 μm and 25 μm thicknesses, and fixed on glass slides for further evaluation. The 25 μm sections were delivered to black and white film for three days. Films were processed and evaluated with a digital inverse microscope for possible radiological impression. The 5 μm sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and evaluated by light microscope and MOTIC software.Results: Our results indicated that the site of action of C14-morphine was possibly located on the blood plexus of the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, oral morphine consumption was shown to inhibit fetal and maternal placental development in the experimental groups.Conclusion: We conclude that morphine’s effectiveness on the reduction of embryo growth and development may be via its effects on the blood plexus of the fetal section of the placenta.

  15. Asporin and the mineralization process in fluoride-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houari, Sophia; Wurtz, Tilmann; Ferbus, Didier; Chateau, Danielle; Dessombz, Arnaud; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-06-01

    Microarray analysis of odontoblastic cells treated with sodium fluoride has identified the asporin gene as a fluoride target. Asporin is a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan/protein (SLRP) family that is believed to be important in the mineralization process. In this study, asporin expression and distribution were investigated by systematic analysis of dentin and enamel, with and without fluoride treatment. Specific attention was focused on a major difference between the two mineralized tissues: the presence of a collagenous scaffold in dentin, and its absence in enamel. Normal and fluorotic, continually growing incisors from Wistar rats treated with 2.5 to 7.5 mM sodium fluoride (NaF) were studied by immunochemistry, in situ hybridization, Western blotting, and RT-qPCR. Asporin was continuously expressed in odontoblasts throughout dentin formation as expected. Asporin was also found, for the first time, in dental epithelial cells, particularly in maturation-stage ameloblasts. NaF decreased asporin expression in odontoblasts and enhanced it in ameloblasts, both in vivo and in vitro. The inverse response in the two cell types suggests that the effector, fluoride, is a trigger that elicits a cell-type-specific reaction. Confocal and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry evidenced an association between asporin and type 1 collagen in the pericellular nonmineralized compartments of both bone and dentin. In addition, transmission electron microscopy revealed asporin in the microenvironment of all cells observed. Thus, asporin is produced by collagen-matrix-forming and non-collagen-matrix-forming cells but may have different effects on the mineralization process. A model is proposed that predicts impaired mineral formation associated with the deficiency and excess of asporin.

  16. Placental Protein 13 Administration to Pregnant Rats Lowers Blood Pressure and Augments Fetal Growth and Venous Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Sigurdardottir, Elisabet Run; Meiri, Hamutal; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Mandalá, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2016-01-01

    Reduced first-trimester concentrations of placental protein 13 (PP13) are associated with subsequent development of preeclampsia, a major pregnancy disorder. We previously showed that PP13 has a vasodilatory effect, reduces blood pressure and augments expansive remodeling of the uteroplacental vasculature in pregnant rats. In this study, slow-release osmotic pumps were implanted in gravid rats (on day 8) to provide 1 week of PP13 supplementation. Treatment was associated with a reversible blood pressure reduction that returned to normal on day 15. In addition, PP13 caused venous expansion that is larger in the venous branches closer to the placenta. Then, it increased placental and pup weights. Similar administration of a truncated PP13 variant (DelT221) that is unable to bind carbohydrates (a rare spontaneous mutation associated with a high frequency of severe early preeclampsia among Blacks in South Africa) produced a hypotensive effect similar to the full-length molecule, but without venous remodeling and increased placental and pup weights. These results indicate the importance of PP13 carbohydrate binding for inducing vascular remodeling and improving reproductive outcome. Future studies are needed to determine whether beneficial effects would be evident in animal models of preeclampsia or in women predisposed to the development of preeclampsia.

  17. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Different Acupoints on Changes of Uterine Myoelectricity Induced by Oxytocin and Progesterone in Pregnant Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at different acupoints on abnormal changes of uterine myoelectric activities in pregnant rats so as to analyze the specificity of regulative effects of the acupoint. Methods: Forty-eight pregnant (18-20 days) Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10), "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) group (n=9), "Neiguan" (PC 6) group (n=10), "Hegu" (LI 4) group (n=8), and "Sanyinjiao plus Hegu" group (n=11). These rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of a mixture solution of 1.5% chloralose (50mg/kg) and 25% urethane (420mg/kg). Electrohysterogram (EHG) was recorded by using a pair of stainless steel electrodes inserted into the subserous layer of the left mid part of the uterus. The reference electrode was placed in the adjoining subcutaneous tissue of the incision. Oxytocin and progesterone were given to the local uterus nearby the recording electrode to induce excitement and suppression of myoelectric activities of the uterus respectively. EA (2mA, 5/15Hz) was carried out at the above-mentioned acupoints separately for 20min, and the influence of EA on changes (amplitude and frequency) of fast waves and slow waves of the uterine myoelectric activity was analyzed. Results: As compared with control group, EA at SP6 plus LI4 and at SP6 alone had a significantly inhibitory effect on oxytocin-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of both fast and slow waves (P0.05). Compared with control group, EA at SP6 plus LI4 and at SP6 alone could relieve or significantly relieve progesterone-induced suppression of the frequency and amplitude of both fast and slow waves (P0.05). Conclusion: EA at SP6 plus LI4 and at SP6 alone has a dual-directional regulative effect on abnormal EHG, the effect of EA at SP6 plus LI4 is the strongest, EA at SP6 the secondary, EA at LI4 the weakest, and EA at PC6 shows no effect. In short, EA at different acupoints have their own relative specificity in regulating abnormal

  18. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR. METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1. Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0. Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1. SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10: Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine treated with L-arginine 2%; Group Alpha-methyldopa treated with Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg; Group L-Arginine+Alpha-methyldopa treated with L-arginine 2%+Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg. L-arginine 2% solution was offered ad libitum in drinking water and Alpha-methyldopa was administered by gavage twice a day during the length of pregnancy (20 days. Blood pressure was measured by tailcuff plethysmography on days 0 and 20. Body weight was measured on days 0, 10 and 20. Results were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation. One-Way ANOVA/Tukey (or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, as appropriate was used for group comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted as pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensivas (SHR. MÉTODOS: 30 SHR e 10 Wistar-EPM-1 ratas virgens foram utilizadas no estudo. Antes da distribuição, as fêmeas foram acasaladas com machos da mesma linhagem (3:1; a prenhez foi confirmada pela presença de espermatozóides no esfregaço vaginal. As ratas Wistar-EPM-1 foram utilizadas como controles. As ratas SHR foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em 4 grupos (n=10: Grupo Controle-2, não-tratado; Grupo L-Arginina, tratado com L-arginina; Grupo Alfa-metildopa, tratado com alfa-metildopa; Grupo L-Arginina+Alfa-metildopa, tratado com arginina+Alfa-metildopa. L-arginina (2% foi oferecida ad libitum na água de beber e a Alfa-metildopa (33 mg/Kg foi administrada por gavagem, duas vezes ao dia, durante toda a

  19. Diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of pregnant women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus treated with intrapartum penicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Roesch,Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Rita C. Silveira; Corso,Andréa L.; Dobbler, Priscila Thiago; Mai, Volker; Rojas, Bruna S.; Laureano, Álvaro M.; Renato S. Procianoy

    2017-01-01

    Background Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers’ microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. Methods Microbiota in vaginal sw...

  20. Reproductive condition and the low-dose endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in rats. Glomerular influx of inflammatory cells and expression of adhesion molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; vanderHorst, MCL; Schuiling, GA

    1997-01-01

    These experiments were designed to study the increased sensitivity of pregnant rats to endotoxin. Pregnant (Pr), cyclic (C), and progesterone (P)-treated pseudopregnant rats with or without a decidualized uterus (PSP and DEC rats, respectively) received infusions of an ultra-low dose of endotoxin (1

  1. Reproductive condition and the low-dose endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in rats. Glomerular influx of inflammatory cells and expression of adhesion molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; vanderHorst, MCL; Schuiling, GA

    1997-01-01

    These experiments were designed to study the increased sensitivity of pregnant rats to endotoxin. Pregnant (Pr), cyclic (C), and progesterone (P)-treated pseudopregnant rats with or without a decidualized uterus (PSP and DEC rats, respectively) received infusions of an ultra-low dose of endotoxin (1

  2. The metabolic clearance of progesterone in the pregnant rat: Absence of a physiological role for the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, B.J.; Bruce, N.W. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands)

    1989-06-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of progesterone is among the highest for all steroid hormones studied, yet it is difficult to apportion this high MCR to specific organ contributions. The isolated lung has been shown to metabolize progesterone, and since this tissue receives the entire cardiac output, potentially it could make a major contribution to the overall MCR. This possibility was examined in the present study by measuring lung extraction of (3H)progesterone under steady-state conditions in the intact pregnant rat. Anesthetized rats (n = 6) were infused with (3H)progesterone via a femoral vein for 100 min on Day 16 of pregnancy. After the onset of steady state (40 min), four blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals from the right ventricle and from the aorta, and the concentrations of (3H)progesterone and its metabolites were determined. Throughout the sampling period, mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained stable (two-way analysis of variance), as did the production rate (3.76 +/- 0.35 mg/day; mean +/- SEM) and the MCR (34.8 +/- 3.5 ml/min) of progesterone. Despite this high rate of clearance, there was no difference between the concentration of (3H)progesterone in arterial and right ventricular blood, indicating no net extraction of progesterone during passage through the lung. Furthermore, there was no change in the concentration of either lipid-soluble or aqueous-soluble (3H)progesterone metabolites during trans-lung passage. These observations demonstrate that the lung does not contribute to the MCR of progesterone when measured under physiological and steady-state conditions. Therefore, the relationship, MCR (ml/min) = whole-body extraction (%) x cardiac output (ml/min), is upheld for progesterone in the rat.

  3. Gene expression profile analysis of genes in rat hippocampus from antidepressant treated rats using DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Minkyu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular and biological mechanisms by which many antidepressants function are based on the monoamine depletion hypothesis. However, the entire cascade of mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants has not yet been elucidated. Results We used a genome-wide microarray system containing 30,000 clones to evaluate total RNA that had been isolated from the brains of treated rats to identify the genes involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of various antidepressants, a tricyclic antidepressant (imipramine. a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (phenelzine and psychoactive herbal extracts of Nelumbinis Semen (NS. To confirm the differential expression of the identified genes, we analyzed the amount of mRNA that was isolated from the hippocampus of rats that had been treated with antidepressants by real-time RT-PCR using primers specific for selected genes of interest. These data demonstrate that antidepressants interfere with the expression of a large array of genes involved in signaling, survival and protein metabolism, suggesting that the therapeutic effect of these antidepressants is very complex. Surprisingly, unlike other antidepressants, we found that the standardized herbal medicine, Nelumbinis Semen, is free of factors that can induce neurodegenerative diseases such as caspase 8, α-synuclein, and amyloid precursor protein. In addition, the production of the inflammatory cytokine, IFNγ, was significantly decreased in rat hippocampus in response to treatment with antidepressants, while the inhibitory cytokine, TGFβ, was significantly enhanced. Conclusions These results suggest that antidepressants function by regulating neurotransmission as well as suppressing immunoreactivity in the central nervous system.

  4. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  5. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  6. Prior reproductive experience alters prolactin-induced macrophage responses in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Freitas, Maria Isabel Roth; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Palermo-Neto, João; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive experience (i.e., pregnancy and lactation) induces physiological changes in mammals. A previous reproductive experience was recently shown to modulate the activity of dopaminergic hypothalamic systems while decreasing serum prolactin levels and oxidative burst activity in peritoneal macrophages. Dopamine receptor antagonists increase serum prolactin levels, and both prolactin and dopamine receptors may be involved in the modulation of macrophage activity, providing a means of communication between the nervous and immune systems. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of prolactin and a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist on the peritoneal activity of macrophages from primigravid and multigravid female rats during the third trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative bursts and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages were evaluated by flow cytometry. Primigravid and multigravid Wistar rats, during the third trimester of pregnancy (i.e., days 17-21), were used. Peritoneal fluid samples from these rats were first incubated with prolactin (10 and 100 nM) for different periods of time. The same procedure was repeated to evaluate the effects of domperidone (10 and 100 nM) on macrophage activity. Our results showed that macrophages from multigravid rats responded more effectively to in vitro incubation with prolactin, especially with regard to the intensity and percentage of phagocytosis. Additionally, these effects were more pronounced after incubation periods of 30 min or 4 h. These data suggest that macrophages during a second pregnancy become more sensitive to the phagocytotic effects of prolactin.

  7. ARGININE STIMULATED GLUCAGON AND INSULIN-SECRETION BY ISLETS OF LANGERHANS OF PREGNANT AND LACTATING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    Glucagon secretion by isolated pancreatic rat islets was not affected by an increase of the glucose concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mM, but was stimulated by 25 mM arginine. This stimulation was only slightly increased by pregnancy and lactation. Insulin secretion increased, when the glucose

  8. Correlative Analysis of Behavioral and Physiological Concomitants of Labor in Pregnant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During parturition, rats exhibit characteristic behavioral expressions of labor. Lordosis contractions, consisting of an elongation of the dams body, are observed beginning several hours prior to neonate births, whereas vertical contractions, repeated rapid lifts of the abdomen, occur immediately preceding the birth of each neonate. We analyzed underlying changes in intrauterine pressure (IUP) using a telemetric sensor that we modified for use in freely-moving rats. This technique enabled us to correlate behavioral expressions of labor contractions with IUP. A small telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day 19 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, a unit was surgically implanted within the uterus. The dams were simultaneously videotaped, enabling us to directly correlate IUP signals with behavioral expressions of labor contractions. Earlier phases of labor, consisting predominantly of lordosis contractions were characterized by lower pressures relative to later phases during which higher pressures and vertical contractions were frequently observed.

  9. ARGININE STIMULATED GLUCAGON AND INSULIN-SECRETION BY ISLETS OF LANGERHANS OF PREGNANT AND LACTATING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    1993-01-01

    Glucagon secretion by isolated pancreatic rat islets was not affected by an increase of the glucose concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mM, but was stimulated by 25 mM arginine. This stimulation was only slightly increased by pregnancy and lactation. Insulin secretion increased, when the glucose concentra

  10. Effect of Diabetes on Circulating Pancreatic Hormones in Pregnant Rats and Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iessi, I L; Sinzato, Y K; Gallego, F Q

    2016-01-01

    into: control (C); mildly diabetic (MD); and severely diabetic (SD). The rats were mated and distributed into 2 subgroups: euthanasia at day 21 of pregnancy and at day 10 postpartum. Both MD and SD dams showed impaired oral glucose tolerance. SD dams had lower body weight and insulin levels compared...

  11. REGULATION OF PERIPHERAL GLUCAGON CONCENTRATIONS IN CYCLIC, PREGNANT, AND LACTATING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOITER, TR; FAAS, MM; VISSCHER, A; KIEVIT, C; STEFFENS, AB; SCHUILING, GA

    1992-01-01

    In the rat, peripheral glucagon concentrations were studied throughout pregnancy and lactation. Basal glucose concentrations were decreased during late pregnancy and during lactation. but basal glucagon concentrations were not affected. Infusion of glucose (7.4 mg/min) caused an elevation of the glu

  12. Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (120 mg/kg was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

  13. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V.; Goin, J.E.; Robinson, R.G.

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  14. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-99m pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, A V; Goin, J E; Robinson, R G

    1983-01-01

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-99m pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-99m pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  15. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout...... gestation and lactation. Total T4 serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T4 in dams, but no significant effects on T4 levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure...... through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3–16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T4 reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing...

  16. Diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of pregnant women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus treated with intrapartum penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Silveira, Rita C; Corso, Andréa L; Dobbler, Priscila Thiago; Mai, Volker; Rojas, Bruna S; Laureano, Álvaro M; Procianoy, Renato S

    2017-01-01

    Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the PGM Ion Torrent to determine the effects of penicillin use during hospitalization and GBS status on its composition. Penicillin administration was associated with an altered vaginal microbial community composition characterized by increased microbial diversity. Lactobacillus sp. contributed only 13.1% of the total community in the women that received penicillin compared to 88.1% in the controls. Streptococcus sp. were present in higher abundance in GBS positive woman compared to controls, with 60% of the total vaginal microbiota in severe cases identified as Streptococcus sp. Vaginal communities of healthy pregnant women were dominated by Lactobacillus sp. and contained low diversity, while Group B Streptococcus positive women receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis had a modified vaginal microbiota composition with low abundance of Lactobacillus but higher microbial diversity.

  17. Diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of pregnant women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus treated with intrapartum penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Silveira, Rita C.; Corso, Andréa L.; Dobbler, Priscila Thiago; Mai, Volker; Rojas, Bruna S.; Laureano, Álvaro M.; Procianoy, Renato S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers’ microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. Methods Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the PGM Ion Torrent to determine the effects of penicillin use during hospitalization and GBS status on its composition. Results Penicillin administration was associated with an altered vaginal microbial community composition characterized by increased microbial diversity. Lactobacillus sp. contributed only 13.1% of the total community in the women that received penicillin compared to 88.1% in the controls. Streptococcus sp. were present in higher abundance in GBS positive woman compared to controls, with 60% of the total vaginal microbiota in severe cases identified as Streptococcus sp. Conclusions Vaginal communities of healthy pregnant women were dominated by Lactobacillus sp. and contained low diversity, while Group B Streptococcus positive women receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis had a modified vaginal microbiota composition with low abundance of Lactobacillus but higher microbial diversity. PMID:28178310

  18. Effects of quercetin on predator stress-related hematological and behavioral alterations in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohamed L Toumi; Sameha Merzoug; Abdelkrim Tahraoui

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of a psychogenic stress during gestation on the behaviour and haematological indices in dams as well as on the neonatal haematological status and periadolescent behaviour in their offspring. Moreover, the ability of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, to prevent the stress-induced changes was estimated. Pregnant Wistar rats were pretreated with quercetin before the exposure to a predator stress on gestational day 19. Post-stress maternal anxiety-like behaviour was assessed with a concomitant haematological analysis. In the offspring, haematological analysis and behavioural testing were performed during the postnatal stage. Our results revealed that predator stress causes an anxiety-like behaviour in dams along with a decrease in erythrocytes, a microcytosis, and a thrombocytosis. Prenatally stressed neonates manifested microcytosis and thrombocytosis with a significant polycythemia. Signs of motor hyperactivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and memory dysfunction were detected at periadolescence. Quercetin pretreatment alleviated the stress-induced behavioural and haematological impairments in dams but failed to attenuate the haematological changes in neonates. A sex-dependent effect of quercetin on behaviour was found at periadolescence. Our findings suggest that, besides a beneficial effect on haematological and behavioural anomalies in traumatized dams, quercetin may lastingly modulate the behaviour of their progeny.

  19. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  20. Ação crônica do napsilato de propoxifeno na prenhez da rata Chronic effects of propoxyphene napsylate on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane T. R. Mendes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do napsilato de propoxifeno sobre a prenhez da rata albina. Para tanto utilizamos 50 ratas prenhes divididas ao acaso em cinco grupos iguais. Todas receberam diariamente, por gavagem, o volume de 1 ml, desde os dias 0 (zero até o 20 de prenhez, com as seguintes características: grupo I - somente água destilada (controle; grupo II - solução aquosa de acácia 2% (veículo; grupos III, IV e V - respectivamente, 5, 15 e 45 mg/kg de peso de napsilato de propoxifeno dissolvido em solução de acácia a 2%. Os pesos maternos foram anotados nos dias 0 (zero, 7, 14 e 20 de prenhez; no 20º dia as matrizes foram sacrificadas. Nossos resultados mostraram que os animais tratados com 45 mg/kg do fármaco apresentaram redução dos pesos individuais dos fetos como também dos pesos das ninhadas e das placentas. Quanto às outras variáveis apreciadas: número de reabsorções, de implantações e de placentas não houve diferença significante entre os grupos tratados em relação ao grupo controle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of propoxyphene napsylate on the pregnancy of the rat. We used fifty pregnant rats divided into five groups. All the animals received daily 1 ml of the solution by gavage from day 0 to the 20th day of pregnancy. Group I - only distilled water (control; group II - aqueous solution of acacia 2% (vehicle; groups III, IV and V - respectively, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg of weight of propoxyphene napsylate diluted in 2% acacia solution. The animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy. Our results showed that the animals treated with 45 mg/kg of propoxyphene napsylate presented reduction of the individual weights of the fetuses, as well as of the weights of the newborns and placentas. The difference betewwn number of resorptions, implantations and placentas of the treated groups was shown to be non

  1. Profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference center for congenital toxoplasmosis in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janer Aparecida Silveira Soares

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference outpatient clinic for congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Pregnant women potentially exposed to Toxoplasma gondii were observed. Diagnoses were made using serologic tests compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Children presenting with: Toxoplasma-specific antibodies (IgM or IgA or ascending IgG titers higher than maternal titers in the first 3 months of life coupled with toxoplasmosis symptoms; intracranial calcifications (by transfontanelar ultrasound or cephalic segment tomography; or retinochoroiditis (by fundoscopy examination in the first 8 months of life were also included in the study. RESULTS: Fifty-eight mother-child pairs were observed (mean age of the mothers was 22.1 years. Most patients lived in urban areas (86.2% and had attended less than 8 years of school (51.7%. Diagnosis was made after birth in 19 (32.8% children. Thirty-four (58.6% women received some type of treatment during pregnancy. Most (72.4% of the children did not present with clinical alterations at birth. The main findings were ophthalmological: 20 (34.5% children with retinochoroiditis, 17 (29.3% with strabismus, and 7 (12.1% with nystagmus. Of the children with retinochoroiditis, 9 presented with subnormal vision. Ten (32.3% out of 31 children presented with intracranial calcifications by cephalic segment congenital toxoplasmosis, and 9 (42.9% children presented with delayed psychomotor development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a critical situation. Protocols for follow-up of pregnant women and their children must be created to improve medical care and minimize sequelae.

  2. Apheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins used in addition to conventional therapy to treat high-risk pregnant antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Hoxha, Ariela; Zambon, Alessandra; Marson, Piero; Del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Tonello, Marta; Nardelli, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Pregnant women with triple antibody positive antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who have had thrombosis or a history of early, severe pregnancy complications are generally considered at high risk of pregnancy loss. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of a relatively new treatment protocol used in addition to conventional therapy in high-risk pregnant patients affected with primary APS. The study's two inclusion criteria were: (1) the presence of triple antiphospholipid positivity, (2) previous thrombosis and/or a history of one or more early, severe pregnancy complications. Eighteen pregnancies occurring between 2002 and 2015 in 14 APS patients, (mean age 34.8±3.6 SD) were monitored. All 14 (100%) patients had triple antiphospholipid positivity. In addition, six of them (42.8%) had a history of thrombosis, four (28.6%) had one or more previous early and severe pregnancy complications, and four (30.8%) met both clinical study criteria. The study protocol included weekly plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and fortnightly 1g/kg intravenous immunoglobulins. Seventeen of the pregnancies (94.4%) produced live neonates, all born between the 26th and 37th weeks of gestation (mean 33.1±3.5 SD). One female (5.5%), born prematurely at 24 weeks, died of sepsis a week after birth. There were two cases (11.1%) of severe pregnancy complications. No treatment side effects were registered. Given the high live birth rate and the safety associated to it, the study protocol described here could be taken into consideration by medical teams treating high-risk APS pregnant patients.

  3. Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, B E; Persinger, M A

    2004-05-01

    Cognitive impairments frequently accompany epileptic disorders. Here, we examine two neuroprotective agents, the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist ketamine and the dopaminergic antagonist acepromazine, for their efficacy in attenuating cognitive impairments in the lithium-pilocarpine (LI-PILO) model of rat limbic epilepsy. Declarative-like cognitive behaviors were assessed in a Morris water maze task that consisted successively of spatial and nonspatial (cued platform) training. Whereas the ketamine-treated (Ket) LI-PILO rats performed equally in all respects to nonseized control rats for the spatial and nonspatial components of the water maze task, the acepromazine-treated (Ace) LI-PILO rats failed to demonstrate learning in either the hidden or cued platform variants of the task and did not demonstrate any place learning in the platform-removed probe trials. We further assessed nondeclarative (associative) cognitive behaviors with a standard contextual fear-conditioning protocol. LI-PILO rats treated with acepromazine failed to learn the Pavlovian relationship; Ket LI-PILO rats performed equivalently to nonseized controls. Cumulatively, these data suggest robust cognitive sparing for LI-PILO rats with pharmacological NMDA receptor antagonism following induction of status epilepticus (SE). This cognitive sparing occurs despite earlier findings that the mean amount of total brain damage with LI-PILO is equivalent for Ket and Ace rats.

  4. Effect of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ on the small intestine of indomethacin-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romain, N.; Dandrifosse, G.; Forget, P.; Lepoint, A.

    1987-09-07

    In the present study, the protective effect of PGE/sub 2/ on intestinal damage in indomethacin-treated adult rats was investigated. Ileal integrity was evaluated making use of different biochemical and histological parameters : activities of sucrase, maltase and diamine oxidase; concentrations of DNA, putrescine, spermidine and spermine; incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into DNA; mitotic index and mucosal thickness. Results expressed per g of mucosal weight, showed that : - maltase and diamine oxidase activities as well as DNA, spermidine and spermine concentrations decreased markedly in indomethacin-treated rats when compared to control rats; - the decrease of maltase activity as well as DNA, spermidine and spermine concentration was less pronounced in PGE/sub 2/-treated rats when compared to indomethacin-treated rats; - /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and mitotic index values showed no significant variation in the course of different treatments; - mucosal thickness increased strongly, the PGE/sub 2/-protected rats. The authors suggest that PGE/sub 2/ could protect the rat's intestinal mucosa against the effects of indomethacin through a trophic action on intestinal villi. 15 references, 3 tables.

  5. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  6. Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

    2012-10-01

    The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

  7. Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid of pregnant rats with spina bifida aperta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liping; Fan, Yang; Li, Hui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Fenghua; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-02-02

    Congenital spina bifida aperta is a common congenital malformation in children and has an incidence of 1‰ to 5‰ in China. However, we currently lack specific biomarkers for screening or prenatal diagnosis and there is no method to entirely cure or prevent such defects. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize differentially expressed proteins in amniotic-fluid samples (AFSs) of embryonic day (E) 17.5 rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta induced by retinoic acid (RA). We identified five proteins differentially expressed in AFSs of spina bifida aperta, including three upregulated proteins (transferrin, alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor, B subunit [SRPRB] 55 kDa), two downregulated proteins (apolipoprotein A IV [APO A4] and Srprb 77 kDa). Specifically, we found 11 alpha-1 fetoprotein (AFP) fragments that were downregulated and 35 AFP fragments that were upregulated in AFSs from embryos with spina bifida aperta. Of the downregulated AFP fragments, 72.7% (8/11) were confined to the AFP N-terminus (amino acids [aas] 25-440) and 77.1% (27/35) of upregulated AFP fragments were confined to the AFP C-terminus (aas 340-596). We also confirmed APO A4 and AFP by immunoblot analysis. This is the first comparative proteomic study of AFSs from rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta. We demonstrate proteomic alterations in the AFS of spina bifida aperta, which may provide new insights in neural tube defects and contribute to the prenatal screening.

  8. Zinc content in epididymal spermatozoa of metoclopramide-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, B; Rozewicka, L; Dominiak, B; Mielnicka, M; Mikulska, D

    1987-01-01

    Zinc content was determined separately in spermatozoa taken from epididymal caput and cauda in rats. It was revealed that spermatozoa transported from the epididymal caput to the cauda reduce about 54% of zinc. This reduction is significantly inhibited in spermatozoa of rats receiving metoclopramide. That is also accompanied by a fall of testosterone level in blood serum and of delta 5, 3 beta-HSD activity in Leydig cells. It was found out that the reduction of zinc in spermatozoa at the time of their passage through the epididymis is the process that depends on androgens.

  9. Zinc content of maturing spermatozoa in oestrogen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Chowdhury, A R; Setty, B S

    1983-02-01

    Zinc content of spermatozoa collected from the caput and cauda portions of the rat epididymis was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed about 60% reduction in the spermatozoal zinc content by the time they reach the cauda epididymis. This reduction was inhibited in rats receiving micro dose oestrogen which induced 'functional' sterility. It appears that the fall in zinc content of spermatozoa during their transport in the epididymis is related to sperm maturation and that oestrogen treatment interferes with this reduction in sperm zinc content.

  10. Alveolar bone dynamics in osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene or alendronate: confocal microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Grossi-Oliveira, Gustavo Augusto; Okamoto, Tetuo; Okamoto, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis were examined. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups according to the induction of osteoporosis and drugs administered: OG, osteoporotic rats without treatment (negative control); SG, rats which underwent sham surgery ovariectomy (SHAM); alendronate (AG), osteoporotic rats treated with alendronate; and RG, osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene (RG). On the 8th day after ovariectomy and SHAM surgeries, drug therapy was started with AG or RG. On the 52nd day, 20 mg/kg calcein was administered to all of the rats, and on the 80th day, 20 mg/kg alizarin red was administered. Euthanasia was performed on the 98th day. The bone area marked by fluorochromes was calculated and data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test and Tukey's post-hoc test (pbone turnover only between RG and SG (p=0.074) and AG and OG (p=0.138). All other comparisons showed significant differences (pbone turnover was observed in RG and SG groups. RG was the medication that improved the dynamics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis, resembling that of healthy rats.

  11. The effect of eurycoma longifolia jack on spermatogenesis in estrogen-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhazlina Abdul Wahab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2 (intramuscular dose of 500 μg/kg body weight, and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05 and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05. A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05 and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05. Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment.

  12. Renal Glycosuria without Hyperglycemia in Cyclosporine-Treated Rats

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    Chang Hwa Lee

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Glycosuria may occur without hyperglycemia in cyclosporine administration. We suggest that cyclosporine may decrease tubular reabsorption of glucose in renal tubular epithelial cells, and then glycosuria could be induced by the altered glucose transporter expressions. We will analyze the glucose transporters in proximal tubule of rat kidney.

  13. The Power of Classic Music to Reduce Anxiety in Rats Treated with Simvastatin

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    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was designed to investigate the effects of music in Wistar rats after sub-chronic treatment of simvastatin. The rats were orally administered with either simvastatin or saline (controls. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, the rats were selected for behavioral studies. The rats were exposed to music 24 hours before behavioral tests (Mozart’s piano sonata, KV361, Largo. Results: The experiments suggest that exposure to chronic treatment with simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day reduced anxiety levels in rats when associated with Mozart music in an elevated plus-maze. Discussion: These results indicate that music can serve as an effective adjuvant in rats treated with simvastatin, and that this species could potentially be used in other preclinical models utilizing musical interventions.

  14. Effects of the Electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 µT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats

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    CWSF. Anselmo

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have implicated maternal protein-calorie deficiency as an important public health problem in developing countries. Over the last decades, a remarkable diffusion of electricity and an increased level of the electromagnetic field (EMF in the environment have characterized modern societies. Therefore, researchers are concerned with the biological effects of 50-60 Hz, EMF. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of EMF of 60 Hz, 3 μT, exposure for two hours per day in the regulation of the hormonal and metabolic concentrations in pregnant rats, which were fed by Regional Basic Diet (RBD during their pregnancy as compared with pregnant rats fed a standard diet. Pregnant rats exposed to EMF of 60 Hz, 3 μT, over the pregnancy and fed with RBD presented an increase in glucose release when compared with the Group subjected only to the RBD ration. Rats fed RBD presented a decrease in their insulin and cortisol serum levels when compared with the Group fed with casein. The T3 and T4 concentrations presented the greatest variation among the Groups. The relation T4:T3 was much exaggerated in the Group subjected to RDB and exposed to EMF when compared to the others. In conclusion, the group subjected to the association of EMF and undernutrition suffered a decrease in its serum concentration of T4 and T3 when compared to the well-nourished group and the relationship T4:T3 in the former group was almost eighteen-fold the later one.

  15. Embryolethality of butyl benzyl phthalate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, N.; Itami, T.; Kawasaki, H. (National Inst. Hyg. Science, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-03-15

    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) was studied in Wistar rats. Pregnant rats were given BBP at a dosage of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% in the diet from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy. Morphological examinations of the fetuses revealed no evidence of teratogenesis. In the 2.0% group, all dams exhibited complete resorption of all the implanted embryos, and their food consumption, body weight gain and adjusted weight gain during pregnancy were markedly lowered. To determine whether the embryolethality was the result of reduced food consumption during pregnancy, a pair-feeding study was performed in which the pregnant rats received the same amount of diet consumed by the 2.0% BBP-treated pregnant rats. The pair-fed and 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats showed significant and comparable reductions in the adjusted weight gain. The number of live fetuses was lowered in the pair-fed group. However, the complete resorption of all the implanted embryos was not found in any of the pair-fed pregnant rats. The data suggest that the embryolethality observed in the 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats is attributable to the effects o dietary BBP.

  16. Unexpected depletion in plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations in a pregnant woman with bipolar affective disorder being treated with lithuim, haloperidol and benztropine: a case report

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    Gossell-Williams Maxine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients with bipolar affective disorder can be effectively managed with pharmacological intervention. This case report describes a pregnant woman with a ten-year history of bipolar affective disorder that was being treated with lithium, haloperidol and benztropine. Case presentation The patient had a normal pregnancy, but developed an elevated blood pressure and started to lose weight at 36 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy, plasma concentrations of choline and phosphatidylcholine are increased to meet the demands of the foetus. However, our findings in this case included depletion of plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations. Other unusual outcomes included low placental weight and low infant birth weight. Conclusion This report suggests that the pharmacological management of this patient could possibly account for the findings.

  17. Disposition of intravenously or orally administered silver nanoparticles in pregnant rats and the effect on the biochemical profile in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Timothy R; Mortensen, Ninell P; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Levine, Keith E; Poitras, Eric; Harrington, James M; Wingard, Christopher J; Holland, Nathan A; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Sumner, Susan C J

    2017-05-01

    Few investigations have been conducted on the disposition and fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in pregnancy. The distribution of a single dose of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNP was investigated in pregnant rats. Two sizes of AgNP, 20 and 110 nm, and silver acetate (AgAc) were used to investigate the role of AgNP diameter and particle dissolution in tissue distribution, internal dose and persistence. Dams were administered AgNP or AgAc intravenously (i.v.) (1 mg kg(-1) ) or by gavage (p.o.) (10 mg kg(-1) ), or vehicle alone, on gestation day 18 and euthanized at 24 or 48 h post-exposure. The silver concentration in tissues was measured using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of silver in dams was influenced by route of administration and AgNP size. The highest concentration of silver (μg Ag g(-1) tissue) at 48 h was found in the spleen for i.v. administered AgNP, and in the lungs for AgAc. At 48 h after p.o. administration of AgNP, the highest concentration was measured in the cecum and large intestine, and for AgAc in the placenta. Silver was detected in placenta and fetuses for all groups. Markers of cardiovascular injury, oxidative stress marker, cytokines and chemokines were not significantly elevated in exposed dams compared to vehicle-dosed control. NMR metabolomics analysis of urine indicated that AgNP and AgAc exposure impact the carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that silver crosses the placenta and is transferred to the fetus regardless of the form of silver. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia.

  19. Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats

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    Nworgu Z.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration, was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration, acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 µg/ml: final bath concentration and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 µg/ml: final bath concentration induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration salbutamol and (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01, acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001 and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001 to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05 of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml produced significant ( P < 0.0001 reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.

  20. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiskum, G.; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staini...

  1. Effect of long term exposure of low doses of lambda- cyhalothrin on the level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of the pregnant rats and their offspring

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    Kadir Tukhtaev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lambda- cyhalothrin (LCT is a pyrethroid insecticide class, which is widely used for pest control in agriculture, public health, home and garden. In the present study we investigated the effect of long term exposure of low doses of the LCT on the state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection of pregnant rats and their offspring. It was revealed, that prolonged exposure of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to the development of oxidative stress in both of pregnant females and their offspring. The highest level of lipid peroxidation detected on 14-21 days of pregnancy, which was accompanied by a reduction in activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the offspring highest level of oxidative stress observed on 7-14 days of lactation. The degree of oxidative stress in offspring decreases as the cessation of receipt of a pesticide or its toxic metabolites in breast milk.

  2. Antiamnesic effect of stevioside in scopolamine-treated rats

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    Sharma Deepika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to explore the potential of stevioside in memory dysfunction of rats. Memory impairment was produced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p. in animals. Morris water maze (MWM test was employed to assess learning and memory. Brain acetylcholinestrase enzyme (AChE activity was measured to assess the central cholinergic activity. The levels of brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Scopolamine administration induced significant impairment of learning and memory in rats, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress (increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment of stevioside (250 mg/kg dose orally significantly reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress levels. It may be concluded that stevioside exerts a memory-preservative effect in cognitive deficits of rats possibly through its multiple actions.

  3. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  4. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats.

  5. Plasma branched chain amino acid abnormalities in sake-treated rats.

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    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma amino acid abnormalities in rats treated with large doses of sake and whisky for 3 days were investigated under adequate nutritional conditions. A significant decrease in plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA levels was observed in sake- but not whisky-treated rats. However, known factors affecting BCAA levels, such as serum insulin and plasma glucagon levels ahd BCAA-metabolizing enzyme (BCAA transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activities in the liver and skeletal muscle, were not significantly altered in the sake group. Furthermore, ethanol-metabolizing enzyme (alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system activities in the liver were not altered in the sake group. Other mechanisms need to be considered for explaining the diminished levels of plasma BCAA in sake-treated rats.

  6. Improved sexual behavior in male rats treated with a Chinese herbal extract: hormonal and neuronal implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Zanoli; Augusta Benelli; Manuela Zavatti; Marianna Rivasi; Claudia Baraldi; Mario Baraldi

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of an extract obtained from five Chinese medicinal plants on sexual behavior of adult male rats. Methods: The extract was administered at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg by oral gavage, acutely (one time, 45 rain before mating test) or subchronically (daily for 10 days) in sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impo-tent rats. Sexual behavior, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were evaluated in treated rats and compared with controls receiving vehicle. The effect of the extract on central dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion was assessed in the nucleus accumbens using a microdialysis technique. Results: In sexually potent rats, both acute and subchronic treatment with the extract dosed at 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced mount latency and intromission latency. In sluggish/impotent rats, the acutely administered extract at the dose of 60 mg/kg shortened ejaculation latency, whereas subchronically administered at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The extract dosed at 60 mg/kg significantly increased LH and T following acute and subchronic administration and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the nucleus accumbens, 30 rain after the acute administration. Conclusion: The improvement in both appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior observed in male rats treated with the extract could be scribed to increased serum T level in parallel with the activation of the central dopaminergic system.

  7. Post-natal development of rats` offspring treated with the ethanol extract of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenicity and developmental abnormalities in the offspring of female rats that ingested ethanol extract of Neem plants during pregnancy and lactation period were assessed. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control group and in three experimental groups and treated during the 4th, 5th, and 6th day of pregnancy. After birth, the lactating females received, by gavage, 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 of Neem ethanol extract, during 15 days. Results show, there was no significant difference in body mass index of neonatal rats in the 4 groups evaluated, whereas mean rate of offspring survival was 79.4%. Hair growth, incisor teeth eruption, ear detachment, eyelid opening, and spontaneous ambulation were similar for all groups. Likewise, physical development and development of motor activity, ambulation, and postural reflexes were similar for all groups. The administration of Neem ethanol extract did not cause any reproductive or systemic toxicity in animals. Results show that, Neem ethanol extract safe at doses 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 in pregnant or lactating rats.

  8. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  9. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes.

  10. A quantitative in-vivo MR imaging study of brain dehydration in diabetic rats and rats treated with peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldseth, O; Jones, R A; Skottner, A

    1997-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate the combination of quantitative diffusion, T2 and Magnetisation Transfer Imaging of brain water homeostasis using untreated diabetes as an animal model of brain dehydration. In addition, experimental groups of diabetic rats treated with insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and normal rats treated with IGF-I and growth hormone were studied using the same MR imaging protocol. Untreated diabetes caused weight reduction and an increase in water intake, indicating a general body dehydration linked to chronic blood hyperosmolarity. In the investigated cortical gray matter untreated diabetes caused a significant reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) and an increase in T2 relaxtivity (R2) when compared to a control group. No significant changes were observed for the calculated magnetisation transfer parameters Kfor and T1sat. Both ADC and R2 normalized after appropriate insulin treatment whereas only ADC was normalized after IGF-I treatment. IGF-I treatment of normal rats caused significantly higher rate of increase in body weight compared to normal controls. There were, however, no significant changes in ADC, R2 nor the magnetisation transfer parameters measured in the cortical gray matter of the IGF-I treated normal rats. In conclusion, we found that changes in brain water homeostasis during diabetes were detected by quantitative MR imaging, and that the dehydration induced by diabetes was normalized by insulin treatment but not by IGF-I.

  11. Complete blood count and acetylcholinesterase activity of lymphocytes of demyelinated and ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Danieli B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli; Pagnoncelli, Marcielen; Maciel, Roberto M; Schmatz, Roberta; Oliveira, Lizielle; Morsch, Vera; Facco, Grasiela; Visentini, Diandra; Mann, Thais; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2012-12-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen that has many beneficial actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on the complete blood count (CBC) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of lymphocytes of ovariectomized rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide (EB). Forty adult female Wistar rats (60 days, 200-220 g) were divided randomly into five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the demyelination phase and five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the remyelination phase. In each phase, the groups consisted of sham rats-G1; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated only with vehicle (ethanol 25%)-G2; demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated only with vehicle-G3; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated with resveratrol-G4; and demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol-G5. Only during the remyelination phase, CBC showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of monocytes between G2 and G5 groups. In the demyelination phase, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the AChE activity in the G4 group, while the G5 group was statistically similar to the G1, G2 and G4 groups. In the remyelination phase, there were no significant differences in the AChE activity among the groups. The treatment for 7 days with resveratrol with or without the experimental demyelization with EB appears to influence the AChE activity of lymphocytes, without changing the number of these cells in the circulation. However, in the remyelination phase, there seems to be stabilization in its effect on the lymphocyte AChE activity.

  12. Nicotine ameliorates impairment of working memory in methamphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Takase, Fumiaki; Nagai, Taku; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Toth, Erika; Sato, Jun; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2011-06-20

    Nicotine is hypothesized to have therapeutic effects on attentional and cognitive abnormalities in psychosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on impaired spatial working memory in repeated methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats. Rats were administered METH (4 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 7 days, and their working memory was assessed with a delayed spatial win-shift task in a radial arm maze. The task consisted of two phases, a training phase and a test phase, separated by a delay. Control animals showed impaired performance in the test phase when the delay time was increased to 120 min or longer, while METH-treated rats showed impaired performance with a shorter delay time of 90 min. Memory impairment in METH-treated rats persisted for at least 14 days after drug withdrawal. METH-induced impairment of working memory was reversed by nicotine (0.3mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days), but the effect was diminished 7 days after the withdrawal. In control rats, nicotine decreased the number of working memory errors in the test with delay time of 120 min when administered before the training phase. Neither post-training nor pre-test administration of nicotine had any effect on working memory. These findings suggest that nicotine may have some protective effect against the impairment of working memory.

  13. Pregnant growth restricted female rats have bone gains during late gestation which contributes to second generation adolescent and adult offspring having normal bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo

  14. Reduced bone growth in rats treated with anticonvulsant drugs: a type II pseudohypoparathyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P B; Harris, M; Harvey, W; Papadogeorgakis, N

    1982-01-01

    The effect of anticonvulsant drugs on bone growth and calcium metabolism was studied in Wistar strain rats. Animals were treated for 40-48 days with diphenylhydantoin (DPH) or sodium valproate (SV), or were thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and maintained with thyroxine supplements. Bone growth, measured radiographically as increase in bone length, was reduced by up to 12% in the drug-treated and TPTX groups. Plasma iPTH concentrations were raised twofold- to threefold by DPH and SV. Total plasma calcium was not significantly altered in the DPH-treated rats but was elevated by SV treatment. Similarly, elevated iPTH and normal calcium values were also found in carbamazepine-treated and diazepam-treated rats in a separate experiment. Plasma alkaline phosphatase was reduced by high doses of the drugs. These results imply that anticonvulsant drugs induce end-organ resistance to PTH (a feature of pseudohypoparathyroidism), which may be responsible for some of the skeletal and dental abnormalities found in patients treated with anticonvulsants.

  15. Morphological Analysis of the Enamel Organ in Rats Treated with Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Igor Henrique Morais; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Evêncio, Liriane Baratella; Porter, Stephen Ross; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l.), and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin’s fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 – 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 μm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis. PMID:20126347

  16. Morphological analysis of the enamel organ in rats treated with fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Morais Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l., and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin's fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 - 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 mm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis.

  17. Uso da Ciprofloxacina durante a Prenhez de Ratas: efeitos sobre a Mãe e Fetos Use of Ciprofloxacin in Pregnant Rats: effects on Mother and Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Silva Approbato

    2000-12-01

    , divided into three groups: D50-treated (ciprofloxacin, 50 mg/kg; D100-treated (ciprofloxacin 100 mg/kg and control group which received physiological saline per os, from the 1st to the 7th day after mating. We studied abortion percentage, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, fetal and maternal death, gross fetal malformation, newborn number and weight at 1st, 3rd, 5th and 10th day of life and newborn neurological reflexes at 1st, 3rd, 5th and 10th day of life. Results: there was no difference between groups in the number of rats that became pregnant. The same was found for maternal weight gain and newborn number. There was a difference in newborn mean weight on day 3rd, 5th and 10th (p = 0.006, 0.01 and 0.03, respectively. The D100 newborn group was the one with less weight gain up to the 10th day of life. We found a significant difference (p = 0.002 in the newborn orientation reflex on the 1st day of life, that disappeared afterwards. No abortion or gross malformation was found in this study. Conclusions: ciprofloxacin modified the newborn weight and reflex on the first days of life. In conclusion, we consider that the use of ciprofloxacin should be restricted during the pregnancy.

  18. [Studies on the metabolic fate of gomisin A (TJN-101). II. Absorption and excretion in CCl4 treated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Ono, H; Koguchi, S; Takeda, S; Takeda, S; Funo, S; Aburada, M; Hosoya, E; Oyama, T

    1991-09-01

    The absorption and excretion of gomisin A (TJN-101) in rats whose livers were injured by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated. After intravenous administration of TJN-101 at a dose of 5 mg/kg, the terminal elimination half-life was 1.5 h in the CCl4-treated rats, which was two times that in normal rats. The mean area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) value of TJN-101 in the CCl4-treated rats was twice that in normal rats, and this difference was significant (p less than 0.05). Therefore, the total body clearance of TJN-101 in the CCl4-treated rats decreased less than half of that in normal rats. Similar results were observed when it was administered orally. In the CCl4-treated rats, the serum concentration of Met. B, which was identified as a demethylenated substance and one of major metabolites, tended to decrease more than that in normal rats. On the other hand, the cumulative biliary excretion ratio of TJN-101 in 24 h after dosing in the CCl4-treated rats was 2.5 times that in normal rats. The excretion rate of Met. B in the bile in the CCl4-treated rats tended to be delayed. However, the quantitative variance of biliary excretion of Met. B was not found in both groups. The urinary excretion of TJN-101 or Met. B in 72 h after dosing in the CCl4-treated rats was lower than that in normal rats. Similar results were also observed in excretion in the feces.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Betanin attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in kidney of paraquat-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Wang, Yiheng; Bai, Bing; Yang, Xuelian; Han, Junyan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of natural pigment betanin on oxidative stress and inflammation in kidney of paraquat-treated rat were investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally into rats to induce renal damage. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a paraquat group, and two paraquat groups that were treated with betanin at 25 and 100 mg/kg/d three days before and two days after paraquat administration. Treatment with betanin alleviated the paraquat-incurred acute kidney injury, evidenced by histological improvement, reduced serum and urine markers for kidney injury. Betanin antagonized the paraquat-induced inflammation, indicated by reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, blunted activation of nuclear factor kappa B, and diminished lysosomal protease activities. Betanin also decreased oxidative stress elicited by paraquat. In conclusion, betanin may have a protective effect against paraquat-induced acute kidney damage. The mechanisms of the protection appear to be the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  20. Impaired GABAergic Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex of Early Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP)-Treated Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction...... in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl...... postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life....

  1. Investigation on the role of Spirulina platensis in ameliorating behavioural changes, thyroid dysfunction and oxidative stress in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pratusha, N Gouri; Annamalai, A R

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing sodium fluoride-induced thyroid, neurodevelopment and oxidative alterations in offspring of pregnant rats. The total antioxidant activity, phycocyanins, and β carotene content were quantified in Spirulina. Thirty female pregnant rats were allocated to six groups and treatment initiated orally from embryonic day (ED) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 15. Treatment groups included control, Spirulina alone, sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) alone, and sodium fluoride along with Spirulina (250 and 500 mg/kg). Serum fluoride levels were determined on ED 20 and PND 11. Offspring were subjected to behavioural testing, estimation of thyroid levels, oxidative measurements in brain mitochondrial fraction and histological evaluation of the cerebellum. Fluoride-induced alterations in thyroid hormones, behaviour and increased oxidative stress. Spirulina augmented the displacement of fluoride, facilitated antioxidant formation, improved behaviour and protected Purkinje cells. Supplementing Spirulina during pregnancy could reduce the risk of fluoride toxicity in offspring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HISTOCHEMICAL AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HEPATIC MACROPHAGE SUBFRACTIONS ISOLATED FROM NORMAL AND LIPOSOMAL MURAMYL DIPEPTIDE TREATED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEDEMAKERS, RMJ; ATMOSOERODJOBRIGGS, JE; MORSELT, HWM; DAEMEN, T; SCHERPHOF, GL; HARDONK, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Subfractions of the hepatic macrophage population, differing in cell size, were isolated from normal rats and rats treated with liposomal muramyl dipeptide (lipMDP) and analyzed histochemically and by ultrastructural peroxidase cytochemistry. The majority of cells in all subfractions of control rats

  3. Inhibition and recovery of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity following a single cutaneous dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 days of gestation) were treated with a single cutaneous subclinical dose(s) of 10 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and 65 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of diazinon (O,O)-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidinyl phosphorothioate, and their combination. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Inhibition of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity has been determined. Methyl parathion significantly inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity within 24 h after dosing. Diazinon and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon caused lesser inhibition compared with methyl parathion alone. Recovery of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity was in the order of diazinon > combination of diazinon and methyl parathion > methyl parathion 96 h after dosing. Although fetal plasma BuChE activity recovered to 100% of control within 96 h of application, maternal BuChE activity remained inhibited to 55% and 32% of control 96 h after application of methyl parathion and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon, respectively. Following a single dermal dose of methyl parathion, the activity of maternal liver BuChE was 63% of control 2 h after dosing, whereas inhibition of placental AChE or BuChE activity occurred 12 and 1 h following a single dose of methyl parathion, corresponding to activities of 63% and 54% of control, respectively. Diazinon, alone or in combination with methyl parathion, did not inhibit significantly the maternal liver BuChE or placental AChE and BuChE activity. The results suggest that dermal application of a single dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone or in combination, has an easy access into maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination of methyl parathion and diazinon

  4. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  6. Cellular fibronectin and von Willebrand factor concentrations in plasma of rats treated with monocrotaline pyrrole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, A.E.; Emeis, J.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-treated rat is a useful model for the study of certain chronic pulmonary vascular diseases. A single, i.v. administration of a low dose of MCTP causes pneumotoxicity, pulmonary vascular remodeling, sustained increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventric

  7. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  8. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  9. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of female rats treated with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Oludare, G O

    2011-11-23

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats each were divided into: Group I: (control) received 0.2ml of 0.9% normal saline, group II (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w subcutaneously), group III (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + garlic juice 100mg/kg b.w orally), and group IV (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + Vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w orally). All animals were treated for 21 days. The pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney of the animals were harvested, weighed and homogenized. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were then measured.Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in tissues of nicotine treated rats when compared with the control. In group III and IV, MDA levels were significantly reduced when compared with nicotine group. The activities of SOD and GSH significantly decreased in group II (nicotine only) rat tissues, while it was significantly increased in group III and IV rat tissues. The study showed that garlic juice extract (100mg/kg b.w) and vitamin E (100mg/kg b.w) administration prevented oxidative damage in rat tissues treated with nicotine. The study also showed that vitamin E has a more potent antioxidant activity than garlic juice in preventing nicotine induced oxidative damage in rat.

  10. Zebularine induces long-term survival of pancreatic islet allotransplants in streptozotocin treated diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrietta Nittby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coping with the immune rejection of allotransplants or autologous cells in patients with an active sensitization towards their autoantigens and autoimmunity presently necessitates life-long immune suppressive therapy acting on the immune system as a whole, which makes the patients vulnerable to infections and increases their risk of developing cancer. New technologies to induce antigen selective long-lasting immunosuppression or immune tolerance are therefore much needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DNA demethylating agent Zebularine, previously demonstrated to induce expression of the genes for the immunosuppressive enzymes indolamine-2,3-deoxygenase-1 (IDO1 and kynureninase of the kynurenine pathway, is tested for capacity to suppress rejection of allotransplants. Allogeneic pancreatic islets from Lewis rats were transplanted under the kidney capsule of Fischer rats previously made diabetic by a streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg. One group was treated with Zebularine (225 mg/kg daily for 14 days from day 6 or 8 after transplantation, and a control group received no further treatment. Survival of the transplants was monitored by blood sugar measurements. Rats, normoglycemic for 90 days after allografting, were subjected to transplant removal by nephrectomy to confirm whether normoglycemia was indeed due to a surviving insulin producing transplant, or alternatively was a result of recovery of pancreatic insulin production in some toxin-treated rats. Of 9 Zebularine treated rats, 4 were still normoglycemic after 90 days and became hyperglycemic after nephrectomy. The mean length of normoglycemia in the Zebularine group was 67±8 days as compared to 14±3 days in 9 controls. Seven rats (2 controls and 5 Zebularine treated were normoglycemic at 90 days due to pancreatic recovery as demonstrated by failure of nephrectomy to induce hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Zebularine treatment in vivo induces a long

  11. Increased contraction frequency in rat uterine strips treated in vitro with o,p prime -DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juberg, D.R.; Loch-Caruso, R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Elevated levels of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides have been associated with spontaneous abortion and preterm birth in several species, including humans. Despite the prevalence of organochlorine pesticides in the environment, a mechanistic basis for this association has not been explored. Furthermore, while DDT has been associated with inhibition of calcium ATPases, altered gap junctional communication and electrophysiological changes, all of which could affect the excitation-contraction process characteristic of smooth muscle, direct effects of DDT on uterine smooth muscle have not been reported. This study was initiated to assess the direct effects of o,p{prime}-DDT (an estrogenic isomer present in the technical grade preparation) on pregnant rat uterine tissue.

  12. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared t

  13. Transplantation of primary cultured embryonic mesencephalic neural precursor cells for treating Parkinsonian rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fei; Chengchuan Jiang; Linyin Feng; Yaodong Ji; Zhongliang Ding

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Choosing proper donor cells is one of keys in experimental and clinical studies on cell replacement therapy (CRT) for treating Parkinson disease (PD). Embryonic mesencephalic precursor cells (MPCs) can stably differentiate into dopaminergic neuron after in vitro proliferated culture. As compared with embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell strains, cell composition of embryonic MPCs after primary culture is also the most close to that of embryonic mesencephalic ventral cell suspension without proliferated culture. Successful experience accumulated in the latter suggests that primary cultured embryonic MPCs might be the most potential donor cells in clinical application with CRT for treating PD so far.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of primary cultured embryonic precursor cells cultured primarily as donor cells in CRT for treating PD in rats.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled trial taking SD rats as experimental animals.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out at the Institute of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institute for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences from July 2003 to June 2004. Totally 26 female SD rats,with body mass of 200 to 220 g, were provided by Shanghai Experimental Animal Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences.METHODS: Stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle were perfored to develop PD model rat. Among 26 SD rats, 20 rats achieved a more than 5 turns/min in apomorphine induced rotation test, reaching the standard of PD model rats. Immunohistochemical detection was performed on 1out of 20 model rats after execution, and the other 19 rats were randomly divided into control group (n=5),sham transplantation group (n=5)and cell grafted group (n=9). Primary cultured E12 MPC cell suspension (1.2×1011 L-1)were used as donor cells. 4 μL primary cultured E12 MPC cell suspension prepared freshly was injected

  14. Structural Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Rats with Allergic Bronchial Asthma Treated with Recuperating Lung Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG YanHua; SHI Qi; HAN Na; ZHANG Ling; ZHANG YuanYuan; GAO TongXin; CHENChen; LIYouLin

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether recuperating lung decoction (RLD) can modulate the composition of gut microbiota in rats during asthma treatment. MethodsFifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly and equally into control group, model group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, RLD medium-dose group, and RLD high-dose group. The asthma model was established in all groups, except for the control group. The rats in the DEX and RLD groups were treated orally with DEX and RLD, respectively. The rats in the control and model groups were treated orally with 0.9% saline. The intestinal bacterial communities were compared among groups using 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing. ResultsThe microbial flora differed between the control and model groups, but the flora in the RLD groups was similar to that in the control group. No significant differences were observed between the RLD high-dose and medium-dose groups. RLD treatment resulted in an increase in the level beneficial bacteria in the gut, such asLactobacillusandBifidobacteriumspp. ConclusionOral administration of RLD increased the number of intestinal lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus andBifidobacterium, in asthma model rats.

  15. Reduced sympathetic neurite outgrowth on uterine tissue sections from rats treated with estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeri, Analía; Bianchimano, Paola; Crutcher, Keith A; Brauer, M Mónica

    2010-05-01

    In order to evaluate the contribution of substrate-bound factors to the extent and patterning of the sympathetic innervation of rat uterus following estrogen treatment, superior cervical ganglion explants from neonatal and adult ovariectomized rats were cultured on tissue sections of fresh frozen uterus from adult ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen or a vehicle. The main findings were: (1) neurite growth was greatly influenced by histological features of the underlying section; (2) on myometrial sections, neurites followed the orientation of the main axis of the longitudinally sectioned muscle cells; (3) neurites showed limited growth on transversally sectioned smooth muscle; (4) neuritic patterning was unaffected by a reduction in migrating ganglionic non-neuronal cells; (5) neurite outgrowth, but not non-neural cell migration, was markedly reduced on myometrial sections from rats treated with estrogen. These results suggest that adult myometrium continues to provide signals allowing the organotypic patterning and growth of sympathetic axons, that estrogen treatment modifies myometrial substrate properties so that it is less supportive for sympathetic neurite growth, and that adult sympathetic neurons retain their ability to recognize substrate-bound cues present in the myometrium. On endometrial sections, neurites formed radially symmetric halos, which were reduced in size on estrogen-treated endometrial substrates. Thus, changes in the neuritogenic capacity of the uterus underlie plasticity in uterine sympathetic nerves, and alterations in substrate-bound factors contribute to the diminished receptivity of the estrogenized uterus to its sympathetic innervation.

  16. A New Slow Releasing, H2S Generating Compound, GYY4137 Relaxes Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractions of Human and Rat Pregnant Myometrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hayley; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM–1 mM) and NaHS (1 mM) were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term) gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i) H2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii) that H2S affects L-type calcium channels and KATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii) add to the evidence that H2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv) H2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility. PMID:23029460

  17. A new slow releasing, H₂S generating compound, GYY4137 relaxes spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractions of human and rat pregnant myometrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Robinson

    Full Text Available Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H(2S has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H(2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H(2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H(2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM-1 mM and NaHS (1 mM were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i H(2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii that H(2S affects L-type calcium channels and K(ATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii add to the evidence that H(2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv H(2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility.

  18. Sipa1l1 is an early biomarker of liver fibrosis in CCl4-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Marfà

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, several procedures are used for staging liver fibrosis. However, these methods may involve clinical complications and/or present diagnostic uncertainty mainly in the early stages of the disease. Thus, this study was designed to unveil new non-invasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis in an in vivo model of fibrosis/cirrhosis induction by CCl4 inhalation by using a label-free quantitative LC-MS/MS approach. We analyzed 94 serum samples from adult Wistar rats with different degrees of liver fibrosis and 36 control rats. Firstly, serum samples from 18 CCl4-treated rats were clustered into three different groups according to the severity of hepatic and the serum proteome was characterized by label-free LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, three different pooled serum samples obtained from 16 control Wistar rats were also analyzed. Based on the proteomic data obtained, we performed a multivariate analysis which displayed three main cell signaling pathways altered in fibrosis. In cirrhosis, more biological imbalances were detected as well as multi-organ alterations. In addition, hemopexin and signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 1 (SIPA1L1 were selected as potential serum markers of liver fibrogenesis among all the analyzed proteins. The results were validated by ELISA in an independent group of 76 fibrotic/cirrhotic rats and 20 controls which confirmed SIPA1L1 as a potential non-invasive biomarker of liver fibrosis. In particular, SIPA1L1 showed a clear diminution in serum samples from fibrotic/cirrhotic rats and a great accuracy at identifying early fibrotic stages. In conclusion, the proteomic analysis of serum samples from CCl4-treated rats has enabled the identification of SIPA1L1 as a non-invasive marker of early liver fibrosis.

  19. Extracellular ATP decreases trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling and immune cells in the mesometrial triangle in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, F.; Melgert, B. N.; Chiang, C.; Borghuis, T.; Klok, P. A.; de Vos, P.; van Goor, H.; Bakker, W.W.; Faas, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is characterized by deficient trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, a process governed by inflammatory cells. High levels of the danger signal extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have been found in women with preeclampsia and infusion of ATP in pregnant

  20. Prostanoid production in the presence of platelet activation in hypoxic cocaine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G; Graziani, M; Sorrentino, C; Caprino, L

    1996-01-01

    To extend our previous in vitro data, we investigated the effects of cocaine on thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production in vivo in the rat. To obtain the slight platelet activation that our in vitro experiments showed useful to highlight the effect of cocaine, we infused cocaine in rats in the presence of platelet-activating factors (circulation of blood through a perspex vascular device or by infusion of sodium arachidonate) and in various respiratory conditions. Experiments were conducted in rats breathing atmospheric air (normoxic conditions) and in rats breathing an oxygen-poor mixture (hypoxic conditions). In rats under hypoxic conditions cocaine invariably increased TXA2 plasma levels, whereas in normoxic conditions it increased TXA2 only in the presence of platelet-activating factors. Cocaine significantly increased PGI2 plasma levels in arachidonate-treated rats in hypoxic respiratory conditions; in normoxic conditions cocaine left PGI2 levels unchanged. These results support the hypothesis that in cocaine users who have concomitant pathological conditions able to activate platelets, such as atherosclerosis, coronary vasospasm or ischaemia, or both, cocaine may contribute to the onset of thrombotic phenomena by interfering with the prostaglandin system.

  1. Differential expression of parvalbumin interneurons in neonatal phencyclidine treated rats and socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical...... cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following...

  2. Changes in antioxidant defense status in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with Ajuga iva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, S; Lamri-Senhadji, M; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) on serum and tissues lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzymes activities in red blood cells (RBC) and tissues, in high hypercholesterolemic rats (HC). Male Wistar rats (n=12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15d. After this adaptation phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (total cholesterol=6.5+/-0.6mol/l) were divided into two groups fed the same diet and treated or not with Ai for 15d. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in serum, LDL-HDL(1), HDL(2) and HDL(3) were respectively, 5-, 7.8-, 2.3- and 5-fold lower in Ai treated than untreated hypercholesterolemic groups. TBARS concentrations were 1.4-fold lower in heart and 2.8-fold higher in kidney in Ai-HC treated than untreated HC group. Superoxide dismutase activity was respectively, 1.2- and 1.4-fold higher in RBC and muscle in Ai treated than untreated group. In RBC, Ajuga iva treatment enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (+9%) and glutathione reductase (GSSH-Red) (+12%) in Ai-HC treated than untreated HC group. GSSH-Red activity was 1.4- and 1.5-fold higher in adipose tissue and heart, respectively and 3.7-fold lower in kidney in Ai treated than untreated group. Liver catalase activity was 1.6-fold higher in Ai treated than untreated group. Adipose tissue and muscle total glutathione content represented in Ai treated group 35% and 36% of the value noted in untreated group. Nitric oxide values of liver, adipose tissue and heart were 3.3-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher in Ai-HC than HC group. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced alpha-tocopherol contents (+25%) in Ai treated than untreated group. In conclusion, Ajuga iva treatment is more effective to improve the antioxidant capacity of RBC than that of tissues. Indeed, Ai is able to reduce the oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic rats by increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity.

  3. Relaxant effect of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the nonpregnant and pregnant rat uterus. Comparison with vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, A; Schirar, A; Germain, G

    1998-04-01

    To explore the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat pregnancy, we determined the density of myometrial CGRP-encoded nerve fibre terminals and examined, in an organ bath, the relaxant effect of the peptide on uterine strips near parturition. Comparisons were made with the uterus and aorta of nonpregnant rats. In the myometrium, CGRP immunoreactive nerve fibers were abundant in nonpregnant rats and scarce at the parturient stage. In the aorta there was no variation in the density of CGRP fibres with gestation. In nonpregnant rats only, CGRP relaxed spontaneous and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive electrically-evoked uterine contractions (EC50 40 nM, Emax 80%). The effect was antagonized by CGRP[8-37] (pKB 6.47) but was not affected by either blockers of nitricoxid synthase or ATP-sensitive potassium channels. CGRP was also able to relax contractions evoked by direct depolarization of the cells (TTX-insensitive contractions) (EC50, 2 nM, Emax 70%). In aorta contracted with arginine vasopressin, CGRP-induced relaxation was the same in nonpregnant and parturient animals. It was antagonized by CGRP [8-371 (pKB 6.90) and was abolished in presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Amylin neither relaxed the uterus nor the aorta. In pregnant rats, the relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus was limited on day 21 and was totally absent on day 22 of gestation. We conclude that the primary relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus occurs at the level of myometrial smooth muscle cells. In the myometrium, gestation decreases CGRP innervation and impairs the relaxant responses to CGRP. Such changes are not observed in vascular tissues like aorta.

  4. [Comparative study of the distribution of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in the organs of pregnant rats and their fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, L N; Aleksandrov, V A

    1980-03-01

    On the 21st day of pregnancy rats were injected intravenously with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in a dose of 15 mg/kg. After 30, 60 and 180 min the content of the preparation was determined by the fluorescent-spectral method in the organs of females (liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, spleen and placenta) and in their fetuses (liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, intestine, "carcasses" and intact fetus). In the course of all experimental periods the female rats showed the highest concentration of DMBA in the lungs. The concentration of DMBA in all organs of pregnant rats diminished while in the brain it increased with time elapsed after injection. The fetuses showed uneven distribution of the carcinogen in the organs only 60 min after DMBA injection, the highest content being recorded in the liver. The maximum content of the carcinogen was detected in all organs of the fetus by the 60th minute. DMBA accumulation in fetal organs did not correlate with the evidence on predominant occurrence of tumours in the kidneys and the nervous system of the progeny in transplacental effect of DMBA administered in the same dose.

  5. A novel combination of Chinese medicines to treat advanced cancers and lymphomas in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterhouse Dawn N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese medicine often targets more than one system and as such comprises several compounds, often in non-purified form, with treatments therefore consisting of whole extracts of herbs rather than isolated compounds. The additive and synergistic effects of the phytochemicals in OMN54, a novel mixture of extracts from three commonly used Chinese medicine components; Ganoderma lucidum, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Scutellaria barbata, were previously demonstrated to have potent anti-cancer activity. This study aims to test whether this heterogeneous, multifunctional and multitargeted agent has an acceptable toxicity profile. Methods We conducted preliminary and formal preclinical tolerability determination of OMN54 in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the preliminary study rats were given OMN54 by oral feeding daily for 14 days at doses of 1000 mg/kg, 1750 mg/kg, 2500 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg per day. A subsequent daily dosing (x 28, 60, 120 or 180 formal toxicology study was conducted in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of single dose of 2000 mg/kg/day. Results Significant body weight loss was noted in one of the rats treated at 3000 mg/kg/day, with decline beginning study day 11. This animal experienced mild GI toxicity in the form of diarrhoea. Gross observation indicated kidney damage (pale kidneys in both this group and in one rat treated at 2500 mg/kg/day. For the later studies, no body weight loss was noted over the course of the study. Blood counts and chemistry were not substantially altered following administration of OMN54, nor were there any findings on histological assessment of organs. Conclusion OMN54 was found to be well tolerated in rat models. OMN54 did not cause any microscopic, anatomic or pathologic changes in exposed animals at the concentrations and under the conditions employed in this study.

  6. Angiogenesis inhibition causes hypertension and placental dysfunction in a rat model of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wentzel, Parri; Skøtt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    successively increased during pregnancy and differed by 17 mmHg at gestational day 20 compared with the pregnant control rats. In the pregnant Suramin-treated rats group, the renin levels increased (+122%) and the sFlt-1 levels decreased (-58%) during pregnancy. The pregnant Suramin-treated fetuses......BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication, accompanied by increased maternal and fetal morbidity. Different models have been used to study preeclampsia, but none of these display all the key features of the disease. METHOD: We investigated the effects on maternal blood pressure...... and fetal outcome exerted by the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin (100 mg/kg i.p.) during early placentation. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured continuously with telemetry in Sprague-Dawley rats of four experimental groups: nonpregnant controls, Suramin-treated nonpregnant rats, pregnant controls...

  7. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways.

  8. Free serum testosterone level in male rats treated with tribulus alatus extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. El-Tantawy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions. RESULTS: All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract. CONCLUSION: Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.

  9. Histological changes in testes of rats treated with testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Surindar Singh, Gurmeet Kaur; Mohd Shah, Aishah; Mohamad, Mashani; Mani, Vasudevan; Hussin, Siti Nooraishah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is being used in medical treatments, but AAS also was identified to have the risks of adverse effects towards patients and consumers health. Objective: Present study was conducted to observe the effects of testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol (forms of AAS) intake during onset of puberty on the rat testicular histology. Materials and Methods: Juvenile male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=42) were divided into seven groups and were injected subcutaneously with medium dose of polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200) (control), testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol for six weeks (PND 41-87). The animals were weighed daily and sacrificed on PND 88. Testes were removed, weighed, and prepared for histological assessment and finally specimens were observed under microscope. Results: The results showed an insignificant increase in mean daily body weight with highest and lowest body weight gained was of 177.6±1.69 gr and 140.0±12.26 gr respectively. There was significant decrease in the testes absolute weight (p≤0.01) in all experimental groups except in the nandrolone 2.5 mg/kg/week treated group. Testicular histology of rats treated with AAS also showed slight changes in the uniformity of arrangements of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Data from present study suggests that AAS have been initiating the adverse effects on testicular normal functions in rats during onset of puberty. PMID:24639803

  10. Metabolomic analysis reveals metabolic disturbance in the cortex and hippocampus of subchronic MK-801 treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of proteins and genes relevant to schizophrenia have been identified in recent years, few are known about the exact metabolic pathway involved in this disease. Our previous proteomic study has revealed the energy metabolism abnormality in subchronic MK-801 treated rat, a well-established animal model for schizophrenia. This prompted us to further investigate metabolite levels in the same rat model to better delineate the metabolism dysfunctions and provide insights into the pathology of schizophrenia. METHODS: Metabolomics, a high-throughput investigatory strategy developed in recent years, can offer comprehensive metabolite-level insights that complement protein and genetic findings. In this study, we employed a nondestructive metabolomic approach (1H-MAS-NMR to investigate the metabolic traits in cortex and hippocampus of MK-801 treated rats. Multivariate statistics and ingenuity pathways analyses (IPA were applied in data processing. The result was further integrated with our previous proteomic findings by IPA analysis to obtain a systematic view on our observations. RESULTS: Clear distinctions between the MK-801 treated group and the control group in both cortex and hippocampus were found by OPLS-DA models (with R(2X = 0.441, Q(2Y = 0.413 and R(2X = 0.698, Q(2Y = 0.677, respectively. The change of a series of metabolites accounted for the separation, such as glutamate, glutamine, citrate and succinate. Most of these metabolites fell in a pathway characterized by down-regulated glutamate synthesis and disturbed Krebs cycle. IPA analysis further confirmed the involvement of energy metabolism abnormality induced by MK-801 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our metabolomics findings reveal systematic changes in pathways of glutamate metabolism and Krebs cycle in the MK-801 treated rats' cortex and hippocampus, which confirmed and improved our previous proteomic observation and served as a valuable reference to

  11. Characterization of the 107S peak on hepatic polysomal profiles from carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, H.S.; Holbrook, D.J. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    A peak intermediate to the monomer and dimer peaks on hepatic polysomal profiles of CCl/sub 4/-treated rats (1 ml/kg for 3 h) was characterized. The intermediate peak had a sedimentation coefficient of 107S. The ratio of the 18S:28S ribosomal RNA in the isolated 107S material showed that the 107S structure consisted of a complex containing one 40S and two 60S ribosomal subunits.

  12. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of pycnogenol(®) on rats treated with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Birsen; Unsal, Meftun; Sekeroglu, Zulal A; Gülbahar, Yavuz

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced toxicity. Pycnogenol® is known for its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the possible protective effects of pycnogenol on kidney, bone marrow, and red blood cells in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. The rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control and groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally treated with pycnogenol (200 mg/kg bw, o.p) for 5 days, treated with cisplatin (7 mg/kg bw, i.p.) on the fifth day and treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol, respectively. Antioxidative parameters in kidney and red blood cells were measured. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow and renal histopathology were also investigated. Activities of pro-oxidant enzymes (myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase), malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels significantly increased but antioxidant enzymes activities decreased in the kidneys and red blood cells after cisplatin treatment. Pycnogenol treatment prior to the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased cisplatin-induced injury, as evidenced by its normalizing these parameters. Chromosomal aberrations decreased and mitotic index frequencies increased in bone marrow treated with cisplatin plus pycnogenol. These findings suggest that pycnogenol may be a useful protective agent against the toxicity associated with cisplatin therapy.

  13. Differential expression of parvalbumin in neonatal phencyclidine-treated rats and socially isolated rats.

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    Kaalund, Sanne S; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian V; Fabricius, Katrine; Karlsen, Anna S; Secher, Thomas; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2013-02-01

    Decreased parvalbumin expression is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has been associated with abnormal cognitive processing and decreased network specificity. It is not known whether this decrease is due to reduced expression of the parvalbumin protein or degeneration of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study, we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical fractionator, we counted neurons, PV(+) interneurons, and glial cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC). In addition, we quantified the mRNA level of parvalbumin in the mPFC. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of PV(+) interneurons (p = 0.021) and glial cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats, but not in SI rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following phencyclidine (PCP) treatment, we suggest that the decreased number of counted PV(+) interneurons represents a reduced parvalbumin protein expression below immunohistochemical detection limit rather than a true cell loss. Furthermore, these results indicate that the effect of neonatal PCP treatment is not limited to neuronal populations.

  14. Reproductive performance of rats treated with defatted jojoba meal or simmondsin before or during gestation.

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    Cokelaere, M; Daenens, P; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Kühn, E; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S

    1998-01-01

    The effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance parameters of defatted jojoba meal and pure simmondsin, an extract from jojoba meal, were compared in female Wistar rats. Rats fed 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal (equivalent to 0.15% simmondsin) for 8 weeks before conception showed a similar reduction in food intake (about 20%) and a similar growth retardation compared with controls. Both treatments induced a reduction in the number of corpora lutea on gestation day 16: this effect could be ascribed to the lower food intake before conception because it was also observed in rats pair-fed to the treated ones. Rats given feed containing 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal during days 1-16 of gestation showed a similar reduction in food intake relative to controls. Foetal and placental weights were reduced, relative to controls, to a similar extent in both groups, and the reductions were slightly greater than in the corresponding pair-fed groups. We conclude that the effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance that were seen after feeding rats defatted jojoba meal were due to the simmondsin content of the meal. The simmondsin induced reduction in food intake and probably also a relative protein shortage.

  15. Memory and hippocampal architecture following short-term midazolam in western diet-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Dorothea S; Falangola, Maria F; Ledreux, Aurélie; Nie, Xingju; Suhre, Wendy M; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-05-16

    The impact of short-term benzodiazepine exposure on cognition in middle-aged or older patients is a highly debated topic among anesthesiologists, critical care physicians and public media. "Western diet" (WD) consumption is linked to impaired cognition as well. The combination of benzodiazepines with substantial exposure to WD might set the stage for increased hippocampal vulnerability for benzodiazepines leading to exaggerated cognitive impairment in the postoperative period. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were fed either WD or standard rodent diet from 5 to 10.5 months of age. Rats were exposed to midazolam or placebo two days prior to an MRI scan using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to assess brain microstructural integrity, followed by behavioral testing using a water radial arm maze. Hippocampal tissue was collected to assess alterations in protein biochemistry in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Our results showed that rats exposed to the combination of midazolam and WD had significantly delayed time of learning and exhibited spatial memory impairment. Further, we observed an overall increase of kurtosis metrics in the hippocampus and increased expression of the mitochondrial protein VDAC2 in midazolam-treated rats. Our data suggest that both the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam and WD contribute to negatively affect the brain in middle-aged rats. This study is the first application of DKI on the effects of midazolam and WD exposure, and the findings demonstrate that diffusion metrics are sensitive indicators of changes in the complexity of neurite architecture.

  16. Alterations in gonado somatic index, seminogram and testosterone profiles in rats treated with hexaconazole

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    P. Ravi Kumar,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaconazole, a triazole fungicide is widely used in crop protection. The ability of the triazoles to inhibit cytochromes P450 dependent enzymes that play an important role in steroid hormone synthesis has been reported earlier. Hence, the possible effect of hexaconazole on male accessory sex organs, seminogram and serum testosterone level was studied in male rats. A total of eighty wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks, were randomly assigned to four groups, each with twenty rats. Group I served as control and received corn oil per os @ 1ml/kg body weight. Groups II, III and IV were given hexaconazole suspension in corn oil daily @ 22.5 55.0 and 110.0mg/kg, per os , orally. Ten rats in each group were sacrificed on 30th day, while the remaining ten rats were sacrificed on 60th day. Weights of testis, prostate gland and seminal vesicles were recorded in all the rats and epididymal sperm reserve was analyzed for seminogram. Testosterone levels were also studied in the serum of treated rats. Results indicated that hexaconazole significantly decreased the weights of testis, prostate and seminal glands, indicating a decrease in gonado somatic index. The seminogram was found adversely affected in terms of decreased total epididymal sperm count and motility and increased dead sperm percent and abnormal sperm percent. Serum testosterone levels were found significantly lowered by hexaconazole both after 30 days and 60 days treatments. Decreased gonado somatic index was attributed to decreased circulating testosterone levels. Adverse affects on seminogram might have occurred from lowered testosterone levels as well as alterations in epididymal milieu due to possible presence of hexaconazole and/or its metabolites.

  17. Erlotinib preserves renal function and prevents salt retention in doxorubicin treated nephrotic rats.

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    Raed N Bou Matar

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome is associated with up-regulation of the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF. Erlotinib blocks the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in response to HB-EGF. This study investigates the effect of Erlotinib on the progression of proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and salt retention in doxorubicin treated nephrotic rats. Male rats were divided into 3 pair-fed groups (n = 13/group as follows: Control rats (Ctrl; rats receiving intravenous doxorubicin (Dox; and rats receiving intravenous doxorubicin followed by daily oral Erlotinib (Dox + Erl. Upon establishment of high grade proteinuria, urine sodium and creatinine clearance were measured. Kidney tissue was dissected and analyzed for γ-epithelial sodium channel (γENaC, sodium-potassium -chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2, sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC, aquaporin 2 (AQP2, and EGFR abundances using western blot. Creatinine clearance was preserved in the Dox + Erl rats as compared to the Dox group (in ml/min: Ctrl: 5.2±.5, Dox: 1.9±0.3, Dox + Erl: 3.6±0.5. Despite a minimal effect on the degree of proteinuria, Erlotinib prevented salt retention (Urinary Na in mEq/d: Ctrl: 2.2±0.2, Dox: 1.8±0.3, Dox + Erl: 2.2±0.2. The cleaved/uncleaved γENaC ratio was increased by 41±16% in the Dox group but unchanged in the Dox + Erl group when compared to Ctrl. The phosphorylated EGFR/total EGFR ratio was reduced by 74±7% in the Dox group and by 77±4% in the Dox + Erl group. In conclusion, Erlotinib preserved renal function and prevented salt retention in nephrotic rats. The observed effects do not appear to be mediated by direct blockade of EGFR.

  18. Histomorphometry of the organic matrix of the femur in ovariectomized rats treated with sodium alendronate

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    Patricia Tanios Haddad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two different concentrations of sodium alendronate on the quantity of organic matrix in the femur of rats with estrogen suppression caused by ovariectomy.METHODS: Sixty-days-old Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus were subjected to bilateral laparotomy to remove the ovaries. The animals were divided into a control group, in which they only underwent laparotomy; an ovariectomized group (OVX; an ovariectomized group treated with 1 mg/kg of alendronate (OVX 1 mg; and an ovariectomized group treated with 2 mg/kg of alendronate (OVX 2 mg. The rats received alendronate twice a week for 90 days. The left femur was then removed, fixed and processed for embedding in paraffin. Semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were used to determine the area occupied by organic bone matrix, by means of image analysis software. The animals' weights were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment.RESULTS: The ovariectomized animals and those treated with 1 mg/kg of alendronate presented significant increases in body weight (p 0.05 to that of the non-ovariectomized control animals (2,04,800 ± 9590, which indicates that this medication had a preventive effect with regard to bone mass loss.CONCLUSION: The higher concentration of the medication, administered twice a week for 90 days, was more effective than the dose of 1 mg/kg over the same period.

  19. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  20. Effects of uteroplacental restriction on the relaxin-family receptors, Lgr7 and Lgr8, in the uterus of late pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Wlodek, Mary E; Parry, Laura J

    2007-01-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin stimulates uterine growth and endometrial angiogenesis and inhibits myometrial contractions in a variety of species. The receptor for relaxin is a leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor Lgr7 (RXFP1) that is highly expressed in the myometrium of late pregnant mice, with a significant decrease in receptor density observed at term. The present study first compared the expression of Lgr7 with another relaxin-family receptor Lgr8 (RXFP2) in the uterus and placenta of late pregnant rats. The uterus was separated into endometrial and myometrial components, and the myometrium into fetal and non-fetal sites, for further analysis. We then assessed the response of these receptors to uteroplacental restriction (UPR). Expression of the Lgr7 gene was significantly higher in the uterus compared with the placenta. Within the uterus, on Day 20 of gestation, there was equivalent expression of Lgr7 in fetal and non-fetal sites of the myometrium, as well as in the endometrium v. myometrium. The second receptor investigated, Lgr8, was also expressed in the endometrium and myometrium, but at significantly lower levels than Lgr7. Bilateral ligation of the maternal uterine blood vessels on Day 18 of gestation resulted in uteroplacental restriction, a decrease in fetal weight and litter size, and a significant upregulation in uterine, but not placental, Lgr7 and Lgr8 gene expression in UPR animals compared with controls. These data suggest that both relaxin family receptors are upregulated in response to a reduction in uteroplacental blood flow in rats.

  1. Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb Leaves

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    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaloids from Senna alata leaves implicated as the active constituents of abortifacient are yet to be investigated for their effects on the normal functioning of the maternal liver and kidney. Therefore, the effects of crude alkaloids on some biochemical indices of kidney and liver damage were investigated in pregnant rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into 4 groups: A (control, B, C, and D and were orally administered 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the alkaloids respectively once daily on days 10-18 post coitum. Results: Thin-layer chromatographic separation gave five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47, and 0.55 that produced creamy precipitate and reddish-brown colour, respectively, with Mayer’s and Wagner’s reagents. Quantitative determination gave 0.30 g which corresponded to a percentage yield of 1.50 % of the alkaloids. The decreases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases in the liver and kidney of the animals by the alkaloids were accompanied by corresponding increases in the serum enzymes. The alkaloids reduced liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum globulin, urea, uric acid, and phosphate ions while the serum concentrations of albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, potassium ions, AST/ALT ratio, blood urea nitrogen: creatinine increased. The levels of sodium, calcium, and chloride ions did not change significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Overall, the alkaloid at doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight produced permeability changes in the plasma membrane of the organs and adversely affected the normal secretory, synthetic, and excretory functions of these organs.

  2. Exercise training enhances insulin-stimulated nerve arterial vasodilation in rats with insulin-treated experimental diabetes.

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    Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Grisé, Kenneth N; Dey, Adwitia; Allen, Matti D; Medeiros, Philip J; Lacefield, James C; Jackson, Dwayne N; Rice, Charles L; Melling, C W James; Noble, Earl G; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2014-06-15

    Insulin stimulates nerve arterial vasodilation through a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) mechanism. Experimental diabetes reduces vasa nervorum NO reactivity. Studies investigating hyperglycemia and nerve arterial vasodilation typically omit insulin treatment and use sedentary rats resulting in severe hyperglycemia. We tested the hypotheses that 1) insulin-treated experimental diabetes and inactivity (DS rats) will attenuate insulin-mediated nerve arterial vasodilation, and 2) deficits in vasodilation in DS rats will be overcome by concurrent exercise training (DX rats; 75-85% VO2 max, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 10 wk). The baseline index of vascular conductance values (VCi = nerve blood flow velocity/mean arterial blood pressure) were similar (P ≥ 0.68), but peak VCi and the area under the curve (AUCi) for the VCi during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC; 10 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were lower in DS rats versus control sedentary (CS) rats and DX rats (P ≤ 0.01). Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was lower in DS rats versus CS rats and DX rats (P ≤ 0.01). When compared with DS rats, DX rats expressed greater nerve endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein content (P = 0.04). In a separate analysis, we examined the impact of diabetes in exercise-trained rats alone. When compared with exercise-trained control rats (CX), DX rats had a lower AUCi during the EHC, lower MNCV values, and lower sciatic nerve eNOS protein content (P ≤ 0.03). Therefore, vasa nervorum and motor nerve function are impaired in DS rats. Such deficits in rats with diabetes can be overcome by concurrent exercise training. However, in exercise-trained rats (CX and DX groups), moderate hyperglycemia lowers vasa nervorum and nerve function.

  3. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

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    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  4. A toxicidade do Hypericum perforatum administrado a ratas prenhes Evaluation of Hypericum perforatum toxicity when administered to pregnant rats

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    Luciana Valente Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho foi avaliada a toxicidade do H. perforatum administrado a ratas no período de organogênese (9º ao 15º dia de gestação. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratas Wistar inseminadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente nos grupos controle e tratado, que receberam, respectivamente, 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica e 36 mg/kg de extrato seco de Jarsin diluídos em 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica por gavagem. A toxicidade materna foi avaliada por: consumo de água e ração, peso corporal, piloereção, deambulação, diarréia e ocorrência de mortes. As ratas foram sacrificadas no 21º dia de gestação, quando foram removidos e pesados: rins, fígado e ovários. Foram calculados os índices de implantação e de reabsorção e foi verificado o número médio de fetos por rata. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados sinais clínicos de toxicidade materna e nenhuma das variáveis analisadas apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos experimentais. CONCLUSÃO: Na dose administrada e no modelo experimental utilizado, o Hypericum perforatum não apresenta manifestações tóxicas para ratas prenhas no período de organogênese.BACKGROUND: Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: In the present paper, the toxicity of H. perforatum administered to female rats during organogenesis (9th to 15th day of pregnancy was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty inseminated Wistar rats were randomly distributed into Control and Treated groups, which received by gavage, respectively, 0.5 ml of saline and 36 mg/Kg body weight of Jarsin dried extract diluted into 0.5 ml of saline. Maternal toxicity was evaluated by means of: water and food intake, body weight, piloerection, walking activity, diarrhea and death. Animals were killed on the 21st day of pregnancy, when kidneys, liver and ovaries were weighed. Implantation and reabsorption indices

  5. Ultra structural study of the rat cheek epithelium treated with Neem extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Arshad; Khatoon, Nasira; Ghaffar, Rizwana Abdul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neem extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the ultrastructure of the rat oral epithelium, because neem extract has been added in the tooth paste as an anti-plaque-forming substance in Asian countries. The non-toxic dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of Neem extract (NBE) was applied daily to the surface of buccal epithelium for four weeks and controls did not receive Neem extract. After four weeks cheek epithelial tissues were excised and processed for light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy did not show significant differences between NBE-treated and control epithelium. Difference between control and treated rats weight was non-significant. Moreover, time period was also non-significant. Irregular cell surfaces were noticed when compared to control specimens when examined by scanning electron microscopy. Under transmission electron microscopy, wider intercellular spaces were observed in the treated epithelial spinous cellular layers when compared to control. Further, more keratohyalin granules were present in experimental granular cells. It was concluded that present study showed differences between Neem-treated and control in epithelial tissues but these structural differences may not be related to adverse side effects of the Neem extract.

  6. Study on effect of Baisha Green tea extract on blood pressure in treating spontaneous hypertension rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-rui Yu; Li-ping Ji; Yi-hong He; Jing Zhou; Chang-yan Wu; Qi-bing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect and Mechanisms of Baisha Greentea extract on blood pressure in treating spontaneous hypertension rats.Methods:The 60 primary hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into hypertension of control group, amlodipine besylate group and the high, medium and low dose group of green tea extract of five groups, with twelve rats in each group. All treatments were given through oral, and the control group with distilled water. Each measurement of rat blood pressure was detected in the morning every week. After 7 weeks treatment, blood was collected from the rat abdominal aorta for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and level of plasma angiotensin II. At the same time, heart tissue was embedded in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde fixation, paraffin and sectioned, And then observe the changes of histopathological after HE staining. Results: Compared with the SHR control group, Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of essential hypertension in high dose group and middle dose group and Amlodipine group had significantly reduced. At the same time, the NO and SOD contents of Baisha Greentea extract in high dose group (200 mg•kg-1•d-1) and middle dose group (100 mg•kg-1•d-1) and Amlodipine group (0.5 mg•kg-1•d-1) had significantly increased.Conclusion:Long-term ingestion of Baisha Greentea extract could significantly elevated serum NO and SOD levels of SHR, reduce the level of plasma angiotensinⅡ to common level, while reversed the hypertensive rat myocardial remodeling effectively.

  7. Role of Kupffer cells in reperfusion injury in fat-loaded livers from ethanol-treated rats.

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    Zhong, Z; Connor, H D; Mason, R P; Qu, W; Gao, W; Lemasters, J J; Thurman, R G

    1995-12-01

    Reperfusion injury was studied in blood-free perfused livers from fat-loaded, ethanol-treated rats. Rats were pair-fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing 36% calories as ethanol or isocaloric maltose-dextrin for 4 to 5 weeks. Reperfusion injury to the liver, which occurs in previously hypoxic regions upon reintroduction of oxygen, was studied in a low-flow, reflow perfusion model. Lactate dehydrogenase in effluent perfusate increased from basal levels of < 1 to 17 IU/g/h in livers from controls, whereas prior alcohol treatment elevated values to 37 IU/g/h. Pretreatment of rats with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3, 20 mg/kg i.v.), a selective Kupffer cell toxicant, minimized lactate dehydrogenase release during reperfusion to 7 to 8 IU/g/h in livers from both groups. Rates of malondialdehyde production were 144 and 166 nmol/g/h during reperfusion in control and alcohol-treated rats, respectively, but values reached only 54 and 79 nmol/g/h after GdCl3 treatment. Interestingly, a typical PBN/carbon-centered free radical adduct signal was detected in bile of livers from ethanol-treated rats, but not in controls or ethanol-treated rats given GdCl3. Portal pressure increased during the reperfusion period in livers from alcohol-treated rats, although not in controls, and GdCl3 reduced it significantly. Taken together, these data indicate that reperfusion injury is greater in fatty livers from alcohol-treated rats in a blood-free model. Inactivation of Kupffer cells minimized reperfusion injury in both control and alcohol-treated rats, most likely by diminishing lipid peroxidation thereby improving hepatic microcirculation.

  8. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine

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    M Artico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lonidamine (LND or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl-1H-indazole-3- carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22°C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w. as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22°C, rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%, each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors’ structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND. Neurotrophins (NTs appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF, that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role.We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat, neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75 in the seminiferous tubules of

  9. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

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    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala, glutamyl- (Glu, leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p0.259 with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  10. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats

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    Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups.It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  11. Functional changes in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons in the chronic methamphetamine-treated rat.

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    Hori, Nobuaki; Kadota, Tomoko; Akaike, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic treatment of rats with methamphetamine (MAP) causes a range of functional changes to the central nervous system (CNS), including a toxicity that is widespread throughout the brain (Frost and Cadet 2000; Fasihpour et al. 2013). In this report, we examined the effect of chronic MAP treatment on pyramidal neurons of the rat piriform cortex, an area involved in sensory processing, associative learning and a model system for studies on synaptic plasticity. MAP treatment significantly depolarized the membrane potential and decreased neuronal input resistance. Furthermore, the voltage-dependence of both AMPA and NMDA responses was disturbed by chronic MAP treatment, and the extent of long-term potentiation (LTP) was decreased. Morphological changes of MAP-treated rat pyramidal neurons were observed as blebbing of the dendrite trees. The changes we observed represent detrimental effects on the function of piriform cortical neurons further illustrating deficits in synaptic plasticity extend beyond the hippocampus. These changes may contribute to behavioural deficits in chronic MAP-treated animals.

  12. Impaired GABAergic inhibition in the prefrontal cortex of early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP)-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2014-09-01

    A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Agmatine Prevents Adaptation of the Hippocampal Glutamate System in Chronic Morphine-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Tai-Yun; Su, Rui-Bin; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Chronic exposure to opioids induces adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission, which plays a crucial role in addiction. Our previous studies revealed that agmatine attenuates opioid addiction and prevents the adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of chronic morphine-treated rats. The hippocampus is important for drug addiction; however, whether adaptation of glutamate neurotransmission is modulated by agmatine in the hippocampus remains unknown. Here, we found that continuous pretreatment of rats with ascending doses of morphine for 5 days resulted in an increase in the hippocampal extracellular glutamate level induced by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitation. Agmatine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) administered concurrently with morphine for 5 days attenuated the elevation of extracellular glutamate levels induced by naloxone precipitation. Furthermore, in the hippocampal synaptosome model, agmatine decreased the release and increased the uptake of glutamate in synaptosomes from chronic morphine-treated rats, which might contribute to the reduced elevation of glutamate levels induced by agmatine. We also found that expression of the hippocampal NR2B subunit, rather than the NR1 subunit, of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) was down-regulated after chronic morphine treatment, and agmatine inhibited this reduction. Taken together, agmatine prevented the adaptation of the hippocampal glutamate system caused by chronic exposure to morphine, including modulating extracellular glutamate concentration and NMDAR expression, which might be one of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of opioid addiction by agmatine.

  14. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver.

  15. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deen, Nasr A M N; Eid, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups. It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol.

  16. Identification of differentially expressed genes in aflatoxin B1-treated cultured primary rat hepatocytes and Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Shaddock, J G; Manjanatha, M G; Lisenbey, J A; Casciano, D A

    1998-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mutagen and hepatocarcinogen in rats and humans, is a contaminant of the human food supply, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. AFB1-induced changes in gene expression may play a part in the development of the toxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic properties of this fungal metabolite. An understanding of the-role of AFB1 in modulating gene regulation should provide insight regarding mechanisms of AFB1-induced carcinogenesis. We used three PCR-based subtractive techniques to identify AFB1-responsive genes in cultured primary rat hepatocyte RNA: differential display PCR (DD-PCR), representational difference analysis (RDA) and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Each of the three techniques identified AFB1-responsive genes, although no individual cDNA was isolated by more than one technique. Nine cDNAs isolated using DD-PCR, RDA or SSH were found to represent eight genes that are differentially expressed as a result of AFB1 exposure. Genes whose mRNA levels were increased in cultured primary rat hepatocytes after AFB1 treatment were corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), cytochrome P450 4F1 (CYP4F1), alpha-2 microglobulin, C4b-binding protein (C4BP), serum amyloid A-2 and glutathione S-transferase Yb2 (GST). Transferrin and a small CYP3A-like cDNA had reduced mRNA levels after AFB1 exposure. Full-length CYP3A mRNA levels were increased. When liver RNA from AFB1-treated male F344 rats was evaluated for transferrin, CBG, GST, CYP3A and CYP4F1 expression, a decrease in transferrin mRNA and an increase in CBG, GST, CYP3A and CYP4F1 mRNA levels was also seen. Analysis of the potential function of these genes in maintaining cellular homeostasis suggests that their differential expression could contribute to the toxicity associated with AFB1 exposure.

  17. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  18. Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial

  19. Profiling analysis of amino acids from hyperlipidaemic rats treated with Gynostemma pentaphyllum and atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Chunjie

    2016-10-01

    Context Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hyperlipidaemic with a long history. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) and atorvastatin on amino acids from the plasma and liver tissue of hyperlipidaemic rats. Materials and methods The rats were fed a high-fat diet continuously for 11 weeks for the construction of hyperlipidaemic model. The hyperlipidaemic rats were treated with Gynostemma pentaphyllum (120 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (1.8 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, and the rats were intragastric administration one time every day. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODSIII C18 analytical column (75 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 1.6 μm, Shmadazu Corp., Tokyo, Japan). The biomarkers of amino acids were identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results After feeding with a high-fat diet, the TC and LDL-C values of the hyperlipidaemic mode rats increased dramatically (p < 0.01). The established method allowed a target analysis of 12 kinds of amino acids. PCA studies showed that the plasma amino acids had not returned to normal after GP treatment, but those had recovered slightly after atorvastatin treatment. GP has almost no impact on the metabolism of amino acids, while atorvastatin can modify the metabolism of amino acids via self-regulatory mechanisms. Discussion and conclusion UPLC/DAD combined with SCX-SPE can be successfully used for profiling analysis of amino acids. By the comparison of biomarkers following treatment with GP and atorvastatin, the influence of the two drugs on biomarkers is revealed.

  20. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  1. Dietary whey protein lowers serum C-peptide concentration and duodenal SREBP-1c mRNA abundance, and reduces occurrence of duodenal tumors and colon aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-treated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rijin; Carter, Julie A; Linz, Amanda L; Ferguson, Matthew; Badger, Thomas M; Simmen, Frank A

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated partially hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) for inhibitory effects on the development of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and intestinal tumors in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their progeny were fed AIN-93G diets containing casein (CAS, control diet) or WPH as the sole protein source. Colons and small intestines from the male progeny were obtained at 6, 12, 20 and 23 weeks after AOM treatment. At 6 and 23 weeks, post-AOM, WPH-fed rats had fewer ACF than did CAS-fed rats. Intestinal tumors were most frequent at 23 weeks, post-AOM. At this time point, differences in colon tumor incidence with diet were not observed; however, WPH-fed rats had fewer tumors in the small intestine (7.6% vs. 26% incidence, P=.004). Partially hydrolized whey protein suppressed circulating C-peptide concentration (a stable indicator of steady-state insulin secretion) at all four time points relative to the corresponding CAS-fed animals. The relative mRNA abundance for the insulin-responsive, transcription factor gene, SREBP-1c, was reduced by WPH in the duodenum but not colon. Results indicate potential physiological linkages of dietary protein type with circulating C-peptide (and by inference insulin), local expression of SREBP-1c gene and propensity for small intestine tumorigenesis.

  2. Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone

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    M. K. Shindala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05 the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05 as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05 in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.

  3. Uterine stretch regulates temporal and spatial expression of fibronectin protein and its alpha 5 integrin receptor in myometrium of unilaterally pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Williams, S Joy; Draper, Haley; White, Bryan G; MacPhee, Daniel J; Lye, Stephen J

    2007-11-01

    The adaptive growth of the uterus during pregnancy is a critical event that involves increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and dynamic remodeling of smooth muscle cell (SMC)-ECM interactions. We have previously found a dramatic increase in the expression of the mRNAs that encode fibronectin (FN) and its alpha5-integrin receptor (ITGA5) in pregnant rat myometrium near to term. Since the myometrium at term is exposed to considerable mechanical stretching of the uterine wall by the growing fetus(es), the objective of the present study was to examine its role in the regulation of FN and ITGA5 expression at late gestation and during labor. Using myometrial tissues from unilaterally pregnant rats, we investigated the temporal changes in Itga5 gene expression in gravid and empty uterine horns by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, in combination with immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses of the temporal/spatial distributions of the FN and ITGA5 proteins. In addition, we studied the effects of early progesterone (P4) withdrawal on Itga5 mRNA levels and ITGA5 protein detection. At all time-points examined, the Itga5 mRNA levels were increased in the gravid uterine horn, compared to the empty horn (P < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis confirmed higher ITGA5 and FN protein levels in the myometrium, associated with gravidity (P < 0.05). Immunodetection of ITGA5 was consistently high in the longitudinal muscle layer, increased with gestational age in the circular muscle layer of the gravid horn, and remained low in the empty horn. ITGA5 and FN immunostaining in the gravid horn exhibited a continuous layer of variable thickness associated directly with the surfaces of individual SMCs. In contrast to the effects of stretch, P4 does not appear to regulate ITGA5 expression. We speculate that the reinforcement of the FN-ITGA5 interaction: 1) contributes to myometrial hypertrophy and remodeling during late pregnancy; and 2) facilitates force transduction

  4. Study on acute ulcerous pain in rats treated with aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adegbolagun Temitope Adeoye; Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Matthew Oluwole Abatan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and analgesic effects of the aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (L. cyanescens) since the plant is said to have medicinal properties. Methods: The filtrate of the aqueous root extract of the plant (100 mg/mL) was used to evaluate for antiulcer activity in 20 rats divided into five groups of four rats each, which were Groups A, B, and C that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively, while Group D was served as negative control and animals of Group E received 20 mg/kg dose of ranitidine. Indomethacin at a dose of 15 mg/kg was used to induce ulcer on the day of sacrifice. For acetic writhing test (antinociception), same design was used except that Group E received 100 mg/kg dose of acetyl salicylic acid as standard drug. Abdominal contractions were induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of 10 mL/kg of 0.6%of acetic acid. Results: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens at all doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in ulcer parameters compared with the negative control. The extract also produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of writhing reflexes in treated rats compared with negative control. Conclusions: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens exhibited both antiulcer and analgesic effects justifying folklore claim for the health benefits of this plant.

  5. Argan oil reduces oxidative stress, genetic damage and emperipolesis in rats treated with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekeroğlu, Zülal Atlı; Aydın, Birsen; Şekeroğlu, Vedat

    2017-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a well-known toxicant, is present in high-temperature-processed foods in heated foods. Argan oil (AO), a natural vegetable oil, is receiving increasing attention due to its powerful biological properties. However, limited information is available about its effects in lymphoid organs and bone marrow. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AO on hematological parameters, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), protein carbonyl (PCO), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, the formation of micronucleus (MN) and megakaryocytic emperipolesis (ME) against AA-induced toxicity in rats. The animals were treated with AA (50mg/kg/day), AO (6ml/kg/day per day) and AA+AO (50mg+6ml/kg/day) for 30days. Treatment of rats with AA significantly decreased the hematological parameters, GSH and MPO activity and PCEs ratio while it increased TBARs, PCOs and 8-OHdG levels and formation of MN and ME. No significant differences were observed in the animals received the AO alone. Co-treatment with AA+AO ameliorated almost all of the alterations caused by AA and exhibited protective effect in rats. Based on the obtained results, we suggest that integration of AO in diet or using its supplements may be a good strategy for improving tissue injury in many diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Diabetic cutaneous wound healing in rats treated with Lactobacillus Casei and its Exopolysaccharide

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    Saeed Ahmadi Majid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut. They are also called "friendly bacteria" or "good bacteria". Lactobacillus derived from products, including culture supernatants have been used for their wound healing and antiviral properties as they are believed to boost energy and to be effective remedies for allergies, common cold, lactose intolerance, and have also been shown to reduce cholesterol levels and the risk of colon cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment is to study the effect of Lactobacillus casei on Diabetic wound healing. This study was designed to investigate the amount of exopolysaccharide (EPS production by L. Casei, L. Brevis, L. Bulgaricus and L. Plant arum from the genus Lactobacillus applying the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the antagonistic effects of these bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria. L. casei was selected for its high exopolysaccharide and fucoid colonise production. The animals were injected by streptozotocin at the dose of 55 mg/kg of the body weight intraperitoneal streptozotocin induced diabetes within 3 days by destroying the beta cells. Wistar male rats divided into 4 groups; 2 experimental groups, a control and a negative control (n =6; and a full-thickness wound (1× 1cm was made on the back of each rat. The current study showed a significant reduction in inflammation and a significant acceleration in wound healing on the rats treated by Lactobacillus casei as compared to control and negative control groups.

  7. Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats

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    Hamed Hashemi-Nasl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is an illicit, recreational drugthat causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of differentdoses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampusof adult rats.Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats(200-250 g were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 7 days. Sevendays after the last administration of MDMA, the rats were killed. Bax and Bcl-2 genesin addition to protein expressions were detected by western blot and reverse transcriptionpolymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR.Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA andp≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Our results showed that MDMA caused dose dependent up-regulation of Baxand down-regulation of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. There was a significant alteration inbcl-2 and bax genes density.Conclusion: Changes in apoptosis-related proteins and respective genes relating to Baxand Bcl-2 might be involved in the molecular mechanism of MDMA-induced apoptosis.

  8. Hippocampal somatostatin receptors and modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in histamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, L; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Arilla, E

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) dose of histamine (0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 micrograms) on the hippocampal somatostatin (SS) receptor/effector system in Wistar rats were investigated. In view of the rapid onset of histamine action, the effects of histamine on the somatostatinergic system were studied 2 h after its administration. Hippocampal SS-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) levels were not modified by any of the histamine doses studied. SS-mediated inhibition of basal and forskolin (FK)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was markedly increased in hippocampal membranes from rats treated with 10 micrograms of histamine (23% +/- 1% vs. 17% +/- 1% and 37% +/- 2% vs. 23% +/- 1%, respectively). In contrast, neither the basal nor the FK-stimulated enzyme activities were affected by histamine administration. The functional activity of the hippocampal guanine-nucleotide binding inhibitory protein (Gi protein), as assessed by the capacity of the stable GTP analogue 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) to inhibit FK-stimulated AC activity, was not modified by histamine administration. These data suggest that the increased response of the enzyme to SS was not related to an increased functional activity of Gi proteins. In fact, the increased AC response to SS in hippocampal membranes from histamine (10 micrograms)-treated rats was associated with quantitative changes in the SS receptors. Equilibrium binding data obtained with [125I]Tyr11-SS indicate an increase in the number with specific SS receptors (541 +/- 24 vs. 365 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein, P histamine (10 micrograms)-treated rats as compared to control animals. With the aim of determining if these changes were related to histamine binding to its specific receptor sites, the histaminergic H1 and H2 receptor antagonists mepyramine and cimetidine, respectively, were administered 1 h before histamine injection. The pretreatment with mepyramine or cimetidine induced an increase in the

  9. Effects of gomisin A on liver functions in hepatotoxic chemicals-treated rats.

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    Maeda, S; Takeda, S; Miyamoto, Y; Aburada, M; Harada, M

    1985-08-01

    The effects of gomisin A, which is a lignan component of schizandra fruits, on liver functions in various experimental liver injuries and on bile secretion in CCl4-induced liver injury were studied. Gomisin A weakly accelerated the disappearance of plasma ICG by itself at a high dose (100 mg/kg, i.p.). All of the hepatotoxic chemicals used in this study inhibited the excretion of ICG from plasma. Gomisin A showed a tendency to prevent the delays of the disappearance of plasma ICG induced by CCl4, d-galactosamine and orotic acid, but not that by ANIT. Bile flow and biliary outputs of total bile acids and electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO3-) were decreased in CCl4-treated rats. Gomisin A maintained bile flow and biliary output of each electrolyte nearly to the level of the vehicle-treated group, but did not affect biliary output of total bile acids. These findings suggest that gomisin A possesses a liver function-facilitating property in normal and liver injured rats and that its preventive action on CCl4-induced cholestasis is due to maintaining the function of the bile acids-independent fraction.

  10. Metal and Microelement Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration in Early Life Permethrin-Treated Rats

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    Cinzia Nasuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a non-invasive biological material useful in the biomonitoring of trace elements because it is a vehicle for substance excretion from the body, and it permits evaluating long-term metal exposure. Here, hair from an animal model of neurodegeneration, induced by early life permethrin treatment from the sixth to 21th day of life, has been analyzed with the aim to assess if metal and microelement content could be used as biomarkers. A hair trace element assay was performed by the ICP-MS technique in six- and 12-month-old rats. A significant increase of As, Mg, S and Zn was measured in the permethrin-treated group at 12 months compared to six months, while Si and Cu/Zn were decreased. K, Cu/Zn and S were increased in the treated group compared to age-matched controls at six and 12 months, respectively. Cr significantly decreased in the treated group at 12 months. PCA analysis showed both a best difference between treated and age-matched control groups at six months. The present findings support the evidence that the Cu/Zn ratio and K, measured at six months, are the best biomarkers for neurodegeneration. This study supports the use of hair analysis to identify biomarkers of neurodegeneration induced by early life permethrin pesticide exposure.

  11. Tissue dyslipidemia in salmonella-infected rats treated with amoxillin and pefloxacin

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    Rotimi Solomon O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14 mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10 days of antibiotic treatment and 5 days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL, erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that salmonella infection in rats and its therapy with pefloxacin and amoxillin perturb lipid metabolism and this perturbation is characterised by cholesterogenesis.

  12. Modifications in Bone Matrix of Estrogen-Deficient Rats Treated with Intermittent PTH

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    Rafael Pacheco-Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone matrix dictates strength, elasticity, and stiffness to the bone. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH, a bone-forming treatment, is widely used as a therapy for osteoporosis. We investigate whether low doses of intermittent PTH (1-34 change the profile of organic components in the bone matrix after 30 days of treatment. Forty 6-month-old female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy and after 3 months received low doses of iPTH administered for 30 days: daily at 0.3 µg/kg/day (PTH03 or 5 µg/kg/day (PTH5; or 3 times per week at 0.25 µg/kg/day (PTH025. After euthanasia, distal femora were processed for bone histomorphometry, histochemistry for collagen and glycosaminoglycans, biochemical quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and hyaluronan by ELISA and TUNEL staining. Whole tibiae were used to estimate the bone mineral density (BMD. Histomorphometric analysis showed that PTH5 increased cancellous bone volume by 6% over vehicle-treated rats. In addition, PTH5 and PTH03 increased cortical thickness by 21% and 20%, respectively. Tibial BMD increased in PTH5-treated rats and this group exhibited lower levels of chondroitin sulfate; on the other hand, hyaluronan expression was increased. Hormonal administration in the PTH5 group led to decreased collagen maturity. Further, TUNEL-positive osteocytes were decreased in the cortical compartment of PTH5 whereas administration of PTH025 increased the osteocyte death. Our findings suggest that daily injections of PTH at low doses alter the pattern of organic components from the bone matrix, favoring the increase of bone mass.

  13. Contribution of calpains to photoreceptor cell death in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-treated rats.

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    Oka, Takayuki; Nakajima, Takeshi; Tamada, Yoshiyuki; Shearer, Thomas R; Azuma, Mitsuyoshi

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if proteolysis by the calcium-dependent enzyme calpains (EC 3.4.22.17) contributed to retinal cell death in a rat model of photoreceptor degeneration induced by intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Retinal degeneration was evaluated by H&E staining, and cell death was determined by TUNEL assay. Total calcium in retina was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activation of calpains was determined by casein zymography and immunoblotting. Proteolysis of alpha-spectrin and p35 (regulator of Cdk5) were evaluated by immunoblotting. Calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945 was orally administrated to MNU-treated rats to test drug efficacy. MNU decreased the thickness of photoreceptor cell layer, composed of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer segment (OS). Numerous cells in the ONL showed positive TUNEL staining. Total calcium was increased in retina after MNU. Activation of calpains and calpain-specific proteolysis of alpha-spectrin were observed after MNU injection. Oral administration of SNJ-1945 to MNU-treated rats showed a significant protective effect against photoreceptor cell loss, confirming involvement of calpains in photoreceptor degeneration. Conversion of p35 to p25 was well correlated with calpain activation, suggesting prolonged activation of Cdk5/p25 as a possible downstream mechanism for MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death. SNJ-1945 reduced photoreceptor cells death, even though MNU is one of the most severe models of photoreceptor cell degeneration. Oral calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945 may be a candidate for testing as a medication against retinal degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa.

  14. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

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    Valentina eCorvino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2 administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT administration (8mg/kg, characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg i.p. or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48h upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, Cadherin and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy, parvalbumin , Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain.

  15. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

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    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  16. Partial recovery of erythrocyte glycogen in diabetic rats treated with phenobarbital

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    da-Silva C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes may play a role in glucose homeostasis during the postprandial period. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients are defective in glucose transport and metabolism, functions that may affect glycogen storage. Phenobarbital, a hepatic enzyme inducer, has been used in the treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, increasing the insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We studied the effects of phenobarbital treatment in vivo on glycemia and erythrocyte glycogen content in control and alloxan-diabetic rats during the postprandial period. In control rats (blood glucose, 73 to 111 mg/dl in femoral and suprahepatic veins the erythrocyte glycogen content was 45.4 ± 1.1 and 39.1 ± 0.8 µg/g Hb (mean ± SEM, N = 4-6 in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, and 37.9 ± 1.1 in the portal vein and 47.5 ± 0.9 in the suprahepatic vein. Diabetic rats (blood glucose, 300-350 mg/dl presented low (P<0.05 erythrocyte glycogen content, i.e., 9.6 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.7 µg/g Hb in the femoral artery and vein, respectively, and 10.0 ± 0.7 and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the portal and suprahepatic veins, respectively. After 10 days of treatment, phenobarbital (0.5 mg/ml in the drinking water did not change blood glucose or erythrocyte glycogen content in control rats. In diabetic rats, however, it lowered (P<0.05 blood glucose in the femoral artery (from 305 ± 18 to 204 ± 45 mg/dl and femoral vein (from 300 ± 11 to 174 ± 48 mg/dl and suprahepatic vein (from 350 ± 10 to 174 ± 42 mg/dl, but the reduction was not sufficient for complete recovery. Phenobarbital also stimulated the glycogen synthesis, leading to a partial recovery of glycogen stores in erythrocytes. In treated rats, erythrocyte glycogen content increased to 20.7 ± 3.8 µg/g Hb in the femoral artery and 30.9 ± 0.9 µg/g Hb in the suprahepatic vein (P<0.05. These data indicate that phenobarbital activated some of the insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism steps which were

  17. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

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    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  18. DNA microarray unravels rapid changes in transcriptome of MK-801 treated rat brain

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    Yuka; Kobayashi; Sofya; P; Kulikova; Junko; Shibato; Randeep; Rakwal; Hiroyuki; Satoh; Didier; Pinault; Yoshinori; Masuo

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the impact of MK-801 on gene expression patterns genome wide in rat brain regions. METHODS:Rats were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 [0.08(low-dose) and 0.16(highdose) mg/kg] or NaC l(vehicle control). In a first series of experiment,the frontoparietal electrocorticogram was recorded 15 min before and 60 min after injection. In a second series of experiments,the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed at 40 min post-injection,and different regions were separated:amygdala,cerebral cortex,hippocampus,hypothalamus,midbrain and ventral striatum on ice followed by DNA microarray(4 × 44 K whole rat genome chip) analysis.RESULTS:Spectral analysis revealed that a single systemic injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of baseline gamma frequency(30-80 Hz) oscillations in the frontoparietal electroencephalogram. DNA microarray analysis showed the largest number(up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex(378),midbrain(376),hippocampus(375),ventral striatum(353),amygdala(301),and hypothalamus(201) under low-dose(0.08 mg/kg) of MK-801. Under high-dose(0.16 mg/kg),ventral striatum(811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. Gene expression changes were functionally categorized to reveal expression of genes and function varies with each brain region.CONCLUSION:Acute MK-801 treatment increases synchrony of baseline gamma oscillations,and causes very early changes in gene expressions in six individual rat brain regions,a first report.

  19. Estimation of lipid profile and glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass

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    Chinwe O. Ewenighi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cymbopogon citratus extract has been reported to have hypoglycemic properties but not much is known about its hypolipidemic effects. In this study it was aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of Cymbopogon citratus extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of weights between 106-118 g were used for the study and divided into three groups of six rats each. The rats of the non-diabetic control group were given 1 ml of distilled water daily. Two other groups induced with diabetes using alloxan by a single dose administration of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW; one of these diabetic rat groups were treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract daily at 1.5 ml/100 g BW for 4 weeks while the other group was left untreated. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels were assayed. Results: After four weeks of treatment, data indicated significant reductions in BW, blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels of diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract compared to the non-treated group. The treated diabetic rats also indicated significantly higher HDL levels compared to the non-treated group. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with the Cymbopogon citratus extract lowered blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels and increased the HDL level. This shows that the extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 249-253

  20. Baseline survey of pregnant women 's knowledge of treat-ment to prevent mother-to-child human immuno-deficien-cy virus transmission in a resource limited setting

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    Stephen Onwere; Obioha Okoro; Bright Chigbu; Chuks Kamanu; Christian Aluka; Paul Feyi-Wa-boso

    2008-01-01

    Despite continuing advances in scientific knowledge about treatments to prevent mother-to-child (MTCT)of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV),there is a paucity of data on pregnant women's knowledge of treat-ments to prevent MTCT of HIV in Aba,South Eastern Nigeria.We investigated pregnant women's knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent MTCT of HIV in the low resourced setting of Aba town in South Eastern Nigeria.A descriptive study involving 100 consecutive and consenting patients at the antenatal clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH),Aba,South Eastern Nigeria over the period 1st November, 2007 to 30th November,2007.Using a structured questionnaire,the respondents'sociodemographic data were obtained as well as their knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent mother to child HIV transmission in pregnant women and self-reported data on their having ever tested for HIV.Knowledge regarding availability of treatment to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV was good as 95% of the respondents were aware that such treatment was available.Knowledge that treatment is available to help someone infected by HIV to live longer was also good as 96% of the respondents were aware of the availability of such treatment.Seventy one percent of the respondents had ever tested for HIV.The levels of knowledge regarding the availability of treatment to prevent mother to child HIV transmission and to help someone infected with HIV are good.Thus, utilization of anti-retroviral prophylaxis amongst HIV infected pregnant women in this community would be ex-pected to be high if the drugs were available.This will reduce the impact of HIV,especially in children.

  1. Imipramine-induced c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex is decreased in the ACTH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Gomita, Yutaka; Araki, Hiroaki; Cui, Ranji

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the antidepressive-like effect of tricyclic antidepressants is blocked by repeated treatments with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). However, little is known about the neuroanatomy underlying the mechanism of the imipramine treatment-resistant depression model. In the present study, first experimental evidence showed no significant difference of the serum imipramine concentrations between the saline and ACTH-treated rats. In further study, imipramine produced significant increases in the c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DGH), and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), in rats repeatedly treated with saline. The imipramine-increased c-Fos immunoreactivity was suppressed in the mPFC of rats repeatedly treated with ACTH. However, there was no significant difference in c-Fos expression in the DGH and CeA between ACTH- and saline-treated rats. These results suggest that the mPFC is maybe involved in effects of the imipramine in the ACTH-treated rats.

  2. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists in chronic morphine administered DSP4-treated rats: evidence for functional cross-sensitization.

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    Archer, T; Fredriksson, A

    2001-10-01

    Five experiments were performed to study the effects of the Alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanfacine, upon spontaneous motor activity in chronically morphine administered DSP4-treated and control rats. DSP4 (2 x 50 mg/kg, with a 10-day interval between injections) and vehicle (distilled water) were injected i.p., on each occasion 30 min after zimeldine (20 mg/kg). Morphine dosages were raised incrementally from 5 mg/kg (Days 1-3), through 10 mg/kg (Days 4-7) and 20 mg/kg (Days 8-14), to 30 mg/kg (Days 15-20). Motor activity testing occurred on Day 21, Day 22 as well as in Experiments II-V, (from 1st morphine injection). DSP4 pretreatment and chronic morphine injections each reduced motor activity during the first 30 min of testing; combined DSP4 and morphine treatment potentiated the hypoactivity. Habituation quotients indicated deficits in habituation to the novel test environment by the Vehicle-morphine (Quoteint2 only) and DSP4-morphine groups. Acute clonidine treatment (0.04 mg/kg s.c.) reduced motor activity during the first 30 min of testing but attenuated or blocked the morphine-induced hypoactivity in DSP4-treated and control rats. During the 60-90 min test period, clonidine, but not guanfacine (0.08 mg/kg), potentiated morphine-induced hyperactivity in control rats; acute clonidine enhanced this effect, whereas acute guanfacine reduced it, in the DSP4-treated rats. The enhanced hyperactivity of morphine-clonidine suggest a cross-sensitivity effect. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg s.c.), injected after the 1st 30-min of testing, potentiated markely the clonidine-induced elevations of motor activity in morphine-administered control rats; in the DSP4-treated rats, these effects were dramatically potentiated, underlining the cross-sensitivity effect. Acute guanfacine treatment reduced motor activity during the first 30 min of testing but did not attenuate reliably morphine-induced hypoactivity in control or DSP4 rats. Naloxone did not potentiate the

  3. Propofol increases vascular relaxation in aging rats chronically treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril.

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    Gragasin, Ferrante S; Bourque, Stephane L; Davidge, Sandra T

    2013-04-01

    Both propofol use and advanced age are predictors of intraoperative hypotension. We previously demonstrated that propofol enhances vasodilation in mesenteric arteries from aged rats, partly due to increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Patients chronically treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may exhibit refractory hypotension under general anesthesia. We hypothesized that propofol enhances NO-mediated vasodilation in arteries from aged rats chronically treated with ACE inhibitors. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 to 13 months were treated with or without captopril for 7 to 8 weeks, yielding a final age of 14 to 15 months at the time of experimentation. Before euthanasia, arterial blood pressures were obtained through carotid artery cannulation. Concentration-response curves to propofol (0.1-100 µM) or methacholine (MCh) (0.01-3 µM) were then assessed on isolated resistance mesenteric arteries (100-200 μm diameter) from both treatment (captopril) and control rats. MCh relaxation was also assessed after propofol pretreatment (1 and 10 µM). N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (100 µM) and meclofenamate (10 µM) were used to inhibit NO and prostaglandin synthesis, respectively. Concentration-response data were summarized as 50% of the maximum relaxation response or area under the curve. Mean arterial blood pressure in the captopril-treated rats was lower than in untreated rats (P = 0.049). When comparing relaxation in arteries from captopril-treated versus untreated rats, concentration-response curves revealed that captopril-treated rats display greater direct propofol relaxation (P = 0.018). MCh relaxation in the absence of propofol, however, was not different between captopril-treated and untreated rats (P = 0.80). Propofol pretreatment increased MCh relaxation in arteries from captopril-treated compared with untreated rats (P = 0.029 for 1 µM and P = 0.020 for 10 µM). Meclofenamate did not have an effect in this response (P

  4. The Effect of Pregnant Rat Swimming on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Levels of Neonatal Lung

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    Hajizade A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine environment and fetal period can profoundly affect health of the neonat. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α is a transcription factor that regulates cellular stress responses and its activity is essential in both embryogenesis and postnatal life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal swimming on rat Pups' HIF-1α levels as a key regulator of oxygen in lungs.Methods: Sixteen female Wistar rats weighing 180- 200 grams were acclimated to a new environment consisting of equal light-darkness cycle and ad lib access to chow and adapted to the stress caused by water for two weeks. The rats were divided into two swimming and control groups. Swimming training began on the first day of pregnancy in a pool and continued for 3 weeks (1 h/day, 5 days/wk. Pups' lungs were removed two days after birth and their HIF-1α concentration was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Statistical analysis of the data was done using independent t-test. A p-value smaller than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Swimming lead to a significant (P<0.001 increase in the Pups' lung HIF-1α levels compared with the control group. Although 3-wk period of swimming training, showed no significant increase in weight and also lung weight of newborns. Thus it can be concluded that swimming endurance training in pregnancy, can be considered as appropriate alternative in order to embryos development. Conclusion: Our research suggests that HIF-1α level is an essential element for the development of the lungs of embryos. Moreover, further studies on the lung HIF-1α levels at post-natal period with different modes of exercise will provide more clear insight into the mechanisms of the findings resulting from this study.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in diabetes mellitus rats treated with insulin

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    Tantin Ermawati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues. Etiology of periodontal disease includes Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans which is the most predominant disease-causing bacteria found in the gingival sulcus. Periodontitis can be exacerbated by the systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus considered as a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency. Treatment of periodontitis is then required in patients with type I diabetes to avoid radical reaction that can not only cause bleeding, but can also prevent infection, as a result, topical antimicrobial therapy and blood glucose control are required. Topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide is a disinfectant that is effective in killing A. actinomycetemcomitans. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effects of topical antimicrobial chlorine dioxide gel or rinse on the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans in DM rats treated with insulin. Methods: 20 three month old male Wistar rats with weight of 170–200 grams were divided into four groups. First, periodontitis and DM were manipulated into all groups through aloksan injection with dose of 170 mg/kg. Those rats in group I were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide gel, those in group II were treated with insulin and chlorine dioxide rinse, those in group III were treated with insulin only, and those in group IV were without treatment. In the third and seventh weeks, the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans was measured. The data was tested by using One-Way ANOVA test followed by LSD test. Results: The study showed that chlorine dioxide gel has a greater ability in reducing the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse although both are antimicrobials. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of chlorine dioxide gel can more effective to decrease the number of A. actinomycetemcomitans than chlorine dioxide rinse in DM rats

  6. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

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    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  7. Histomorphologic and ultrastructural recovery of myopathy in rats treated with low-level laser therapy.

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    Servetto, Natalia; Cremonezzi, David; Simes, Juan Carlos; Di Pietro, Antonio; Campana, Vilma R

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT): helium-neon (He-Ne) and gallium arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the histomorphology of muscle and mitochondria in experimental myopathy in rats. Thirty Suquía strain female rats were distributed in groups: (A) control (intact), (B) injured, (C) injured and treated with He-Ne laser, (D) injured and treated with Ga-As laser, (E) irradiated with He-Ne laser on the non-injured muscle, and (F) irradiated with Ga-As laser on the non-injured muscle. Myopathy was induced by injecting 0.05 mg/rat/day of adrenaline in the left gastrocnemius muscle at the same point on five consecutive days, in groups B, C, and D. LLLT was applied with 9.5 J cm(-2) daily for seven consecutive days in groups C, D, E, and F. The muscles were examined with optic and electronic microscopy. The inflammation was classified as absent, mild, and intense and the degree of mitochondrial alteration was graded I, II, III, and IV. Categorical data were statistically analyzed by Chi-square and the Fisher-Irwin Bilateral test, setting significant difference at p < 0.05. The damage found in muscle and mitochondria histomorphology in animals with induced myopathy (B) was intense or severe inflammation with grade III or IV of mitochondrial alteration. They underwent significant regression (p < 0.001) compared with the groups treated with He-Ne (C) and Ga-As (D) laser, in which mild or moderate inflammation was seen and mitochondrial alteration grades I and II, recovering normal myofibrillar architecture. No differences were found between the effects caused by the two lasers, or between groups A, E, and F. Group A was found to be different from B, C, and D (p < 0.001). LLLT in experimental myopathy caused significant muscular and mitochondrial morphologic recovery.

  8. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

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    Lee, Jae Ho [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Pradhan, Jonu [Department of Nanobio Medical Science, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 50, Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Myung-Whan [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeung Ju, E-mail: mjukim99@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Cheol, E-mail: ansil67@hanmail.net [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  9. Effects of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and ACTH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kouhei; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Miyaoka, Junya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2009-07-01

    The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole has clinically been proven to improve depression or treatment-resistant depression. However, the involvement of the dopamine receptor system on the effect of pramipexole on depression remains unclear. We examined the influence of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of dopamine receptors in this effect. Additionally, the mechanism by which pramipexole acts in this model was explored specifically in relation to the site of action through the use of microinjections into the intramedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Pramipexole (0.3-1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. This effect was blocked by L-741,626, a D2 receptor antagonist, and nafadotride, a D3 receptor antagonist, in normal rats. Furthermore, infusions of pramipexole into the intranucleus accumbens, but not the medial prefrontal cortex, decreased the immobility of normal and ACTH-treated rats during the forced swim test. Taken together, the results of these experiments suggested that pramipexole, administered into the intranucleus accumbens rather than the medial prefrontal cortex, exerted an antidepressant-like effect on ACTH-treated rats via the dopaminergic system. The immobility-decreasing effect of pramipexole may be mediated by dopamine D2 and D3 receptors.

  10. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation and Liver Injury in Alcohol-Treated Rats: A Metabolomics Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxia Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggested that nucleotides were beneficial for liver function, lipid metabolism and so on. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of dietary nucleotides supplementation in alcohol-induced liver injury rats. Methods: Five groups of male Wistar rats were used: normal control group (basal diet, equivalent distilled water, alcohol control group (basal diet, 50% alcohol (v/v, dextrose control group (basal diet, isocaloric amount of dextrose, and 0.04% and 0.16% nucleotides groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.4 g and 1.6 g nucleotides kg−1 respectively, 50% alcohol (v/v. The liver injury was measured through traditional liver enzymes, expression of oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was applied to identify liver metabolite profiles. Results: Nucleotides supplementation prevented the progression of hepatocyte steatosis. The levels of total proteins, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol triglyceride, as well as the oxidative stress markers altered by alcohol, were improved by nucleotides supplementation. Elevated levels of liver bile acids (glycocholic acid, chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, as well as lipids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine in alcohol-treated rats were reversed by nucleotides supplementation. In addition, supplementation with nucleotides could increase the levels of amino acids, including valyl-Leucine, l-leucine, alanyl-leucine and l-phenylalanine. Conclusion: These data indicate potential biomarkers and confirm the benefit of dietary nucleotides on alcoholic liver injury.

  11. Kidney injury biomarkers in hypertensive, diabetic, and nephropathy rat models treated with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Rodney L; Stewart, Sharron R; Thompson, Karol L; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) refers to a decline in renal function following exposure to iodinated contrast media (CM). The present study was initiated to explore the role of known human risk factors (spontaneous hypertension, diabetes, protein-losing nephropathy) on CIN development in rodent models and to determine the effect of CM administration on kidney injury biomarkers in the face of preexisting kidney injury. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (hypertension), streptozotocin-treated Sprague Dawley rats (diabetes), and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (protein-losing nephropathy) were given single intravenous injections of the nonionic, low osmolar contrast medium, iohexol. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (sCr), and urinary biomarkers; albumin, lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2), osteopontin (Opn), kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1), renal papillary antigen 1 (Rpa-1), α-glutathione S-transferase (α-Gst), µ-glutathione S-transferase (µ-Gst), and beta-2 microglobulin (β2m) were measured in disease models and appropriate controls to determine the response of these biomarkers to CM administration. Each disease model produced elevated biomarkers of kidney injury without CM. Preexisting histopathology was exacerbated by CM but little or no significant increases in biomarkers were observed. When 1.5-fold or greater sCr increases from pre-CM were used to define true positives, receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of biomarker performance showed sCr was the best predictor of CIN across disease models. β2m, Lcn-2, and BUN were the best predictors of histopathology defined kidney injury.

  12. [Multiple hepatic cysts in rat rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated by islets of Langerhans grafts: the role of streptozotocin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatettes, B; Barrat, E; Lassmann, V; Guidon, J; Altomare, E; Simon, C; Vague, P

    1978-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation by light and electron microscopy of hepatic biopsies from 14 rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and treated by portal embolization of islets of Langerhans. Macroscopically, voluminous projecting cysts were observed, sometimes occupying a whole lobe. By light microscopy, the cysts were lined with canalicular-type epithelium. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the canalicular nature of these cells and cilia were frequently observed. The presence of identical cysts in rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin but not treated by embolization proves that this product is the agent responsible for the induction of this adenomatosis.

  13. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  14. Comparison of PCB congener profiles in tissues of PCB-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania-Korwel, I.; Ludewig, G.; Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Hornbuckle, K.C.; Peck, A. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Sulkowski, W.W. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Information on the congener-specific distribution of PCBs in tissues of laboratory animals after exposure to technical or environmental PCB mixtures is limited. Typically PCB levels and profiles from adipose tissue, liver, blood and occasionally brain are reported. In the work presented here 120 PCB congeners were extracted from 9 tissues of rats exposed to two different PCB mixtures. One mixture was Aroclor 1254, a well studied technical mixture. The second mixture was an environmental mixture obtained after extraction of soil contaminated with Chlorofen, a highly chlorinated Polish PCB mixture. The study was designed to investigate how different chlorination levels and the structure of PCB congeners affect their distribution and total concentration in selected tissues. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis were employed to compare tissues of Aroclor and soil extract-treated animals.

  15. Antioxidant profile changes in reproductive tissues of rats treated with nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Oyeyipo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nicotine intake has been associated with reduced fertility, although the mechanisms responsible are still unclear. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly implicated as the leading cause of male infertility. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of nicotine administration on testicular oxidant and antioxidant system in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were divided into five groups and treated orally for 30 days. Group I, which served as the control received 0.2 ml/kg normal saline, Groups II and III received 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg body weight (BW of nicotine respectively. The fourth and fifth groups were administered with 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg BW of nicotine, but were left untreated for another 30 days. Homogenate of testis and epididymis were assayed for lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme. Results: The results show a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in testicular glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase while a significant increase (P < 0.05 was observed in testicular lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level in both groups when compared with the control. Conclusion: This experiment established that nicotine administration is associated with decreased testicular antioxidant and increase testicular lipid peroxidation, which might be a mechanism by which nicotine induce infertility.

  16. Role of Euphorbia thymifolia L. ethanolic root extract in treating female reproductive dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad Gudipudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating stress induced female reproductive dysfunctions. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in SOD, catalase and lipid peroxidation of uterus and ovary. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant antioxidant activity which is evident by increase in the levels of SOD and catalase, decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation confirming the antioxidant effect which was found to be dose dependent. The antioxidant activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  17. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in rats acutely treated with acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, M G; Almeida, B B de; Bueno, J E; Portari, G V; Jordao, A A

    2010-06-01

    Cascades of metabolic changes leading to acetone production are induced in states of energy catabolism such as starvation or the use of a ketogenic diet. The reduced capacity for cell detoxification or the increased generation of free radicals is responsible for the toxic effect of acetone. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute treatment (AT) with acetone on the oxidative and metabolic status of rats. The AT group (n=16) was treated by gavage with a single administration of 7.0 g acetone/kg body weight at a concentration of 25% (m/v). Eight rats were euthanized 6 h later (AT6) and eight 24 h later (AT24). Acetone levels were determined in blood and urine and oxidative parameters were analyzed by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, indicators of lipid peroxidation) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E as antioxidant parameters. Serum glucose, blood cholesterol and triglycerieds and hepatic fat were also determined. The results indicated a significant difference in the hepatic oxidative parameters, serum glucose and in plasma triglycerides between the groups. Thus, we conclude that the administration of acute acetone doses can promote changes in some biochemical parameters and in the hepatic oxidative profile.

  18. Experimental endometriosis reduction in rats treated with Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, João; Coelho, Tarcísio Mota; Aguiar, Guilherme Carneiro; Carvalho, Laura Rosa; de Araújo, Ana Gisélia Portela; Girão, Manuel João B C; Schor, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the macroscopic and histological changes that occur in experimental endometriosis after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa. Experimental endometriosis was induced in twenty-five female Wistar rats. After three weeks, 24 animals developed grade III experimental endometriosis and were divided into two groups. Group "U" received U. tomentosa extract orally (32 mg/day), and group "C" (control group) received a 0.9% sodium chloride solution orally (1 ml/100g of body weight/day). Both groups were treated with gavage for 14 days. At the surgical intervention and after the animal was euthanized, the implant volume was calculated with the following formula: [4π (length/2)×(width/2)×(height/2)/3]. The autotransplants were removed, dyed with hematoxylin-eosin, and analyzed by light microscopy. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the independent samples, and the Wilcoxon test analyzed the related samples, with a significance level of 5%. The difference between the initial average volumes of the autotransplants was not significant between the groups (p = 0.18). However, the final average volumes were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase (p = 0.01) between the initial and final average volumes in the control group, and treatment with the U. tomentosa caused a marked reduction in the growth over time (p = 0.009). Histologically, in the experimental group (n = 10) six rats had a well-preserved epithelial layer, three had mildly preserved epithelium, and one had poorly preserved epithelium. The epithelial layer occasionally presented sporadic epithelial cells. The control group (n = 12) presented seven cases (58.3%) of well-preserved epithelial cells and five cases (41.7%) of mildly preserved epithelial cells. Cat's claw extract appears to be a promising alternative for treating endometriosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative Damage to Lung Tissue and Peripheral Blood in Endotracheal PM2.5-treated Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI-QING LIN; ZHU-GE XI; DAN-FENG YANG; FU-HUAN CHAO; HUA-SHAN ZHANG; WEI ZHANG; HUANG-LIANG LIU; ZAI-MING YANG; RU-BAO SUN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oxidative damage to lung tissue and peripherial blood in PM2.5-treated rats.Methods PM2.5 samples were collected using an auto-sampling instrument in summer and winter.Treated samples were endotracheally instilled into rats.Activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as oxidative damage biomarkers of lung tissue and peripheral blood detected with the biochemical method.DNA migration length (μm) and rate of tail were used as DNA damage biomarkers of lung tissue and peripheral blood detected with the biochemical method. Results The activity of GSH-Px and the concentration of MDA in lung tissue significantly decreased after exposure to PM2.5 for 7-14 days.In peripheral blood,the concentration of MDA decreased,but the activity of GSH-Px increased 7 and 14 days after experiments.The two indicators had a dose-effect relation and similar changing tendency in lung tissue and peripheral blood.The DNA migration length (μm) and rate of tail in lung tissue and peripheral blood significantly increased 7 and 14 days after exposure to PM2.5.The two indicators had a dose-effect relation and similar changing tendency in lung tissue and peripheral blood. Conclusion PM2.5 has a definite oxidative effect on lung tissue and peripheral blood.The activity of GSH-Px and the concentration of MDA are valuable biomarkers of oxidative lung tissue damage induced by PM2.5.The DNA migration length (μm) and rate of tail are simple and valuable biomarkers of PM2.5-induced DNA damage in lung tissues and peripheral blood.The degree of DNA damage in peripheral blood can predict the degree of DNA damage in lung tissue.

  20. Bioenergetic Failure in Rat Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Treated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Derived from Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Mathur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS subtype, the patient’s brain itself is capable of repairing the damage, remyelinating the axon and recovering the neurological function. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is in close proximity with brain parenchyma and contains a host of proteins and other molecules, which influence the cellular physiology, that may balance damage and repair of neurons and glial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning myelin repair in distinct clinical forms of MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients by studying the effect of diseased CSF on glucose metabolism and ATP synthesis. A cellular model with primary cultures of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs from rat cerebrum was employed, and cells were treated with CSF from distinct clinical forms of MS, NMO patients and neurological controls. Prior to comprehending mechanisms underlying myelin repair, we determine the best stably expressed reference genes in our experimental condition to accurately normalize our target mRNA transcripts. The GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms showed that mitochondrial ribosomal protein (Mrpl19, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt, microglobulin β2 (B2m, and transferrin receptor (Tfrc were identified as the best reference genes in OPCs treated with MS subjects and were used for normalizing gene transcripts. The main findings on microarray gene expression profiling analysis on CSF treated OPCs cells revealed a disturbed carbohydrate metabolism and ATP synthesis in MS and NMO derived CSF treated OPCs. In addition, using STRING program, we investigate whether gene–gene interaction affected the whole network in our experimental conditions. Our findings revealed downregulated expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and that glucose metabolism impairment and reduced ATP availability for cellular damage repair clearly differentiate more benign forms

  1. Transplantation of 5-azacytidine treated cardiac fibroblasts improves cardiac function of infarct hearts in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Cheng-chun; MA Gan-shan; CHEN Ji-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cellular cardiomyoplasty by transplantation of various cell types has been investigated as potential treatments for the improvement of cardiac function after myocardial injury. A major barrier for the clinical application of cell transplantation is obtaining sufficiently large quantities of suitable cells. AIIogeneic cellular cardiomyoplasty may provide an alternative source of abundant, transplantable, myogenic cells by in vitro manipulation of cardiac fibroblasts using chemicals including 5-azacytidine. This study evaluated cardiomyogenic differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts, their survival in myocardial scar tissue, and the effect of the implanted cells on heart function.Methods Primary cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal rats were treated with 5-azacytidine (10 μmol/L) or control.Treatment of 5-azacytidine caused myogenic differentiation of cultured cardiac fibroblasts, as defined by elongation and fusion into multinucleated myotubes with sarcomeric structures as identified by electron microscopy, and positive immunostaining for cardiac specific proteins, troponin I and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and the gap junction protein connexin 43. The myogenic cells (1.0x106) were transplanted into the infarcted myocardium 2 weeks after coronary artery occlusion.Results By 1 month after transplantation, the converted fibroblasts gave rise to a cluster of cardiac-like muscle cells that in the hearts occupied a large part of the scar with positive immunostaining for the myogenic proteins troponin I and β-MHC. Engrafted cells also expressed the gap junction protein connexin 43 in a disorganized manner. There was no positive staining in the control hearts treated with injections of culture medium. Heart function was evaluated at 6 weeks after myocardial injury with echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements. Improvement in cardiac function was seen in the hearts transplanted with the 5-azacytidine-treated cardiac fibroblasts which was absent in the

  2. Hepatic lipase gene expression is transiently induced by gonadotropic hormones in rat ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vieira-van Bruggen (Delfina); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); M. Heuveling (Mirjam); C. Kalkman (Christina); W.J. de Greef (W.); H. Jansen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractHepatic lipase (HL) gene expression was studied in rat ovaries. A transcript lacking exons 1 and 2 could be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the ovaries of mature cyclic females and of immature rats treated with pregnant mare serum followed by human

  3. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K

    2010-05-01

    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  4. 单次氯胺酮注射对孕鼠子代认知功能的研究%The effects of ketamine on learning and memory function in the pregnant rat' s offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊芳; 蒋奕红; 岳毅刚; 林高翔; 田小琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pregnant rats exposure to ketamine cause offspring changes in space cognitive abilities and exploration abilities.Methods 3-month Sprague-Dawley female rats ( n =24)were randomly divided into four groups:group N (control group),group K1 (small doses of ketamine group),group K2 ( clinical anesthesia dose of ketamine group),group K3 ( large doses of ketamine group).3-month Sprague-Dawley male rats ( n =4) and female rats were mated at the same cage by the proportion of 2∶ 1.Pregnant mice were treated at tenth day:group N were treated saline with equal-volume to ketamine vein injection; group K1,group K2,group K3 administered vein injection 3,8,20mg/kg of ketamine.Then the 20-day offspring rats'learning and memory were assessed used Open Field Test ( record the time of the offspring in the central case through the number of grid within 2 min ) and Hole Board Test ( Counting the times of offspring stretch into the hole in 5 min) at postnatal days 20.Results In the Open Field Test,the retention time in central check of group N,group K2 and group K3 were (2.45 ± 1.23)s,(6.42 ±2.50)s,(6.41 ±2.19)s.Compared with group N,the retention time in central check of group K2 and group K3 were significantly higher (F=13.42,P<0.01 ),and group K1 were not significant different ( t =1.33,P>0.01 ),and the locomotion of group K1,group K2,group K3 were significantly reduced( ( 15.33 ± 6.81 ),( 13.75 ± 5.93 ),( 16.92 ± 6.54 ),F =4.24,P < 0.05 ).In the Hole Board Test,the times of offspring stretch into the hole were not significant different comparing with the control group(F=2.17,P > 0.05 ).Conclusion The dose of ketamine that equivalented clinical anesthesia can affect offspring rats' space cognitive abilities; but the exploring cognitive ability were not significantly influenced.%目的 探讨单次氯胺酮注射对孕鼠子代在空间认知能力、探索能力方面的行为学改变.方法 3月龄SD同胞雌大鼠12对,

  5. Evaluation of hyperdiploidy in the bladder epithelial cells of male F344 rats treated with ortho-phenylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Eastmond, D A

    2003-05-09

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) is a broad-spectrum fungicide and anti-bacterial agent that has been shown to cause bladder cancer in male F344 rats. An earlier study to investigate the potential role of aneuploidy in OPP-induced bladder carcinogenicity, failed to detect increases in frequencies of hyperdiploidy/polyploidy in treated animals, presumably due to the presence of polyploid cells in the bladder. To overcome this problem, we utilized a novel approach to determine increases in numerical alterations in the slowly dividing replicating cells of the rat bladder following treatment with OPP. Collagenase digestion of the bladder was used to enrich for actively-dividing cells and FISH in conjunction with BrdU was employed to detect hyperdiploidy in the replicating interphase cells. Initial studies were performed using FISH with a chromosome 4 probe. Follow-up studies were conducted with OPP and a positive control, vinblastine sulfate using probes for chromosomes 4 and 19. No significant increases in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy were seen in the replicating bladder cells of the OPP-treated rats using FISH with either the chromosome 4 or 19 probes. As expected, no significant increases in hyperdiploidy were seen in the non-replicating cells. In contrast, highly significant increases in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy, as detected using FISH with probes for either chromosome 4 or 19, were seen in the replicating cells from rats treated with a combination of OPP and vinblastine. The inability to detect increases in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy in the bladder of OPP-treated rats indicates that chromosome gain is unlikely to play a major role in the early genotoxic effects of OPP. However, the increase in hyperdiploidy/polyploidy induced by vinblastine sulfate in OPP-treated rats, clearly demonstrates that this approach using FISH in combination with BrdU is capable of detecting changes in chromosome number even in slowly-dividing tissues, such as the urinary bladder.

  6. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  7. Sea cucumber (Stichopus hermanii) based hydrogel to treat burn wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Rozaini Mohd; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Yusof, Norimah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed; Abdullah, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim

    2011-07-01

    Malaysian sea cucumber was incorporated into hydrogel formulation by using electron beam irradiation technique and was introduced as novel cross-linked Gamat Hydrogel dressing. This study investigated whether Gamat Hydrogel enhanced repair of deep partial skin thickness burn wound in rats and its possible mechanism. Wounds were treated with either Gamat Hydrogel, control hydrogel, OpSite® film dressing or left untreated. Skin samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post burn for histological and molecular evaluations. Gamat Hydrogel markedly enhanced wound contraction and improved histological reorganization of the regenerating tissue. Furthermore, the dressing modulated the inflammatory responses, stimulated the activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, and enhanced rapid production of collagen fiber network with a consequently shorter healing time. The level of proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were significantly reduced in Gamat Hydrogel treated wounds compared with other groups as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In summary, our results showed that Gamat Hydrogel promoted burn wound repair via a complex mechanism involving stimulation of tissue regeneration and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The resultant wound healing effects were attributed to the synergistic effect of the hydrogel matrix and incorporated sea cucumber. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sensitization of capsaicin and icilin responses in oxaliplatin treated adult rat DRG neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Praveen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin chemotherapy induced neuropathy is a dose related cumulative toxicity that manifests as tingling, numbness, and chronic pain, compromising the quality of life and leading to discontinued chemotherapy. Patients report marked hypersensitivity to cold stimuli at early stages of treatment, when sensory testing reveals cold and heat hyperalgesia. This study examined the morphological and functional effects of oxaliplatin treatment in cultured adult rat DRG neurons. Results 48 hour exposure to oxaliplatin resulted in dose related reduction in neurite length, density, and number of neurons compared to vehicle treated controls, using Gap43 immunostaining. Neurons treated acutely with 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin showed significantly higher signal intensity for cyclic AMP immunofluorescence (160.5 ± 13 a.u., n = 3, P Conclusions Oxaliplatin treatment induces TRP sensitization mediated by increased intracellular cAMP, which may cause neuronal damage. These effects may be mitigated by co-treatment with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, like CB2 agonists, to alleviate the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin.

  9. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  10. Profiling of hepatic gene expression in rats treated with fibric acid analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, Paul D.; Souza, Angus T. de; Ulrich, Roger G

    2004-05-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptors whose ligands include fatty acids, eicosanoids and the fibrate class of drugs. In humans, fibrates are used to treat dyslipidemias. In rodents, fibrates cause peroxisome proliferation, a change that might explain the observed hepatomegaly. In this study, rats were treated with multiple dose levels of six fibric acid analogs (including fenofibrate) for up to two weeks. Pathological analysis identified hepatocellular hypertrophy as the only sign of hepatotoxicity, and only one compound at the highest dose caused any significant increase in serum ALT or AST activity. RNA profiling revealed that the expression of 1288 genes was related to dose or length of treatment and correlated with hepatocellular hypertrophy. This gene list included expression changes that were consistent with increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation, increased fatty acid transport, increased hepatic uptake of LDL-cholesterol, decreased hepatic uptake of glucose, decreased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycolysis. These changes are likely linked to many of the clinical benefits of fibrate drugs, including decreased serum triglycerides, decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased serum HDL-cholesterol. In light of the fact that all six compounds stimulated similar or identical changes in the expression of this set of 1288 genes, these results indicate that hepatomegaly is due to PPAR{alpha} activation, although signaling through other receptors (e.g. PPAR{gamma}, RXR) or through non-receptor pathways cannot be excluded.

  11. Potential fat-lowering and prebiotic effects of enzymatically treated okara in high-cholesterol-fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Suárez, María-José; Pérez-Cózar, María-Luisa; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Redondo-Cuenca, Araceli

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the lipid profile on serum, liver and faeces, and the potential prebiotic effect of diets supplemented with enzymatically treated okara (okara(ET)) in high-cholesterol fed Wistar rats. Triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the serum (p < 0.01) and liver (p < 0.01) of okara(ET) treated rats. Total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the faeces of rats fed the okara(ET) diet. The pH of faecal contents from treated okara(ET) rats was lower (p < 0.001), probably due to the significantly higher (p < 0.001) production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Okara(ET), therefore, reduced triglycerides in serum and liver, and increased the excretion of total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids, improving the lipid profile in rats fed with high-cholesterol diets. Okara(ET) fibre can improve intestinal transit by increasing faecal bulk. The decreased pH and increased SCFA production indicated that okara(ET) fibre fermentation occurred, suggesting a potential prebiotic effect.

  12. Quercetin Improves Neurobehavioral Performance Through Restoration of Brain Antioxidant Status and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Manganese-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ego, Valerie C; Subair, Temitayo I; Oyediran, Oluwasetemi; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-01-31

    The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin by assessing the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats sub-chronically treated with manganese alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was monitored using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment whereas the brain regions namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical analyses. Results indicated that co-treatment with quercetin significantly (p < 0.05) prevented manganese-induced locomotor and motor deficits specifically the decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle as well as the increase in time of immobility and grooming. The improvement in the neurobehavioral performance of manganese-treated rats following quercetin co-treatment was confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, quercetin assuaged manganese-induced decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity, hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation levels in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Taken together, quercetin mechanisms of ameliorating manganese-induced neurotoxicity is associated with restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity, augmentation of redox status and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain of rats.

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C on Lipid Profile Parameters in Paraquat treated Male Rats (Rattus Norvegicus

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    Benjamin N. Okolonkwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMThe continual use of paraquat (PQ, an herbicide, in the recreational, agricultural and industrial fa- cilities for the control of weeds has severally been linked with medical emergency poisoning cases associated with cardiovascular diseases. To buttress these views in this present study, we carried out an analysis on cardiac lipid markers [Total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, High density lipoprotein (HDL and Low density lipoprotein (LDL] of male rats under PQ insult, with and without vitamin C given to the rats as an antioxidant. We hoped to discover if truly PQ affects lipids, and if so, in what way and could it be arrested by the subsequent use of a potent antioxidant (vitamin C.METHODSMale rats in subgroups (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2 were intraperitoneally (ip injected with dif- ferent sub-lethal increasing doses {0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/kg body weight (BW} of PQ respectively on monthly basis. The subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were subsequently given 200mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups (A1, B1, C1 and D1 received only water. At the end of every month 2mls of blood samples were taken from 4 animals per subgroup under anesthetics and following interna- tionally approved standard protocol on Animal care.RESULTSThere was a dose and time of exposure dependent reduction in TC values of both the vitamin c treat- ed and the non-vitamin c treated subgroups. The increased TC values observed in the control were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in the results of the subgroup on vitamin C (A2 when compared to the subgroup without vitamin C (A1 even as the time of exposure increased. The test subgroups (B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2 gave a dose and exposure time dependent reduction in its TC values when com- pared to that of the control subgroups (A1 and A2 at P ≤ 0.05. The vitamin C treated test subgroups (B2, C2 and D2 were not statistically different from that of the non-vitamin C treated test subgroups (B1, C1 and D1

  14. Observation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Trianthema decandra Linn. (Vallai sharunnai roots on carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

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    G. Balamurugan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.

  15. Requirements of glycerol and fatty acid for triglyceride synthesis and ketogenesis by hepatocytes from normal and triiodothyronine-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olubadewo, J.O.; Heimberg, M.

    1985-11-15

    Hepatocytes from T3-treated rats synthesized less triglyceride and more ketone bodies from (1-/sup 14/C)oleate at all concentrations from 0-2 mM, than did hepatocytes from euthyroid animals; addition of 1.0 mM glycerol increased triglyceride synthesis and reduced ketogenesis in hepatocytes from T3-treated rats to the rates observed in euthyroid hepatocytes in the absence of added glycerol. Glycerol did not alter triglyceride synthesis, but reduced ketogenesis genesis by euthyroid hepatocytes. It is probable from these and other data that, in the hyperthyroid rat, glycero-3-P, and not fatty acid, is rate limiting for synthesis of triglyceride, and, secondarily for reducing rates of ketogenesis in the hepatocyte.

  16. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat pleural mesothelial cells treated with mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, A; Lévy, F; Pillière, F; Jaurand, M C

    1990-08-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was studied in confluent rat pleural mesothelial cells (RPMCs) arrested in G0/G1 with hydroxyurea (HU) and treated with various fibre types, i.e., chrysotile, crocidolite or attapulgite. In addition, the effects of UV light and of benzo[a]pyrene were determined as references. Using autoradiography after [3H]thymidine incorporation ([3H]dThd), RPMCs treated with 4 micrograms/cm2 of chrysotile fibres exhibited a low but significant enhancement of net grains compared to untreated cells. Treatment with higher doses of chrysotile was not possible because of the impairment of microscopic observation due to the presence of the fibres. Using liquid scintillation counting, RPMCs treated with chrysotile or crocidolite showed a significant dose-dependent increase in [3H]dThd incorporation compared to untreated cells. In contrast, attapulgite did not enhance [3H]dThd incorporation compared to untreated cells. Treatment of RPMCs with 1, 2 or 4 micrograms/ml of benzo[a]pyrene resulted in a significant increase in [3H]dThd incorporation. In order to discount a possible role of S cells in the augmentation of [3H]dThd incorporation, despite the presence of 5 mM HU, S cells were counted by autoradiography. Results indicated that the percentage of S cells was similar in asbestos-treated and untreated cultures. Stimulation of the S phase also seems unlikely because treatment of RPMCs with asbestos fibres in the absence of HU resulted in a reduction of [3H]dThd incorporation attributed to an impairment of the S phase by the fibres. 1-4 micrograms/ml benzo[a]pyrene or 10-50 J/m2 UV light resulted in an approximate doubling of [3H]dThd incorporation. The effects of inhibitors of DNA repair were determined in chrysotile-treated RPMCs. [3H]dThd incorporation was inhibited by cytosine arabinoside and nalidixic acid. These results show that asbestos produces UDS in RPMCs.

  17. DNA breaks induced by micromolar concentrations of dimethylnitrosamine in liver primary cell cultures from untreated and phenobarbital treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T; López-Revilla, R; Villa-Treviño, S

    1983-05-01

    Direct genotoxic effects of the alkylating agent dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) have been difficult to detect in several short-term tests. We simplified our method to detect DNA breaks induced by DMN in rat liver primary cell cultures, and increased its sensitivity about 150 times by changing the conditions of ultracentrifugation and exposure to DMN. Additionally we increased 4 times the sensitivity of the improved assay by isolating hepatocytes from rats treated with phenobarbital (PB). Treatment for 24 h with 60 microM and 13.5 microM DMN of hepatocytes isolated from untreated and PB-treated rats, respectively, decreased the molecular weight of DNA by 50%. After 24 h exposure to 13.5 microM [14C]DMN, hepatocytes from PB-treated rats incorporated 3 times more radioactivity into trichloroacetic acid precipitable material than hepatocytes from untreated rats. Also PB-treatment increased remarkably cytotoxic effects of DMN while it did not modify the cytotoxicity nor the genotoxicity of the direct-acting alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. These results show that DMN is more genotoxic for hepatocytes from PB-treated rats, and suggest that the enhanced genotoxicity is probably due to an augmented metabolism of DMN by these cultures. Our improved assay of DNA breaks as an indicator of DMN genotoxicity is now as sensitive but faster to perform than hepatocyte-mediated mutagenesis. It could be used to explore genotoxic effects of other alkylating agents and the action of microsomal enzyme modifiers on genotoxicity.

  18. The effect of resveratrol on contractility of non-pregnant rat uterus: the contribution of K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R; Ilic, B; Beleslin-Cokic, B; Radunovic, N; Heinle, H; Scepanovic, R; Gojkovic-Bukarica, L

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate resveratrol (1-100 μM) effect on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRC), oxytocin-induced (0.2 nM, POxC) phasic and tonic (20 nM, TOxC) contractions of isolated rat uterus. The SRC and POxC were more sensitive to resveratrol than TOxC (pD2 values: 4.53 and 4.66 versus 4.06). Different blockers of K(+) channels (glibenclamide, tetraethylamonium, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine) antagonized the response to resveratrol on the SRC and phasic contractions, but did not antagonize the effect of resveratrol on the TOxC. In order to compare the relaxant activities of resveratrol on the TOxC with that of potassium channel openers, a separate experiments with NS 1619, a highly specific big Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BKCa) channels opener and pinacidil, a predominant opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels were done. NS 1619 (10-100 μM) and pinacidil (10-100 μM) produced more potent inhibition of TOxC than resveratrol (pD2 values were 6.00 and 5.29). Iberiotoxin, a highly selective BKCa channels blocker, antagonized the response to NS 1619 and glibenclamide, a highly selective KATP channels blocker, antagonized the response to pinacidil on the TOxC. To test K(+)- and extracellular Ca(2+)- independent mechanism(s) of resveratrol on TOxC, a K(+)-rich, Ca(2+)-free solution was used. Under this condition, only high concentrations (≥30 μM) of resveratrol inhibited TOxC. Western blots analysis confirmed expression of Kir6.1, Kir6.2, KCa1.1, Kv2.1 and Kv4.2. channel proteins in myometrium. Thus, the effect of resveratrol is dependent on the types of contractions. The inhibitory response of resveratrol on the SRC and phasic contractions involves different myometrial K(+)- channels. When applied in high concentrations, resveratrol has an additional K(+)- channels independent mechanism(s) of action. As the effects of NS 1619, pinacidil and resveratrol on the TOxC are different, we can conclud that resveratrol does not behave as a classical

  19. Oxytocic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Costus lucanusianus - family Costaceae on isolated non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Omonkhelini J; Omogbai, Eric K I; Falodun, Abiodun

    2010-04-01

    Costus lucanusianus J. Braun (Costaceae) is a climbing herb, found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This plant is locally used in situations of pains, inflammation, dysmenorrhoea and in pyrexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate this claim with view to validating scientifically the ethno-medicinal usage. The aqueous extract was subjected to pharmacological testing in vitro on a piece of isolated rat uterus previously pretreated with 1 mg/kg stilbestrol for 24 h. The dose response curves of oxytocin and that of the extract were first obtained. The effects of antagonists like atropine (1 mg) and salbutamol (2 microg) on the dose response curve of the extract were also investigated. Possible synergy was investigated via co-administration of the extract and oxytocin. Finally the proximate analysis of the extract was investigated. The aqueous extract of C. lucanusianus and oxytocin both produced a dose dependent contraction of the uterus. An effect of 0.63+/-0.06 g force of uterine contraction produced by 12.5 mg of the extract was increased to 1.37+/-0.09 g when 200 mg of the extract was administered. Oxytocin at 0.16 i.u was observed to produce a similar force of contraction with 200 mg of the aqueous extract. Synergy was established as co administration of the extract at 200 mg and oxytocin at 0.08 i.u, produced higher contractile effect, significantly higher (p<0.05) than when either the extract (200mg) or oxytocin (0.08 i.u) was administered alone. Both atropine and salbutamol significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited the contractile effect produced by the extract. The inhibitory effect showed by atropine on the contractile effect of the extract seems to suggest the involvement of muscarinic receptors. The proximate analysis carried out in this study is used to establish the identity of the crude drug sample. A moisture content of 10.047 % was obtained. The total ash is a measure of the non-volatile inorganic constituents remaining after ashing. The

  20. Neuroprotective effects of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells from 5-fluorouracil pre-treated rats on ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Mao, W W; Zhang, C G; Wan, L; Jing, C H; Hua, X M; Li, S T; Cheng, J

    2016-03-15

    Our previous findings showed bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) from 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) pre-treated rats (named BMRMNCs) had a better therapeutic efficacy in ischemia/reperfusion rats as compared to BMMNCs from untreated rats. This study was undertaken to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of BMRMNCs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Rats were intravenously pre-treated with 5-FU and BMRMNCs were collected at different time points. The contents of growth factors in the supernatant and CXCR4 expression were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. MCAO was introduced to rats, and BMMNCs and BMRMNCs collected at 7 days after 5-FU pre-treatment were independently transplanted via the tail vein 24h later. The neurological function was evaluated before cell transplantation and at 24h, 7d and 14d after cell transplantation. Rats were sacrificed at 14d after cell transplantation, the brains were collected for TTC staining, infarct volume detection, NISSL staining, counting of viable cells in the CA1 region, and observation of transplanted cells. BMRMNCs had elevated expressions of growth factors as well as CXCR4 expression. Our results confirmed the better therapeutic effects of BMRMNCs in MCAO rats, demonstrated by reduction in infarct volume, improvement of neurological function and more viable cells in the hippocampus. In addition, more transplanted cells were found after BMRMNCs transplantation at 7 days and 14 days although there was no marked difference at 14 days. These findings indicate that BMRMNCs transplantation may protect ischemic stroke, at least partially, via increasing the secretion of growth factors and migration to the injured site.

  1. Ectopic pregnancy-derived human trophoblastic stem cells regenerate dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway to treat parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tony Tung-Yin; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wang, Yu-Chih; Kao, Mi-Chun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Singh, Sher; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Lee, Jau-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i) to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; and (ii) to test if hTS cells can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. hTS cells expressed gene markers of both the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). hTS cells exhibited genetic and biological characteristics similar to that of hES cells, yet genetically distinct from placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) efficiently induced hTS cells into trophoblast neural stem cells (tNSCs) in 1-day. Overexpression of transcription factor Nanog was possibly achieved through a RA-induced non-genomic c-Src/Stat3/Nanog signaling pathway mediated by the subcellular c-Src mRNA localization for the maintenance of pluripotency in tNSCs. tNSC transplantation into the lesioned striatum of acute and chronic PD rats not only improved behavioral deficits but also regenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, evidenced by immunofluorescent and immunohistological analyses at 18-weeks. Furthermore, tNSCs showed immunological advantages for the application in regenerative medicine. We successfully isolated and characterized the unique ectopic pregnancy-derived hTS cells. hTS cells are pluripotent stem cells that can be efficiently induced to tNSCs with positive results in PD rat models. Our data suggest that the hTS cell is a dynamic stem cell platform that is potentially suitable for use in disease models, drug discovery, and cell therapy such as PD.

  2. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  3. Mucosal acid causes gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Chono, Koji; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Kimoto, Aishi; Sasamata, Masao

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress gastric mucosal blood flow is not fully understood, although the depletion of mucosal prostaglandin E2 has been proposed as one possible explanation. We investigated the role of gastric acid on gastric mucosal blood flow in NSAID-treated rats. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and gastric mucosal blood flow was measured sequentially in a 5-mm2 area of the gastric corpus using a scanning laser Doppler perfusion image system. Results showed that diclofenac (5 mg/kg s.c.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow, although both strongly decreased mucosal prostaglandin E2 when saline was instilled into the gastric chamber. On replacement of the saline in the chamber with 100 mM hydrochloric acid, these drugs caused a decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow levels within 30 min. The specific cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors celecoxib (50 mg/kg s.c.) and rofecoxib (25 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, nor did they decrease gastric mucosal blood flow, even when hydrochloric acid was added to the chamber. Furthermore, measurement of vasoconstrictive factors present in the mucosa showed that endothelin-1 levels increased after administration of diclofenac s.c. in the presence of intragastric hydrochloric acid. This indicates that the presence of mucosal hydrochloric acid plays an important role in the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, while the COX-1-derived basal prostaglandin E2, which is unlikely to control gastric mucosal blood flow itself, protects microcirculatory systems from mucosal hydrochloric acid.

  4. Downregulation of CREB expression in Alzheimer's brain and in Aβ-treated rat hippocampal neurons

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    Pham Serena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer's brain. Previous studies have reported downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription by oxidative stress and Aβ. The promoter for CREB itself contains cyclic AMP response elements. Therefore, we examined the expression of CREB in the hippocampal neurons of Tg2576 mice, AD post-mortem brain and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Aβ aggregates. Results Laser Capture Microdissection of hippocampal neurons from Tg2576 mouse brain revealed decreases in the mRNA levels of CREB and its target, BDNF. Immunohistochemical analysis of Tg2576 mouse brain showed decreases in CREB levels in hippocampus and cortex. Markers of oxidative stress were detected in transgenic mouse brain and decreased CREB staining was observed in regions showing abundance of astrocytes. There was also an inverse correlation between SDS-extracted Aβ and CREB protein levels in Alzheimer's post-mortem hippocampal samples. The levels of CREB-regulated BDNF and BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor, decreased and the active cleaved form of caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, was elevated in these samples. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to Aβ fibrils decreased CREB promoter activity. Decrease in CREB mRNA levels in Aβ-treated neurons was reversed by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Overexpression of CREB by adenoviral transduction led to significant protection against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chronic downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription results in decrease of CREB content in the hippocampal neurons of AD brain which may contribute to exacerbation of disease progression.

  5. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

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    Campos-Martorell M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

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    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  7. The nuclear factor-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid-induced immune response in pregnant rats and the behavioral defects of their adult offspring

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    Song Xueqin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have indicated that maternal infection during pregnancy may lead to a higher incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. It is assumed that the maternal infection increases the immune response, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Maternal polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (PolyI:C treatment induces a wide range of characteristics in the offspring mimicking some schizophrenia symptoms in humans. These observations are consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Methods We examined whether suppression of the maternal immune response could prevent neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring. PolyI:C or saline was administered to early pregnant rats to mimic maternal infection, and the maternal immune response represented by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was used to suppress the maternal immune response. Neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring were examined by prepulse inhibition (PPI, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Results PolyI:C administration to early pregnant rats led to elevated serum cytokine levels as shown by massive increases in serum TNF-α and IL-10 levels. The adult offspring showed defects in prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance and active avoidance tests. PDTC intervention in early pregnant rats suppressed cytokine increases and reduced the severity of neurodevelopmental defects in adult offspring. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PDTC can suppress the maternal immune response induced by PolyI:C and partially prevent neurodevelopmental disorders of adult offspring.

  8. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7 in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

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    Shadan Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7, is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (P dose <0.001 and A779-treated (P dose<0.01 animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05. When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  9. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and apoptosis in liver and kidneys of rats treated with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Ali; Simsek, Nejdet; Karakus, Emre; Yildirim, Serap; Kara, Adem; Can, Ismail; Kisa, Fikrullah; Emre, Habib; Turkeli, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ) against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7 mg kg(-1) body weight i.p., single dose); group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300 mg/kg/day); group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA), elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity.

  10. Royal Jelly Modulates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Liver and Kidneys of Rats Treated with Cisplatin

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    Ali Karadeniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CDDP is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7 mg kg-1 body weight i.p., single dose; group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300 mg/kg/day; group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA, elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity.

  11. Calcitriol promotes augmented dopamine release in the lesioned striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Wayne A.; Peters, Laura E.; Fletcher, Anita M.; Yurek, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Current therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) offer symptomatic relief but do not provide a cure or slow the disease process. Treatments that could halt progression of the disease or help restore function to damaged neurons would be of substantial benefit. Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to have significant effects on the brain. These effects include upregulating trophic factor levels, and reducing the severity of some central nervous system lesions. While previous studies have shown that calcitriol can be neuroprotective in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent models of PD, the present experiments were designed to examine the ability of calcitriol to promote restoration of extracellular DA levels and tissue content of DA in animals previously lesioned with 6-OHDA. Male Fischer-344 rats were given a single injection of 12 µg 6-OHDA into the right striatum. Four weeks later the animals were administered vehicle or calcitriol (0.3 or 1.0 µg/kg, s.c.) once a day for eight consecutive days. Three weeks after the calcitriol treatments in vivo microdialysis experiments were conducted to measure potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA from both the left and right striata. In control animals treated with 6-OHDA and vehicle there were significant reductions in both potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA on the lesioned side of the brain compared to the contralateral side. In animals treated with 6-OHDA followed by calcitriol there was significantly greater potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA from the lesioned striatum compared to that from the control animals. The calcitriol treatments also led to increases in postmortem tissue levels of DA in the striatum and substantia nigra. These results suggest that calcitriol may help promote recovery of dopaminergic functioning in injured nigrostriatal neurons. PMID:24858239

  12. Diet-dependent modulation of hippocampal expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in cannabinoid antagonist-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Blanco, Eduardo; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Vida, Margarita; Grondona, Jesús M; Cifuentes, Manuel; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity produces changes in endocannabinoid signaling (ECS), influencing the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, we demonstrated that, in high-fat-diet-fed rats, blockade of CB1 receptor by AM251 not only reduced body weight but also increased adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, suggesting an influence of diet on hippocampal cannabinoid function. To further explore the role of hippocampal ECS in high-fat-diet-induced obesity, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical expression of the enzymes that produce (diacylglycerol lipase alpha and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D) and degrade (monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amino hydrolase) endocannabinoids may be altered in the hippocampus of AM251 (3 mg/kg)-treated rats fed three different diets: standard diet (normal chow), high-carbohydrate diet (70% carbohydrate) and high-fat diet (60% fat). Results indicated that AM251 reduced caloric intake and body weight gain, and induced a modulation of the expression of ECS-related proteins in the hippocampus of animals exposed to hypercaloric diets. These effects were differentially restricted to either the 2-arachinodoyl glycerol or anandamide signaling pathways, in a diet-dependent manner. AM251-treated rats fed the high-carbohydrate diet showed a reduction of the diacylglycerol lipase alpha : monoacylglycerol lipase ratio, whereas AM251-treated rats fed the high-fat diet showed a decrease of the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D : fatty acid amino hydrolase ratio. These results are consistent with the reduced levels of hippocampal endocannabinoids found after food restriction. Regarding the CB1 expression, AM251 induced specific changes focused in the CA1 stratum pyramidale of high-fat-diet-fed rats. These findings indicated that the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 modulates ECS-related proteins in the rat hippocampus in a diet-specific manner. Overall, these results suggest that the hippocampal ECS participates

  13. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

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    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  14. Comparison of the metabolism of dodecanedioic acid in vivo in control, riboflavin-deficient and clofibrate-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draye, J P; Veitch, K; Vamecq, J; Van Hoof, F

    1988-12-01

    Intravenous administration of dodecanedioate (or hexadecanedioate) to anaesthetized rats resulted in the urinary excretion of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids (adipic, suberic and sebacic acids). In control animals, the recovery of infused dodecanedioate in the form of urinary medium-chain dicarboxylic acids corresponded to 30% of the infused dose (22 mumol/100 g body mass). This excretion was markedly increased in riboflavin-deficient rats (75% of the infused dose) while it was severely decreased in clofibrate-treated animals (less than 5%). The initial velocity of this process was similar in both control and riboflavin-deficient rats. In control animals, halving the infused dose of dodecanedioate to 11 mumol/100 g body mass resulted in a halving of the initial rate of the urinary appearance of medium-chain dicarboxylates, while doubling the amount of dicarboxylate administered to 44 mumol/100 g body mass did not further modify this velocity, but rather prolonged the duration of the excretion of the resulting products. In riboflavin-deficient and clofibrate-treated rats, the hepatic peroxisomal dicarboxylyl-CoA beta-oxidation activity measured as dicarboxylyl-CoA H2O2-generating oxidase and cyanide-insensitive dicarboxylyl-CoA-dependent NAD+ reduction was increased about threefold and tenfold, respectively. Dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase activity was normal in the clofibrate-treated rat livers but was increased more than tenfold in the livers from the riboflavin-deficient animals. This work provides evidence that in the rat both mitochondria and peroxisomes are involved in the catabolism of dicarboxylates.

  15. HSP70 immune reactivity and TUNEL positivity in the liver of toluene-inhaled and melatonin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ufuk; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Sapmaz, Hilal Irmak; Kocaman, Nevin; Zararsiz, Ismail; Sarsilmaz, Mustafa

    2013-07-01

    Toluene is a clear, colorless and volatile hydrocarbon that is metabolized in liver, produced free oxygen radicals and can mediate cellular damage. Melatonin which is a pineal gland hormone is a very potent antioxidant. It can make the cellular membrane more durable against oxidative attacks and protect nuclear DNA from oxidative damage. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein (HSP)70 immune reactivity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positivity (apoptotic activity) in the liver of toluene-inhaled and melatonin-treated rats. A total of 21 adult male Wistar albino rats were divided at random into 3 equal groups. Animals in group I were designated as control. The rats in group II were exposed to toluene (3000 ppm/1 h/day) for 30 days, while the rats in group III were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) plus toluene inhalation. At the end of the 30-day experimental period, all rats were killed by decapitation. Then the liver tissues of rats were removed and tissue specimens were embedded in paraffin blocks. The specimens were stained with periodic acid-schiff (PAS) following routine histological procedures. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were used for immune detection of TUNEL and HSP70. In light microscopic observations of tissues from toluene-inhaled rats, massive hepatocyte degeneration, ballooning degeneration and decreased PAS positivity were observed. Increased TUNEL positivity and HSP70 immune reactivity were determined in toluene-inhaled group and melatonin treatment decreased all these adverse effects.

  16. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with levetiracetam: a preliminary study.

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    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Czarnecka, Elżbieta; Dyr, Wanda; Gorska, Dorota

    2011-03-28

    Many recent researches have confirmed the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in preventing alcohol dependency, whereas our previous study showed that repeated treatment with topiramate, a new antiepileptic drug, was effective in increasing the plasma levels of beta-endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) in rats. It is well documented that in humans a genetic deficit of beta-endorphin is often associated with alcohol addiction as alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. The aim of the present study is multifaceted: to investigate the effect of repeated treatment of levetiracetam (50 or 100mg/kg b.w., twice daily) on voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw High Preferring; WHP) and to assess changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels while alcohol is available and when it is not available for an extended period of time. We observed a noticeable increase in the levels of beta-endorphin in rats with free access to alcohol whether in a prolonged levetiracetam-treated or vehicle-treated group. However, in the levetiracetam group, a voluntary intake of alcohol diminished in comparison with both the pretreatment period and in comparison with the vehicle-treated rats. A similar increase in the plasma beta-endorphin levels was observed in levetiracetam-treated rats that did not have access to ethanol. This finding lets us to believe that levetiracetam may be a promising medication in treatment of alcohol dependency as its application leads to the increase in the beta-endorphin concentration and ultimately results in reducing deficiency of this peptide.

  17. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated Wistar rats.

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    Saravanan, R; Prakasam, A; Ramesh, B; Pugalendi, K V

    2002-01-01

    Piper betle L. is a commonly used masticatory in Asia. This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of P. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. Ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. Oral administration of P. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (P betle extract (300 mg/kg body weight) was most effective. The results were comparable with the known hepatoprotective drug, silymarin. These results indicate that P. betle could afford a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect.

  18. The effect of thyroxin on hepatic redox equilibrium and lipid metabolism in rats treated with doxorubicin

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    Czuba Bartosz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main side effects of the administration of doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer drug, is the generation of a reactive oxygen species (ROS in normal cells. As a result, redox disorders and secondary oxidative stress are developed. Doxorubicin ROS generation is attributed to enzymes that are produced abundantly in hepatocytes. Oxidative stress has been a well-known risk factor of doxorubicin-related toxicity. However, in addition, according to the data collected in the last decade, changes in thyroxin status can propagate ROS generation, and, thus, initiate the doxorubicin hepatic effect. Moreover, both compounds have an impact on the cell metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the thesis that thyroxin can modulate the effect of doxorubicin with regard to redox status and lipid metabolism disorders. In our work, we determined the ratio of NADP+/ NADPH and NAD+/NADH in liver homogenates, blood ketone bodies and triglycerides in the liver and blood in rats treated with doxorubicin and thyroxin. Our results indicate that thyroxin has an insignificant effect on NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH ratios and on hepatic and blood triglycerides. Moreover, thyroxin administration normalized the level of blood ketone bodies that was disturbed by doxorubicin.

  19. Oxidative damages in isolated rat hepatocytes treated with the organochlorine fungicides captan, dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshihide; Nojiri, Hisao; Isono, Hideo; Ochi, Takafumi

    2004-11-15

    The cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidative potency of the organochlorine fungicides captan (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide), dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N'N'-dimethyl-N-phenylsulfamide) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-isophthalonitrile) were studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. These fungicides induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Considerable cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation occurred after cells were treated with 25 microM and more of fungicide. The phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) content increased more than 300 times by captan (250-1000 microM), 400 times by dichlofluanid (250-1000 microM) and 20 times by chlorothalonil (25-1000 microM) after 1h of incubation, as compared with untreated control. Significant cytotoxicity occurred after 20 min (captan), 30 min (dichlofluanid) and 60 min (chlorothalonil) of incubation and lipid peroxidation was induced prior to cytotoxicity. The antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and cytochrome P450 inhibitor SKF-525A effectively prevented cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. Our results suggest that metabolites of these fungicides produced by the microsomal cytochrome P450 system, induced membrane phospholipid peroxidation that caused cytotoxicity.

  20. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  1. Influence of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Embryo Development of Pregnant Rats%高同型半胱氨酸血症对孕鼠胚胎发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 王新; 王海琴

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the influence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHE) on rat pregnancy. [Methods] According to the level of homocysteine ( HCY) , 30 SD pregnant rats were randomly divided into high dose group(group H) , low dose group(group L) and control group(group C) with 10 in each. From d7 to d20 of pregnancy before uterine-incision delivery, group A was intraperitoneally injected with 200mg/(kg. D) , and group L was injected with 100mg/(kg. D) , and group C was injected the equal volume of normal saline. The number of young rats and the dead fetus were counted. The weight and the height of young rats were measured. High performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical method were used to detect plasma HCY levels of pregnant rats before and d20 of pregnancy. [Results]Plasma HCY levels of pregnant rats in group H, L and C at d20 of pregnancy were 30. 47 ± 1. 12, 20. 90 ± 1. 08 and 10. 98 ± 0. 77umol/L respectively, which were higher than those before the pregnancy, and there were significant differences among groups (all P <0. 01). As the dose of HCY increased, the number, weight and height of young rats in group H and L decreased, and the rate of dead and malformation fetus increased. There were significant differences between group H or L and group C(all P <0. 05). There was also significant difference between group H and group L ( P <0. 05). [Conclusion] HHE may exert the toxic effect on embryo development of pregnant rats and there is dose-effect relationship, which mainly shows the decreasing of the number of young rats, growth retardation, malformation and dead fetus.%[目的]探讨高同型半胱氨酸血症(Hhe)对大鼠妊娠的影响.[方法]将30只SD孕鼠按同型半胱氨酸(HCY)浓度高低随机分为 高剂量组(H组)、低剂量组(L组)、对照组(C组),每组10只.从妊娠d7起,H组腹腔内注 HCY 200 mg/(kg·d),L组注射100 mg/(kg·d),C组腹腔内注射同等体积的生理盐水,直至孕d20剖宫取胎.计算各组仔鼠

  2. Mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) are useful biomarkers for colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2004-02-01

    Crypt foci with absent or scant mucous production (mucin-depleted foci, MDF) were recently described by our group in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Since MDF are dysplastic and easy to quantify, we think that MDF are pre-neoplastic lesions that could be used as biomarkers for carcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we studied MDF in azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated rats treated with cholic acid (CHA), a promoter of colon carcinogenesis or with piroxicam (PXC), a colon cancer-inhibiting drug. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were determined as well. F344 male rats were treated with AOM (15 mg/kg x 2, s.c.) and then divided into: controls, which were fed AIN76 diet; CHA group, which was fed AIN76 diet containing CHA 0.5% w/w; PXC group, which was fed AIN76 diet containing PXC 0.02% w/w. Ten weeks after the first dose of AOM, the total number of MDF was significantly increased in rats treated with CHA (PMDF/colon were 6.10 +/- 1.26, 10.59 +/- 1.96 and 1.31 +/- 0.21 in controls, CHA and PXC groups, respectively, means +/- SE). The multiplicity of MDF was also increased in CHA-treated rats. On the contrary, ACF multiplicity was significantly decreased by CHA. In PXC-treated rats there were fewer ACF with lower multiplicity. The effect of PXC was also investigated 15 weeks after the first AOM dose and the results showed that the total number of MDF in the PXC group was significantly lower than in controls. The number of 'large' MDF, formed by 12 or more crypts, was also reduced (PMDF were 1.7 +/- 0.5 and 0.4 +/- 0.2 in control and PXC groups, respectively). Since CHA promotes and PXC reduces colon cancer, MDF are correlated with carcinogenesis and can be proposed as endpoints to study the modulation of colon carcinogenesis in short-term experiments.

  3. Detection of micronuclei, cell proliferation and hyperdiploidy in bladder epithelial cells of rats treated with o-phenylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Uppala, P T; Rupa, D S; Hasegawa, L; Eastmond, D A

    2002-01-01

    o-Phenylphenol (OPP), a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent, has been considered to be among the top 10 home and garden pesticides used in the USA. Earlier studies have consistently shown that the sodium salt of OPP (SOPP) causes bladder cancer in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats, whereas OPP has produced variable results. This difference has been attributed to the presence of the sodium salt. To determine cellular and genetic alterations in the rat bladder and the influence of the sodium salt, F344 rats were administered 2% OPP, 2% NaCl and 2% NaCl + 2% OPP in their diet for 14 days. Twenty-four hours before being killed the animals were administered 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by i.p. injection. Bladder cells were isolated, stained with DAPI and scored for the presence of micronuclei and incorporation of BrdU into replicating cells. To determine changes in chromosome number, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a DNA probe for rat chromosome 4. Significant increases in the frequency of micronuclei and BrdU incorporation were seen in bladder cells of rats from all treatment groups. In contrast, the frequency of hyperdiploidy/polyploidy in treated animals was not increased over that seen in controls. A high control frequency of cells with three or more hybridization signals was seen, probably due to the presence of polyploid cells in the bladder. The presence of polyploid cells combined with cytotoxicity and compensatory cell proliferation makes it difficult to determine whether OPP is capable of inducing aneuploidy in the rat urothelium. In summary, these studies show that OPP can cause cellular and chromosomal alterations in rat bladder cells in the absence of the sodium salt. These results also indicate that at high concentrations the sodium salt can enhance chromosomal damage in the rat urothelium.

  4. Influence of the semisynthetic bile acid MKC on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in vitro in healthy and diabetic rats treated with probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salami, H; Butt, G; Tucker, I; Mikov, M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sodium 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-12-keto-5beta-cholanate (MKC) on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in healthy and diabetic rats treated with probiotics. Male Wistar rats (2-3 months, 350 +/- 50 g) were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 32); Groups 1 and 2 were healthy controls and Groups 3 and 4 were diabetic rats (alloxan 30 mg/kg was administered i.v.), which were administered probiotics for three days after the rats became diabetics. The rats were sacrificed and tissues were mounted on Ussing chambers. Then, gliclazide (200 microg/ml) was added to all the groups, while MKC (50 microg/ml) was given to Groups 2 and 4, for the measurement of the mucosal to serosal absorption Jss(MtoS) and serosal to mucosal secretion Jss(StoM) of gliclazide. In the tissues of healthy rats treated with probiotics, MKC stimulated the net absorption of gliclazide by stimulating the absorptive and reducing the secretory unidirectional fluxes, while in tissues from diabetic rats treated with probiotics, MKC had no effect. In healthy rats treated with probiotics, the degradation of MKC by bacterial polypeptides produced divalent bile salts that inhibited Mrp2, which resulted in reducing secretion and stimulating the absorption of gliclazide. In contrast, in diabetic rats treated with probiotics, MKC had no effect possibly due to a difference in the metabolic profile and resulting in no net flux.

  5. Ectopic pregnancy-derived human trophoblastic stem cells regenerate dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway to treat parkinsonian rats.

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    Tony Tung-Yin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD; however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; and (ii to test if hTS cells can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: hTS cells expressed gene markers of both the trophectoderm (TE and the inner cell mass (ICM. hTS cells exhibited genetic and biological characteristics similar to that of hES cells, yet genetically distinct from placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA efficiently induced hTS cells into trophoblast neural stem cells (tNSCs in 1-day. Overexpression of transcription factor Nanog was possibly achieved through a RA-induced non-genomic c-Src/Stat3/Nanog signaling pathway mediated by the subcellular c-Src mRNA localization for the maintenance of pluripotency in tNSCs. tNSC transplantation into the lesioned striatum of acute and chronic PD rats not only improved behavioral deficits but also regenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, evidenced by immunofluorescent and immunohistological analyses at 18-weeks. Furthermore, tNSCs showed immunological advantages for the application in regenerative medicine. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully isolated and characterized the unique ectopic pregnancy-derived hTS cells. hTS cells are pluripotent stem cells that can be efficiently induced to tNSCs with positive results in PD rat models. Our data suggest that the hTS cell is a dynamic stem cell platform that is potentially suitable for use in disease models, drug discovery, and cell therapy such as PD.

  6. Exercise aggravates cardiovascular risks and mortality in rats with disrupted nitric oxide pathway and treated with recombinant human erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziri, Fayçal; Binda, Delphine; Touati, Sabeur; Pellegrin, Maxime; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-08-01

    Chronic administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) can generate serious cardiovascular side effects such as arterial hypertension (HTA) in clinical and sport fields. It is hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) can protect from noxious cardiovascular effects induced by chronic administration of rHuEPO. On this base, we studied the cardiovascular effects of chronic administration of rHuEPO in exercise-trained rats treated with an inhibitor of NO synthesis (L-NAME). Rats were treated or not with rHuEPO and/or L-NAME during 6 weeks. During the same period, rats were subjected to treadmill exercise. The blood pressure was measured weekly. Endothelial function of isolated aorta and small mesenteric arteries were studied and the morphology of the latter was investigated. L-NAME induced hypertension (197 ± 6 mmHg, at the end of the protocol). Exercise prevented the rise in blood pressure induced by L-NAME (170 ± 5 mmHg). However, exercise-trained rats treated with both rHuEPO and L-NAME developed severe hypertension (228 ± 9 mmHg). Furthermore, in these exercise-trained rats treated with rHuEPO/L-NAME, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was markedly impaired in isolated aorta (60% of maximal relaxation) and small mesenteric arteries (53%). L-NAME hypertension induced an internal remodeling of small mesenteric arteries that was not modified by exercise, rHuEPO or both. Vascular ET-1 production was not increased in rHuEPO/L-NAME/training hypertensive rats. Furthermore, we observed that rHuEPO/L-NAME/training hypertensive rats died during the exercise or the recovery period (mortality 51%). Our findings suggest that the use of rHuEPO in sport, in order to improve physical performance, represents a high and fatal risk factor, especially with pre-existing cardiovascular risk.

  7. Increase in oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in hypothalamus of streptozotocin treated diabetic rat: Antioxidative effect of Withania somnifera.

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    Parihar, P; Shetty, R; Ghafourifar, P; Parihar, M S

    2016-01-22

    Hypothalamus, the primary brain region for glucose sensing, is severely affected by oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress in this region of brain may cause severe impairment in neuronal metabolic functions. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative stress and the combination of increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions may further decline hypothalamic neuronal functions. In the present study we examined the oxidative damage response, antioxidative responses and mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in hypothalamus of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Our results show that streptozotocin significantly increases hypothalamic lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content while glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were declined. Mitochondrial impairment marked by an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was seen following streptozotocin treatment in the hypothalamus. The oral administration of Withania somnifera root extract stabilized mitochondrial functions and prevented oxidative damage in the hypothalamus of diabetic rat. These findings suggest an increase in the oxidative stress and decline in antioxidative responses in the hypothalamus of streptozotocin treated diabetic rats. Withania somnifera root extract was found useful in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in hypothalamus of diabetic rat.

  8. Protective effect of Petroselinum crispum extract in abortion using prostadin-induced renal dysfunction in female rats

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    Maryam Rezazad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods:  Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant statues (TAS, creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. Results: After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed. Conclusion: These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.

  9. Classical Jingsui Siwu Decoction and Cassia Decoction Treat Pregnant Wry Mouth 1 Case%经方荆穗四物汤联合桂枝汤加减治疗妊娠口僻1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁君

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To sum up the clinical effect of clinical decoctions of Jingsui Siwu and Cassia on pregnant wry mouth. [ResultJExpound the treatment clinical effect from cases data, causa morbi, mechanism, diagnosing standard and cure effect standards respectively. [Result] The causa morbi and mechanism of the treatment above is wind cold invading from outside, disharmonious Qi and blood, blocked collateral, and forming the treating rule of clearing wind and cold, nourishing and harmonizing blood and warming and stretching collateral. [Conclusion] The classical formulae Jingsui Siwu Decoction and Cassia Decoction have good clinical effect on pregnant wry mouth.%[目的]总结经方荆穗四物汤和桂枝汤治疗妊娠口僻的临床疗效.[方法]分别从病例资料、病因病机、诊断标准、疗效标准等方面论述了经方荆穗四物汤和桂枝汤治疗妊娠口僻的临床疗效.[结果]荆穗四物汤和桂枝汤治疗根据妊娠口僻的病因病机(风寒外袭,气血不和,经络闭阻),形成了疏风散寒,养血和血,温经通络为主的治则.[结论]经方荆穗四物汤和桂枝汤治疗风寒外袭,气血不和,经络闭阻之妊娠口僻的临床疗效显著.

  10. Molecular sieve of the rat glomerular basement membrane: a transmission electron microscopic study of enzyme-treated specimens.

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    Ichiyasu,Akira

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rat glomerular basement membrane was treated with elastase and observed by transmission electron microscopy. The treatment with elastase revealed the fundamental structure of the glomerular basement membrane quite clearly, and enabled the observation of a sieve structure within the glomerular basement membrane. This sieve structure may play a major role in the filtration of blood as well as in the production of urine. Treatment with antibody showed that the sieve was mainly constituted of type IV collagen.

  11. High dose of green tea infusion normalized spiral artery density in rats treated with the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilda, A S; Veri, Nora; Alchalidi, Alchalidi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea (GT) on the spiral artery density and endometrial thickness in female rats treated with the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). A total of 24 female rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 each): The control group (no treatment), the DMPA-treated group, treated with DMPA and GT doses of 165 mg/kg of body weight/day, and treated with DMPA and GT doses of 330 mg/kg of body weight/day. Spiral artery density and endometrial thickness were subjected to histopathological analysis. Spiral artery density decreased in the DMPA-treated group, despite the insignificant difference (P > 0.05). With regard to the administration of GT at doses of 165 and 330 mg/g of body weight/day, only GT at the high dose was capable of significantly preventing a decrease in spiral artery density (P 0.05). Meanwhile, the administration of DMPA and/or DMPA with GT did not cause significant changes in endometrial thickness relative to the control group (P > 0.05). DMPA induced a decrease in spiral artery density, despite the insignificant differences, and these changes could be normalized by the administration of high doses of GT. Therefore, GT could be a candidate herb to prevent the adverse effects of the contraceptive DMPA.

  12. Effect of intracerebroventricularly injected insulin on urinary sodium excretion by cerebroventricular streptozotocin-treated rats

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    R.F. Macedo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that insulin may influence many brain functions. It is known that intracerebroventricular (icv injection of nondiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin (STZ can damage insulin receptor signal transduction. In the present study, we examined the functional damage to the brain insulin receptors on central mechanisms regulating glomerular filtration rate and urinary sodium excretion, over four periods of 30 min, in response to 3 µl insulin or 0.15 NaCl (vehicle injected icv in STZ-treated freely moving Wistar-Hannover rats (250-300 g. The icv cannula site was visually confirmed by 2% Evans blue infusion. Centrally administered insulin (42.0 ng/µl increased the urinary output of sodium (from 855.6 ± 85.1 to 2055 ± 310.6 delta%/min; N = 11 and potassium (from 460.4 ± 100 to 669 ± 60.8 delta%/min; N = 11. The urinary sodium excretion response to icv insulin microinjection was markedly attenuated by previous central STZ (100 µg/3 µl administration (from 628 ± 45.8 to 617 ± 87.6 delta%/min; N = 5 or by icv injection of a dopamine antagonist, haloperidol (4 µg/3 µl (from 498 ± 39.4 to 517 ± 73.2 delta%/min; N = 5. Additionally, insulin-induced natriuresis occurred by increased post-proximal tubule sodium rejection, despite an unchanged glomerular filtration rate. Excluding the possibility of a direct action of STZ on central insulin receptor-carrying neurons, the current data suggest that the insulin-sensitive response may be processed through dopaminergic D1 receptors containing neuronal pathways.

  13. Immunocytochemical study of amelogenin deposition during the early odontogenesis of molars in alendronate-treated newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Luciana F; Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Arana-Chavez, Victor E

    2006-06-01

    Newborn rats were treated with sodium alendronate to study how enamel is formed and the effect of alendronate during early odontogenesis. Ultrastructural analysis combined with high-resolution immunocytochemistry for amelogenin was carried out. Twelve rats were subjected to daily SC injections of sodium alendronate (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 days on their dorsal region, whereas three rats were daily injected with saline solution as a control. Molar tooth germs from 3-day-old rats were fixed under microwave irradiation in 0.1% glutaraldehyde + 4% formaldehyde buffered at pH 7.2 with 0.1 M sodium cacodylate. The specimens were left undecalcified, postfixed with osmium tetroxide, dehydrated, and embedded in LR White resin. Ultrathin sections were incubated with a chicken anti-24-kDa rat amelogenin antibody, a secondary antibody, and finally with a protein A-gold complex. Large patches of amelogenin were present over the unmineralized mantle dentin and at early secretory ameloblasts. At more advanced stages, they were also detected at the enamel matrix, as well as in the mineralized dentin, at the periodontoblastic space of the dentinal tubules, and at the predentin. It is likely that the main effect of alendronate at early stages of odontogenesis is the increase of synthesis/secretion of amelogenin, promoting its deposition within the forming dentin and enamel.

  14. Involvement of oxidative stress in the regulation of NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Tsung-Ta; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) treatment can suppress appetite and increase oxidative stress in the brain. AMPH-induced appetite suppression is associated with the regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus. The present study explored whether antioxidants, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), were involved in this NPY/CART-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in food intake and expression levels of hypothalamic NPY, CART, GST, and GP were examined and compared. Results showed that, in AMPH-treated rats, (1) food intake and NPY expression decreased, while CART, GST, and GP expression increased; (2) NPY knockdown in the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and the increases in CART, GST, and GP expression; and (3) central inhibition of reactive oxygen species production decreased GST and GP and modulated AMPH anorexia and the expression levels of NPY and CART. The present results suggest that oxidative stress in the brain participates in regulating NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results may advance the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of AMPH-evoked or NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression.

  15. Pectinase-treated Panax ginseng extract (GINST) rescues testicular dysfunction in aged rats via redox-modulating proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Yoo, Sung-Kwang; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2014-05-01

    The root of Panax ginseng improves testicular function both in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism by which ginseng exerts this effect has not been elucidated. Changes in protein expression in the rat testis in response to a pectinase-treated P. ginseng extract (GINST) were identified using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Number of sperm, Sertoli cells and germ cells, and the Sertoli Cell Index decrease in the testis of aged rats (AR) relative to young control rats (YCR). However, those parameters were completely restored in GINST-treated AR (GINST-AR). A proteomic analysis identified 14 proteins that were differentially expressed between vehicle-treated AR (V-AR) and GINST-AR. Out of these, the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) mu5 and phospholipid hydroperoxide (PH) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly up-regulated in GINST-AR compared to V-AR. The activity of GPx and GST, as well as the expression of glutathione, in the testis of GINST-AR was higher than that in V-AR. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased in AR compared with YCR, but this change was reversed by GINST-AR. These results suggest that the administration of GINST enhances testicular function by elevating GPx and GST activity, thus resulting in increased glutathione, which prevents LPO in the testis.

  16. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  17. Gut peptide receptors in pancreata of azaserine-treated and normal control rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, C.; Biemond, I.; Appel, M.J.; Visser, C.J.T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Lamers, C.B.H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Gut peptides are involved in the growth and carcinogenesis of the exocrine pancreas of rats after treatment with azaserine. However, little is known about the influence of azaserine on expression of gut peptide receptors in the pancreas of the rat. Cholecystokinin, bombesin, somatostatin, secretin a

  18. [The study of using cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza to treat acute lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q L; Liu, J L; Wang, J R; Jian, X D; Kan, B T; Zhang, Z C

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To study the therapy of cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza in treating acute lung injury and pulmonary interstitial fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning. Methods: All 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups, the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastric administration paraquat 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning) , the cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza therapy group (rats were given cordyceps-astragalus-salvia miltiorrhiza 90 mg/kg body weight intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was given, then the same dose was given once a day) ; control group (rats were intragastric administration with physiological saline) . At 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day rats were sacrificed postanesthetic respectively after paraquat exposure, sample of lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) , and venous blood were collected. GSH, SOD, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and HYP in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) , and the lung homogenates were determined. Optical microscope was performed to examine pathological changes in lung. Results: Each experimental time point paraquat group and the treatment group rats serum SOD content significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05) . Each experimental time point the treatment group rats serum SOD levels increased significantly than that of paraquat group (P<0.05) . Each experimental time point paraquat group rats serum GSH content significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) . Treatment group rats 7 days time GSH content significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) . Treatment group 21 days, 28 days GSH content was increased significantly than that of the paraquat group (P<0.05) . Each experimental time point paraquat group rats alveolar lavage SOD content was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) . Treatment group 7 days, 14 days time SOD content was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0

  19. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on haemostatic functions in urocortin-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M

    2014-09-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.

  20. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-04-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared to a control group. Urine samples were collected at day zero, four and eight, and analyzed by HILIC-MS. Multivariate data analysis was applied to the urinary metabolic profiles to identify biochemical variation between the treatment groups. Principal component analysis found a clear distinction between those animals receiving antibiotics and the control animals, with twenty-nine discriminatory compounds of which twenty were down-regulated and nine up-regulated upon treatment. In the treatment group receiving antibiotics for four days, a recovery effect was observed for seven compounds after cessation of antibiotic administration. Thirteen discriminatory compounds could be putatively identified based on their accurate mass, including aconitic acid, benzenediol sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, penicillin G, phenol and vanillin 4-sulfate. The rat urine samples had previously been analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with MS detection and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Using CE-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy seventeen and twenty-five discriminatory compounds were found, respectively. Both hippuric acid and indoxyl sulfate were detected across all three platforms. Additionally, eight compounds were observed with both HILIC-MS and CE-MS. Overall, HILIC-MS appears to be highly complementary to CE-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, identifying additional compounds that discriminate the urine samples from antibiotic-treated and control rats.

  1. The application of lesion sterilization and tissue repair 3Mix-MP for treating rat's dental pulp tissue

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    Raditya Nugroho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP are three broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are mixed with propylene glycol or macrogol. There is the possibility ofthe healing process that marked proliferation ofnew blood vessels and proliferation offibroblasts in the treatment ofirreversible pulpitis by pulp capping LSTR 3MixMP because of  the principle of the method LSTR 3Mix-MP is to kill bacteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study to prove the effect of LSTR 3Mix-MP on chronic inflammation and the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue in vivo. Methods: Rattus norvegicus anaesthetized by using ketamine and xylazine dissolved in sterile isotonic saline solution (0.2 ml/50gr mm on the upper right thigh. Cavity preparation class I to perforation by using a low speed tapered diamond round bur. In the treatment group, rats were treated 3Mix-MP at a dose of10 mg and then covered with glass ionomer cement for 7 days on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. The control group treated with saline irrigation on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. Rats were killed after seven days, and then made preparations pulp tissue to count the number oflymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, blood vessels, and fibroblasts Results: There is an increase in the average number ofmacrophage cells, plasma, and fibroblasts; and decreased lymphocytes and blood vessels in the treated group exposure LSTR 3Mix-MP. Conclusion:LSTR 3Mix-MP can reduce chronic inflammation process and enhance the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue.

  2. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

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    Endang Sri Wahyuni

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DMPA treatment induces oxidative stress in visceral fat. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  3. Effects of dihydrotestosterone administration on the expression of reproductive and body weight regulatory factors in ovariectomized and estradiol-treated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-06-11

    To clarify the direct effects of androgens, the changes in the hypothalamic levels of reproductive and appetite regulatory factors induced by chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) administration were evaluated in female rats. DHT treatment increased the BW and food intake of the ovariectomized rats, but not the estradiol (E2)-treated rats. DHT administration suppressed the expression of a hypothalamic anorexigenic factor. Although the kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA levels of the anterior hypothalamic block (the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, AVPV) were increased in the E2-treated rats, DHT administration did not affect the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the AVPV in the ovariectomized or E2-treated rats. Conversely, DHT administration reduced the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the posterior hypothalamic block (the arcuate nucleus, ARC) in the ovariectomized rats. Although the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the posterior hypothalamic block (ARC) were decreased in the E2-treated rats, DHT administration did not affect the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the ARC in these rats. Serum luteinizing hormone levels of these groups exhibited similar patterns to the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the ARC. These results showed that DHT affects the production of hypothalamic reproductive and appetite regulatory factors, and that these effects of DHT differ according to the estrogen milieu.

  4. Angiopoietin-1 mRNA expression in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats with focal cerebral ischemia after reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Tang; Jun Zuo; Yonghong Wang; Yuanda Zhou; Haixia He

    2008-01-01

    RNA expression levels of Angpt1, Angpt2, Tie2, vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf), VegfR1, and VegfR2.RESULTS: In WT ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol, the change in cerebral blood flow following cerebral ischemi',dreperfusion, capillary density in the basal nuclei and parietal lobe cortex and Angpt1 mRNA level were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.01). We did not identify any such changes in ERKO rats treated with estradiol. In addition, the plasma estradiol levels in WT and ERKO ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol were remarkably higher than in their corresponding control groups (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Angpt1 is a critical factor in many processes during the repair of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. For example, it confers estrogen-mediated protection, restoration of cerebral blood flow and increases in brain capillary density. It is emerging as an important molecule for estradiol-mediated neuroprotection.

  5. Sepsis progression to multiple organ dysfunction in carotid chemo/baro-denervated rats treated with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardocci, Gino; Martin, Aldo; Abarzúa, Sebastián; Rodríguez, Jorge; Simon, Felipe; Reyes, Edison P; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Navarro, Cristina; Cortes, Paula P; Fernández, Ricardo

    2015-01-15

    Sepsis progresses to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) due to the uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators. Carotid chemo/baro-receptors could play a protective role during sepsis. In anesthetized male rats, we measured cardiorespiratory variables and plasma TNF-α, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and MOD marker levels 90min after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in control (SHAM surgery) and bilateral carotid chemo/baro-denervated (BCN) rats. BCN prior to LPS blunted the tachypneic response and enhanced tachycardia and hypotension. BCN-LPS rats also showed blunted plasma glucocorticoid responses, boosted epinephrine and TNF-α responses, and earlier MOD onset with a lower survival time compared with SHAM-LPS rats. Consequently, the complete absence of carotid chemo/baro-sensory function modified the neural, endocrine and inflammatory responses to sepsis. Thus, carotid chemo/baro-receptors play a protective role in sepsis.

  6. Selective sparing of goblet cells and paneth cells in the intestine of methotrexate-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verburg (Melissa); I.B. Renes (Ingrid); H.P. Meijer; J.A. Taminiau; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Dekker (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProliferation, differentiation, and cell death were studied in small intestinal and colonic epithelia of rats after treatment with methotrexate. Days 1-2 after treatment were characterized by decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased numbers and depths

  7. Iron bioavailability and utilization in rats are lower from lime-treated corn flour than from wheat flour when they are fortified with different sources of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miguel; Sousa, Virginia; Moreno, Ambar; Villapando, Salvador; López-Alarcón, Mardya

    2003-01-01

    Although iron bioavailability from wheat flour fortified with iron has been widely studied, the bioavailability of lime-treated corn flour has not been evaluated sufficiently. We compared iron bioavailability and utilization of lime-treated corn flour and wheat flour supplemented with various iron sources. Bioavailability and utilization were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats using the iron balance and hemoglobin depletion-repletion methods. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them a low iron, casein diet for 10 d. During the repletion period, the rats were fed diets based on lime-treated corn flour or wheat flour, both supplemented with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and reduced iron for 14 d. Hemoglobin was determined at the end of depletion and repletion periods. The phytate concentration was lower in wheat flour (114 mg/100g) than in lime-treated corn flour (501 mg/100g). Iron bioavailability and utilization by rats were higher from fortified and unfortified wheat flour than from the lime-treated corn flour counterparts. Iron utilization was greater in rats fed wheat flour supplemented with ferrous sulfate, followed by fumarate and citrate than in rats fed reduced iron. In lime-treated corn flour, iron utilization by rats fed unfortified flour and flour fortified with reduced iron did not differ, but utilization was higher in rats fed corn flour fortified with iron sulfate, fumarate and citrate than with reduced iron. We conclude that fortification of lime-treated corn flour with reduced iron has no effect on iron bioavailability or utilization, probably due to the high phytate content. Other iron compounds must be selected to fortify lime-treated corn flour when intended for public nutrition programs.

  8. Gene expression profiles of hepatocytes treated with La(NO3)3 of rare earth in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Wei-Dong Hao; Hou-En Xu; Lan-Qin Shang; You-Yong Lu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the gene expression between La(NO3)3-exposed and control rats in vivo.METHODS: Rats were fed La(NO3)3 once daily at a dose of 20 mg/kg for one month by gavage. Gene expression of hepatocytes was detected using mRNA differential display (DD) technique and cDNA microarray and compared between treated and control groups.RESULTS: Six differentially expressed sequence tags were cloned by DD, of which five were up regulated and one was down regulated in treated rats. Two sequences were determined. One band was novel. The other shared 100%sequence homology with AU080263 Sugano mouse brain mncb Mus musculus cDNA clone MNCb-5435 5′. With DNA microarray, 136 differentially expressed genes were identified including 131 over-expressed genes and 5 under-expressed genes. Most of these differentially expressed genes were cell signal and transmission genes, genes associated with metabolism, protein translation and synthesis.CONCLUSION: La(NO3)3 could change the expression levels of some kinds of genes. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes would be helpful for understanding the wide biological effect spectrum of rare earth elements.

  9. Use of DES-treated rats as an animal model for assessment of pituitary adenoma imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Fisher, S.J.; Valoppi, V.L.; Rogers, W.L.; Wieland, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas would be of considerable clinical value. Tritiated spiroperidol (/sup 3/HSp) was selected for initial evaluation as a possible imaging agent based on: (1) demonstrated localization in the pituitary and (2) demonstrated binding to human PRL-secreting tumor tissue. DES was implanted in Fischer F344 rats which induced prolactinoma formation. /sup 3/HSp concentrations in pituitary and other tissues of DES-treated rats were assessed in female rats and correlation studies showed that a 5-fold increase in serum PRL was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ accumulation of /sup 3/HSp. The number of pituitary D/sub 2/ receptors per mg of protein in tissue homogenates was similar in both normal and DES-treated females. A blocking study with (+)-butaclamol demonstrated a D/sub 2/ receptor-mediated component to /sup 3/HSp localization. In summary, an animal model for prolactinoma was characterized. An assessment of /sup 3/HSp accumulation indicates that radiolabelled spiroperidol shows excellent potential for detecting PRL-secreting tumors of the pituitary.

  10. Decreased expression of alpha-2-HS glycoprotein in the sera of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng eChen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia is a Malaysian native herb that has been widely used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for andropause. Although the physiological effects of the plant extract were predicted as a result of the alterations in protein expression, the key protein(s involved in these alterations are still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of standardized Eurycoma longifolia extract on serum protein expression up to 28 days following oral administration in rats. Serum protein profiles were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and altered proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. We observed that alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHS was significantly decreased in the serum of experimentally treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, reduction in AHS was confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHS expression is known to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Our data indicated that serum AHS was reduced in rats treated with standardized E. longifolia extract, and therefore form a prelude for further investigation into the effects of this natural extract in animal models involving infertility and diabetes.

  11. Latent inhibition in rats neonatally treated chronically with MK-801: differential effects on conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Ryo; Nozawa, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuo; Kato, Katsunori; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-04-15

    Chronic neonatal blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors produces various abnormal behaviors in adulthood animals. This study investigated the effects of neonatal treatment chronically with MK-801 in rats on the preexposure-induced retardation of CS-US association, i.e. latent inhibition (LI), of two aversive classical conditioning tasks in adulthood. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using sucrose taste and LiCl, neonatal chronic MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg twice/day) treatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of sucrose preexposure on the aversive conditioning, although the treatment did not affect CTA conditioning itself. On the other hand, in conditioned emotional response (CER) using tone and electrical foot shock, rats neonatally treated with MK-801 showed the same degree of inhibitory effect of tone preexposure on the aversive conditioning compared with neonatally vehicle-treated rats, and also showed the same level of CER conditioning itself. Thus, the effect of chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors on the LI of classical conditioning in adulthood was differentiated by the task employed. Results suggest that LI of CTA paradigm compared with that of CER is more sensitive to abnormal development after chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors as an index of cognitive/attentional deficits caused by the treatment.

  12. Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Carla Prichoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric data was collected at the 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day, and the experimental group showed greater changes in shrinkage of the lesion compared to control groups. On the 3rd postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed less necrotic tissue, lower slough and more granulation tissue in relation to the positive control group. On the 7th and 10th postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed lower slough compared to the positive control group. Microscopic analysis of lesions on the 5th postoperative day revealed increased fibroplasia in the experimental group compared to control groups, while on the 14th postoperative day less neovascularization was evident in the experimental group and increased formation of hair follicles in the negative control group. The extract of S. oleraceus provided tissue repair in accordance with normal physiological patterns thus confirming empirical evidence for its use.O emprego de espécies vegetais vem surgindo como alternativa no tratamento de lesões. Dessa forma, foi utilizado o extrato hidroalcoólico de Sonchus oleraceus a 10% na reparação de lesões cutâneas. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar, foram submetidos a uma lesão com "punch" e distribuídos em três grupos: controle negativo, não recebeu tratamento; controle positivo, tratado com Dersani; e o experimental, tratado com extrato. A lesão foi avaliada macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. Os dados morfométricos mostraram que

  13. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats treated by two different routes: single intravenous injection and single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Heyjin; Kim, Pilje; Jo, Eunhye; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2015-01-01

    Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was studied in rats via a single intravenous (iv) injection and a single oral administration (3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg), respectively. Blood concentrations of zinc (Zn) were monitored for 7 d and tissue distribution were determined in liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, thymus, brain, and testes. To ascertain the excretion of ZnONP, Zn levels in urine and feces were measured for 7 d. ZnONP were not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after oral administration and were excreted mostly in feces. When the nanoparticles were injected iv to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, peak concentration appeared at 5 min but returned to normal range by d 2 (48 h after injection). ZnONP were distributed mainly to liver, kidneys, lung, and spleen, but not to thymus, brain, and testes. The distribution level was significantly decreased to normal by d 7. Feces excretion levels after iv injection supported biliary excretion of ZnONP. In rats injected iv with 30 mg/kg, mitotic figures in hepatocytes were significantly increased and multifocal acute injuries with dark brown pigment were noted in lungs, while no significant damage was observed in rats treated orally with the same dosage.

  14. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres incorporated tetanus toxoid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, R; Giri, D K; Chaudhury, M R

    1996-04-01

    Tetanus Toxoid loaded biodegradable microspheres (MTT) (poly (DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide) were administered intramuscularly to pregnant Wistar rats from Days 6 to 15 of gestation, at 1, 5 and 10-times the human equivalent dose of TT. Developmental defects in relation to soft tissues and skeleton, weight and sex of live pups and early fetal deaths from treated and control rats were analysed. The findings in treatment groups were comparable to those in the controls. These observations show that MTT was safe for pregnant rats and developing pups.

  15. Study on ingredients of Scutellaria Radix extract penetrable through placental barrier of pregnant rat%黄芩水提液透过妊娠大鼠胎盘屏障的药物成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽丽; 宋殿荣; 郭锦明; 王跃飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:对不同孕期妊娠大鼠给予黄芩水提液,采用HPLC-MS研究透过胎盘屏障的药物成分.方法:早、中、晚孕期Wistar大鼠灌胃黄芩水提液,连续给药5d,末次给药后1.5,12 h,取母体血浆(母血)及胚胎组织,检测生物样品中所含药物成分.结果:实验剂量下,各孕期孕鼠血浆中均检测到了7个化合物,明确归属的化合物有黄芩苷、汉黄芩苷、黄芩素、汉黄芩素、千层纸素A.各孕期胚胎组织中,早期检测到7个化合物,包括已归属的5个化合物;中期未检测到待测成分;晚期检测到除黄芩素以外的6个化合物.结论:大鼠妊娠不同时期给药黄芩后,除孕中期外,孕早、晚期胚胎组织中均可检测到黄芩中的药物成分,提示在妊娠期应用黄芩可以造成胎儿的宫内暴露,应对其进一步进行胚胎毒性研究.%Objective: To study ingredients penetrable through placental barrier by administering pregnant rats with Scutellaria Radix extract using HPLC-MS. Method: Rats in early, middle and late pregnancy were intragastrically administered with Scutellaria Radix extract for 5 days. Maternal plasma and embryonic tissues were obtained at 1. 5 , 12 h after the final administration of Scutellaria Radix extract to determine ingredients of biological specimens. Result: Under the optimum experimental conditions, seven compounds were detected in all pregnant rat plasma, specifically including baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A. The seven compounds were also discovered in embryonic tissues of rats in early pregnancy, including the five detected compounds. But they were not detected in embryonic tissues of rats in middle pregnancy, and six compounds except baicalein were detected embryonic tissues of rats in late pregnancy. Conclusion: Ingredients contained in Scutellaria Radix are detected in pregnant rats at different stages, except those in middle pregnancy, indicating a potential in utero exposure in case

  16. A metabonomic analysis of serum from rats treated with ricinine using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available A metabonomic approach based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS was used to study the hepatotoxicity of ricinine in rats. Potential biomarkers of ricinine toxicity and toxicological mechanism were analyzed by serum metabonomic method. The significant differences in the metabolic profiling of the control and treated rats were clear by using the principal components analysis (PCA of the chromatographic data. Significant changes of metabolite biomarkers like phenylalanine, tryptophan, cholic acid, LPC and PC were detected in the serum. These biochemical changes were related to the metabolic disorders in amino acids and phospholipids. This research indicates that UPLC/MS-based metabonomic analysis of serum samples can be used to predict the hepatotoxicity and further understand the toxicological mechanism induced by ricinine. This work shows that metabonomics method is a valuable tool in drug mechanism study.

  17. Amelioration of endotoxin-induced uveitis treated with an IκB kinase β inhibitor in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennikov, Anton; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Dong, Zhenyu; Fukuhara, Junichi; Kinoshita, Satoshi; Namba, Kenichi; Mizutani, Miho; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) is an animal model for acute ocular inflammation. Several substances play major roles in the development of inflammatory changes in EIU, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. These inflammatory cytokines trigger the degradation of IκB by activating IκB kinases (IKKs). Released nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB) subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where NFκB expresses its proinflammatory function. IMD-0354, N-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzamide, selectively inhibits IKKβ, particularly when induced by proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. In the present study, we examined whether IKKβ inhibition has therapeutic effects on EIU by using IMD-0354 and its prodrug IMD-1041. Methods Six-week-old male Lewis rats were used. EIU was induced with subcutaneous injections of 200 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli that had been diluted in 0.1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline. IMD-0354 was administered intraperitoneally at 30, 10, 3, or 0 mg/kg, suspended in 1.0 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium. The prodrug IMD-1041 (100 mg/kg) was also administered orally. The rats were euthanized 24 h after LPS injection, and EIU severity was evaluated histologically. The number of infiltrating cells and the protein, TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations in the aqueous humor were determined. TNF-α and MCP-1 concentrations were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eye sections were also stained with anti-NFκB and phosphorylated I-κBα antibodies. Results The number of infiltrating cells in aqueous humor was 53.6±9.8×105, 72.5±17.0×105, 127.25±32.0×105, and 132.0±25.0×105 cells/ml in rats treated with 30, 10, 3, or 0 mg/kg of IMD-0354, respectively. The total protein concentrations of aqueous humor were 92.6±3.1 mg/ml, 101.5±6.8 mg/ml, 112.6±1.9 mg/ml, and 117.33±1.8 mg/ml in rats

  18. Placental lactogen administration reverses the effect of low-protein diet on maternal and fetal serum somatomedin levels in the pregnant rat.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Female rats were studied on day 20 of pregnancy after being fed either a 5% lactalbumin (low protein) diet or a 20% lactalbumin (adequate) diet for the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Rats on the lower intake of protein showed decreased serum levels of rat placental lactogen and reduced numbers of lactogenic receptors in the maternal liver. These changes were accompanied by much reduced serum levels of somatomedins IGF I(insulin-like growth factor) and II (multiplication-stimulating activity, MSA)...

  19. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  20. Aged garlic extract ameliorates immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity and impaired burn-healing in malathion- and carbaryl-treated male al