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  1. The Psychology of Puerto Rican Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    The psychology of the Puerto Rican migrant to the United States mainland is explored. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the U.S. mainland and returning to Puerto Rico for more than 125 years, and, in fact, approximately 57% of all Puerto Ricans have migrated at one time or another. The migrant experience, including the circular migration…

  2. UNDERSTANDING THE PUERTO RICAN AND HIS FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS MARIE, SISTER

    AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRADITIONAL PUERTO RICAN FAMILY CUSTOMS AND BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER LIFE STYLES SHOULD HELP PROFESSIONAL WORKERS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS CREATED BY MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE CULTURE OF THE PUERTO RICAN CAN BE DESCRIBED IN RELATION TO THREE CONCEPTS--DIGNIDAD (SELF-ESTEEM OR SELF-WORTH), RESPETO…

  3. Feminist Therapy with Mainland Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of feminist therapy with mainland Puerto Rican women, presenting clinical vignettes. Emphasizes the consideration of sociocultural context, including the experience of cross-cultural translocation, transculturation, the colonial background of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican sex roles, power issues and Puertorriquenas' sense of…

  4. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century.…

  5. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  6. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Soto

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1) the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2) factors that influence when...

  7. Folk Hero Modeling Therapy for Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Guiseppe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents which presents Puerto Rican folk heros and heroines in modeling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage. Evaluation of therapy using 21 adolescents indicated subjects increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence, gained pride, learned…

  8. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  9. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Soto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1 the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2 factors that influence when considering Puerto Rican women for international business positions and; 3 organizational units and departments where women currently hold positions in international assignments. Although there have been previous studies regarding women in management, there are none regarding Puerto Rican women's participation in international business assignments.

  10. POPULATION DECLINES OF THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO IN GUANICA FOREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHN FAABORG; KATE M. DUGGER; WAYNE J. ARENDT; BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; MICHAEL E. BALTZ

    1997-01-01

    Abundance of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo Zutimeri) in Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico, has declined gradually over the period 1973-1996 as determined by constant effort mist netting. Concurrent studies of breeding vireos show low nesting success, primarily due to parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis). This decline may reflect the rather recent entry of the...

  11. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  12. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  13. Transnational Mortality Comparisons Between Archipelago and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Rodríguez-Ayuso, Idania; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Roess, Amira; Pérez, Cynthia M; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-10-01

    Puerto Ricans in the US experience higher deaths from diabetes and other causes compared to non-Hispanic Whites and other Hispanic groups. We compared mortality in Puerto Rico to that of Puerto Ricans in the US as a first step to investigate if similar or worse mortality patterns originate from the sending country (Puerto Rico). Age-adjusted death rates were generated using national vital statistics databases in the US and territories for all-cause and the top ten causes of death among Hispanics in 2009. Mortality ratios in the archipelago of Puerto Rico (APR) were compared to mainland US Puerto Ricans (MPR). Rates for other ethnic/racial groups (Mexican Americans, Cubans, and non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, American Indians, and Asians) were calculated to provide a context. APR had significantly higher all-cause mortality and death rates for diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, and homicide/assault compared to MPR (APR/MPR ratio for all-cause: 1.08, diabetes: 2.04, nephritis: 1.84, pneumonia/influenza: 1.33, homicide/assault: 3.15). Death rates for diabetes and homicide/assault (particularly among men) were higher among APR compared to any other racial/ethnic groups in the US. In contrast, deaths from heart disease, cancer, and chronic liver disease were significantly lower for APR compared to MPR (MPR/APR ratio 0.72, 0.91, 0.41, respectively). Among APR women, death rates for these causes were also lower compared to any other group in the US. Substantial mortality variability exists between Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and those in the US, re-emphasizing the need to study of how socio-environmental determinants of health differ in sending and receiving countries. Explanations for disparate rates include access to and availability of healthcare and unique factors related to the migration experience of this group.

  14. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  15. Bird Perches Increase Forest Seeds on Puerto Rican Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Lawrence R. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Landslides result in the loss of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients, and the soil seed bank. These losses impede timely recovery of tropical forest communities. In this study we added bird perches to six Puerto Rican landslides with three types of surfaces (bare, climbing fern, grass) in an effort to facilitate inputs of forest seeds through bird dispersal...

  16. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  17. Seeds of Puerto Rican Trees and Shrubs: Second Installment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis; Alberto Rodríguez

    1993-01-01

    Seed weights and germination information were obtained for 119 native Puerto Rican and naturalized exotic trees and shrubs. Fruit was collected from 34 of these species, and the weights were recorded. The data are presented in tables that list the species alphabetically by scientific names.

  18. Women of Puerto Rican Origin in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    This brief paper presents data on Puerto Rican women residing in the United States as of March of 1975. Information on population, age, marital status, household and family head, labor force participation, work experience, occupational, and income statistics is included. (Author/BS)

  19. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  20. BREEDING AND NATAL DISPERSAL IN THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; JOHN FAABORG; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    1998-01-01

    Information on dispersali s critical for understandingt he population dynamicso f birds. We estimated breeding and natal dispersal in two studies of a population of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri) that is in danger of local extirpation due to low reproductive success from 7.1-29% of adult males and 12.5 - 25% of adult females changed territories between...

  1. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  2. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  3. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Island Image and Global Links in Puerto Rican Cinema of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks back at the production of Puerto Rican films in the 1980s and 1990s as the point of departure for young Puerto Rican filmmakers in the first decades of the 21st century. Even as the stories of this newer generation differ, their concern with the island image and diasporic movement continue to question Puerto Rican identity. Problems of local film production and outside distribution remain for each film project. This essay analyzes a number of key films by a diverse group of directors whose goal is to rethink the concept of a Puerto Rican cinema.

  5. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  6. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  7. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.D. Lindsey; W.J. Arendt; J. Kalina

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +_ 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fiedging.. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100%( n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledging. A major...

  8. Factorial Structure of a Measure of Acculturation in a Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Brunilda; Mendez, Serafin

    1996-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the Cultural Life Style Inventory were studied with a sample of 402 Puerto Rican college students. Factor analysis revealed high factorial stability for Puerto Ricans. Similarities and differences with a previously studied Mexican American population are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  10. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  11. Hero/Heroine Modeling for Puerto Rican Adolescents: A Preventive Mental Health Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed hero/heroine intervention based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. Screened 90 Puerto Rican eighth and ninth graders for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned them to intervention or control groups. After 19 sessions, intervention significantly…

  12. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  13. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  14. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  15. "So yo creo que es un proceso evolutivo": Language Ideologies among Puerto Ricans in Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Puerto Ricans living in the United States in response to a publicity campaign that focuses on the correction of linguistic features that appear in some Puerto Ricans' spoken Spanish. The campaign addresses phonetic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic features, including a specific set of words or…

  16. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  17. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  18. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.

  19. Donde Estan los Estudiantes Puertorriquenos/os Exitosos? [Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students?]: Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the 4 success factors that 10 working class Puerto Rican urban high school students attributed to their high academic achievement. These success factors were (a) the acquisition of social capital through religiosity and participation in school and community-based extracurricular activities, (b) having a strong Puerto Rican…

  20. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  1. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subj...

  2. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  3. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

  4. Physical Activity in Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Gómez, Maribel; Hughes, Daniel C; González-Mercado, Velda; Treviño-Whitaker, Rose A; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors do not engage in appropriate levels of physical activity, despite the known benefits of such activity. This study aims to describe physical-activity levels and the barriers to it in a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, as well as detailing their preferences for an intervention. Participants who finished their chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer at least 4 months prior to the study were included. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were obtained. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy, barriers to self-efficacy, modeling, and social support were filled out by study participants. Data on access to exercise equipment and preferences regarding a physical-activity intervention were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were performed. Fifty breast cancer survivors were recruited. Almost all the participants reported that they did not engage in any kind of strenuous physical activity (94%), with more than three fourths (76%) reporting that they did not even participate in any kind of moderate physical activity. The GLTEQ score was associated with barriers to selfefficacy, while the association with exercise self-efficacy approached significance (p = 0.055). Nearly half of the patients (44%) had access to exercise equipment. Preferred methods for the delivery of physical-activity interventions were participating in group settings (72%) and receiving material in the postal mail (44%). The study described herein reports on the low levels of physical activity being practiced by a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, despite the fact that many of them had access to exercise equipment and facilities. Further studies aimed at understanding breast cancer survivors' barriers to physical activity and at developing culturally competent interventions to increase the levels of such activity are warranted.

  5. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  6. SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED PUERTO RICAN PARROTS RELEASED IN THE CARIBBEAN NATIONAL FOREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS H. WHITE; JAIME A. COLLAZO; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual...

  7. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  9. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  10. Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of NewYork City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components familismo, respeto, personalismo, and simpatía, Latino parenting practices and their underlying styles are better understood. Content analysis of parents' focus groups revealed five essential Latino parenting practices: (1) ensuring close monitoring of adolescents; (2) maintaining warm and supportive relationships characterized by high levels of parent-adolescent interaction and sharing; (3) explaining parental decisions and actions; (4) making an effort to build and improve relationships; and (5) differential parenting practices based on adolescents' gender. Mothers reported concerns related to the risks associated with living in an urban area, exposure to different cultural values, and opportunities for engaging in risky behaviors. Adolescents' recommendations for effective parenting strategies were similar to the practices reported by their mothers. The study has important applied implications for culturally competent social work practice with Latino adolescents and their families.

  11. Perceived discrimination and health among Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans: buffering effect of the Lazo matrimonial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2009-06-01

    An emerging body of research shows that perceived discrimination adversely influences the mental health of minority populations, but is it also deleterious to physical health? If yes, can marriage buffer the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health? We address these questions with data from Puerto Rican and Mexican American residents of Chicago. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that perceived discrimination is associated with more physical health problems for both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans. In addition, an interaction effect between marital status and perceived discrimination was observed: married Mexican Americans with higher perceived discrimination had fewer physical health problems than their unmarried counterparts even after adjusting for differential effects of marriage by nativity. The findings reveal that perceived discrimination is detrimental to the physical health of both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans, but that the stress-buffering effect of marriage on physical health exists for Mexican Americans only.

  12. What Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latinos say when they talk about Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Barg, Frances K; Augsburger, Deborah; Beaver, James; Ferguson, Allison; Nunez, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To discover whether Latino Puerto Rican and non-Latino communities differ in the words they use to talk about Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four groups of 30 persons per group defined by self-identified ethnicity and caregiver status: Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites, who were either caregivers or non-caregivers completed free-listing exercises to identify the words they use when they describe AD causes, symptoms, caregiving, and research risks and benefits. Both Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites recognize AD as a disease of memory loss and other cognitive problems. Although both groups used the term "sadness" to describe AD, non-Latino Whites did not feature emotional, behavioral, or psychological problems as among the causes of AD. Although all the groups' descriptions of a person who lives with and cares for a person with AD shared the word "loving," Latino Puerto Ricans focused on a good spouse who exercises intelligence, patience, and attention on behalf of the person with AD and did not use the term "caregiver." In contrast, non-Latino Whites typically used the term "caregiver." Both groups' lists shared words that describe research as presenting harms to an AD patient and requiring a commitment of time. Latino Puerto Ricans' lists suggested an understanding of research benefits akin to clinical care. Notable differences exist in how Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites talk about AD and AD research. Clinicians, clinical investigators, and patient educators need to consider these differences when they conduct clinical care and research and design outreach and educational materials. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical determinants of clopidogrel responsiveness in a heterogeneous cohort of Puerto Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Scott, Stuart A; Tomey, Matthew I; Melin, Kyle; Lopez-Candales, Angel; Buckley, Charlotte E; Duconge, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Clopidogrel is by far the most prescribed platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist in Puerto Rico despite the advent of newer agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Given the paucity of data on clopidogrel responsiveness in Hispanics, we sought to determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy. A total of 100 Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled and allocated into two groups: Group I, without high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. The cohort was comprised of Hispanic patients with coronary artery disease (57%), peripheral artery disease (32%), carotid artery stenosis (7%), cerebral artery aneurysm (2%), and stroke (2%). Mean platelet reactivity was 200 ± 61 P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) (range: 8-324), and 35% of patients had HTPR (PRUs ⩾ 230). Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that diabetes mellitus (DM) [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-8.96], use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.09-11.82), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.09-8.83) were independent predictors of HTPR ( p Puerto Rican Hispanic patients on clopidogrel, 35% had HTPR. Furthermore, DM, PPIs and CCBs predicted HTPR. Clinical outcome data are needed to identify appropriate PRU thresholds for risk prediction in the Puerto Rican population.

  14. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  15. "But you don't look Puerto Rican": the moderating effect of ethnic identity on the relation between skin color and self-esteem among Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether ethnic identity, as assessed by Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, functioned as a moderator in the relation between skin color (as measured by masked interviewer evaluation, participant self-report, and skin reflectance data) and self-esteem (as measured by Rosenberg's 1989 Self-Esteem Scale). In a sample of 53 English-speaking Puerto Rican women, a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that among lighter skinned women, those who felt less attached to their culture had less self-esteem than those who were more culturally embedded. Similarly, among darker skinned women, greater attachment to Puerto Rican culture was associated with greater self-esteem than a less defined ethnic identity. Findings are discussed in light of the beneficial effects of ethnic identity.

  16. The Puerto Rican Community and Its Children on the Mainland: A Source Book for Teachers, Social Workers and Other Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This collection of readings is organized in four parts. Part I, "Aspects of Puerto Rican culture," includes the following articles: "Explicit and implicit culture in Puerto Rico: a case study in educational anthropology," T. Brameld; "Respeto, relajo, and interpersonal relations in Puerto Rico," A. Lauria;…

  17. Breast cancer patterns and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer among Puerto Rican females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, C M; Figueroa-Vallés, N; Rosario, R V

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic patterns of breast cancer and to estimate the lifetime risk probability of developing breast cancer among Hispanic females using cancer data from Puerto Rico. The age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate (per 100,000) in Puerto Rico increased from 15.3 in 1960-1964 to 43.3 in 1985-1989. The age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (per 100,000) increased from 5.7 to 10.6 comparing the same two time periods (1960-1964 vs 1985-1989). Nevertheless, in 1985-1989 breast cancer incidence rate was higher in US White females (110.8 per 100,000) compared to Puerto Rican females (51.4 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population). The breast cancer mortality rate was also higher in US White females (27.4 per 100,000) than in Puerto Rican females (15.1 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population) during 1985-1989. A multiple decrement life table was constructed applying age-specific incidence and mortality rates from cross-sectional data sets (1980-1984 and 1985-1989 data for Puerto Rican females and 1987-1989 SEER data sets for US White and Black females) to a hypothetical cohort of 10,000,000 women. The probability of developing invasive breast cancer was computed for the three groups using the long version of DEVCAN: Probability of DEVeloping CANcer software, version 3.3. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was 5.4% for Puerto Rican females, compared to 8.8% for US Black females and 13.0% for US White females. Lifetime risk for Puerto Rican females increased from 4.5% in 1980-1984 to 5.4% in 1985-1989. Lifetime risk of breast cancer appears to be increasing in Puerto Rico, but remains lower than the probability for US White females. Therefore, the application of lifetime probability of developing invasive breast cancer estimated for the US female population will overestimate the risk for the Puerto Rican female population.

  18. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  19. Trans-cultural Aspects of Puerto Rican Mental Illness in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    1974-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that mental illness is considerably high among Puerto Rican adolescents in New York. Besides poverty, crowding, illiteracy, lack of skill for qualified jobs, and other sources of stress, trans-culturation is said to explain some of these facts. [Available from The Avenue Publishing Company, 18 Park Avenue, London…

  20. Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons (Pseudothelphusidae), has a freshwater-dependant life-history strategy, although the species has some capabilities for terrestrial movement as adults. In contrast to all other freshwater decapods on the island (e.g., caridean shrimp), E. sinuatifrons does not undertake amphidromous migration, and is restricted to...

  1. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  2. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  3. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  4. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisha M. Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.

  5. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  6. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  7. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  8. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  9. Extended Family Ties among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites: Superintegration or Disintegration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…

  10. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  11. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  12. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Beissinger; Jr Wunderle; J.M. Meyers; B.E. Saether; S. Engen

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk...

  13. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  14. Self-reported parenting practices in Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-09-01

    Explored self-reported parenting in a Hispanic sample of mothers living in the mainland United States using a cultural framework. Participants were 130 immigrant or first-generation Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers with a child between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Mothers completed questionnaires related to their parenting behavior and also filled out a detailed demographic form and a measure of acculturation. Results suggested that both Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers engage in high levels of praise and physical affection and low levels of harsh, inconsistent, and punitive parenting behaviors. Dominican and Puerto Rican parenting was similar on measures of authoritarian and permissive parenting, but differences emerged on a measure of authoritative parenting and when parenting was considered at the more detailed level of individual behaviors. Parenting was related to several demographic characteristics, including father's education level and child age; more specifically, higher paternal education and younger age of the child were related to higher levels of authoritative parenting by mothers. Parenting and acculturation were generally not related. Discussion focused on a culturally sensitive interpretation of normative parenting among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

  15. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  16. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  17. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass Among Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Sabrina E; Mangano, Kelsey M; Griffith, John L; Wright, Nicole C; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    Historically, osteoporosis has not been considered a public health priority for the Hispanic population. However, recent data indicate that Mexican Americans are at increased risk for this chronic condition. Although it is well established that there is heterogeneity in social, lifestyle, and health-related factors among Hispanic subgroups, there are currently few studies on bone health among Hispanic subgroups other than Mexican Americans. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass (LBM) among 953 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47 to 79 years and living on the US mainland, using data from one of the largest cohorts on bone health in this population: The Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study (BPROS). Participants completed an interview to assess demographic and lifestyle characteristics and bone mineral density measures. To facilitate comparisons with national data, we calculated age-adjusted estimates for osteoporosis and LBM for Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black adults, aged ≥50 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The overall prevalence of osteoporosis and LBM were 10.5% and 43.3% for participants in the BPROS, respectively. For men, the highest prevalence of osteoporosis was among those aged 50 to 59 years (11%) and lowest for men ≥70 years (3.7%). The age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis for Puerto Rican men was 8.6%, compared with 2.3% for non-Hispanic white, and 3.9% for Mexican American men. There were no statistically significant differences between age-adjusted estimates for Puerto Rican women (10.7%), non-Hispanic white women (10.1%), or Mexican American women (16%). There is a need to understand specific factors contributing to osteoporosis in Puerto Rican adults, particularly younger men. This will provide important information to guide the development of culturally and linguistically tailored interventions to improve bone health in this

  18. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  19. Sleep, Depressive/Anxiety Disorders, and Obesity in Puerto Rican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Rosario-Matos, Nicolás; Ramírez, Rafael R; García, Pedro; Canino, Glorisa J; Ortega, Alexander N

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents from Puerto Rican backgrounds are found to have higher rates of obesity than adolescents from other ethnic groups in the US. The objective of this study is to examine whether sleeping the recommended number of hours and depression or anxiety disorder are independently related to risk for obesity in a sample of Island Puerto Rican adolescents, and whether the association between sleep and obesity is moderated by depression or anxiety disorder. Data from the study were derived from the third wave of an island wide probability sample of Puerto Rican youth residing on the Island, 10-25 years of age (N = 825), with a response rate of 79.59%. The current study focuses on youth 10 to 19 years of age (n = 436). In this sample, youth who slept less than the recommended number of hours (defined as 7-9 h per night) had a significantly increased risk for obesity and were three times as likely to be obese. Youth who met criteria for a depressive/anxiety disorder were almost 2.5 times as likely to be obese. However, the presence of an anxiety/depressive disorders did not moderate the association between sleeping the recommended number of hours and risk for obesity. Sleeping less than the recommended number of hours may be an important risk factor for obesity status in Island Puerto Rican youth. These findings suggest that attention to healthy sleep behaviors and a sleep environment that promotes high quality sleep may be important for Puerto Rican adolescents at risk for obesity.

  20. Ataques de Nervios and their psychiatric correlates in Puerto Rican children from two different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene; Rivera, Fernando; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Héctor R

    2009-12-01

    Among Latino adults and children, ataques de nervios has been associated with an array of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a probability sample of Puerto Rican children, aged 5 to 13 years (N = 2491), we assessed the lifetime prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques in youth residing in the South Bronx, New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Baseline site comparisons indicated that between 4% and 5% of children had a lifetime prevalence of ataques (either by child or parent report) and that ataques were associated with greater global impairment and a host of childhood disorders within the previous twelve months. Ataques were also correlated with greater exposure to violence, as well as more stressful life events for the South Bronx sample. After controlling for several covariates, ataques continued to be significantly associated with psychopathology. Ataques are, therefore, a significant correlate of global impairment and childhood psychopathology among Puerto Rican youth.

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. 1.401(a)-50 Section 1.401(a)-50 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts...

  2. A review of barriers to effective asthma management in Puerto Ricans: cultural, healthcare system and pharmacogenomic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Alvarez, Norma; Swanson-Biearman, Brenda; Kelsen, Steven G

    2014-02-01

    Among the Hispanic community, Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of asthma and manifest the worst outcomes. The expected growth of the Hispanic population in the USA in the next several decades make elimination of disparate care in Puerto Rican asthmatics a matter of national importance. The purpose of this review of the literature (ROL) is to examine a variety of health system, genetic and cultural barriers in the Puerto Rican community which have created disparities in asthma care and outcomes among adult and pediatric Hispanic populations. In addition, this ROL describes several culturally sensitive, community-based educational interventions which can be used as a framework for future projects to improved asthma outcomes. Databases searched included Medline, PubMED, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar and ERIC. Papers published in English from January 1990 to January 2012 were reviewed. Health system policies, insurer compensation patterns, clinician attitudes and cultural values/folk remedies in the Puerto Rican community represent barriers to effective asthma management, the use of controller medication and the implementation of educational interventions. In addition, genetic factors involving the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene, which impair the response to albuterol, appear to contribute to poorer outcomes in Puerto Rican asthmatics. In contrast, several comprehensive, community-based, culturally sensitive educational interventions such as Controlling Asthma in American Cities Project (CAACP), the Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health in the US Program and Healthy Hoops programs (REACH) have been described. We believe that culturally sensitive community-based asthma education programs can serve as models for programs targeted toward Puerto Ricans to help decrease asthma morbidity. Moreover, greater sensitivity to Puerto Rican mores and folk remedies on the part of healthcare providers may improve the patient-clinician rapport and

  3. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Jaschek

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000-2004 of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977. Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence.

  4. Disproportionate impact of diabetes in a Puerto Rican community of Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Steve; Silva, Abigail; Shah, Ami M

    2006-12-01

    We assessed the impact of diabetes in a large Puerto Rican community of Chicago by measuring the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and calculating the diabetes mortality rate. Data were analyzed from a comprehensive health survey conducted in randomly selected households in community areas. Questions on diagnosed diabetes and selected risk factors were asked. In addition, vital records data were analyzed in order to calculate the age-adjusted diabetes mortality rate. When possible, rates were compared to those found in other studies. The diabetes prevalence located in this community (20.8%: 95% CI = 10.1%-38.0%) is the highest ever reported for Puerto Ricans and one of the highest ever reported in the United States for a non-Native American population. For instance, it is twice the prevalence for Puerto Ricans in New York (11.3%) and Puerto Rico (9.3%-9.6%). Diagnosed diabetes was found to be significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.023). The prevalence was particularly high among older people, females, those born in the US, and those with a family history of diabetes. Notably, the diabetes mortality rate (67.6 per 100,000 population) was more than twice the rate for all of Chicago (31.2) and the US (25.4). Understanding why the diabetes prevalence and mortality rates for Puerto Ricans in this community are so much higher than those of other communities is imperative for primary and secondary prevention. Collaboration between researchers, service providers and community members can help address the issues of diabetes education, early screening and diagnosis, and effective treatment needed in this community.

  5. Biogeography of Puerto Rican ants: a non-equilibrium case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres; R.R. Snelling

    1997-01-01

    Ants were studied on Puerto Rico and 44 islands surrounding Puerto Rico. Habitat diversity was the best predictor of the number of species per island and the distributions of species followed a nested subset pattern. The number of extinctions per island was low, approximately 1 to 2 extinctions per island in a period of 18 years, and the rates of colonization seem to...

  6. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  7. Stress and the social determinants of maternal health among Puerto Rican women: a CBPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health.

  8. AIDS-related stigma and social interaction: Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Serrano-García, Irma; Toro-Alfonso, José

    2005-02-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized. Although personal and social consequences of this stigmatization have been documented, research regarding its impact on social interactions is scarce. Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have voiced concern regarding AIDS stigma. The authors investigated the key role of social interaction in the process of stigmatization through in-depth, semistructured interviews in a sample of 30 Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS. Participants reported instances in which AIDS stigma negatively influenced social interactions with family, friends, sexual partners, coworkers, and health professionals. Some of the consequences they described were loss of social support, persecution, isolation, job loss, and problems accessing health services. Findings support the need for interventions to address AIDS stigma and its consequences.

  9. Estimated prevalence of dengue viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, 1995 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Tomashek, Kay M; Biggerstaff, Brad J

    2012-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) nucleic acid amplification testing of blood donations during epidemics in endemic locations, including Puerto Rico, has suggested possible sizable transfusion transmission risk. Estimates of the long-term prevalence of DENV viremic donations will help evaluate the potential magnitude of this risk in Puerto Rico. Estimates of the prevalence of DENV viremia in the Puerto Rican population at large from 1995 through 2010 were derived from dengue case reports and their onset dates obtained from islandwide surveillance, estimates of case underreporting, and extant data on the duration of DENV viremia and the unapparent-to-apparent dengue infection ratio. Under the assumptions that viremia prevalence in blood donors was similar to that of the population at large and that symptomatic persons do not donate, statistical resampling methods were used to estimate the prevalence of dengue viremia in blood donations. Over the 16-year period, the maximum and mean daily prevalences of dengue viremia (per 10,000) in blood donations in Puerto Rico were estimated at 45.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.5-55.4) and 7.0 (95% CI, 3.9-10.1), respectively. Prevalence varied considerably by season and year. These data suggest a substantial prevalence of DENV viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, particularly during outbreaks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  11. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  12. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 200...

  13. Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The social basis of separatism: explaining support for the Puerto Rican Independence Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Arrarás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, particularly in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, comparativists rediscovered the enduring appeal of separatist movements around the globe. Many of the most significant political events of the past decade have revolved around issues of nationalism, ethnicity, irredenta, and the like. In light of these renewed preoccupations, it is surprising that U.S. scholars have largely ignored a nationalist movement closer to home. The Puerto Rican independence movement is by far the most significant separatist tendency under the U.S. flag, and is one of the few major anticolonialist movements to survive into the twenty-first century. Although supporters of Puerto Rican independence have typically drawn only three to five percent support in local elections and in plebiscites on the island’s political status, neither have they disappeared from the political scene. The remarkable durability of the independence movement demands systematic explanation. However, as strange as it may seem, to date there have been no serious scholarly studies of the social bases of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

  15. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  16. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother–Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10–19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child’s age (p = 0.002), the mother’s past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p communications with her child (p communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers’ confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects. PMID:27461018

  17. Importance of vitamin D and vitamin D levels status in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Martínez, Edu B; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz, Sofia K; Khorsandi, Shayan; Chardón, Camile; Ferder, Leon

    2013-11-01

    There is growing and compelling evidence demonstrating the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D and the importance of maintaining adequate levels of this nutrient. Currently, there is very limited information available on the vitamin D status in children and adults in underserved groups, including Puerto Ricans. We assessed the vitamin D status of 4,090 Puerto Ricans living in six geographical regions in the island. Only 31.5% of the studied population had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). The 18-39 year age group and the females showed inadequate (<30 ng/ml) levels of vitamin D (76.9% and 69.8%, respectively). Participants aged 60 or older showed the highest mean values of serum 25(OH)D (28.8 ng/ml) and the highest percentage (37.1%) of sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml). Future studies are certainly warranted to understand the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors (including obesity) in Puerto Ricans.

  18. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  19. Boricua de pura cepa: Ethnic identity, cultural stress and self-concept in Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Duan, Jenny; Jacquez, Farrah; Sáez-Santiago, Emily

    2018-05-17

    The available literature on ethnic identity among Puerto Ricans has focused on those living in the United States, with little to no attention placed on examining ethnic identity and psychological constructs among youth living in Puerto Rico. Using a colonial mentality framework, the current study examined the associations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept among adolescent boys and girls living in Puerto Rico. The current cross-sectional study surveyed participants (N = 187) recruited from several junior high schools in the metropolitan area in Puerto Rico. Relations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept differed by gender. First, cultural stress was associated with self-concept for boys, such that higher cultural stress predicted lower self-concept. Second, among girls, cultural stress moderated the relation between ethnic identity and self-concept. Specifically, for girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of their ethnic identity was associated with higher ratings of self-concept. Although cultural stress has been widely understood as a phenomena associated with immigrants, our study indicated that cultural stress is important in understanding self-concept of youth living in Puerto Rico. For boys, cultural stress, but not ethnic identity, is particularly important to their self-concept. Among girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of ethnic identity was associated with higher self-concept. Results suggested that the cultural stress associated with the colonial context of Puerto Rico is salient in ethnic identity and self-concept development, even though Puerto Rican youth are the ethnic majority in the island. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Marano, Melissa Rivera

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about naming illnesses--about who determines what categories are used and the implications of these determinations. The central concerns of medical/psychiatric anthropology have been to understand popular categories of and systems for classification of illness, to examine the relationship of illness categories to cultural understandings of the body, and to interpret the role of categories of illness in mediating between the personal and social spheres. At the same time, the paper also discusses the interplay of popular categories and psychiatric diagnoses. This paper examines the multiple experiences of nervios among Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Our contention is that nervios is more than a diffuse idiom of distress, and that there are different categories and experiences of nervios which provide insights into how distress is experienced and expressed by Puerto Ricans and point to different social sources of suffering. The data in this paper come from the responses to a series of open-ended questions which tapped into people's general conceptions of nervios and ataques de nervios. These questions were incorporated into follow-up interviews to an epidemiological study of the mental health of adults in Puerto Rico. The results suggest ways to incorporate these different categories of nervios into future research and clinical work with different Latino groups in the United States and in their home countries.

  1. Experience of nervousness and anxiety disorders in Puerto Rican women: psychiatric and ethnopsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, J D

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of case materials describe variations in the experiences of Puerto Rican women diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder, in treatment with mental health clinicians, physicians, or traditional healers. Their common complaints are examined as core symbolic elements in culturally patterned complexes of meanings focused around personal trauma, stressful life events, personal and social reactions, expectations about treatment, and the course of illness. Many of these women report themselves to be "nervous," to be "sick from nerves," or to have had an "ataque de nervios." "Nervousness" is the base symbolic domain in Puerto Rico of what psychiatry labels "anxiety disorder," although it is also a common complaint of many disorders. What "nervousness" means to patients/clients and their clinicians or healers is examined within the frames of multilayered popular and biomedical interpretations. The special difficulties of women in Puerto Rico are highlighted, and psychiatric and ethnopsychological (Spiritist) models of etiology and treatment are compared.

  2. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  3. Occurrence and correlates of overweight and obesity among island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Pérez, Edna Acosta; Prelip, Michael; McCarthy, William J; Feldman, Jonathan M; Canino, Glorisa; Ortega, Alexander N

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This article provides 2005-2008 population-based prevalence data on obesity and overweight among youth residing in Puerto Rico. Data for this report are from the Asthma, Depression, and Anxiety in Puerto Rican Youth (ADA) study. Measures included height and weight level data on youth in Puerto Rico aged 10 to 19 years with and without asthma as well as body mass index data on their caregivers. A total of 436 youth-caregiver dyads were selected and weighted to represent the general population of youth in Puerto Rico using 2008 US Census data. Household surveys demonstrated that 40% of youth aged 10 to 19 were overweight or obese. Twenty-five percent met moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines, however, physical activity was not associated with overweight or obesity in this sample. In multivariate analyses, females were 50% less likely than males to be overweight or obese. Older youth were 73% less likely to be overweight or obese than younger youth. Youth whose parents were obese were more than two times more likely to be overweight or obese than those whose parents were at a desirable weight. Youth in Puerto Rico have higher rates of overweight and obesity and lower compliance to moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines than rates reported for youth on the mainland. More population-based research is needed to understand the epidemiology of obesity and overweight among island Puerto Rican youth and the contribution of physical activity to the phenomenon.

  4. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A twin study of early-childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinda Bunyavanich

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of genetics and environment to asthma in Hispanics or to asthma in children younger than 3 years are not well understood.To examine the relative contributions of genetics and environment to early-childhood asthma by performing a longitudinal twin study of asthma in Puerto Rican children ≤ 3 years old.678 twin infants from the Puerto Rico Neo-Natal Twin Registry were assessed for asthma at age 1 year, with follow-up data obtained for 624 twins at age 3 years. Zygosity was determined by DNA microsatellite profiling. Structural equation modeling was performed for three phenotypes at ages 1 and 3 years: physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use in the past year, and ≥ 1 hospitalization for asthma in the past year. Models were additionally adjusted for early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure, sex, and age.The prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use, and hospitalization for asthma were 11.6%, 10.8%, 4.9% at age 1 year, and 34.1%, 40.1%, and 8.5% at 3 years, respectively. Shared environmental effects contributed to the majority of variance in susceptibility to physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the first year of life (84%-86%, while genetic effects drove variance in all phenotypes (45%-65% at age 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke, sex, and age contributed to variance in susceptibility.Our longitudinal study in Puerto Rican twins demonstrates a changing contribution of shared environmental effects to liability for physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use between ages 1 and 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke reduction could markedly reduce asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children.

  6. Association of major depression and diabetes in medically indigent Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier-Flores, Orville M

    2010-03-01

    Studies have found that major depression and diabetes mellitus are strongly associated. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the association between major depression and diabetes in a large medically indigent population of Puerto Rican adults living on the island. A secondary database analysis through a cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were selected from the Puerto Rico Commonwealth Health Plan database, beneficiaries of the public health sector. Adult's subjects with at least one claim during 2002 were included. The final sample consisted of 1,026,625 adult insured. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used for disease classifications. The prevalence of diabetes was 14.6% in subjects with major depression and 9.7% for those without major depression (POR 1.59, p diabetes appears to be significantly higher in Puerto Rican adults with major depression compared to those without this psychiatric disorder. Longitudinal prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to shed light on the temporal or causal relationship and to test whether effective prevention and treatment can reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

  7. Ataques de nervios and somatic complaints among island and mainland Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Irene; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has documented the association between the Latino cultural idiom of distress, ataques de nervios (i.e., "attacks of nerves"), and unexplained neurological symptoms among adults. However, the associations between ataques and somatic complaints in children have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, we assessed the relation between this anxiety-related experience, henceforth ataques, and somatic complaints in a probability sample of Puerto Rican youth, ages 5-13 years, living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (N = 1353) and in the South Bronx, New York (N = 1138). When both sites were combined, children with ataques were significantly more likely to have either a lifetime prevalence of asthma or headaches, and tended to have more stomach aches and a history of epilepsy or seizure than children without ataques. Further within site analyses showed a similar patterning of complaints for the South Bronx sample as for the combined sample. However, children in San Juan with ataques were only slightly more likely to experience headaches, and at risk for injury, than those without ataques. In addition, comparisons between ataque sufferers across sites indicated that children in San Juan with ataques were at elevated risk for serious illness or injury in comparison to those in the South Bronx with ataques. Ataques are significantly associated with a wide range of physical complaints in Puerto Rican youth. However, their pattern of associations differs by context. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Niche restriction and conservatism in a neotropical psittacine: the case of the Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas H.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Dinsmore, Stephen J.; Llerandi-Roman, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    The factors which govern species‘ distribution and abundance are myriad, and together constitute the ecological niche of a given species. Because abiotic factors are arguably the most profound of the factors influencing niche boundaries and thus, species distributions, substantial changes in either climatic or habitat-related parameters can be expected to produce interrelated and profound niche shifts. Habitat loss and degradation can also effectively induce a de facto climate change by forcing populations to relocate to environmentally suboptimal habitats. Populations experiencing niche shifts due to range restrictions and geographic isolation become subject to a suite of factors that may act synergistically to amplify deleterious ecological effects of habitat loss. These factors tend to exert a greater influence on populations of rare or endemic species with inherently restricted ranges. The Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) is an example of a tropical, insular, endemic and critically-endangered species that has suffered from extensive habitat loss and degradation over the past century, resulting in a single relict wild population restricted for more than 70 years to the montane rainforest of the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico. In this chapter, we examine the current ecological situation of this geographically and demographically isolated parrot population by reviewing the history of landscape-level changes in and around the Luquillo Mountains, and concurrent biotic and abiotic limiting factors in relation to both historical population trajectory and current prognosis for species recovery. We used a decade (2000-2009) of empirical data on parrot fledgling survival together with long-term climatological data to model effects of local climate on fledgling survival and gain insights into its influence on population growth. We also modeled hypothetical survival of parrot fledglings in the lowlands surrounding the Luquillo Mountains, areas

  9. Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

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    Xian-Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265 in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n=242 with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P=0.009, waist circumference (P=0.002, hip (P=0.002, and weight (P=0.03 than GA or AA carriers (n=94. They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI≥25 relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P=0.043. Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3 : n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n=595 with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P=0.009, hip (P=0.029, and weight (P=0.027 than GA or AA carriers (n=216. Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P=0.024. In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men.

  10. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  11. The association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in a sample of older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tyler; Dávila, Ana Luisa; Clay, Olivio; Markides, Kyriakos S; Andel, Ross; Crowe, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Older Puerto Rican adults have particularly high risk of diabetes compared to the general US population. Diabetes is associated with both higher depressive symptoms and cognitive decline, but less is known about the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in those with diabetes. This study investigated the association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes over a four-year period. Households across Puerto Rico were visited to identify a population-based sample of adults aged 60 years and over for the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions study (PREHCO); 680 participants with diabetes at baseline and no baseline cognitive impairment were included in analyses. Cognitive decline and depressive symptoms were measured using the Mini-Mental Cabán (MMC) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. We examined predictors of incident depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 5 at follow-up but not baseline) and cognitive decline using regression modeling. In a covariate-adjusted logistic regression model, cognitive decline, female gender, and greater diabetes-related complications were each significantly associated with increased odds of incident depressive symptoms (p Puerto Ricans with diabetes who also experienced cognitive decline. Efforts are needed to optimize diabetes management and monitor for depression and cognitive decline in this population.

  12. The impact of war on Puerto Rican families: challenges and strengthened family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaly Freytes, I; Hannold, Elizabeth M; Resende, Rosana; Wing, Kristen; Uphold, Constance R

    2013-08-01

    We describe the impact of war on Puerto Rican Veterans and family members. We used qualitative research methods to collect and analyze data. We interviewed 8 Veterans and 8 family members. We used the constant comparison method to review data to identify prominent themes. Two categories emerged: (1) Challenges associated with post-deployment family reintegration, and (2) A positive aftermath of war on the family. Overall, findings indicate that OEF/OIF Veterans and family members were not prepared for the changes they encounter post-deployment. Despite these challenges, some Veterans and family members strengthened their relationships and renewed their appreciation for one another.

  13. [CHALLENGES IN THE INTERVENTION OF PUERTO RICAN ADOLESCENTS THAT SHOW SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.

  14. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  15. Experimental Study of the Effect of Language (English and Spanish on Advertisement Effectiveness with Puerto Rican Hispanic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lebrón

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the population of Puerto Rico includes a large percent of residents with some knowledge of the English language (bilinguals, the vast majority communicates using Spanish, which is their native language. Not surprisingly, the majority of advertisements in Puerto Rican media use the Spanish language. The common sense assumption that Spanish advertising is significantly superior to English advertising when targeting Puerto Rican Hispanics living in Puerto Rico is tested experimentally in this study. The Social Value component of the Theory of Consumption Values was used to generate several Hypotheses that would favor the use of English language. The experiment used magazine-like printed illustrated advertisements to test the hypotheses, all of them dealing with relative effectiveness of Spanish versus English language advertisements. The results show that Spanish advertisements and English advertisements were about the same in terms of their persuasion effectiveness.

  16. Espiritismo:The Flywheel of the Puerto Rican Spiritual Traditions

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    Edil Torres Rivera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Espiritismo es una práctica religiosa muy amplia entre puertorriqueños en Puerto Rico y los puertorriqueño en los EstadosUnidos. Espiritismo se ha encontrado ser efectivo en como terapia curativa en personas con problema psicológicos y detener efectos terapéuticos semejantes a los de psicoterapia y consejería. El espiritismo puertorriqueño es un sistemasincrético de los sistemas de creencias que combina las practicas espiritual-religiosa del las culturas pre-colombiana,africana, católica, y europeas en un solo sistema para satisfacer las necesidades espirituales así como las necesidadespsico-culturales de los puertorriqueños. Implicaciones y las sugerencias son proporcionadas para los profesionales de lasalud mental que quieren utilizar el espiritismo en sus prácticas con clientes puertorriqueños

  17. Depression and substance use in a middle aged and older Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Katherine; Robison, Julie; Fogel, Denise; Gruman, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on depression and substance use in Puerto Rican primary care patients, age 50 and older, recruited from five clinics in Hartford, CT (n = 303). One-third of the participants screened positive for depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and 16 percent either reported excessive alcohol use, prescription drug abuse, and/or illegal drug use in the past year. Correlates of depression include younger age, female gender, being separated or divorced, low perceived adequacy of income, poor health status, functional limitations, few emotional supports, and a history of an "ataque de nervios." Younger age, male gender, low perceived adequacy of income, few emotional supports, suicidal ideation, and a history of an "ataque de nervios" were associated with substance use. While the relationship between excessive alcohol use and a higher rate of depression did not reach statistical significance, drug use was a strong predictor of depression, particularly prescription drug abuse. However substance use did not significantly affect the likelihood of seeking treatment for depression. These findings underscore the need for appropriate interventions for those at risk for depression among the Puerto Rican population.

  18. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the U.S. and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being developed. To develop it as a participatory program, the community members were asked about their perspectives. Five focus groups with 28 participants, aged 45-60, were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. In-depth analysis of meanings of health promoting behaviors, in the context of cultural beliefs and values was carried out. The following themes were identified: Health as balance and integration; Health as connection of self, connection with others; Cultural meanings of lifestyle choices; Stresses and struggles. Participants suggested that the program should have significant variety and a holistic perspective, be sensitive to different needs and motivations, stimulate mutual understanding and shared cultural meanings. The program needs to support lifestyle changes which maximally preserve traditions and to introduce multi-level changes. The identified cultural meanings of diet, physical activity and relationships were taken into account to develop the educational curriculum.

  19. FRIENDS WITH BENEFITS IN PUERTO RICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Quiñones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Una relación de amigo o amiga con privilegio (ACP tiene tres componentes; la presencia de una amistad, la actividad sexual y la ausencia de un compromiso establecido. El objetivo principal de esta investigación cuantitativa no experimental fue explorar como correlacionan distintos niveles de religiosidad y búsqueda de sensaciones en estudiantes puertorriqueños que reportan tener ACP. Se administraron tres cuestionarios en español a estudiantes de distintas universidades del área metropolita na de Puerto Rico. El 61.8% de la muestra reportó experiencias con ACP alguna vez en sus vidas y el 17.9% estaban en una relación de ACP al momento del estudio. De éstos, el 40% reportó tener más de un ACP. Consistente con las hipótesis planteadas, altos n iveles de búsqueda de sensaciones estuvo asociado a un mayor número de relaciones de ACP ( p< . 05. Los resultados ayudan a informarnos sobre las motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes universitarios que tienen ACP.

  20. Effects of model choice and forest structure on inventory-based estimations of Puerto Rican forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Maria Del Rocio; Suarez Rozo

    2005-01-01

    Total aboveground live tree biomass in Puerto Rican lower montane wet, subtropical wet, subtropical moist and subtropical dry forests was estimated using data from two forest inventories and published regression equations. Multiple potentially-applicable published biomass models existed for some forested life zones, and their estimates tended to diverge with increasing...

  1. Retardation in Intellectual Development of Lower-Class Puerto Rican Children in New York City. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alexander

    To study the home environment of the Puerto Rican as it relates to the children's academic achievement, 45 working class families were interviewed and these variables were investigated: achievement, classroom behavior inventory in relation to academic achievement, the effect of bilinguality on academic achievement, the influence of examiner…

  2. Theory-Based Predictors of Intention to Engage in Precautionary Sexual Behavior among Puerto Rican High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Andres A.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of intention to abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms consistently with both main and other partners were investigated in 431 Puerto Rican high school students. The basis for this study was the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB), and two predictors from the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB). As…

  3. Comparison of passive fog gauges for determining fog duration and fog interception by a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Scatena, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Between 5 March and 10 May 2001, the performance of three types of passive fog gauges (wire harp WH, standard fog collector SC and Juvik gauge JU) was compared at a wind-exposed Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest site. The gauges were used to determine the timing and duration of fog, as well as

  4. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  5. Ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule: the impact of cultural categories on psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rubio-Stipec, M; Canino, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the effect of the cultural category ataques de nervios on responses to the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), a Spanish version of structured psychiatric diagnostic interview developed for the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. An ataque de nervios scale was created from the Somatization items of the DIS to explore the effect of this culturally meaningful category of distress on responses to a standard psychiatric interview. Analysis of 1,513 cases from a representative sample of the island of Puerto Rico indicated that people reporting ataque symptoms fit the social characteristics described for ataques sufferers in the ethnographic literature. Qualitative data indicated that Puerto Ricans were reporting ataques de nervios in the panic section of the DIS. Questions are raised about the validity of the somatization and panic sections of the DIS in cross-cultural research with Hispanics.

  6. Are ataques de nervios in Puerto Rican children associated with psychiatric disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-11-01

    To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response rate: 90%) and in clinical services (N = 761; response rate 72%) were administered structured interviews to assess the presence and correlates of ataques de nervios. Nine percent of children in the community sample and 26% of children in the clinical sample had a reported history of an ataque de nervios. In contrast to the overall community and clinical samples, which had more boys in them, the ataque de nervios groups in both samples had more girls in them. Family history of ataques de nervios was associated with ataques de nervios in children in both samples. Across a wide range of depression, anxiety, and disruptive disorders, children who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to meet research criteria for psychiatric disorder in both samples. Ataques de nervios are a frequently reported cultural syndrome among children in Puerto Rico. Adolescent girls are more likely to report this experience. Ataques de nervios have a significant relationship with psychiatric disorder and impairment in Puerto Rican children.

  7. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

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    Patricia Adame

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon species, hinders the development of species-specific diameter growth models.Area of study: In these analyses, we grouped 82 species from secondary forests distributed across 93 permanent plots on the island of Puerto Rico.Material and Methods: Species were classified according to regeneration strategy and adult height into six functional groups. This classification allowed us to develop a robust diameter growth model using growth data collected from 1980-1990. We used mixed linear model regression to analyze tree diameter growth as a function of individual tree characteristics, stand structure, functional group and site factors.Main results: The proportion of variance in diameter growth explained by the model was 15.1%, ranging from 7.9 to 21.7%. Diameter at breast height, stem density and functional group were the most important predictors of tree growth in Puerto Rican secondary forest. Site factors such as soil and topography failed to predict diameter growth.Keywords: Caribbean forests; growth model; tropical forest succession; Puerto Rico.

  8. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a native Puerto Rican patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cali, Ignazio; Chapas, Javier; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Puoti, Gianfranco; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is often a challenge for most physicians given its extremely low incidence and different clinico-pathological presentations. We report the case of a 56-year old patient native to Puerto Rico suspected of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCD). The symptoms at onset were notorious for bilateral cortical blindness followed by rapidly progressive cognitive decline, visual deficit, increased levels of CSF 14-3-3 and tau along with positive brain MRI and EEG, are highly indicative of CJD. The definite diagnosis was confirmed by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Lack of genetic mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene, widespread histopathological changes and the accumulation of scrapie PrP (PrPSc) in the brain confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD. The patient, admitted to our institution in 2011, represents the first detailed report of sCJD in a native Puerto Rican patient living in Puerto Rico.

  9. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-07-01

    Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45-75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31-0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = -0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (-0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (-0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (-0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (-0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P lifestyle components. Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults than individual components. The HLS may be a useful tool for examining health-related outcomes. This trial was registered at

  10. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnett Donna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST can evidence environmental selection pressures. Such genetic information is limited in Puerto Ricans, the second largest Hispanic ethnic group in the US, and a group with high prevalence of chronic disease. We determined allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 30 genes involved in major metabolic and disease-relevant pathways in Puerto Ricans (n = 969, ages 45–75 years and compared them to similarly aged non-Hispanic whites (NHW (n = 597. Results Minor allele frequency (MAF distributions for 45.5% of the SNPs assessed in Puerto Ricans were significantly different from those of NHW. Puerto Ricans carried risk alleles in higher frequency and protective alleles in lower frequency than NHW. Patterns of population differentiation showed that Puerto Ricans had SNPs with exceptional FST values in intronic, non-synonymous and promoter regions. NHW had exceptional FST values in intronic and promoter region SNPs only. Conclusion These observations may serve to explain and broaden studies on the impact of gene polymorphisms on chronic diseases affecting Puerto Ricans.

  11. Dissociation, childhood trauma, and ataque de nervios among Puerto Rican psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Garrido-Castillo, Pedro; Bennasar, Mari Carmen; Parrilla, Elsie M; Laria, Amaro J; Ma, Guoguang; Petkova, Eva

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the relationships of dissociation and childhood trauma with ataque de nervios. Forty Puerto Rican psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for frequency of ataque de nervios, dissociative symptoms, exposure to trauma, and mood and anxiety psychopathology. Blind conditions were maintained across assessments. Data for 29 female patients were analyzed. Among these 29 patients, clinician-rated dissociative symptoms increased with frequency of ataque de nervios. Dissociative Experiences Scale scores and diagnoses of panic disorder and dissociative disorders were also associated with ataque frequency, before corrections were made for multiple comparisons. The rate of childhood trauma was uniformly high among the patients and showed no relationship to dissociative symptoms and disorder or number of ataques. Frequent ataques de nervios may, in part, be a marker for psychiatric disorders characterized by dissociative symptoms. Childhood trauma per se did not account for ataque status in this group of female outpatients.

  12. Ataques de nervios in relation to anxiety sensitivity among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón, Jennifer A; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the symptom profile of ataques de nervios (ADN) among Puerto Rican volunteers from the community who self-identified as having experienced at least one ataque. As expected, the most commonly reported ataques-specific symptoms were crying, anger, nervousness, and becoming hysterical. Comparing the responses of those with ADN to those with no history of ADN but who reported elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) indicated that both groups were comparable on measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, and associated panic symptoms. As expected, both groups scored significantly higher on all measures than did participants with no history of ADN and low AS with the exception of the measure of state anxiety. It is unclear, however, whether the overlap in symptom severity between those with ADN and those with elevated anxiety sensitivity indicates that ADN and AS are the same or distinct conditions.

  13. Evaluations of Conflicts Between Latino Values and Autonomy Desires Among Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Solís, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Puerto Rican adolescents (N = 105; M age  = 15.97 years, SD = 1.40) evaluated hypothetical situations describing conflicts between Latino values (family obligations and respeto) and autonomy desires regarding personal, friendship, and dating activities. Adolescents judged that peers should prioritize Latino values over autonomy, which led to greater feelings of pride than happiness. However, they believed that teens would prioritize autonomy over Latino values, which led to greater feelings of happiness than pride. Adolescents reasoned about autonomy desires as personal issues, whereas reasoning about Latino values was multifaceted, including references to conventions and concerns for others. Furthermore, judgments and reasoning depended on the type of autonomy desire and Latino value and sometimes, by participants' age and sex. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Habitat association, size, stomach contents, and reproductive condition of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Puerto Rican boa occurs in a variety of habitats, including wet montane forest, lowland wet forest, mangrove forest, wet limestone karst, and offshore cays, and from sea level to 480 m. Mean SVL of 49 encountered boas (live and road-killed) was 136.9 ?? 35.1 (range = 38.8-205 cm), with a mean mass of 952.1 ?? 349.0 g (n = 47; range = 140-1662 g). Prey in digestive tracts (n = 29) included remains of black rats, house mice, three species of anoles, bats, common ground-doves, domestic fowl chicks, and invertebrates. Females were in reproductive condition in late April through mid-August and had an average brood size of 21.8 ?? 6.0 (n = 9, range = 13-30 ).

  15. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Diaz, Joseph A; Kim, Ivone

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were "bad food," digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening.

  16. Gun Violence, African Ancestry, and Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Han, Yueh-Ying; Brehm, John M; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Cloutier, Michelle M; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to gun violence and African ancestry have been separately associated with increased risk of asthma in Puerto Rican children. The objective of this study was to examine whether African ancestry and gun violence interact on asthma and total IgE in school-aged Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 747 Puerto Rican children aged 9 to 14 years living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (n = 472), and Hartford, Connecticut (n = 275). Exposure to gun violence was defined as the child's report of hearing gunshots more than once, and the percentage of African ancestry was estimated using genome-wide genotypic data. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the previous year. Serum total IgE (IU/mL) was measured in study participants. Multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used for the analysis of asthma and total IgE, respectively. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between exposure to gun violence and African ancestry on asthma (P = .001) and serum total IgE (P = .04). Among children exposed to gun violence, each quartile increase in the percentage of African ancestry was associated with approximately 45% higher odds of asthma (95% CI, 1.15-1.84; P = .002) and an approximately 19% increment in total IgE (95% , 0.60-40.65, P = .04). In contrast, there was no significant association between African ancestry and asthma or total IgE in children not exposed to gun violence. Our results suggest that exposure to gun violence modifies the estimated effect of African ancestry on asthma and atopy in Puerto Rican children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subjects. For DM patients, disease duration, glycemic control, and DM long-term complications were also examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders. The mean (SD) age for DM patients and non-diabetic controls were 53.3 (12.9) and 50.0 (13.1) years; 64.0 and 64.7 % of DM patients and controls were females, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of bursitis/tendonitis was higher in DM patients than among non-diabetics (59.0 % vs. 29.4 %, pdiabetics. Specifically, DM patients had a higher frequency of flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, and anserine bursitis than non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05). Among DM patients, multivariate analyses showed that those with bursitis/tendonitis were more likely to be female [OR (95 % CI) 4.55 (1.42, 14.55)] and have peripheral vascular disease [OR (95 % CI) 8.48 (1.71, 41.93)]. In conclusion, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were common in this population of Hispanics with DM. Among DM patients, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were more frequent in women and those with long-term complications such as peripheral vascular disease. PMID:24522480

  18. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and inflammatory markers among Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, S N; Falcon, L M; Gao, X; Tucker, K L; Mattei, J

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45-75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range = 0-190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β ± SE = -0.55 ± 0.13; P markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n = 600; β ± SE = -0.58 ± 0.16; -0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n = 743; β ± SE = -0.59 ± 0.13; -0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n = 187) or heart disease (n = 192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  20. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  1. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Fred-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR classification criteria. Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria, comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD age of patients was 50.2 (9.9 years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS.

  2. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Mayor, Ángel M; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m(2) (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS.

  3. Late-life anxiety disorders among Puerto Rican primary care patients: impact on well-being, functioning, and service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Robison, Julie T; Tolin, David F; Blank, Karen

    2004-01-01

    With the growing population of older Hispanic adults there is a need for additional research on the mental health care of this patient group. This study explored the impact of anxiety disorders on the health status of 291 older (>/=50 years) Puerto Rican primary care patients (n = 65 with anxiety disorders, n = 226 without anxiety disorders). All analyses controlled for potential confounding variables, including depression diagnosis and physical health burden. Logistic regression indicated that anxiety disorders were associated with higher psychological distress, suicidality, and emergency room service utilization, as well as lower instrumental functioning and perceived health quality. Analysis of covariance indicated that both anxiety disorder status and history of ataque de nervios were related to higher percentages of lifetime somatic symptoms. These data highlight the need for improved recognition and treatment of anxiety disorders in older Puerto Rican adults.

  4. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 17 years, research on a rain forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), with additional observations on nesting Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) within the Sierra de Luquillo, Puerto Rico, has shown that reproductive success of thrashers and parrots is often greatly reduced as a result of the additive effects of a diverse...

  5. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  6. The symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and alleviation practices as reported by their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mercado, Velda J; Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Arthur R; Pedro, Elsa; Colon, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Although symptoms during cancer treatments are prevalent and are important clinical outcomes of childhood cancer, the symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children along with the symptom alleviation/care practices that parents provide during cancer treatments have received limited attention. To examine the occurrence/severity of symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist-Children (TRSC-C), reported by mothers of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and identifying mothers' symptom alleviation/management strategies. Descriptive study conducted between January and May 2012. Mothers of 65 Puerto Rican children/adolescents undergoing cancer treatments responded to the Spanish versions of the TRSC-C, Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, and a Demographic and Health form. The children/adolescents' mean age was 9.2 (1-17) years; 62% were boys; 56 had chemotherapy; 9 had chemoradiotherapy. Children diagnoses were 35.4% leukemia, 24.6% solid tumors, 24.6% nervous system tumors, and 15.4% other. On the TRSC-C, the symptoms experienced by 70% or more of the children were: irritability (77%), nausea (75%), and hair loss (72%). On the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, the most commonly reported symptom alleviation category was "taking prescribed medicines." Puerto Rican mothers reported the use of alleviation practices to treat their children experiencing symptoms during pediatric cancer treatments. Patients and caregivers need to be educated about treatment-induced side effects, and the life-threatening consequences of underreporting and undermanagement. Symptoms should always be addressed at the time of initiation of primary or adjuvant cancer therapy because pretreatment symptoms may persist or get worse across the trajectory of treatment. A continuous assessment and management of symptoms during the childhood cancer trajectory can optimize clinical care and improve quality of life of patients and families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia

  7. Wet canopy evaporation from a Puerto Rican lower montane rain forest: the importance of realistically estimated aerodynamic conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Holwerda; L.A. Bruijnzeel; F.N. Scatena; H.F. Vugts; A.G.C.A. Meesters

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall interception (I) was measured in 20 m tall Puerto Rican tropical forest with complex topography for a 1-year period using totalizing throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) gauges that were measured every 2–3 days. Measured values were then compared to evaporation under saturated canopy conditions (E) determined with the Penman–Monteith (P–M) equation, using (i)...

  8. Female employment and the social reproduction of the Puerto Rican working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, H I

    1984-01-01

    The rapid industrialization, migration and urbanization processes in Puerto Rico since 1940 have been responsible for the increase in the rate of female employment from 22.1% in 1960 to 27.8% in 1980, while the rate of male employment has fallen. This rise in female employment is significant in an era of growing unemployment and economic crises. There is a tendency for management to prefer young, single women workers over the older, married or formerly married women. The former tend to be better educated, work harder, complain less and are likely to be burdened with household or childcare responsibilities, which can lead to fatigue or even absenteism on the job. Their strong background in patriarchal rural traditions makes it easier for them to accept the authority of thier employers without question. With a knowledge that they can find other, similar work, the younger women are not troubled by plant problems such as production cutbacks, and layoffs. Their primary concern is not job stability, but money, which is used for future plans which include marriage, children and a new home. In contrast, older women view job security as more important. Their years of being in the labor force and the sense of self worth they have acquired as a result of it, tend to make them critical of authority. The contribution of working women to the household economy in Puerto Rican working class families varies with age and marital status. Older, married and formerly married women carry a heavier financial burden, assume a larger share of household responsibilities, and are often the sole supporters of their families. Younger women usually share their responsibilities with a relatively large number of siblings. Export-led industrialization has contributed to male outmigration from Puerto Rico, but as women lose their factory jobs due the factories being relocaged elsewhere as part of Operation Bootstrap, women too may join the migration flows.

  9. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto-Rican Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Wall, Melanie M.; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation-seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Method Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (three assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation-seeking levels were characterized. Then, age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models (GMM). Results On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5–10) and increased during adolescence (ages 11–17). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico and among males vs. females. Four classes of sensation-seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation-seeking trajectories following the average for their age (“normative,” 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age (“low” sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an “accelerated” sensation-seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected, while a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation-seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation-seeking scores (“stabilizers”). Site (South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation-seeking trajectory. Conclusion It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26598479

  10. Dental and periodontal health and treatment needs in a mother/child rural Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Del Valle, Lydia M

    2010-03-01

    Oral research directed toward the maternal and child dyads is important because mothers are a source of dental caries pathogens and are the health behavior managers and trainers of children. The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the oral health status of the mothers in a sample of 100 children aged 12 to 60 months from a rural community in Puerto Rico, and 2) to compare the children with their mothers' oral health status. A sample of 71 women and 100 of their children, (Mean Age = 28.8 years +/- 9.0, and 36.41 mos +/- 18.2, respectively) were evaluated for DMFT/S and periodontal health or deft/s. A NIDCR calibrated dentist performed all dental evaluations of children and mothers utilizing NIDCR criteria. Descriptive statistics were produced. Mothers' bleeding point prevalence in at least one site was 63%; prevalence of at least one site with pocket depth of 4 to 6 mm was 37 %. Calculus prevalence was, no calculus 25%, supragingival calculus 56.7%, subgingival calculus 2.2%, supra and sub gingival calculus 16.3%. Mean Dental Indices for mothers were DMFS (16.51 -/+ 0.02), DMFT (12.20 +/- 6.76), Caries (2.93 +/- 2.86), Filling (7.07 +/- 8.76), Missing (2.93 +/- 4.53). Children's Mean Dental Indices were defs (4.32 +/- 9.7), deft (2.30 +/- 4.0), decalcifications lesions (1.36 +/-1.9), caries (1.96 +/- 3.2) and surfaces caries (3.81 +/- 8.68), fillings (0.22 +/- 0.83) and extracted teeth (0.043 +/- 0.45). Significant levels of treated and untreated caries and gingival disease were observed in this sample. The importance for primary and secondary prevention, as well as treatment for periodontal and dental disease, in rural Puerto Rican communities is evident from this investigation.

  11. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  12. Dimensional Assessment of Anxiety in Puerto Rican Patients: Evaluating Applicability of Psychological Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrios, Polaris; Morales-Rodríguez, Carlos M; Merced-Morales, Kritzianel; Lampón, Anabelle; González, Rafael; Martínez, Karen

    2016-09-01

    A dimensional assessment model as a supplement to the diagnosis process could overcome the current pitfalls in classifying psychopathology in ethnic minorities. The aim of the study described herein was to examine a sample of Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the specific scales that assess the following 3 domains: clinical symptoms, personality/trait, and affective style. 80 subjects were recruited and interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify the presence of anxiety disorders. Following this, various questionnaires assessing each proposed domain were administered to the participants. Reliability and validity of these questionnaires were examined using Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis. The effect of the individual items of the questionnaires on the overall reliability and validity was assessed using factor scores component matrix. Analyses revealed moderate to high reliability and validity scores within all 3 domains. The sample obtained moderate to high scores on the scales comprising clinical and personality/trait domains. The use of self-report scales in accordance with the proposed dimensional framework may be an effective way to supplement categorical diagnoses within the Hispanic population represented by this sample.

  13. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  14. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-11-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality.

  15. Emigration From Puerto Rico to Florida: Multivariate Analysis of Factors That Condition Attitudes of the Puerto Rican Population Toward Organ Donation for Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Puerto Rican population represents one of the largest immigration groups in Florida, and this has an impact on the organ transplant donation process. Our aim was to analyze attitudes toward organ donation among Puerto Ricans who currently reside in the state of Florida (USA). The population screened consisted of individuals >15 years old, who were born in Puerto Rico, living in Florida, and awaiting organs for transplant. All participants completed the "PCID-DTO Rios" questionnaire. Random selection was done according to stratification. Support from immigration associations in Spain was needed for advice on the locations of potential respondents. Study participation was anonymized and self-administered. There were 259 respondents, 37% (n = 95) were in favor of donation, 36% (n = 93) were against donation, and 27% (n = 71) were undecided. The variables associated with these attitudes were: age (P = .017); civil status (P = .021); level of education (P donation and transplant (P donation of a relative (P donation (P donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Chaves, P.; Villalobos Castro, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  17. Puerto Rican understandings of child disability: methods for the cultural validation of standardized measures of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Handwerker, W Penn

    2002-12-01

    Validating the cultural context of health is important for obtaining accurate and useful information from standardized measures of child health adapted for cross-cultural applications. This paper describes the application of ethnographic triangulation for cultural validation of a measure of childhood disability, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) for use with children living in Puerto Rico. The key concepts include macro-level forces such as geography, demography, and economics, specific activities children performed and their key social interactions, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and patterns of behavior surrounding independence in children and childhood disability, as well as the definition of childhood disability. Methods utilize principal components analysis to establish the validity of cultural concepts and multiple regression analysis to identify intracultural variation. Findings suggest culturally specific modifications to the PEDI, provide contextual information for informed interpretation of test scores, and point to the need to re-standardize normative values for use with Puerto Rican children. Without this type of information, Puerto Rican children may appear more disabled than expected for their level of impairment or not to be making improvements in functional status. The methods also allow for cultural boundaries to be quantitatively established, rather than presupposed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. An information-motivation-behavioral skills analysis of diet and exercise behavior in Puerto Ricans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Rivet Amico, K; Fisher, William A; Egede, Leonard E; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2010-11-01

    Frameworks are needed to inform diabetes self-care programs for diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in a sample of Puerto Ricans with Type 2 diabetes (N = 118). Structural equation models evaluated model fit and interrelations between IMB constructs. For diet behavior, information and motivation related to behavioral skills ( r = 0.19, p motivation related to behavioral skills (r = 0.53, p < .001), and behavioral skills related to behavior (r = 0.45, p < .001). The IMB model could inform interventions targeting these behaviors in diabetes.

  19. An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Analysis of Diet and Exercise Behavior in Puerto Ricans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. Rivet; Fisher, William A.; Egede, Leonard E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Frameworks are needed to inform diabetes self-care programs for diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model among Puerto Ricans with Type 2 diabetes (N=118). Structural equation models evaluated model fit and interrelations among constructs. For diet behavior, information and motivation related to behavioral skills (r=0.19, pmotivation related to behavioral skills (r=0.53, p<0.001), and behavioral skills related to behavior (r=0.45, p<0.001). The IMB model could inform interventions targeting these behaviors in diabetes. PMID:20453056

  20. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  1. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  2. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  3. Litterfall Production Prior to and during Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Four Puerto Rican Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Liu

    2018-06-01

    biogeochemical processes and soil communities in these Puerto Rican forests.

  4. Do Puerto Rican youth with asthma and obesity have higher odds for mental health disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Prelip, Michael; Martin, Molly; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-01-01

    Island Puerto Rican (PR) youth experience disproportionately high asthma and obesity rates compared with other racial/ethnic groups on the U.S. mainland. Previous research has demonstrated associations of chronic disease with psychiatric disorders. We examined the relationship among anxiety/depressive disorders, asthma, and obesity in an epidemiologic community sample of youth. The sample (n = 656) was derived from the second wave of an island-wide probabilistic representative household sample of PR youth stratified and based on whether or not they had a diagnosis of asthma and/or depressive/anxiety disorder. For this study, we used the subpopulation ages 10-19 years. Asthma and obesity were significantly related to higher odds of depressive/anxiety disorders in youth. Obesity moderated the relationship between asthma attacks and depressive/anxiety disorders. The relationship between asthma attack and higher odds for depressive/anxiety disorders was only present in the non-obese group. Among the obese, females show a significant increase from 11% to 36% in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders. Asthma and obesity were highly prevalent and a significant association was found between asthma attack and depressive/anxiety disorders. The effects of asthma and obesity were not additive; the prevalence for psychiatric disorder for those having both conditions did not increase above the prevalence associated having only one of the conditions. Future studies should consider including longitudinal designs and examine the extent to which important variables not included in this study, such as body image dissatisfaction (particularly among females), teasing, and discrimination may moderate the relationship among obesity and depressive and anxiety disorders in youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Pharmacogenetic association study on clopidogrel response in Puerto Rican Hispanics with cardiovascular disease: a novel characterization of a Caribbean population

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    Hernandez-Suarez DF

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez,1 Mariana R Botton,2 Stuart A Scott,2 Matthew I Tomey,3 Mario J Garcia,4 Jose Wiley,4 Pedro A Villablanca,5 Kyle Melin,6 Angel Lopez-Candales,7 Jessicca Y Renta,8 Jorge Duconge9 1Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA; 2Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 3Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 4Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine New York, NY, USA; 5Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA; 7Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA; 8Department of Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA; 9Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA Introduction: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR to clopidogrel imparts an increased risk for ischemic events in adults with coronary artery disease. Platelet reactivity varies with ethnicity and is influenced by both clinical and genetic variables; however, no clopidogrel pharmacogenetic studies with Puerto Rican patients have been reported. Therefore, we sought to identify clinical and genetic determinants of on-treatment platelet reactivity in a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 111 patients on 75 mg/day maintenance dose of clopidogrel. Patients were allocated into 2 groups: Group I, without HTPR; and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the psychosocial impact of assistive device scale (PIADS) for Puerto Rican assistive technology users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Elsa M; Jutai, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) is important for individuals with disabilities' independence and participation in daily life, and there is a lack of valid AT outcome tools for the Puerto Rican population. This pilot study examined the content validity of a new adaptation of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PIADS): the Puerto Rican-Spanish PIADS (PR-PIADS). Following standard procedures, the cultural adaptation methodology included a bilingual multidisciplinary committee review of the original (English language) and Spanish versions of the PIADS and pilot testing of the preliminary version of the PR-PIADS with 20 AT users. The committee recommended a total of 58 semantic and conceptual modifications of the Spanish PIADS. Pilot data analysis resulted in 4 additional semantic and conceptual modifications of items that did not reach the minimum content validity ratio of 0.42 for a panel composed by 20 members: competence (0), efficiency (-0.6), performance (-0.95), and eagerness to take chances (-0.6). This pilot study demonstrated evidence of initial content validity of the PR-PIADS. Future research is required before using this tool with greater confidence to address the construct validity and reliability that are also critical to a successful cultural adaptation.

  7. Mental Disorder and Supernatural Influence: Beliefs of Puerto Ricans in Two Connecticut Urban Communities About the Cause and Treatment of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Moises; Wintrob, Ronald

    This report is based upon information obtained from personal interviews with a representative sample of Puerto Rican adults, both patients and non-patients, 20 years of age and over, living in two urban communities in central Connecticut, with 1,000 and 8,000 Spanish-speaking residents, respectively. The findings of this research are summarized as…

  8. The Federal Role in Meeting the Education Needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans with Special Emphasis on Higher Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    Federal efforts to meet higher educational needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans are analyzed in this report. As part of a study conducted by L. Miranda and Associates, 15 Federal agencies were surveyed to determine their programs and their financial commitment to Hispanic postsecondary education, and the participation of Hispanics in each agency's…

  9. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  10. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  11. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans Disparidades de salud entre puertorriqueños que viven en la isla de Puerto Rico y en tierra firme estadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Y. F. Ho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect health disparities among three populations-Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico as well as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites living on the United States (U.S. mainland. METHODS: Data from two similarly designed surveys conducted in 1999-2000 were analyzed. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS provided data on Puerto Ricans living on the island and on non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. Another survey of Puerto Ricans living in New York City provided data on mainland Puerto Ricans. The age- and sex-standardized weighted prevalences of various health parameters (e.g., obesity, diabetes, smoking, and physical illness and indicators of access to health care (e.g., frequencies of routine checkups and diabetes care were compared between populations by means of standardized rate ratios (SRR. RESULTS: Puerto Ricans living on the mainland and those living on the island had a similar prevalence of obesity (21% to 22%. Compared with islanders, mainland Puerto Ricans had a higher prevalence of diabetes (SRR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01 to 2.0; those with diabetes also showed higher prevalences of smoking (SRR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.3 to 7.7 and physical illness (SRR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.0 than Puerto Ricans living on the island. While mainland Puerto Ricans were similar to non-Hispanic whites in terms of their utilization of primary prevention and diabetes care, island Puerto Ricans trailed behind significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. mainland and those living in Puerto Rico both need to target lowering their prevalence of obesity and diabetes. For island Puerto Ricans, improved education about the significance of primary prevention and diabetes care is needed. For mainland Puerto Ricans, the accessibility of the primary health care system renders it a potentially effective venue for interventions, particularly for smoking cessation. More studies are warranted to identify factors

  12. Prevalence of gingivitis and calculus in 12-year-old Puerto Ricans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Ramirez, Karol; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Murillo, Margarita; Toro, Milagros J

    2018-01-19

    Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender. A probability-based sample of 113 schools was selected proportional to enrollment size and stratified by health region, school type, and gender. Two trained examiners evaluated the presence of gingivitis and both supragingival and subgingival dental calculus. Gingivitis was defined as the presence of gingival bleeding upon gentle probing (BOP) in at least one site, and the extent of the problem was classified according to the percentage of teeth whose gingiva presented BOP (limited: 25-49% of the teeth tested; extensive: >50% of teeth tested). Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for health regions, were used to compare gingivitis and calculus prevalence and extent between genders and school types. Gingivitis was found in 80.41% of the 1586 children evaluated. Urban-public schoolchildren had a slightly higher prevalence (83.24%) compared to private (79.15%, p = 0.16); those in rural-public (77.59%) and private schools had similar prevalence (p = 0.15). Extensive gingivitis was present in 60.81% of all children. The mean percentage of sites presenting BOP (BOP%) was 17.79%. Rural and urban public schoolchildren presented significantly higher BOP% compared to children from private schools (p = 0.0005, p = 0.002, respectively). Dental calculus was detected in 61.59% of the sample, boys presenting significantly higher (p = 0.005) total and supragingival calculus. Rural-public schoolchildren had a significantly higher prevalence of

  13. Cancer disparities between mainland and island Puerto Ricans Disparidades en la incidencia de cáncer en puertorriqueños residentes en los Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico

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    Gloria Y. F. Ho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Examination of cancer rates in a single Hispanic subgroup-Puerto Ricans-and comparison of incidence rates among mainland Puerto Ricans living in the United States, island Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico, and U.S. non-Hispanic whites to reveal ethnic-specific cancer patterns and disparities in Puerto Ricans. METHODS: Incidence data were obtained from the cancer registries of Puerto Rico and three U.S. northeastern states (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut with a high density of mainland Puerto Ricans. Age-adjusted rates were compared by standardized rate ratios (SRRs. RESULTS: Total cancer incidence was the lowest in island Puerto Ricans, intermediate for mainland Puerto Ricans, and highest in U.S. non-Hispanic whites. Compared to mainland Puerto Ricans, islanders had significantly lower rates (p OBJETIVOS: Se analizaron las tasas de cáncer en un subgrupo de hispanos residentes en los Estados Unidos de América -los puertorriqueños (PRREUA y se compararon sus tasas de incidencia con las de los puertorriqueños que residen en Puerto Rico (PRRPR y la población estadounidense blanca sin ascendencia hispana (EUBNH a fin de encontrar patrones de cáncer y disparidades de orden étnico específicos para los puertorriqueños. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron los datos de incidencia de los registros de cáncer de Puerto Rico y tres estados del nordeste de los Estados Unidos (New York, New Jersey y Connecticut que tienen una elevada densidad de PRREUA. Se compararon las tasas ajustadas por la edad mediante las razones de las tasas estandarizadas (SRR. RESULTADOS: La incidencia total de cáncer fue menor en los PRRPR, intermedia en los PRREUA y mayor en los EUBNH. Los PRRPR presentaron tasas significativamente menores que los PRREUA (P < 0,05 en los principales tipos de cáncer -de pulmón (SRR = 0,36 en hombres; SRR = 0,29 en mujeres, próstata (SRR = 0,71, mama (SRR = 0,73 y colorrectal (SRR = 0,74 en hombres y SRR = 0,65 en mujeres- así como en

  14. Perceptions of breast and cervical cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Risica, Patricia Markham

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of cancer, risk, and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 147 adults. Perceived risks for breast cancer were predominantly associated with carelessness about health care, trauma to the breast, and breastfeeding. Cervical cancer risks were mostly attributed to carelessness about health care and sexual behaviors. A strong sense of fatalism and embarrassment coexisted with positive beliefs about check-ups and screening. Participants cited confianza (trust, confidence) in their doctor, and their doctor's provision of information and explanations, as important factors in decreasing embarrassment and increasing their likelihood of getting screened. While familiarity with mammography and Pap testing was great among participants, many did not practice sustained, regular screening, and held misconceptions about tests and screening guidelines. Respondents' perceptions of having sufficient information often did not correspond to their having the accurate information necessary to promote informed screening decisions.

  15. The mental health relevance of idioms of distress. Anger and perceptions of injustice among New York Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, L H; Cortes, D E; Malgady, R G

    1994-06-01

    Cultural sensitivity in mental health research is enhanced by examining the collective perceptions of members of ethnic groups about their own idiomatic expressions of distress. Such an examination was conducted with Puerto Ricans living in New York City, beginning with focus group discussions. Their prevailing idioms of distress, based upon themes of anger and injustice, were correlated widely with professionally developed measures of anxiety, depression, and somatization and with utilization of professional mental health care. By examining the relationship between idioms of distress, saliently volunteered by members of the ethnic ingroup, on the one hand, and professional care and assessments of mental health, on the other, we increase our culturally based understanding of mental health in the community.

  16. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education

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    Oleksyk Taras K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. Findings In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp, which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp. This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. Conclusions The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  17. English Proficiency and Admission and Graduation of Post-Secondary Students at a Puerto Rican University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has examined English proficiency as a mediating social factor within the occupational structure of Puerto Rico. It included an analysis of the educational records of 641 students majoring in industrial engineering, nursing, education and finance of the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez from 1998-2000. The investigation…

  18. Insulin autoantibodies: evidence of autoimmune disease among a group of Puerto Rican children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Pijem, L; Nieves-Rivera, F

    2001-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease caused by a cell-specific destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Although Puerto Rico has the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes among Latin American countries, there is scanty data on the presence of antibodies against insulin producing cells. To this end, 20 children (8 males, 12 females), ages 1-15 years, admitted to the University Pediatric Hospital with type 1 diabetes de novo between November 2000 and April 2001 were prospectively studied to determine the presence of serum antibodies against Islet cells (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65) and insulin autoantibodies (IAA). IAA was found to be present in 45% of the subjects with 85% of positive rate in subjects under age 5. GAD-65 was present in 66% and ICA was present in 23% of the subjects. We found evidence of autoimmunity against islet cell surface and intracellular components among a cohort of Puerto Rican children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. These findings compared favorably with reports from other ethnicities.

  19. [Difficulties and concerns identified by Puerto Rican youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): their relationship with metabolic control, hopelessness, social support, and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jeannette; Maysonet Guzmán, Marielisa

    2006-12-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic health condition that affects 18 of every 100,000 Puerto Rican youth. Few research studies have been performed on the problems that youth with diabetes encounter and how they are related to adherence to treatment and adequate metabolic control. Adequate metabolic control is associated with fewer short and long-term medical complications, as well as better quality of life. Adapting to the demands and stressors associated with IDDM and its treatment is a task that can prove to be difficult for youth with diabetes due to having to make adjustments, alterations, and following a prescribed regimen in their daily activities. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore difficulties and worries identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM. This study examined whether there is a relationship between difficulties and worries, and adequate metabolic control, hopelessness, social support and depressive symptomatology. One hundred and one youth with IDDM between the ages of 8 and 17 (45 male, 56 female) were evaluated. Analysis of frequencies, correlations, and comparison tests were performed by group (gender, age, diabetes duration, and metabolic control. Results reveal that some of the difficulties identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM were: not eating candy and/or cake, self-monitoring blood glucose at school, doing things on time, and waking up early. Among the worries they reported were: insulin reactions and thinking that they might have to go to the hospital.

  20. Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Emily Lenore Goldman; Loue, Sana; Sajatovic, Martha; Tisch, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV/AIDS has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance use, childhood abuse, and social relationships. To examine the impact of psychiatric and social correlates of HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with SMI. Data collected longitudinally (from 2002 to 2005) in semi-structured interviews and from non-continuous participant observation was analyzed using a cross-sectional design. Bivariate associations between predictor variables and sexual risk behaviors were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Linear regression was used to examine the association between significant predictor variables and the total number of risk behaviors the women engaged in during the 6 months prior to baseline. Just over one-third (35.9%) of the study population (N = 53) was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and GAF scores ranged from 30 to 80 with a median score of 60. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 50 years (M = 32.6 ± 8.7), three-fourths reported a history of either sexual or physical abuse or of both in childhood, and one-fourth had abused substances in their lifetimes. Bivariate analyses indicated that psychiatric and social factors were differentially associated with sexual risk behaviors. Multivariate linear regression models showed that suffering from increased severity of psychiatric symptoms and factors and living below the poverty line are predictive of engagement in a greater number of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Puerto Rican women with SMI are at high risk for HIV infection and are in need of targeted sexual risk reduction interventions that simultaneously address substance abuse prevention and treatment, childhood abuse, and the

  1. Association of Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in a Puerto Rican Adult Population

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    William A Calo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous reports of an increased risk of MetSyn among current smokers, particularly those with a heavier consumption. Tobacco control strategies, such as preventing smoking initiation and disseminating evidence-based cessation programs, are necessary to reduce the burden of MetSyn in Puerto Rico.

  2. Are Ataques de Nerviosa in Puerto Rican Children Associated with Psychiatric Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…

  3. Chemical constituents in clouds and rainwater in the Puerto Rican rainforest: potential sources and seasonal drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Gioda; O.L. Mayol-Bracero; F. N. Scatena; K. C. Weathers; V. L. Mateus; W. H. McDowell

    2013-01-01

    Cloud- and rain-water samples collected between 1984 and 2007 in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, were analyzed in order to understand the main processes and sources that control their chemistry. Three sites were used: El Verde Field Station (380 m asl), Bisley (361 m asl), and East Peak (1051 m asl). Bulk rainwater samples were collected from all sites,...

  4. Development of equations for predicting Puerto Rican subtropical dry forest biomass and volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Matthew Delaney; Bernard R. Parresol; Larry Royer

    2006-01-01

    Carbon accounting, forest health monitoring and sustainable management of the subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico and other Caribbean Islands require an accurate assessment of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and stem volume. One means of improving assessment accuracy is the development of predictive equations derived from locally collected data. Forest inventory...

  5. Using University Students' L1 as a Resource: Translanguaging in a Puerto Rican ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kevin S.; Sambolín Morales, Astrid N.

    2016-01-01

    Framed within Ruiz's language-as-resource orientation, this article uses data from a college ESL classroom where a translanguaging approach was used for the teaching of a novel. After defining key terms, the article describes the linguistic context of higher education in Puerto Rico and its influence on one instructor's Basic English course. Using…

  6. Characteristics of fog and fogwater fluxes in a Puerto Rican elfin cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.; Holwerda, F.; Scatena, F.N.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico harbours important fractions of tropical montane cloud forests. Although it is well known that the frequent occurrence of dense fog is a common climatic characteristic of cloud forests around the world, it is poorly understood how fog processes

  7. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  8. Key plants preserve elements of culture: a study over distance and time of fresh crops in Puerto Rican markets in Hartford, Connecticut, "A moveable feast".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David W; Anderson, Gregory J

    2014-04-01

    People retain culinary customs when they migrate. We tested this commitment via the study of Puerto Rican fresh produce markets in the continental United States over time, 18 yr, and space, by comparisons with source markets in Puerto Rico (PR). A survey of Puerto Rican markets in Hartford (HT), Connecticut in 1993-1994 was repeated in 2009-2010. A comparative study was made at open-air markets in PR in 2009. Surveys recorded fresh crops, and interviews with vendors and Hartford Puerto Rican residents provided context. We recorded 84 plant crops (64 species; 32 families) for seven categories. The largest category was viandas (fresh, starchy "root" crops and immature fruits), followed by saborizantes (flavorings). In the second HT survey, 80% of the crops were still present. And ∼90% of the HT 1993-1994 crops and ∼75% of the HT 2009-2010 crops were shared with markets in PR. On the basis of our results, we suggest two new concepts. The persistence of these largely tropical foods in a temperate market far removed from tropical PR shows the importance of basic foods as an element of cultural identification. We recognize this stability as an example of "culinary cultural conservation". Second, analysis of these fresh produce markets leads to the conclusion that viandas are the most prominent in diversity, persistence over time and distance, volume, and in terms of consumers' "willingness to pay". Accordingly, we consider the viandas a good example of a "cultural keystone food group", a food group that is emblematic of a community's culinary conservation.

  9. Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.

  10. Adaptation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Bianchi, L A; Maras, J; Bermudez, O I

    1998-09-01

    To study issues of diet and health among Hispanic adults living in the northeastern United States, the authors adapted a version of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Block food frequency questionnaire. Foods that contributed to nutrient intake of Puerto Rican adults in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were ranked to identify items to be added to the food list. Portion sizes were compared across HHANES and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) to assess the adequacy of the assumed values. Within line items, frequencies of consumption of individual foods were ranked and these data were used to adjust the weighting factors within the database. To test the revised form, 24-hour recalls were collected from 90 elderly Hispanics and 35 elderly non-Hispanic whites. These data were coded into the original and revised food frequency forms and nutrient intake results were compared with recall results by paired t-test, and by Pearson and intraclass correlations. Added foods include plantains, avocado, mango, cassava, empanadas, and custard. Portion sizes differed significantly between HHANES and NHANES II, and were left open-ended. Estimated mean nutrient intakes and correlations with recall data were lower with the original versus the revised form. The authors conclude that the use in minority populations of food frequency questionnaires developed for the general population is likely to result in biased estimates of intake unless modifications are made in the questionnaires.

  11. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a saf...

  12. Coffee intake and risk of incident diabetes in Puerto Rican men: results from the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, B J; Smit, E; Crespo, C J; Garcia-Palmieri, M R

    2009-06-01

    To study prospectively the association of coffee intake with incident diabetes in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program cohort, comprising 9824 middle-aged men (aged 35-79 years). Of 9824 men, 3869 did not provide a fasting blood sample at baseline, 1095 had prevalent diabetes and 131 were not given fasting glucose tests at any subsequent study visit. Thus, the present analysis includes 4685 participants. Diabetes was ascertained at baseline and at two study visits between 1968 and 1975 using fasting glucose tests and self-reports of physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of insulin or hypoglycaemic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of coffee intake with risk of incident diabetes while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, education, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, intakes of milk and sugar). Five hundred and nineteen participants met the criteria for incident diabetes. Compared with those reporting intake of 1-2 servings of coffee/d, coffee abstainers were at reduced risk (OR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.43, 0.94). Among coffee drinkers, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk by intake (P = 0.02); intake of >/=4 servings/d was associated with an odds ratio of 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58, 0.97). Study findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on diabetes risk, while also suggesting that abstainers may be at reduced risk.

  13. Allergen sensitivity (mites, insects, and pets) in a Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, Sylvette; Zaragoza, Rafael; Velázquez, Vylma; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Acantilado, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ray; Rivera, Angel M; Alvarez, María M; López-Almodóvar, Carlos; López-Malpica, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The people of Puerto Rico have one of the highest asthma prevalence and morbidity rates in the U.S.A. Limited information is available on the most common allergy sensitivities among island residents. The aims of the study were to determine the most common inhalant allergen sensitivities among a convenience sample in Puerto Rico and determine as well their relationship to an asthma or a rhinitis diagnosis. In August of 2008, we evaluated a cohort of subjects visiting ambulatory clinics offering health screening; the clinics were located in two of the island's biggest cities: Guaynabo in the north and Ponce in the south. Subjects over three years of age (or their parents) visiting the clinics answered a survey on asthma and rhinitis and were skin tested for reactivity to common aeroallergens. The survey included 395 subjects with a mean age of 29 years. Thirty-six percent reported a history of asthma, of whom 83% (30% of the total participants) reported still having asthma, and 76% reported having rhinitis. Sixty-five percent of the subjects were sensitive to at least one antigen. Subjects sensitive to mites were 53% more likely to have suffered from asthma than were non-mite-sensitized subjects (OR = 1.53, p < 0.05) sensitivity to mosquitoes (OR = 2.25, p < 0.02), mites (OR = 2.53, p < 0.00001), feathers (OR = 2.72, p < 0.03), dogs (OR = 3.02, p < 0.01), or cats (OR = 3.42, p < 0.001) increased an individual's likelihood of suffering from rhinitis. The most common sensitivities identified were to mites and insects. Mite sensitivity was associated with rhinitis and asthma. Sensitivity to animal dander as well as to mosquitoes was associated to with rhinitis. Further studies are warranted to explore the relevance of allergen sensitivity in terms of asthma and rhinitis prevalence and morbidity among residents of Puerto Rico.

  14. Parenting in Puerto Rican families: Mothers and father’s self-reported practices

    OpenAIRE

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Rivera, Natalie Franceschi; Sella-Nieves, Zulma; Félix Fermín, Jahaira

    2013-01-01

    Existe poca información disponible acerca de las prácticas de crianza en familias que viven en Puerto Rico. Ante esta necesidad, 55 familias con dos figuras parentales en el hogar y un/a niño/a entre 6 y 11 años de edad fueron encuestados acerca de estresores contextuales conocidos por su impacto en los modos de crianza (i.e., depresión, situación económica subjetiva, estrés parental, satisfacción marital). Igualmente, fueron encuestados acerca de las prácticas de crianza empleadas (i.e., des...

  15. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  16. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  17. The social context of hormone and silicone injection among Puerto Rican transwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla; Ramos Pibernus, Alixida G; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B

    2018-05-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic, qualitative and survey data with transwomen in Puerto Rico to examine the social and political-economic context of lay injection with hormone and silicone - common practices within this community. We describe specific practices of hormone and silicone injection, the actors that govern them, the market for the sale and distribution of syringes and the networks of lay specialists who provide services to a population that is neglected by and largely excluded from biomedical settings. Our data derive from ethnographic observations, sociodemographic questionnaires, surveys and semi-structured interviews conducted with a diverse group of transwomen in metropolitan San Juan, Puerto Rico. Our analysis focuses on four overlapping social domains or processes that shape the practices of lay silicone and hormone injection among transwomen: (1) the circulation of gender transitioning technologies within local and global markets; (2) the tension between the social exclusion of transwomen and their resilient sub-cultural responses; (3) the cultural meanings that shape transwomen's attitudes about injection; and (4) the perceived consequences of injection. We conclude with a discussion of the kinds of intervention and policy changes that would respond to the factors that most endanger transwomen's health.

  18. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (invasive endogeic Pontoscolex corethrurus, native anecic Estherella sp, and native endogeic Onychochaeta borincana and their effects on soil C and N dynamics in Puerto Rican soils in a 22-day laboratory experiment. Changes of 13C/C and 15N/N in soils, earthworms, and microbial populations were analyzed to evaluate resource utilization by earthworms and their influences on C and N dynamics. Estherella spp. utilized the 13C-labeled litter; however, its utilization on the 13C-labeled litter reduced when cultivated with P. corethrurus and O. borincana. Both P. corethrurus and O. borincana utilized the 13C-labeled litter and 15C-labeled grass roots and root exudates. Pontoscolex corethrurus facilitated soil respiration by stimulating 13C-labeled microbial activity; however, this effect was suppressed possibly due to the changes in the microbial activities or community when coexisting with O. borincana. Increased soil N mineralization by individual Estherella spp. and O. borincana was reduced in the mixed-species treatments. The rapid population growth of P. corethrurus may increase competition pressure on food resources on the local earthworm community. The relevance of resource availability to the population growth of P. corethrurus and its significance as an invasive species is a topic in need of future research.

  19. Instrumental, Integrative, and Intrinsic Orientations Towards Language: Deconstructing the Dichotomy in a Puerto Rican Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Shenk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Using a critical discourse analytical approach, this paper applies self-determination theory to the analysis of orientations towards language acquisition in data collected through interviews with 26 participants from Puerto Rico. In light of significant Spanish-English contact on the island, the paper considers how the participants’ discourses construct overlapping instrumental, integrative, and intrinsic orientations towards the presence of English in their community and, more broadly, towards language acquisition. The data suggest that both instrumental and integrative orientations are present, and that specific factors in this community’s history and experience do not predispose the participants towards a clear distinction between these two but rather contribute to a melding of both with a third way, that of intrinsic motivation, which validates and promotes bi- or even multilingualism on a broader scale without being focused on any one particular language or group of speakers.

  20. Analyzing Student Perceptions on Translanguaging: A Case Study of a Puerto Rican University Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Translanguaging in the classroom is gaining traction as a viable pedagogical choice. Often overlooked, though, are the students’ attitudes in response to strategic classroom translanguaging. This study seeks to determine whether students’ language attitudes influence their perceptions of an instructor’s translingual pedagogy. The study took place in an undergraduate psychology classroom at the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, and involved a case-study approach and analysis of survey results. The results show this particular group of students has a neutral to positive outlook on classroom translanguaging. The high number of neutral responses may mean students are indifferent to translingual pedagogy or that these students are conditioned to work within a context where code switching and translanguaging happen frequently.

  1. [Study on the resilience internal factors in a sample of Puerto Rican centenarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Medina, José J; Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Altieri-Ramirez, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Old age is a stage that is usually characterized by lost at the physiological, psychological and social level that generates much distress to individuals. However, the centenaries have been identified as an example of successful aging, within other factors, because they have adequate managed skills that help them to deal with healthy normal losses. Resilience could be one of the factors that may help the Centennials to age successfully. It is necessary more studies with Puerto Rico Centennials since we lack such investigations. This study has an expo facto design; in addition we evaluate psychometrically the Symptoms Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The scale of Internal Resilience Factors (EFIR), a semi structured interview and the SCL-90-R were used to identify factors associated with successful aging in the centennials. In addition we explore if there exist gender differences in internal factors of resilience within the sample. 23 Centennials, 15 men and 8 women, of different parts of Puerto Rico (average age = 101. 5 years). Internal resilience factors associated with the aging process were identifying, those were: emotional stability, optimism, behavioral factor and behavioral and emotional skills component. These factors are consistent with the revised literature on positive emotions and adaptive ageing. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was identified (p <. 05) for the internal factors of resilience on the basis of gender, a finding agreed with the revised literature. The multiple tests administered showed adequate internal consistency (EFIR: (=. 726); SCL-90-R: (=. 941). The Symptoms Check list 90-R (SCL-90-R) was valid with a Cronbach's alpha of. 941. We identified internal resilience factors that could be linked with successfully aging: those factors are encouraging the elderly population. In addition used tests showed adequate internal consistency. Limitations in relation to the size of the sample and the distribution of gender were

  2. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L

    2014-09-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.

  3. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  4. Neonatal diabetes mellitus: description of two Puerto Rican children with KCNJ11 activating gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Rivera, Francisco; González-Pijem, Lilliam

    2011-06-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare disorder. A one-month-old boy presented with vomiting, hyperglycemia (968 mg/dl [53.8 mmol/L]), severe acetonemia, and metabolic acidosis (pH 6.95, HCO3-4.2 mmol/L). A second child (three months of age) presented with upper respiratory tract symptoms and a plasma glucose level of 835 mg/dl, without acetonemia or acidosis. Both were hospitalized and managed with intravenous fluids and then discharged on insulin. Genetic testing identified the presence of the de nova V59M and E322K activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the sulphonylurea/potassium channel (Kir6.2 subunit) of the insulin beta cell. Both patients were switched to glibenclamide and remain off insulin. To our knowledge, these are the first children in Puerto Rico identified with NDM secondary to a KCNJ11 activating mutation. We conclude that NDM secondary to KCNJ11/Kir6.2 activating mutations, although unusual, should be considered in similar cases since patients with these mutations could come off insulin.

  5. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: pattern consistency and implications for seed removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Tomás A; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  6. Work Ideologies and Constructions of Disability in the Puerto Rican Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Báez-Lebrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2012 with the purpose of analyzing work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability during the 2009 implementation of the Special Act Declaring a State of Fiscal Emergency to Save the Credit of Puerto Rico (Act No. 7.  Through a qualitative design and the manifest and latent content analysis techniques, and using the Disability and Human Subjectivity Models as the theoretical framework, a total of four hundred and sixty-seven (467 newspaper articles published between February and October 2009 was reviewed.  Results demonstrate that only fourteen articles (3%, which constitute the units of analysis, made reference, directly or indirectly, to disability.  The content of these articles is based on an ideology that excludes people with disabilities from social participation because they are considered incapable, unfit and worthless.  The disability and human subjectivity models that predominate are the socio-political and positional-existential ideology, respectively.  It was concluded that the work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability are used to exclude people with disabilities from the job market, without recognizing their power and ability of being and doing.

  7. The "new masculinity": addiction treatment as a reconstruction of gender in Puerto Rican evangelist street ministries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2012-06-01

    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork including twelve months of participant observation and 428 interviews with 84 converts and leaders in Pentecostal ministries founded and run by former addicts in Puerto Rico, describes redefined masculinity as a treatment for addiction. Industrial disinvestment and resulting unemployment and drug trade in urban North and Latin America have led to narcotic addiction among Latino and African American men and attendant homicide, infection, and incarceration. Pentecostal-evangelical street ministries are prevalent in these regions. Their alternative vision of masculine honor and power addresses a cultural crisis of men's social space. They replace the unachievable ideal of the male breadwinner with an image of male spiritual power. In place of the violence of the drug trade, they cultivate male domesticity and responsibility for the home. In place of a deleterious drug economy, they offer the social and cultural capital of ministry networks and biblical knowledge. Yet the trajectories of ministry converts reveal the limits, as well as the promise, of evangelist masculinity as a treatment for addiction. In the course of building leadership among their converts, the ministries create their own, internal hierarchies, fall short of the spiritual democracy they espouse, and lead to relapse among those left at the bottom. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Family Influences on the Long Term Post-Disaster Recovery of Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; You, Sukkyung; Vernberg, Eric; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on characteristics of the family environment that may mediate the relationship between disaster exposure and the presence of symptoms that met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for symptom count and duration for an internalizing disorder in children and youth. We also explored how parental history of mental health problems may moderate this meditational model. Approximately 18 months after Hurricane Georges hit Puerto Rico in 1998, participants were randomly selected based on a probability household sample using 1990 US Census block groups. Caregivers and children (N=1,886 dyads) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and other questionnaires in Spanish. Areas of the family environment assessed include parent-child relationship quality, parent-child involvement, parental monitoring, discipline, parents’ relationship quality and parental mental health. SEM models were estimated for parents and children, and by age group. For children (4–10 years old), parenting variables were related to internalizing psychopathology, but did not mediate the exposure-psychopathology relationship. Exposure had a direct relationship to internalizing psychopathology. For youth (11–17 years old), some parenting variables attenuated the relation between exposure and internalizing psychopathology. Family environment factors may play a mediational role in psychopathology post-disaster among youth, compared to an additive role for children. Hurricane exposure had a significant relation to family environment for families without parental history of mental health problems, but no influence for families with a parental history of mental health problems. PMID:22688681

  9. Gene flow among established Puerto Rican populations of the exotic tree species, Albizia lebbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, B K; Hamrick, J L

    2005-04-01

    We estimate gene flow and patterns of genetic diversity in Albizia lebbeck, an invasive leguminous tree in the dry forest of southwestern Puerto Rico. Genetic diversity estimates calculated for 10 populations of 24 trees each indicated that these populations may have been formed from multiple introductions. The presence of unique genotypes in the northernmost populations suggests that novel genotypes are still immigrating into the area. This combination of individuals from disparate locations led to high estimates of genetic diversity (He = 0.266, P = 0.67). Indirect estimates of gene flow indicate that only 0.69 migrants per generation move between populations, suggesting that genetic diversity within populations should decrease due to genetic drift. Since migration-drift equilibrium was not found, however, this estimate needs to be viewed with caution. The regular production of pods in this outcrossing species (tm = 0.979) indicates that sufficient outcross pollen is received to insure successful reproduction. Direct estimates of gene flow indicate that between 44 and 100% of pollen received by trees in four small stands of trees (n < 11) was foreign. The role of gene flow in facilitating the spread of this invasive plant species is discussed.

  10. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: Pattern consistency and implications for seed removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, T.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, Martha J.

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (plants at some locations than species exhibiting constancy in their patterns of preference. Only two frugivores, Euphonia musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  11. Obesity and premature coronary artery disease with myocardial infarction in Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial, José M; Altieri, Pablo I

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined adults aged 21 to 35 years who underwent left cardiac catheterization in the Cardiovascular Center for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean during 2008-2012 due to myocardial infarction. Demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors, and the extent of CAD were documented. Chi-square statistic or Fisher's exact test was used to compare the distribution of demographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics across CAD extent. Polytomous logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the prevalence odds ratios (POR) with 95% confidence intervals (Cl) for non-obstructive and obstructive coronary disease (OCD) compared with normal coronary anatomy. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.0. Sixty-three (n = 63) adults were evaluated (81% were men). The mean age was 31 ± 4 years. The most frequent clinical risk factors were history of tobacco use, hyper tension, and dyslipidemia. Obesity was present in 45.9% of subjects and OCD was present in 52.38% of subjects. Obesity and family history of CAD were significantly associated with OCD when adjusted by age. Obese patients had 5.94 times the possibility of having OCD than normal weight patients. Obesity was the most important treatable predictor of premature obstructive CAD in our young adult population.

  12. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  13. Achievement of national clinical practice recommendations among those in the Puerto Rican population with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vigil, Efraín; Rodríguez-Chacón, Migdalia; Trabanco, Cesar; Irizarry-Ramos, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    To analyze glycemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Puerto Rico (PR) using the 2011 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations and glycemic goals as standards. We also explored other factors that are related to glycemic control. Glycemic data were obtained from 600 adults with DM from 5 different regions in PR. The patient's health insurance coverage, type of health care provider, type of diabetes treatment, gender, age, physical activity, weight, degree of hypertension and degree and type of dyslipidemia comorbidities (when one or both were applicable), and disease duration were variables of interest. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to describe the population and determine the statistical differences in the glycemic control of the subjects. Fewer than half of the participants achieved the ADA-recommended levels for HbA1c (37.3%) and blood pressure (34%). However, relatively more participants met the goals for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (51.7%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (59.9%), and triglycerides (61.5%). The percentage of participants reaching the HbA1c, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals at the same time was 9.9%. Patients with private health insurance achieved better glycemic control than did patients in the public-managed healthcare system. Half of the population presented simultaneous hypertension, dyslipidemia, and DM comorbidities. Only 50% of the participants were physically active. In the sample population, glycemic control levels and blood pressure levels in adults with DM were far from the ADA-recommended standards. Physical activity levels, type of medical insurance, and type of DM medical treatment were the main modifiable factors associated with the goal of attaining glycemic control. Barriers that limit the achievement of this goal should be analyzed in more detail to improve the medical care for people with DM.

  14. High prevalence of overweight and obesity among a representative sample of Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Garcia, Omar; Torres, Roxana; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-03-05

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health problem worldwide. The objectives of the study were: 1) to establish the BMI prevalence in 12-year olds residing in Puerto Rico, and 2) to determine BMI differences by sex, public-private school type, and geographic regions. Data was obtained from an island-wide probabilistic stratified sample of 1,582 twelve-year-olds (53% girls and 47% boys). The BMI was determined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey procedures. Children were categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's age and gender specific growth charts. A logistic regression model was used to estimate BMI category prevalence. Odds ratios were calculated using a multinomial regression. In this study, 18.8% of the children were overweight and 24.3% were obese. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in boys as compared to girls, 28.2% vs. 20.2%, respectively. The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from public schools was lower than for those from private schools. After adjusting for type of school and region, boys had a significantly higher risk of being obese (64%) as compared to girls. In public schools, boys had a lower prevalence of being overweight while girls had a higher prevalence compared to children attending private schools. Girls attending private schools had a higher obesity prevalence (27.8%) compared to girls from public schools (19.8%). The prevalence of underweight (2.7%) is slightly lower than in the United States. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of 12-year-olds residing in PR was 18.8% and 24.3%, respectively; higher than in the U.S. (by groups). Boys were at higher risk of obesity than girls. There is an urgent need to implement public health policies/programs to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in PR.

  15. Parenting in Puerto Rican Families: Mothers and Father’s Self-Reported Practices

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    Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe poca información disponible acerca de las prácticas de crianza en familias que viven en Puerto Rico. Ante esta necesidad, 55 familias con dos figuras parentales en el hogar y un/a niño/a entre 6 y 11 años de edad fueron encuestados acerca de estresores contextuales conocidos por su impacto en los modos de crianza (i.e., depresión, situación económica subjetiva, estrés parental, satisfacción marital. Igualmente, fueron encuestados acerca de las prácticas de crianza empleadas (i.e., desarrollo de nuevas destrezas, involucramiento positivo, solución de problemas, supervisión y disciplina efectiva, así como de problemas de conducta externalizante presentes en los/as niños/as. Todas las medidas fueron confiables, lo que indica el potencial uso de las mismas en futuras investigaciones con muestras puertorriqueñas. Todas las relaciones fueron en la dirección esperada. Específicamente, las altas puntuaciones en estresores se relacionaron de forma negativa con el respaldo de prácticas de crianza efectivas, mientras que las prácticas de crianza efectivas correlacionaron negativamente con puntuaciones problemáticas en los resultados de los/as niños/as. Las destrezas de solución de problemas en la figura materna medió la relación entre satisfacción marital y conductas externalizante en los/as niños/as. Se proporcionan implicaciones para investigaciones futuras.

  16. The Viability Of Outercourse For HIV Prevention Within The Puerto Rican Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Background As the number of HIV/AIDS cases continues to increase in Puerto Rico, outercourse, or non-penetrative sexual activities, may be one alternative for healthy sexual living for persons living with or at risk for HIV/AIDS. Methods Between April and August 2006, we surveyed 1138 women living in low-income housing in Ponce, PR on their attitudes toward and participation in outercourse activities. Results The majority of the sample were aged >25 years (80.2%), with a mean sample age of 36.77 (SD=12.31). Approximately one half (49.8%) of the women in the sample were legally married or involved in a common-law relationship. Mutual masturbation and the use of sex toys were viewed as “real sex” by only 33% and 16%, respectively, of the women surveyed. A slight majority had at least a high school education (57.5%). Of those with a steady sex partner in the previous 12 months, 47% engaged in mutual masturbation, and 17% used sex toys. Of those with a non-steady sex partner in the previous 12 months, 41% engaged in mutual masturbation, and 14% used sex toys. Logistic regressions indicated that persons who perceived mutual masturbation and the use of sex toys as real sex were more likely than those who did not perceive them to be so to engage in either or both behaviors with their most recent steady sex partner (OR54.5, CI53.3–6.2 and OR518.11, CI511.5–28.6, respectively); the same relationship emerged with their most recent non-steady sex partner (OR5 4.0, CI51.9–8.3 and OR515.9, CI55.3–47.4). Conclusions The levels of participation in outercourse were low across the sample; also low was the perception of outercourse as being real sex. Outercourse appears to be, primarily, a precursor to penetrative sex, especially with steady sex partners. If culturally sensitive prevention messages were to promote outercourse as real sex and as an ultimate sexual goal, couples might be able to maintain an intimate, yet safe, sexual relationship. Outercourse should not be

  17. The viability of outercourse for HIV prevention within the Puerto Rican context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Lisa R

    2010-01-01

    As the number of HIV/AIDS cases continues to increase in Puerto Rico, outercourse, or non-penetrative sexual activities, may be one alternative for healthy sexual living for persons living with or at risk for HIV/AIDS. Between April and August 2006, we surveyed 1138 women living in low-income housing in Ponce, PR on their attitudes toward and participation in outercourse activities. The majority of the sample were aged >25 years (80.2%), with a mean sample age of 36.77 (SD = 12.31). Approximately one half (49.8%) of the women in the sample were legally married or involved in a common-law relationship. Mutual masturbation and the use of sex toys were viewed as "real sex" by only 33% and 16%, respectively, of the women surveyed. A slight majority had at least a high school education (57.5%). Of those with a steady sex partner in the previous 12 months, 47% engaged in mutual masturbation, and 17% used sex toys. Of those with a non-steady sex partner in the previous 12 months, 41% engaged in mutual masturbation, and 14% used sex toys. Logistic regressions indicated that persons who perceived mutual masturbation and the use of sex toys as real sex were more likely than those who did not perceive them to be so to engage in either or both behaviors with their most recent steady sex partner (OR = 4.5, CI =3.3-6.2 and OR=18.11, CI = 11.5-28.6, respectively); the same relationship emerged with their most recent non-steady sex partner (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.9-8.3 and OR = 15.9, CI = 5.3-47.4). The levels of participation in outercourse were low across the sample; also low was the perception of outercourse as being real sex. Outercourse appears to be, primarily, a precursor to penetrative sex, especially with steady sex partners. If culturally sensitive prevention messages were to promote outercourse as real sex and as an ultimate sexual goal, couples might be able to maintain an intimate, yet safe, sexual relationship. Outercourse should not be promoted as the only option for

  18. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  19. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

    2014-01-01

    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Attitudes toward euthanasia, assisted suicide and termination of life-sustaining treatment of Puerto Rican medical students, medical residents, and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rivera, J; Rodríguez, R; Otero Igaravidez, Y

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the opinion of Puerto Rican medical students, residents and internal medicine faculty as to the appropriateness of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and end-of-life management. Survey using a 16-item questionnaire answered within a two-month period in the fall of 1996. Rounds or faculty meetings at teaching hospitals located in the north, south and southwest of the island of Puerto Rico. There were 424 participants. The questionnaires of 279 medical students, 75 medical residents, and 35 internal medicine faculty members were analyzed. Thirty-five questionnaires, which were incomplete or answered by non-Puerto Rican participants, were excluded. Frequency of support of active euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment with informed consent was determined. Whether it was ethical to prescribe full doses of drugs needed to alleviate pain even if it would hasten death, or agree to limit or restrict resources for the terminally ill was also determined. Forty per cent of the students, 33% of the residents, and 20% of the faculty supported euthanasia. If physician-assisted suicide were legalized, 50 per cent of the students, 43 per cent of the residents and 45 percent of the faculty would not be opposed to it. Sixty-eight per cent of the students, 67 per cent of the residents and 88 per cent of the faculty would support withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment for dying patients with informed consent. Seventy-nine per cent of residents, 80 per cent of the faculty but only 54 per cent of medical students would prescribe full doses of drugs needed to alleviate pain in dying patients even if they would hasten death. Thirty-six per cent of the residents and faculty would agree to limit the use of medical resources for the terminally ill but only sixteen per cent of medical students would do so. The acceptance of euthanasia was inversely proportional to the clinical experience of the respondents: 40

  1. Serological Reactivity and Identification of Immunoglobulin E-Binding Polypeptides of Ganoderma applanatum Crude Spore Cytoplasmic Extract in Puerto Rican Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilá-Héreter, Frances; Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2017-01-01

    The allergenic potential of Ganoderma applanatum basidiospores has been demonstrated previously in Puerto Rico. However, basidiomycete allergens are not available for inclusion in allergy diagnostic panels. Therefore, we sought to confirm allergic sensitization to G. applanatum crude spore cytoplasmic extract through reactivity in serological assays and detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding polypeptides. Via an indirect ELISA, serological reactivity was compared between groups of individuals with different allergic profiles. Group 1 (n = 51) consisted of individuals with sIgE to the allergens included in the diagnostic panels; group 2 (n = 14) comprised individuals with no sIgE to the allergens tested; and group 3 (n = 22) included individuals with no allergic history. To visualize IgE-binding polypeptides, group 1 sera were examined via Western blotting (WB). Polypeptide bands with the highest reactivity were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) for putative identification. The serological reactivity of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 in an indirect ELISA (p = 0.03). Sixty-five percent of group 1 individuals showed reactivity to polypeptide bands in WB. Bands of 81 and 56 kDa had the highest reactivity proportions among the reactive sera, followed by a 45-kDa band. MS analysis of these 3 polypeptides suggests that they are basidiomycete-derived enzymes with aconitate hydratase, catalase, and enolase functions. G. applanatum spores have allergenic components recognized by Puerto Rican individuals, which could eventually be considered as markers in cases of fungal allergy and be included in diagnostic allergen panels in Puerto Rico and tropical regions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Advances in the use of DNA barcodes to build a community phylogeny for tropical trees in a Puerto Rican forest dynamics plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W John Kress

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Species number, functional traits, and phylogenetic history all contribute to characterizing the biological diversity in plant communities. The phylogenetic component of diversity has been particularly difficult to quantify in species-rich tropical tree assemblages. The compilation of previously published (and often incomplete data on evolutionary relationships of species into a composite phylogeny of the taxa in a forest, through such programs as Phylomatic, has proven useful in building community phylogenies although often of limited resolution. Recently, DNA barcodes have been used to construct a robust community phylogeny for nearly 300 tree species in a forest dynamics plot in Panama using a supermatrix method. In that study sequence data from three barcode loci were used to generate a well-resolved species-level phylogeny.Here we expand upon this earlier investigation and present results on the use of a phylogenetic constraint tree to generate a community phylogeny for a diverse, tropical forest dynamics plot in Puerto Rico. This enhanced method of phylogenetic reconstruction insures the congruence of the barcode phylogeny with broadly accepted hypotheses on the phylogeny of flowering plants (i.e., APG III regardless of the number and taxonomic breadth of the taxa sampled. We also compare maximum parsimony versus maximum likelihood estimates of community phylogenetic relationships as well as evaluate the effectiveness of one- versus two- versus three-gene barcodes in resolving community evolutionary history.As first demonstrated in the Panamanian forest dynamics plot, the results for the Puerto Rican plot illustrate that highly resolved phylogenies derived from DNA barcode sequence data combined with a constraint tree based on APG III are particularly useful in comparative analysis of phylogenetic diversity and will enhance research on the interface between community ecology and evolution.

  3. HIV/AIDS in a Puerto Rican/Dominican Community: A Collaborative Project with a Botanical Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melvin; Santiago, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning HIV/AIDS in Latino communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Discusses the presence of botanical shops (where herbal medicines and other healing paraphernalia can be purchased) in Latino culture. Describes Projecto Cooperacion, a project that utilized botanical shops as a means of…

  4. Juan Cristóbal Gundlach’s collections of Puerto Rican birds with special regard to types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Frahnert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The German naturalist Juan Cristóbal Gundlach (1810–1896 conducted, while a resident of Cuba, two expeditions to Puerto Rico in 1873 and 1875–6, where he explored the southwestern, western, and northeastern regions of this island. Gundlach made representative collections of the island’s fauna, which formed the nucleus of the first natural history museums in Puerto Rico. When the natural history museums closed, only a few specimens were passed to other institutions, including foreign museums. None of Gundlach’s and few of his contemporaries’ specimens have survived in Puerto Rico. We located 191 bird specimens (43 species collected there by Gundlach, all of which are in foreign institutions, especially Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Here we list all located specimens and include data associated with them. Six new species were described out of the Gundlach collections from Puerto Rico, three of which are still taxonomically recognized today. Information about the types of those taxa is given.

  5. Stable isotope investigation of insect and plant use in the diets of two Puerto Rican bat species

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Stable carbon and nit...

  6. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  7. Impact of relationship dynamics and gender roles in the protection of HIV discordant heterosexual couples: an exploratory study in the Puerto Rican context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura; Pérez-Jiménez, David

    2009-03-01

    Most of the HIV/AIDS prevention efforts have not taken into consideration the context of the relationship and the gender constructs that influence relationship dynamics. These efforts have failed to view HIV prevention as a collaborative process between partners. Therefore, it is important to explore how relationship dynamics and gender constructs influence how men and women involved in an HIV discordant heterosexual relationship, visualize their role in the protection of their partners in order to design more effective prevention interventions. Five Puerto Rican HIV discordant heterosexual couples were interviewed via a qualitative semi-structured interview. The taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis according to a set of defined categories. Women visualized their role as one of convincing their partners to use protection as well as being strong and firm in the demand of its use. Men viewed their role as one of being more supportive and willing to use protection, but recognized their resistance towards the use of condoms. Relationship dynamics such as communication and support promoted protection. Traditional and non-traditional gender roles were assumed by both men and women. Traditional gender roles inhibited protection but were also used in positive ways to promote it. Men showed a greater initiative to break with traditional gender norms. A positive relationship, marked by communication and support could serve as a facilitator in the protection and in the transformation of traditional gender norms. This points out to the need of viewing HIV/AIDS prevention as a collaborative rather than individualistic process.

  8. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rican adults: behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cardona, C; Pérez-Perdomo, R

    2001-06-01

    To estimate the self-reported weighted prevalence of diabetes mellitus among different population subgroups and determine associated factors in Puerto Rico. Data gathered from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) during 1999 was analyzed. The weighted prevalence in Puerto Rico in 1999 was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.5%-10.7%), highest than reported nationally. It was higher among individuals with increasing age, female sex, decreasing annual income, decreasing educational attainment, being non-employed, having a health care coverage, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and increasing body mass index. Health behaviors and co-morbid conditions significantly associated with diabetes among individuals aged less than 65 years were high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity and low educational attainment. However, the only significant characteristic associated with diabetes in individuals aged 65 years or more was female sex. Analysis of the data gathered in the diabetes module revealed that nearly 35% were using insulin, 57.4% were using insulin once a day, 14.4% self-monitored their blood glucose one to three times per day, 18.3% reported they have heard of the glycosylated hemoglobin test, and of these, 71.8% had their test performed between one and six times within the past year. Nearly 42% reported their feet were checked and 54.1% had a dilated eye examination last year. The high prevalence of diabetes in Puerto Rico underscores the need for developing integrated management strategies for improving quality of diabetes care.

  10. Caries Experience and Periodontal Status during Pregnancy in a Group of Pregnant Women with HIV+ Infections from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lydia M; Guerra, María Elena

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the caries rate and periodontal status in a sample of pregnant women with HIV+ infections from Puerto Rico. A pilot study was conducted on a cross sectional convenience sample of 25 pregnant women with HIV+ infections from Puerto Rico who visit the CEMI clinic (Centro de Estudios Materno Infantil) at the University of Puerto Rico. The women subjects were evaluated for caries, DMFT (D: Decay tooth; M: Missing tooth due to caries; F: Filled tooth) index, oral lesions associated with HIV+/AIDS and periodontal disease parameters, with a Florida probe by a calibrated dentist on periodontal indexes such as as bleeding on probing, CEJ (cemento-enamel junction) and pocket depth. Periodontal disease was classified as having 4 sites with pocket depth greater than 4 mm and caries were identified following the Radike criteria. Data was statistically analyzed using the SSPS Program (Statistical Software Program for Social Sciences) and descriptive statistics were calculated. Mean DT (decayed teeth), MT (missing teeth due to caries), FT (filled teeth) and DMFT (decay, missing and filled teeth) were 4.8, 1.86, 5.3 and 12, respectively; mean sites of bleeding on probing=12.06; mean sites with pocket depth>4 mm=6.95 and mean sites with loss of attachment greater than 4 mm=7.66. [Almost 50% of the patients had generalized chronic periodontitis. A 72% prevalence of periodontal disease was found. No oral lesions related to HIV+/AIDS were reported. CD4 and viral load was statistically associated with bleeding on probing and severe signs of periodontal disease. High levels of dental disease were found in pregnant women with HIV+/AIDS infections from Puerto Rico, and these women were in need of substantial dental services.

  11. The Role of Peers in the Relation between Hurricane Exposure and Ataques de Nervios among Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Felix, Erika D; Vernberg, Eric M; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-11-01

    Although a relation between disaster exposure and ataques de nervios ( ataques ) has been established in adult samples, little is known about this among youth, including factors that may moderate this relation. This study examined the role of the peer context in the relation between exposure to Hurricane Georges and experiencing a past year and lifetime ataques among a representative community sample of 905 youth (N = 476 boys and 429 girls; ages 11-18) residing in Puerto Rico. Data were gathered from 1999-2000 in Puerto Rico, 12-27 months following Hurricane Georges. Logistic regression analyses found that peer violence significantly predicted experiencing an ataque in the past year. Hurricane exposure and peer violence were both significant predictors of a lifetime experience of an ataque . An interaction was found between hurricane exposure and peer violence, indicating that hurricane exposure was significantly related to a lifetime experience of an ataque among adolescents who do not report associating with violent peers. For participants reporting high levels of peer violence, hurricane exposure did not add additional risk for a lifetime experience of an ataque . Understanding the influence of peers in the relation between hurricane exposure and experiencing an ataque may assist in planning developmentally and culturally sensitive response plans.

  12. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  13. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  14. HIV-related felt stigma among Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS: A focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Jiménez Chávez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estigma afecta negativamente el bienestar de personas que viven con VIH/ SIDA (PLWHA. Sentirse estigmatizado afecta áreas clave de la vida cotidiana de estas personas. Este estudio caracteriza la experiencia del estigma sentido entre un grupo de puertorriqueños LWHA, a través de un enfoque de grupo focal (GF. Un total de 40 participantes fueron reclutados de las agencias de Ryan White en el área sur de Puerto Rico. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo para recopilar datos sobre los sentimientos, opiniones y percepciones de los participantes. Los GF se grabaron y transcribieron en un informe escrito. Los temas derivados del análisis de contenido se relacionaron con: rechazo, reacciones emocionales, revelación del diagnóstico, reacciones de otros, destrezas de afrontamiento, apariencia física y relaciones afectivas.

  15. Clinical correlates and outcomes in a group of Puerto Ricans with systemic lupus erythematosus hospitalized due to severe infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán-González, Patricia; Shum, Lee Ming; González-Sepúlveda, Lorena

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus patients hospitalized due to infections vary among different ethnic populations. Thus, we determined the outcomes and associated factors in a group of Hispanics from Puerto Rico with systemic lupus erythematosus admitted due to severe infections. Methods: Records of systemic lupus erythematosus patients admitted to the Adult University Hospital, San Juan, Puerto Rico, from January 2006 to December 2014 were examined. Demographic parameters, lupus manifestations, comorbidities, pharmacologic treatments, inpatient complications, length of stay, readmissions, and mortality were determined. Patients with and without infections were compared using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 204 admissions corresponding to 129 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were studied. The mean (standard deviation) age was 34.7 (11.6) years; 90% were women. The main causes for admission were lupus flare (45.1%), infection (44.0%), and initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (6.4%). The most common infections were complicated urinary tract infections (47.0%) and soft tissue infections (42.0%). In the multivariate analysis, patients admitted with infections were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 4.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.23–14.41), exposure to aspirin prior to hospitalization (odds ratio: 4.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–15.80), and higher mortality (odds ratio: 6.00, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–35.68) than those without infection. Conclusion: In this population of systemic lupus erythematosus patients, 44% of hospitalizations were due to severe infections. Patients with infections were more likely to have diabetes mellitus and higher mortality. Preventive and control measures of infection could be crucial to improve survival in these patients.

  16. Long-Term Outcomes in Puerto Ricans with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Receiving Early Treatment with Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs using the American College of Rheumatology Definition of Early RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rosario, Noemí; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M; Díaz-Correa, Leyda M; Pérez-Ríos, Naydi; Rodríguez, Noelia; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) results in better long-term outcomes. However, the optimal therapeutic window has not been clearly established. To determine the clinical outcome of Puerto Ricans with RA receiving early treatment with conventional and/or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition of early RA. A cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of Puerto Ricans with RA. Demographic features, clinical manifestations, disease activity, functional status, and pharmacotherapy were determined. Early treatment was defined as the initiation of DMARDs (conventional and/or biologic) in less than 6 months from the onset of symptoms attributable to RA. Patients who received early (disease duration was 14.9 years and 337 (87.0%) patients were women. One hundred and twenty one (31.3%) patients received early treatment. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex, early treatment was associated with better functional status, lower probability of joint deformities, intra-articular injections and joint replacement surgeries, and lower scores in the physician's assessments of global health, functional impairment and physical damage of patients. Using the ACR definition of early RA, this group of patients treated with DMARDs within 6 months of disease had better long-term outcomes with less physical damage and functional impairment.

  17. A Social-Ecological View of Barriers and Facilitators for HIV Treatment Adherence: Interviews with Puerto Rican HIV Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eida M Castro

    Full Text Available To identify perceived barriers and facilitators for HAART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Puerto Rico using a Social Ecological framework.Individual in-depths interviews were conducted with 12 HIV patients with a history of HAART non-adherence. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Content analysis was performed for each transcribed interview by three independent coders using a codebook. Using Atlas TI, super-codes and families were generated to facilitate the categorization tree as well as grounded analyses and density estimates.Most participants reported a monthly income of $500 or less (n = 7, a high school education level (n = 7, being unemployed (n = 9 and being recipients of government health insurance (n = 11. Three out of six women reported living alone with their children and most men informed living with their parents or other relatives (n = 4. For the grounded analyses, the top four sub-categories linked to high number of quotations were mental health barriers (G = 32 followed by treatment regimen (G = 28, health system (G = 24 and interpersonal relations (G = 16. The top four sub-categories linked to high number of codes are treatment regimen (D = 4, health status perception (D = 3, interpersonal relations (D = 3 and health system (D = 3.The results of this study suggest the interconnection of HIV treatment adherence barriers at various system levels. Future studies on HIV treatment barriers should explore these interactions and investigate the possible synergistic effect on non-adherent behavior.

  18. Diaspora portoricaine et musique rap à New-York : entre latinité et culture africaine américaine Puerto Rican diaspora and rap music in New-York city: between “latininad” and African American culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Partel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le rap a atteint un succès sans précédent auprès des jeunes urbains aux Etats-Unis et dans les grandes mégalopoles du monde entier. Ce genre musical, figure de proue du hip-hop, s’est affirmé dès les années 1970 comme un moyen d’expression diasporique reflétant les expériences, les rapports complexes et les interactions culturelles entre Africains Américains, Jamaïcains et Portoricains de la diaspora vivant à New York. Cependant, le positionnement des artistes issus de la diaspora portoricaine a été peu étudié. Nourri de séjours d’observation participante et de recherches réalisés entre 2005 et 2008, ainsi que de la fréquentation assidue des concerts du collectif artistique portoricain The Terror Squad auxquels l’auteur a pu assister, cet article se propose doncd’analyser le rôle central des artistes issus de la diaspora portoricaine de New York à travers l’étude du rap, élément le plus médiatisé du hip-hop. Il devient ainsi possible de mieux entrevoir les tensions, convergences et interactions culturelles qui régissent les rapports complexes qui s’établissent entre la latinité des Portoricains et la culture africaine-américaine urbaine depuis plus d’une trentaine d’années dans le milieu du rap.Rap music has achieved unprecedented success among urban youth in the United States and in big cities around the world. As a key element of hip-hop this musical style has been asserting its strength since the 1970s as a reflection of the diasporic experience and the complex cultural interactions between African Americans, Jamaicans and Puerto Ricans of the diaspora living in New York. However, scant research has been conducted on the role of Puerto Rican artists of the diaspora living in New York. Therefore, based on field trips and participant observation undertaken between 2005 and 2008 and the concerts of the Puerto Rican rap group The Terror Squad that the author was able to attend frequently, the

  19. Decadal- to interannual-scale source water variations in the Caribbean Sea recorded by Puerto Rican coral radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourne, K H; Quinn, T M; Guilderson, T P; Webb, R S; Taylor, F W

    2006-12-05

    Water that forms the Florida Current, and eventually the Gulf Stream, coalesces in the Caribbean from both subtropical and equatorial sources. The equatorial sources are made up of, in part, South Atlantic water moving northward and compensating for southward flow at depth related to meridional overturning circulation. Subtropical surface water contains relatively high amounts of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), whereas equatorial waters are influenced by the upwelling of low {sup 14}C water and have relatively low concentrations of {sup 14}C. We use a 250-year record of {Delta}{sup 14}C in a coral from southwestern Puerto Rico along with previously published coral {Delta}{sup 14}C records as tracers of subtropical and equatorial water mixing in the northern Caribbean. Data generated in this study and from other studies indicate that the influence of either of the two water masses can change considerably on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Variability due to ocean dynamics in this region is large relative to variability caused by atmospheric {sup 14}C changes, thus masking the Suess effect at this site. A mixing model produced using coral {Delta}{sup 14}C illustrates the time varying proportion of equatorial versus subtropical waters in the northern Caribbean between 1963 and 1983. The results of the model are consistent with linkages between multidecadal thermal variability in the North Atlantic and meridional overturning circulation. Ekman transport changes related to tradewind variability are proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the observed switches between relatively low and relatively high {Delta}{sup 14}C values in the coral radiocarbon records.

  20. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pregnant women receiving health services at the Puerto Rico University Hospital, Puerto Rico, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, I; Aponte, Z; de-Jesús, Z; de-León, A; González, M C; Hernández, J; Martínez, P; Santos, E R; Pérez-Perdomo, R

    2001-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence and to describe the clinical characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women receiving health care services at the Puerto Rico University Hospital from 1997 to 1998. The study design was cross-sectional. All medical records available of pregnant women diagnosed with GDM were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions and summary measures (mean and standard deviation) were used. Annual and 18-month period prevalences of GDM were calculated. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions. A total of 78 medical records were available during the 18-month study period (June 1997 to December 1998). The estimated prevalence of GDM was 2% for the total study period (18-month) as well as for the year 1998. The highest proportion (52.3%) of GDM cases was found in the 30 years or less age group. Forty-eight percent had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 m/kg2 (obese) before pregnancy; however, the weight gained during the last pregnancy was higher than 15 pounds (57%). Sixty-four percent of the cases had a family history of diabetes, meanwhile, 34.7% reported a history of GDM during previous pregnancies. During the first prenatal visit, 80.5% reflected glucose levels higher than 110 mg/ml. Preeclampsia (6.4%) and macrosomia (14%) were the most frequent complications for the mother and the fetus, respectively. More epidemiological studies about GMD in Puerto Rico need to be performed to better describe the prevalence of the condition in the island.

  1. Two Variants in SLC24A5 Are Associated with “Tiger-Eye” Iris Pigmentation in Puerto Rican Paso Fino Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Mack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A unique eye color, called tiger-eye, segregates in the Puerto Rican Paso Fino (PRPF horse breed and is characterized by a bright yellow, amber, or orange iris. Pedigree analysis identified a simple autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS with 24 individuals identified a locus on ECA 1 reaching genome-wide significance (Pcorrected = 1.32 × 10−5. This ECA1 locus harbors the candidate gene, Solute Carrier Family 24 (Sodium/Potassium/Calcium Exchanger, Member 5 (SLC24A5, with known roles in pigmentation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Humans with compound heterozygous mutations in SLC24A5 have oculocutaneous albinism (OCA type 6 (OCA6, which is characterized by dilute skin, hair, and eye pigmentation, as well as ocular anomalies. Twenty tiger-eye horses were homozygous for a nonsynonymous mutation in exon 2 (p.Phe91Tyr of SLC24A5 (called here Tiger-eye 1, which is predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Additionally, eight of the remaining 12 tiger-eye horses heterozygous for the p.Phe91Tyr variant were also heterozygous for a 628 bp deletion encompassing all of exon 7 of SLC24A5 (c.875-340_1081+82del, which we will call here the Tiger-eye 2 allele. None of the 122 brown-eyed horses were homozygous for either tiger-eye-associated allele or were compound heterozygotes. Further, neither variant was detected in 196 horses from four related breeds not known to have the tiger-eye phenotype. Here, we propose that two mutations in SLC24A5 affect iris pigmentation in tiger-eye PRPF horses. Further, unlike OCA6 in humans, the Tiger-eye 1 mutation in its homozygous state or as a compound heterozygote (Tiger-eye 1/Tiger-eye 2 does not appear to cause ocular anomalies or a change in coat color in the PRPF horse.

  2. The Identity Development and Coming out Process of Gay Youth in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhanel, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…

  3. Diabetes-related mortality among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the United States La mortalidad relacionada con la diabetes en mexicanoestadounidenses, puertorriqueños y cubanoestadounidenses en los Estados Unidos

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    Chrystal A. S. Smith

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hispanics are the most rapidly growing minority group in the United States, and Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans are the three largest Hispanic subgroups. Among Hispanics, type 2 diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death. This paper examines diabetes-related mortality in Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age in the United States during 1996 and 1997. METHODS: Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we calculated age-adjusted and age-specific diabetes-related death rates for Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age. Diabetes-related deaths were determined to be any death for which diabetes was coded as either the underlying or contributing cause of death. RESULTS: The diabetes-related mortality rate for Mexican Americans (251 per 100 000 and Puerto Ricans (204 deaths per 100 000 was twice as high as the diabetes-related mortality rate for Cuban Americans (101 deaths per 100 000. Cuban American decedents had the highest proportion of deaths with diabetes coded as the underlying cause of death (44%. After diabetes, heart disease (31% followed by cancer (8% and stroke (6% were the most frequent primary underlying causes of diabetes-related deaths in all three ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Our analyses of these data demonstrate that diabetes-related mortality differed among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans more than 35 years of age in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Socioeconomic factors such as low educational attainment and low income may be factors that contributed to the disparities in these mortality rates for different subgroups. Further research is needed to update these findings and to investigate explanatory risk factors. Diversity among Hispanic subgroups has persisted in recent years and should be considered when health policies and services targeted at these populations

  4. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women; Alfa-fetoproteina serica materna: determinacion de los valores medios normales en mujeres embarazadas costarricenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas Chaves, P [Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (Costa Rica); Universidad de Costa Rica (Costa Rica). Centro Internacional de Investigacion y Adiestramiento Medico de la Universidad de Louisiana; Rodriguez Aguilar, S [Instituto Costarricense de Investigacion y Ensenanza en Nutricion y Salud (Costa Rica); Villalobos Castro, A [Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia (Costa Rica). Seccion de Ginecoobstetricia; Contreras Carmona, P [Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  5. "And let me see them damn papers!" The role of STI/AIDS screening among urban African American and Puerto Rican youth in the transition to sex without a condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Traci; Macauda, Mark; Erickson, Pamela; Singer, Merrill

    2011-10-01

    Common strategies employed in preventing STI/AIDS transmission among young adults in America include abstinence, monogamy and safer sex. These strategies require a high level of vigilance and responsibility and, according to inner city participants in Project PHRESH.comm, neither option is always desirable, available, or rational in the context of their lived experiences. This article reports findings from Project PHRESH.comm, a mixed-method, ethnographic study incorporating data from focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, coital diaries, systematic cultural assessments and a structured survey designed to explore concepts of risk and decision making about condom use among at risk African American and Puerto Rican young adults aged 18-25 years in Hartford, CT. We found that many young adults from our study population rely on a strategy of using clinic-sponsored STI/AIDS screening when wanting to discontinue condom use with a partner. While our data suggest that screening is a common strategy used by many couples to transition to having sex without a condom, the data also show that most youth do not maintain monogamy even in long-term, serious relationships. Thus, sharing test results may provide a false sense of security in the sexual culture of inner city, minority youth.

  6. Puerto Rican kindergartners' self-worth as coded from the Attachment Story Completion Task: correlated with other self-evaluation measures and ratings of child behavior toward mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L

    2013-01-01

    This multi-method multi-informant study assessed 105 Puerto Rican kindergartners' sense of self-worth in family relationships as coded from their responses to the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). The ASCT scores were compared with responses to two other age-appropriate self-evaluation measures (the Cassidy Puppet Interview and the Pictorial Scales of Social Acceptance). Correlations of children's scores on the three self-measures with maternal ratings of the mother-child relationship and teacher ratings of the child's prosocial behavior with peers were then compared. ASCT self-worth and Puppet Interview scores were strongly correlated with each other and both were modestly related to the pictorial social acceptance scales. All three measures were significantly associated with maternal and teacher reports of child behavior, but the strongest correlations were obtained with the ASCT. Coding the ASCT in terms of self-worth appears to be a promising approach for evaluating young children's (vicariously expressed) self-worth in family relationships.

  7. Puerto Rico Commercial Fishermen Census (2008): This dataset contains demographic, fishing practices and fishing boat and gear data about the population of active commercial fishermen in Puerto Rico (CRCP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains information on demographics, fishing practices and vessel gear characteristics of Puerto Rican commercial fishermen

  8. A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Federico Ribes

    This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

  9. The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A Phonetic, Phonological, and Intonational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Kenneth Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates four aspects of Puerto Rican Spanish as represented in the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce: the behavior of coda /[alveolar flap]/, the behavior of /r/, the different realizations of coda /s/, and its intonational phonology. Previous studies on Puerto Rican Spanish report that coda /[alveolar flap]/ is normally realized as…

  10. Sexual and injection-related risks in Puerto Rican-born injection drug users living in New York City: A mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpí-Acosta Camila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data were collected as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS study. NHBS is a cross-sectional study to investigate HIV behavioral risks among core risk groups in 21 U.S. cities with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. This analysis examines data from the NHBS data collection cycle with IDU conducted in New York City in 2009. We explored how the recency of migration from Puerto Rico (PR to New York City (NYC impacts both syringe sharing and unprotected sex among injection drug users (IDU currently living in NYC. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to examine differences in risk between US-born IDU, PR IDU who migrated to NYC more than three years ago (non-recent migrants, and PR IDU who migrated in the last three years (recent migrants. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used to recruit the sample (n = 514. In addition, qualitative individual and group interviews with recent PR migrants (n = 12 and community experts (n = 2 allowed for an in-depth exploration of the IDU migration process and the material and cultural factors behind continued risk behaviors in NYC. Results In multiple logistic regression controlling for confounding factors, recent migrants were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual intercourse with casual or exchange partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.37-5.76 and receptive syringe sharing (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.20-4.97 in the past year, compared to US-born IDU. HIV and HCV seroprevalence were highest among non-recent migrants. Qualitative results showed that risky injection practices are partly based on cultural norms acquired while injecting drugs in Puerto Rico. These same results also illustrate how homelessness influences risky sexual practices. Conclusions Poor material conditions (especially homelessness may be key in triggering risky sexual practices. Cultural norms (ingrained while using drugs in PR around injection drug

  11. “That’s True Love:” Lived Experiences of Puerto Rican Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth within Their Families’ Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Silva-Suárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden of HIV affects not only HIV-infected patients but also their families and caregivers. It is also known that family support is crucial for people living with HIV. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the life experiences, within the family context, of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV-I youth in Puerto Rico. Twenty in-depth interviews were performed and audio-recorded. Within the family context, study participants experienced acceptance, love and support but also stigma and discrimination. They reported that family is an essential component in their lives and treatment. Losing one or both parents at a young age was considered more difficult than having HIV. Most participants who lost their parents lived with other family members. This was a challenging situation for both pHIV-I youth and their caregivers. Participants described their healthcare providers as part of their families and would like to keep in touch as they transition to adult care. Despite the challenges, participants expressed a desire to have children. Services targeted to this population should stress social support, incorporate family members into the medical process, provide special guidance and support while transitioning to adult care, and provide them with the latest information regarding HIV and reproductive options.

  12. Evaluation of educational materials from a social marketing campaign to promote folic acid use among Hispanic women: insight from Cuban and Puerto Rican ethnic subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Thomas, Kamilah B; Hauser, Kimberlea; Rodríguez, Nydia Y; Rodriguez-Snapp, Nazach

    2009-10-01

    Current data indicate significant disparities in awareness and use of folic acid between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. Hispanic women are less likely to have heard about folic acid, to know that folic acid can prevent birth defects, to take folic acid daily, and to take folic acid before pregnancy. "Three Sisters/Las Tres Hermanos" is a folic acid social marketing campaign designed for Mexican-American women. To determine the effectiveness of the materials on other Hispanic sub groups, women of childbearing age from Cuba and Puerto Rico were recruited to evaluate the materials. Participants were asked five pre-test questions about folic acid knowledge and were then provided with the folic acid educational materials that included either a photo-novella and a low literacy brochure, or a video-novella in English or Spanish. Once the participants reviewed the materials, they were asked 10 post-test questions about the materials. The results of the evaluation are discussed.

  13. Study of interdisciplinarity in chemistry research based on the production of Puerto Rican scientists 1992-2001. Interdisciplinarity, Bibliometric indicators, Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Sanz-Casado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the role played by interdisciplinarity in the generation of knowledge is a very fertile line of research in which synergies among different fields of science can be identified and their impact on research efficiency ascertained. A number of methods may be used to explore interdisciplinarity, from the sociological approach to those requiring the application of bibliometric indicators. In this paper, a bibliometric analysis of the research conducted by scientists with the Chemistry Department at the University of Puerto Rico was run on the basis of the subject matter of citing and cited papers, in order to ascertain how interdisciplinarity affects certain aspects of research, such as collaboration or visibility. The data used for this paper were taken from the Science Citation Index database, which lists the most significant contributions made by these scientists, along with the respective bibliographic references. The study revealed the existence of scientific areas that are highly dependent on the knowledge generated in the specific area itself. A positive, albeit weak, correlation was also observed between research interdisciplinarity and collaboration between researchers and institutions. Interdisciplinarity was not found to have any effect, however, on the visibility of research papers or to be correlated with international collaboration.

  14. Do Cloud Properties in a Puerto Rican Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Depend on Occurrence of Long-Range Transported African Dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Johanna K.; Buchmann, Nina; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A.; Valle Díaz, Carlos J.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Mertes, Stephan; Eugster, Werner

    2014-09-01

    We investigated cloud properties of warm clouds in a tropical montane cloud forest at Pico del Este (1,051 m a.s.l.) in the northeastern part of Puerto Rico to address the question of whether cloud properties in the Caribbean could potentially be affected by African dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed data collected during 12 days in July 2011. Cloud droplet size spectra were measured using the FM-100 fog droplet spectrometer that measured droplet size distributions in the range from 2 to 49 µm, primarily during fog events. The droplet size spectra revealed a bimodal structure, with the first peak ( D < 6 µm) being more pronounced in terms of droplet number concentrations, whereas the second peak (10 µm < D < 20 µm) was found to be the one relevant for total liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. We identified three major clusters of characteristic droplet size spectra by means of hierarchical clustering. All clusters differed significantly from each other in droplet number concentration (), effective diameter (ED), and median volume diameter (MVD). For the cluster comprising the largest droplets and the lowest droplet number concentrations, we found evidence of inhomogeneous mixing in the cloud. Contrastingly, the other two clusters revealed microphysical behavior, which could be expected under homogeneous mixing conditions. For those conditions, an increase in cloud condensation nuclei—e.g., from processed African dust transported to the site—is supposed to lead to an increased droplet concentration. In fact, one of these two clusters showed a clear shift of cloud droplet size spectra towards smaller droplet diameters. Since this cluster occurred during periods with strong evidence for the presence of long-range transported African dust, we hypothesize a link between the observed dust episodes and cloud characteristics in the Caribbean at our site, which is similar to the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  15. DiaspoRican Art as a Space for Identity Building, Cultural Reclamation, and Political Reimagining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The lives of Puerto Ricans in the neighborhood of Humboldt Park, Chicago, are often situated in a complex social field shaped by transnational cultural and political border crossing. We argue that artistic practices in this neighborhood are integral to building community and individual identities grounded in local meanings of the Puerto Rican…

  16. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  18. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  19. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deynes-Exclusa, Yazmin; Sayers-Montalvo, Sean K; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    The only hypnotizability scale that has been translated and validated for the Puerto Rican population is the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). In this article, the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) was translated and validated for this population. The translated SHCS ("Escala Stanford de Hipnosis Clinica" [ESHC]) was administered individually to 100 Puerto Rican college students. There were no significant differences found between the norms of the original SHCS samples and the Spanish version of the SHCS. Both samples showed similar distributions. The Spanish version's internal reliability as well as the item discrimination index were adequate. The authors conclude that the ESHC is an adequate instrument to measure hypnotizability in the Puerto Rican population.

  20. Puerto Rican Psychology: A Review of Issues Pertaining to Assessment and Counseling = La Psicologia Puertorriquena: Una Revision de la Problematica Relacionada con la Medicion y la Consejeria. Monograph #135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O., Ed.

    This is a collection of papers related to psychological assessment and counseling in Puerto Rico. Included are: (1) an introduction (in Spanish), by Joseph O. Prewitt-Diaz; (2) "A Procedure for Constructing Valid Cross-Cultural Attitude Measures for Use in Puerto Rico," by Cecil R. Trueblood; (3) "Perfil de Personalidad en el…

  1. La ensenanza de idiomas en Puerto Rico (Language Teaching in Puerto Rico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Washington

    1976-01-01

    The poor command of Spanish common to many Puerto Ricans is due, not to the teaching of English as a second language, but to the poor instruction of the native language and the lack of emphasis on reading good Spanish literature. The two languages can coexist. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  2. The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. RICARDO GRAU; T. MITCHELL AIDE; JESS K. ZIMMERMAN; JOHN R. HELMER THOMLINSON; XIOMING ZOU

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of economic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing and...

  3. Hurricanes, climate change and the cholera epidemic in Puerto Rico of 1855-1856.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Hurricanes and global climate changes may affect the environmental factors of cholera dynamics in warm coastal areas, vulnerable to seasonal or sporadic outbreaks. The cholera epidemic of Puerto Rico in 1855-1856 had a profound effect on the Puerto Rican society; but it was not influenced by any climatic events, such as preceding hurricanes or storms based on past documentary sources. Particularly, the environmental non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio Cholerae in Puerto Rican water sources can maintain their pathogenic potential for sporadic or erratic toxigenic cholera outbreaks--if a "perfect storm" ever occurs.

  4. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  5. Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    basis would voters select the status quo option during the second plebiscite? Second, could the inclusion of the commonwealth option on the second...Values and Institutions (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1969), p. 262. C. Arthur Borg, “The Problem of Puerto Rico’s Political Status, Revista ...University Press of Kansas, 1975), p. 185.] See also Roberta A. Johnson, “The 1967 Puerto Rican Plebiscite: The People Decide,” Revista /Review

  6. Epidemiological Profile of Hispanics Admitted With Acute Myocardial Infarction in Puerto Rico: The Experience of 2007, 2009 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Osterman-Pla, Anthony D; Carrasquillo, Onelys; Aranda, Juan; Baez, Stella; Lopez, Mariel; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J

    2017-06-01

    A limited number of studies have been published about coronary artery disease in Hispanics, particularly among the Puerto Rican population. The aim of this study was to present a clinical epidemiological profile and management practices in patients hospitalized in Puerto Rico with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This secondary data analysis from the Puerto Rico Cardiovascular Surveillance Study included 6,162 patients at 19 hospitals in Puerto Rico, during years 2007, 2009 and 2011. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with AMI was 67 ± 13.6 years old, with women being older than men (P Puerto Rico.

  7. The Importance of National Identity in Social Studies Classes in Puerto Rico: An Examination of Teacher and Student Perceptions of "Lo Nacional"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Peña, Jesús D.

    2017-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States, is home to approximately 3.4 million U.S. citizens. The literature on Puerto Rican national identity (PRNI) describes how and why it has been debated on the island for more than five hundred years throughout the colonial trajectory, once under Spain and now as a…

  8. Post-1898 Imaginative Geographies: Puerto Rico Migration in 1950s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tolentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies cultural representations of Puerto Rico’s economic boom and 1952 shift in legal status to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It suggests that apprehending these events requires the reframing of Puerto Rican migration as global phenomena. Drawing on the historical and cultural scholarship on Puerto Rican migration, Operation Bootstrap, and US empire, Tolentino analyzes the famous musical film West Side Story (1961, but also the Hollywood film Sabrina (1954 and Island productions El Otro Camino (The Other Road, 1955 and Maruja (1958. In contrast to prevailing views, she interprets these films as narratives about migration and modernization that engage the discourse of sentimental modernization, the figure of the jíbaro, and the idea of small town Puerto Rico. In so doing, they reveal the global vision at the center of the Operation Bootstrap development plan and Commonwealth formation. The concluding section suggests how the films take up issues in Puerto Rico’s historiography. Rather than merely illuminating a forgotten historical period of 1950s Puerto Rico, the 1950s films negotiate Puerto Rico’s geographical, political, and cultural locations by rethinking institutionalized meanings of 1898 in discourses of Puerto Rico historiography and US empire. Proposing new ways of interpreting the introduction of the Commonwealth in 1952 makes possible the revision of dominant conceptions of 1898 rooted in nation, government, and constitutional law.

  9. Post-1898 Imaginative Geographies: Puerto Rico Migration in 1950s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tolentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies cultural representations of Puerto Rico’s economic boom and 1952 shift in legal status to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It suggests that apprehending these events requires the reframing of Puerto Rican migration as global phenomena. Drawing on the historical and cultural scholarship on Puerto Rican migration, Operation Bootstrap, and US empire, Tolentino analyzes the famous musical film West Side Story (1961, but also the Hollywood film Sabrina (1954 and Island productions El Otro Camino (The Other Road, 1955 and Maruja (1958. In contrast to prevailing views, she interprets these films as narratives about migration and modernization that engage the discourse of sentimental modernization, the figure of the jíbaro, and the idea of small town Puerto Rico. In so doing, they reveal the global vision at the center of the Operation Bootstrap development plan and Commonwealth formation. The concluding section suggests how the films take up issues in Puerto Rico’s historiography. Rather than merely illuminating a forgotten historical period of 1950s Puerto Rico, the 1950s films negotiate Puerto Rico’s geographical, political, and cultural locations by rethinking institutionalized meanings of 1898 in discourses of Puerto Rico historiography and US empire. Proposing new ways of interpreting the introduction of the Commonwealth in 1952 makes possible the revision of dominant conceptions of 1898 rooted in nation, government, and constitutional law.

  10. Acculturation, socioeconomic status, obesity and lifestyle factors among low-income Puerto Rican women in Connecticut, U.S., 1998-1999 Aculturación, clase social, obesidad y factores relacionados con el estilo de vida en mujeres puertorriqueñas de bajos ingresos residentes del estado de Connecticut, Estados Unidos, 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Fitzgerald

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of socioeconomic status and acculturation with obesity and lifestyle characteristics that may be risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease among low-income Puerto Rican women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 by interviewing a convenience sample of 200 low-income Puerto Rican female caretakers of young children in Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America. Various recruitment methods were used to ensure adequate representation of the target community. The associations of obesity (body mass index > 30.0 and lifestyle factors (physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, food intake with socioeconomic status (education, employment, car ownership, acculturation, age, and marital status were examined with Spearman rho, chi-squared, and Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Mean age was 29 years. Obesity (40%, physical inactivity (47%, and cigarette smoking (32% were common. Less acculturated participants were 57% less likely to smoke and 54% less likely to be obese than their more acculturated counterparts. Lower socioeconomic status (not finishing high school or not owning a car was associated with a higher likelihood of obesity, but unemployed (vs. employed women were less likely to be obese (P OBJETIVOS: Examinar las asociaciones entre el estado socioeconómico y la aculturación con las características del estilo de vida que podrían constituir factores de riesgo de diabetes y de enfermedades cardiovasculares en mujeres puertorriqueñas de bajos ingresos. MÉTODOS: Este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo entre 1998 y 1999 mediante entrevistas a una muestra de conveniencia compuesta de 200 mujeres puertorriqueñas de bajos ingresos que cuidaban a niños pequeños en Hartford, Connecticut, Estados Unidos de América. Se usaron diversas formas de reclutamiento para conseguir que hubiera una buena representaci

  11. Cultural Diversity of Interpersonal Communication Competence: A Study of Puerto Rico Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby C. Vaught

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research and theories of interpersonal communication reflect mainstream U.S. culture. In an attempt to better understand the communication practices of Spanish-speaking cultures, an exploratory study of interpersonal communication was conducted involving Puerto Rican managers. The Index of Interpersonal Communication Competence (IICC was translated into Spanish and administered in two large international pharmaceutical companies in Puerto Rico. The results of the study are discussed in terms of implications for communication theory and applied communication research.

  12. Seedling and Sapling Dynamics of Treefall Pits in Puerto Rico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence R. Walker

    2000-01-01

    Seedling and sapling dynamics in a Puerto Rican rain forest were compared between forest understory and soil pits created by the uprooting of 27 trees during Hurricane Hugo. Soil N and P, organic matter, and soil moisture were lower and bulk densities were higher in the disturbed mineral soils of the pits than in undisturbed forest soils ten months after the hurricane...

  13. NCI-supported facility to conduct cancer trials breaks ground in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puerto Rican government has allocated $196 million dollars to build a 287,000 sq. ft., 96-bed, cancer hospital in San Juan. The new hospital, which will provide cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials, is the first of its kind in the Caribbean.

  14. Urban Expansion and the Loss of Prime Agricultural Lands in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Mitchell Aide Tania del Mar López

    2001-01-01

    In many countries where the economy has shifted from mainly agricultural to industrial, abandoned agricultural lands are lost to urbanization. For more than 4 centuries the Puerto Rican economy depended almost entirely on agriculture, but sociopolitical changes early in the 20th century resulted in a shift to industry. This shift in the economy, and an increase in...

  15. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  16. Heritability and genetic correlations for volume, foxtails, and other characteristics of Caribbean pine in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; J.L. Whitmore

    1981-01-01

    Caribbean pine is an important exotic being bred throughout the tropics, but published estimates are lacking for heritability of economically important traits and the genetic correlations between them. Based on a Puerto Rican trial of 16 open-pollinated parents of var. hondurensis selected in Belize, heritabilities for a number of characteristics...

  17. Aging and Sexuality: Perceptions of a Puerto Rican Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Judith; Drew, Benjamin

    While there are acknowledged physical, psychological, and social benefits to be derived from maintaining sexual activity in old age, the negative cultural attitudes displayed by younger members of society as well as by their own peers constitute a barrier to the achievement of a satisfactory sex life for the elderly. A study was undertaken to…

  18. Puerto Rican Statehood and the Caribbean Basin Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    island to replace the Indian population, beginning the third ethnic influence In the development of the " criollo " (10:28). It vas during the 16th...of French, Canary islanders,and Italians, colored by the contributions of the Africans and the Taino Indians, produced a unique type of " criollo

  19. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  20. Avian Mobbing of the Puerto Rican Boa (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAVIER E. MERCADO; ESTEBAN TERRANOVA; JR. WUNDERLE

    2002-01-01

    Mobbing, defined as an intense collective behavior in which birds of one or more species scold or even physically attack a predator, is known from a variety of bird species (Campbell and Lack, 1985; Gill, 1995). Targets commonly include hawks, owls, and snakes. In the West Indies, observations have documented avian mobbing towards various hawk species (e.g., Jeffrey-...

  1. Understanding Suicidal Ideation in Latino/a Adolescents Living in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Jones, Richard N; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-05

    Puerto Rican adolescents, as well as other Latinos/as, have been identified at higher risk for suicidal ideation and attempts compared to other ethnic groups. However, research designed to better understand suicidality among Puerto Rican adolescents is rare. A socio-cognitive vulnerability model of suicidal ideation was tested in adolescents living in Puerto Rico. Multiple group path analyses were performed to assess the effect of self-reported socio-environmental and vulnerability factors on suicidal ideation, by sex, in 233 students from the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Overall, the model explained a large amount of the variance in suicidal ideation (r 2  = .59 for females and r2 = .48 for males). Depressive symptoms had the strongest total effect on suicidal ideation for both sexes (r = .69 for females and r = .53 for males) and negative life events were the most salient socio-environmental factor. Hopelessness had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for males only. Externalizing behaviors had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for both males and females, but it was particularly strong for females. Results support the mediating role of vulnerability factors and the differential importance of socio-environmental and vulnerability factors in understanding suicidal ideation among Puerto Rican adolescents. The relevance of exploring different developmental paths to suicidal ideation, separately by sex, is discussed.

  2. Yo misma fui mi ruta: La mujer en la historia y cultura de Puerto Rico [I Was My Own Path: Women in the History and Culture of Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Isabel; And Others

    This teaching guide on women in Puerto Rican history and culture is intended for use in third and fourth grade social studies classes. The book begins with a discussion of the omission of women's roles from most history textbooks and points out the implications of this omission for the knowledge and socialization of both male and female Puerto…

  3. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  4. Psychosocial risk factors and asthma among adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2018-05-08

    Asthma and psychosocial stressors are common among Puerto Rican adults living in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of current asthma, and examined potential psychosocial risk factors and current asthma, among adults in Puerto Rico. Cross-sectional study of 3,049 Puerto Ricans aged 18-64 years living in Puerto Rico between May 2014 and June 2016. A structured interview was conducted to obtain information on demographics, lifestyles, mental disorders, and respiratory health. Current asthma was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and still having asthma. Two-sample t tests (for continuous variables) or chi-square tests (for categorical variables) were used in bivariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine psychosocial risk factors and current asthma. The estimated prevalence of current asthma was 10.2%. In a multivariable analysis, exposure to violence (odds ratio [OR] for each 1-point increment in a validated scale = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 1.21) and a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.80 to 5.01) were significantly associated with current asthma, independently of major depressive disorder. Moreover, a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt was associated with co-existing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (i.e. asthma-COPD overlap syndrome or ACOS (OR = 9.05, 95% CI = 3.32-24.67). Our findings suggest that asthma is a major health problem among adults in Puerto Rico, with psychosocial risk factors playing a significant role on asthma and ACOS. Addressing chronic stressors and mental illness should be part of comprehensive strategies to reduce asthma burden in this population.

  5. Resolving the Promise of Democracy: Ending Puerto Rico’s Colonial Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    dependence on U.S. federal funds such as payment to individuals (social security, Medicare, unemployment compensation, federal retirement, disability...not adequate. The by-product is a never ending cycle of increased unemployment forcing the U.S. to spend more on subsides and other welfare programs...This will require a permanent increase in the size of Congress. Franchising all Puerto Ricans will increase Latino political power and influence. As

  6. Trends in diabetes mellitus mortality in Puerto Rico: 1980-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Perdomo, R; Pérez-Cardona, C M; Suárez-Pérez, E L

    2001-03-01

    To determine the characteristics and trends of diabetes mortality among the Puerto Rican population from 1980 through 1997. Death certificates for Puerto Rican residents whose underlying cause of death was diabetes mellitus (ICD-9-250.0) were reviewed, and sociodemographic information was abstracted. The proportion mortality ratio (PMR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by gender, age group, educational level and period of time. Trend analysis in mortality was performed using a Poisson regression model. A total of 26,193 deaths (5.8%) were primarily attributed to diabetes mellitus in the study period. Females accounted for 55.8% of all diabetes related deaths. Diabetes accounted for a higher proportion of deaths among persons aged 60-64 years (8.14%), persons aged 65-74 (8.12%), females (7.73%) and those with 1-6 years of education (7.08%). The PMR steadily increased from 4.55% in the 1980-85 period to 6.91% in the 1992-97 period. There was a higher mortality in male diabetic subjects aged or = 75) was examined, males had a higher mortality between 1986 and 1997, whereas females had a slightly higher rate between 1980 and 1985. Our results indicate that diabetes mortality has been markedly increasing in the Puerto Rican population, primarily in persons aged 65 years or more. Further analysis is needed to evaluate the determinants of mortality in diabetes.

  7. New Heroic Figure: Female Protestors and Precarity in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rebollo Gil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical look on an isolated, failed incident of protest carried out by a young Puerto Rican woman and her two children. In doing so, it explores the possibilities of radical political thought and action on the island. Furthermore, by situating this event within the larger context of danger—physical, social and discursive—that women in Puerto Rico are subjected to, it seeks to question the manner in which female protestors’ vulnerability and agency challenge those on the left to formulate gender-progressive strategies for emancipation. Lastly, it is argued here that this protestor features as new type of radical political subject on the island that could very well serve as a figurehead for large-scale social movements arising from a shared sense of precarity.

  8. Family Assistance for Older Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Jesús Fericelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global aging is a growing issue in most countries, including Puerto Rico. The well being of the older adult population depends mainly on a collaborative government initiative that uses both public assistance and the engagement of family members. Puerto Rican policymakers are searching for alternatives to care for the expanding elderly population as well as to protect the country’s economy, avoid the financial cliff, and reduce the high cost of public assistance. The purpose of this article is to analyze The Act for the Improvement of the Family Assistance and for the Support of the Elderly, Act No. 193 of 2002, under the criteria-based model (Gallagher & Haskins, 1984 with a value-critical appraisal (Chambers & Wedel, 2009. I suggest Act No. 193 of 2002 as a model for policymakers who are seeking ways to improve assistance for older adults, by promoting the following values: fairness, familism, fraternity, and accountability.

  9. The experiences of ataques de nervios: towards an anthropology of emotions in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rivera, M; Franco, F; Neighbors, C

    1996-09-01

    Ataques de nervios are an idiom of distress used by Puerto Ricans and other Latinos to express dislocations in the social world of the family. This paper contributes to the growing study of the "anthropology of the emotions". Through detailed interviews with 121 people in Puerto Rico, 78 of whom had had an ataque de nervios, we are developing a thick description of both the prototypical models for ataques de nervios and the varied individual experiences of ataques. The interview used in this study is a version of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue specifically adapted for use in a community study of ataques de nervios in Puerto Rico. Responses to questions on the experience of ataque de nervios were analyzed using a team of reviewers who represented differing knowledge and experience with Puerto Rican culture and mental health practice. The experience of ataques de nervios involves a loss of control in several important domains of experience: emotional expressions, bodily sensations, action dimensions and alterations in consciousness. That loss of control is closely linked to important social contexts relating to major life problems and the experience of suffering.

  10. Ofensores sexuales juveniles: Investigación del perfil psicosocial e intervención judicial en Puerto Rico/Juvenile sexual offenders: Psychosocial profile investigation and judicial intervention in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriam Zaid Mercado-Justiniano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of children in Puerto Rico is the most complicated, it must be in terms biopsicologicals, behavioral, disciplinary, educational and moral due to the age difference. The existing possibility of becoming victims of crimes of violence is the driving reason for this research. It is a psycho-social profile by establishing a real picture-elements, factors and stimuli-conditions that cause a deviation behavioral and a malformation of characters in our childhood. Thus breaking a cultural Puerto Rican "taboo" in the light of the fraud that permeates in this criminal action.

  11. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  12. Warfarin Anticoagulation Therapy in Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico: A Candidate Gene Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Labastida, Aurora; Ramos, Alga; Gaedigk, Andrea; Renta-Torres, Jessicca; Padilla, Dariana; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Scott, Stuart A; Ruaño, Gualberto; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge-Soler, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Existing algorithms account for ~50% of observed variance in warfarin dose requirements after including common polymorphisms. However, they do not perform as well in populations other than Caucasians, in part because some ethno-specific genetic variants are overlooked. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms that can explain variability in warfarin dose requirements among Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico. Next-Generation Sequencing of candidate genes CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and genotyping by DMET® Plus Assay of cardiovascular patients were performed. We also aimed at characterizing the genomic structure and admixture pattern of this study cohort. Our study used the Extreme Discordant Phenotype approach to perform a case-control association analysis. The CYP2C9 variant rs2860905, which was found in all the major haplotypes occurring in the Puerto Rican population, showed stronger association with warfarin sensitivity (A; CYP2C9 rs1856908; ABCB1 c.IVS9-44A>G/ rs10276036; CES2 c.269-965A>G/ rs4783745) and non-genetic factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes and age) showed better prediction of warfarin dose requirements than CYP2C9 * 2 and CYP2C9 * 3 combined (partial R 2 = 0.132 vs. 0.023 and 0.007, respectively, p Puerto Ricans in the study cohort showed a tri-hybrid admixture pattern, with a slightly higher than expected contribution of Native American ancestry (25%). The genomic diversity of Puerto Ricans is highlighted by the presence of four different major haplotype blocks in the CYP2C9 locus. Although, our findings need further replication, this study contributes to the field by identifying novel genetic variants that increase predictability of stable warfarin dosing among Caribbean Hispanics.

  13. A Mainly Circum-Mediterranean Origin for West Eurasian and North African mtDNAs in Puerto Rico with Strong Contributions from the Canary Islands and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zabala, Héctor J; Nieves-Colón, María A; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan C

    2017-04-01

    Maternal lineages of West Eurasian and North African origin account for 11.5% of total mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico. Historical sources suggest that this ancestry arrived mostly from European migrations that took place during the four centuries of the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico. This study analyzed 101 mitochondrial control region sequences and diagnostic coding region variants from a sample set randomly and systematically selected using a census-based sampling frame to be representative of the Puerto Rican population, with the goal of defining West Eurasian-North African maternal clades and estimating their possible geographical origin. Median-joining haplotype networks were constructed using hypervariable regions 1 and 2 sequences from various reference populations in search of shared haplotypes. A posterior probability analysis was performed to estimate the percentage of possible origins across wide geographic regions for the entire sample set and for the most common haplogroups on the island. Principal component analyses were conducted to place the Puerto Rican mtDNA set within the variation present among all reference populations. Our study shows that up to 38% of West Eurasian and North African mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico most likely migrated from the Canary Islands. However, most of those haplotypes had previously migrated to the Canary Islands from elsewhere, and there are substantial contributions from various populations across the circum-Mediterranean region and from West African populations related to the modern Wolof and Serer peoples from Senegal and the nomad Fulani who extend up to Cameroon. In conclusion, the West Eurasian mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Ricans is geographically diverse. However, haplotype diversity seems to be low, and frequencies have been shaped by population bottlenecks, migration waves, and random genetic drift. Consequently, approximately 47% of mtDNAs of West Eurasian and North African ancestry

  14. Genetic Testing for Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1 and 2 and Hermansky–Pudlak Syndrome Type 1 and 3 Mutations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Borrero, Pedro J.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Yolanda; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Izquierdo, Natalio J.; del Fierro, Laura; Muñoz, Daniel; Molina, Norma López; Ramírez, Sonia; Pagán-Mercado, Glorivee; Ortíz, Idith; Rivera-Caragol, Enid; Spritz, Richard A.; Cadilla, Carmen L.

    2013-01-01

    Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) (MIM #203300) is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), bleeding tendency, and lysosomal dysfunction. HPS is very common in Puerto Rico (PR), particularly in the northwest part of the island, with a frequency of ~1:1,800. Two HPS genes and mutations have been identified in PR, a 16-base pair (bp) duplication in HPS1 and a 3,904-bp deletion in HPS3. In Puerto Ricans with more typical OCA, the most common mutation of the tyrosinase (TYR) (human tyrosinase (OCA1) gene) gene was G47D. We describe screening 229 Puerto Rican OCA patients for these mutations, and for mutations in the OCA2 gene. We found the HPS1 mutation in 42.8% of cases, the HPS3 deletion in 17%, the TYR G47D mutation in 3.0%, and a 2.4-kb deletion of the OCA2 gene in 1.3%. Among Puerto Rican newborns, the frequency of the HPS1 mutation is highest in northwest PR (1:21; 4.8%) and lower in central PR (1:64; 1.6%). The HPS3 gene deletion is most frequent in central PR (1:32; 3.1%). Our findings provide insights into the genetics of albinism and HPS in PR, and provide the basis for genetic screening for these disorders in this minority population. PMID:16417222

  15. Public perception of climate change in a period of economic crisis in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Santos-Corrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis is performed to measure Puerto Rican citizens’ perceptions of environmental issues and global climate change (GCC. Puerto Rico (PR is presently facing an economic crisis that began in 2010. In addition, the island has faced many extreme weather events that have greatly impacted the economy, including a dry period that lasted from the beginning of 2014 until the end of 2015 [1]. By replicating a study done in Greece (GR, [2] found that the citizens of PR are more informed about GCC (43% than Greeks (34%. However, only 29% of Puerto Ricans said they knew about the effects of greenhouse gases, as compared to 44% of Greeks. The citizens of PR (67% and GR (91% claim they do not have confidence that their respective governments and agencies will be able to face GCC. In both cases, they have a higher confidence level in environmental organizations than in the scientific community. In PR, 89% of the citizens are concerned about the degradation of natural resources. At 64%, this concern is also significant in the case of GR, although the figure has decreased from previous years. Both countries place more responsibility in the hands of those in government and industry to take action on GCC. That being said, the people of GR have made it known they are willing to perform individual actions as well.

  16. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  17. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Cassie; Berenz, Erin C; Sheerin, Christina; Amstadter, Ananda B; Canino, Glorisa; Silberg, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only), and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female) of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, χ(2) = 64.44, p < 0.001). In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (βs = 0.15, 0.16, ps < 0.05). Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (βs = 0.24, 0.20, ps < 0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  18. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie eOverstreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only, and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, 2=64.44, p<.001. In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology ( = .33, p < .001. With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (s = .15, .16, ps < .05. Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (s=.24, .20, ps<.01, respectively. These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  19. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  20. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  1. An empirical analysis of employment and payroll clusters in Puerto Rico: 1979-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Santiago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to identify employment and wage clusters for various sectors of a region’s economy. The Location Quotient, the National Averages Index, and a local employment or wage index were estimated and used to identify industrial clusters and classify their development stage according to three categories: emerging, maturing and declining. An application of this methodology considering the Puerto Rican economy during the period 1980-2000 has allowed for documentation of regional shifts as a transition from manufacturing to service (postindustrial industries was observed.

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus among youth in Puerto Rico, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Perdomo, Rosa; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Allende-Vigo, Myriam; Rivera-Rodríguez, Mariam I; Rodríguez-Lugo, Luis A

    2005-06-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, and estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Puerto Rican youth, 1995-2003. All patients aged less than 20 years with a confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were identified from pediatric endocrinologists' medical practices. Medical records of each patient were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, classify the type of diabetes, and gather sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. From 1995 to 2003 a total of 32,444 records were reviewed. A total of 2,800 children with diabetes were identified, of which 2,702 were type 1 and 93 type 2; typel/type 2 ratio was 29:1. Frequency distributions were obtained for categorical variables, and summary measures (mean +/- standard deviation) for quantitative measure were computed. Mean age at first visit was 14 years. The majority of cases were females (69%), for a female/ male ratio of 2.2:1. 78.5% had a family history of the disease, 74.2% were overweight, and 48% had acanthosis nigricans. 64.5% of the cases were receiving some type of hypoglycemic therapy. 18.5% of the cases had severe hypertension while 17.5% had cholesterol levels considered at increased risk (e"200). The overall prevalence was 13.5 per 100,000 population. This study is the first that describes the frequency and clinical presentation of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in a sample of Puerto Ricans. Further investigations must be conducted to obtain a more precise estimate of the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and to raise awareness of this condition among health care professionals.

  3. Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, M.T.; Falk, D.A.; Scatena, F.N.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or the proportion of uprooted basal area explained 84-85% of the variation in hurricane-created mound area. These same variables explain 79-85% of the variation in mound volume. The study indicates that the soil turnover period from tree uprooting by Puerto Rican hurricanes is between 1600 and 4800 years. These rates are faster than soil turnover by landslides and background treefall in the same area and provide a useful age constraint on soil profile development and soil carbon sequestration in these dynamic landscapes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Clinic Population from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Neisha M; Aguilar, Stephanie

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable or treatable cause of blindness in the adult population. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Puerto Ricans is the highest among Hispanics. This study evaluated the prevalence of DR in a screening program of DM subjects in a clinic system in Puerto Rico. A retrospective cross-sectional health records study of DM patients referred by primary care physicians for dilated retinal evaluation to the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Juana Diaz Eye Institute Clinic between 2001 and 2009 was performed. All subjects underwent a complete eye evaluation including fundus photography. Photographs were graded following the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocols. A total of 411 randomly selected health records of DM subjects older than 30 years were included. The estimated prevalence of DR among all subjects is 37.7%. DR was more common in males (47.2%) than females (33.7%). The age range with higher frequency of DR is among ages 60 to 69 (34.8%) and the lowest between ages 30 and 39 (3.9%). The average number of years since initial DM diagnosis was 12.48. Probability of developing DR increases with longer duration of DM (p Puerto Ricans. Mild stage retinopathy was most prevalent and there exists an increase in probability to develop DR with duration of DM. The prevalence of DR in total population may be different than the findings presented in this paper. Comprehensive studies are needed to understand and estimate the progression and impact of DR in this population.

  5. Potentially hazardous plants of Puerto Rico: preliminary guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, F F; Medina, F R

    1975-08-01

    General information is presented about the kinds of native and imported plants in Puerto Rico (weeds, grasses, vines, cactuses, shrubs, trees and parts thereof) that should be avoided, or not ingested. Small amounts of eaten wild plant materials are usually not likely to be hazardous although large amounts may be dangerous; the striking exception is mushrooms. While a number of Puerto Rican plants are lethal to cattle, only a few are known to cause death to man as, for example, the fruit of the Deadly Manchineel, Hippomane mancinella and the seed of the Rosary Pea, Abrus precatorius. Tourists especially should avoid tasting any green or yellowish apples growing on a medium-sized tree. The Hippomane fruit resembles the Crabapple of temperate zones. It is now unlawful to use the Rosary Pea in the local handicraft industry. An item of special interest is the delicious fruit of Mamey often offered for sale at roadside, the outer coating of which is poisonous. All of the light brown outer covering, including especially all of the inner whitish tunic, must be carefully removed from the golden yellow fruit before eating, or else illness may result. Relatively few of the plants presented here will produce major physical problems if only contacted or chewed, but ingestion of some plant parts produces severe toxic symptoms.

  6. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    La isla de Puerto Rico, localizada al noreste del Mar Caribe y sus islas principales, Vieques, Culebra e Isla de Mona, poseen humedales en abundancia . El clima subtropical, la lluvia abundante y las complejas formas topográficas y geológicas de estas islas dan origen a los humedales, que varían desde los raros e inusuales bosques cubiertos por nubes en las tierras altas, hasta los extensos manglares, yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas Norte y Sur. Sin embargo, los humedales en Puerto Rico han disminuido en los últimos siglos como resultado del aumento en el desarrollo agrícola, poblacional y turístico. Algunos tipos de humedales como los bosques de palo de pollo (Pterocarpus officinalis) se han reducido a sólo unos pocos remanentes (figura 1).Biológicamente hablando, los humedales de las islas están entre las áreas más productivas. Los humedales asociados con el bosque pluvial en las tierras altas del interior de Puerto Rico contienen varias plantas raras y especies de animales que no se encuentran en otras partes de la Isla. El agua de escorrentía proveniente de los humedales en las partes altas de la Isla proveen una fuente de agua que utilizan varias ciudades para abasto público. Los humedales costeros como los mangles, los colchones de yerbas marinas y los arrecifes de coral proveen áreas para la reproducción y crianza de varios peces, crustáceos y otras especies en la cadena alimenticia (López y otros, 1988). De esta manera, los humedales costeros contribuyen a la productividad biológica de las aguas llanas del mar alrededor de las islas . Los humedales también estabilizan las costas atrapando y reteniendo sedimentos no consolidados y amortiguan la acción de las olas y de las tormentas que tienen el potencial de causar daños en la zona.El valor de los humedales de Puerto Rico para la vida silvestre está muy bien documentado . Por ejemplo, las salinas de Cabo Rojo, en la costa suroeste, proveen áreas para el

  7. El otro es uno: Puerto Rico en la mirada norteamericana de 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Gervasio Luis

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking «98» in Puerto Rico requires giving up «victimized» perspectives whereby the Porto Rican people are set free of all responsibility. Focusing on 1898 as a year of both liberation and domination, this article weighs up the positive and negative aspects of Northamerican imperialism, while analyzing the unbalanced and particular struggles of the Porto Ricans in the social, economical, cultural and political fields. This process is partly followed through the writhings of Elihu Root and Salvador Brau.

    Repesar el 98 en Puerto Rico supone alejarse de planteamientos victimistas que eximen de toda responsabilidad al pueblo puertorriqueño. El 98 es abordado en este trabajo como un año de liberación y dominación, en el que se valoran los aspectos positivos y negativos del imperialismo norteamericano, a la vez que se analizan críticamente las luchas, desiguales y singulares, de este pueblo por la justicia social y económica, la cultura y las libertades políticas. El pensamiento de Elihu Root y Salvador Brau ilustran parte de este proceso.

  8. Profiling of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer's disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico. Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer's disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico. Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer's disease. The differential profile of Alzheimer's disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and healthy living practices as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  10. Columbia University Puerto Rico Study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher...

  11. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens, yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed national survey data from 2011 to 2012 and found that despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of health care coverage and access to care. While the ACA significantly increases federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing federal restrictions on Medicaid funding and premium tax credits in Puerto Rico pose substantial health policy challenges in the territory. Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico's health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: -12.0%, p Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican residents were more likely than those in the mainland United States to have a usual source of care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening

  12. An Initial Review of the Characteristics and Determinants of Female Entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico Características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico: una mirada inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Santiago Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the characteristics and determinants of Puerto Rican female entrepreneurs in 2007.  This study utilizes data from the Adult Population Survey (APS for 2007 from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM Project.  We find that female entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico are most likely sole owners of their business establishment, face many local competitors, and do not generally export their goods or services outside of the Island. The primary motivation for business start-up was business opportunism along with a personal goal of greater independence at the workplace.  Education serves as a fundamental determinant of female entrepreneurship. Este artículo describe las características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico para el 2007. El estudio utiliza los datos de la Encuesta de la Población Adulta del Proyecto de Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, por sus siglas en inglés. Se encontró que las mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico tienden a ser dueñas únicas de sus negocios, tienen muchos competidores locales, y usualmente no exportan sus bienes o servicios fuera de la Isla. La motivación primaria para empezar el negocio fue tener una oportunidad de negocio junto a una meta personal de mayor independencia en el lugar de trabajo. La educación es un determinante fundamental de ser empresaria en Puerto Rico.

  13. La ciencia del tabaco en Puerto Rico, 1900-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy, Teresita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco became an important export product in Puerto Rico after the American occupation of 1898, in large part, because of investments in the scientific study of tobacco: its efficient cultivation, its economic structure and its marketing. Scientific experimentation and the practical application of research findings in tobacco farms provided an arena for significant collaborative relationships between tobacco growers, scientists in Puerto Rico and the U.S., and the insular and federal governments. The involvement of Puerto Ricans in the science of tobacco, including their support of scientific inquiry, their continued demands for funding and beneficial agricultural legislation, and their adoption of modern agricultural technology, demonstrate that rather than being observers of rapid economic changes, they were activists, using the democratic guarantees available under the U.S. colonial structure to improve their economic situation.El tabaco se convirtió en un importante producto de exportación para Puerto Rico después de la ocupación norteamericana de 1898, debido a las inversiones en su estudio científico: el cultivo eficiente, la estructura económica y el mercadeo. La experimentación científica y la aplicación práctica de los descubrimientos en las fincas tabacaleras ofrecieron un campo de saber para establecer relaciones cooperativas significativas entre los cultivadores, los científicos en Puerto Rico y EEUU, y el gobierno insular y federal. El compromiso de los puertorriqueños en la ciencia del tabaco, incluyendo su apoyo por la investigación, las demandas continuas para fondos y una legislación agrícola beneficiosa, así como la adopción de la tecnología agrícola moderna, demuestra que éstos no eran pasivos frente a los rápidos cambios económicos de entonces. Por el contrario, ellos eran activistas políticos, usando las garantías democráticas disponibles dentro de la estructura colonial de los EEUU para mejorar su

  14. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota of the Cane Toad Rhinella cf. marina in Puerto Rico and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Abarca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinella marina is a toad native to South America that has been introduced in the Antilles, likely carrying high loads of microorganisms, potentially impacting local community diversity. The amphibian skin is involved in pathogen defense and its microbiota has been relatively well studied, however, research focusing on the cane toad microbiota is lacking. We hypothesize that the skin microbial communities will differ between toads inhabiting different geographical regions in Central America and the Caribbean. To test our hypothesis, we compared the microbiota of three populations of R. cf. marina toads, two from Costa Rican (native and one Puerto Rican (exotic locations. In Costa Rica, we collected 11 toads, 7 in Sarapiquí and 4 from Turrialba while in Puerto Rico, 10 animals were collected in Santa Ana. Separate swab samples were collected from the dorsal and ventral sites resulting in 42 samples. We found significant differences in the structure of the microbial communities between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. We detected as much as 35 different phyla; however, communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Alpha diversity and richness were significantly higher in toads from Puerto Rico and betadiversity revealed significant differences between the microbiota samples from the two countries. At the genus level, we found in Santa Ana, Puerto Rico, a high dominance of Kokuria, Niabella, and Rhodobacteraceae, while in Costa Rica we found Halomonas and Pseudomonas in Sarapiquí, and Acinetobacter and Citrobacter in Turrialba. This is the first report of Niabella associated with the amphibian skin. The core microbiome represented 128 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs mainly from five genera shared among all samples, which may represent the symbiotic Rhinella’s skin. These results provide insights into the habitat-induced microbial changes facing this amphibian species. The differences in the microbial

  15. Pregnant Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Børve , Hege Eggen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the impact that the interplay between workplace, the welfare state and global working life has on female workers when they become pregnant. By focusing on two highly educated Norwegian female workers, it explores how this change process takes place in two companies operating in the global market located in different countries: Norway and the US. Pregnancy contributes to transforming the neutralized bodiless female worker into an embodied worker with g...

  16. Warfarin Anticoagulation Therapy in Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico: A Candidate Gene Association Study

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    Karla Claudio-Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing algorithms account for ~50% of observed variance in warfarin dose requirements after including common polymorphisms. However, they do not perform as well in populations other than Caucasians, in part because some ethno-specific genetic variants are overlooked. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms that can explain variability in warfarin dose requirements among Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico. Next-Generation Sequencing of candidate genes CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and genotyping by DMET® Plus Assay of cardiovascular patients were performed. We also aimed at characterizing the genomic structure and admixture pattern of this study cohort. Our study used the Extreme Discordant Phenotype approach to perform a case-control association analysis. The CYP2C9 variant rs2860905, which was found in all the major haplotypes occurring in the Puerto Rican population, showed stronger association with warfarin sensitivity (<4 mg/day than common variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Although, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 are separately contained within two of the haplotypes, 10 subjects with the sensitive phenotype were carriers of only the CYP2C9 rs2860905 variant. Other polymorphisms in CES2 and ABCB1 were found to be associated with warfarin resistance. Incorporation of rs2860905 in a regression model (R2 = 0.63, MSE = 0.37 that also includes additional genetics (i.e., VKORC1-1639 G>A; CYP2C9 rs1856908; ABCB1 c.IVS9-44A>G/ rs10276036; CES2 c.269-965A>G/ rs4783745 and non-genetic factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes and age showed better prediction of warfarin dose requirements than CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 combined (partial R2 = 0.132 vs. 0.023 and 0.007, respectively, p < 0.001. The genetic background of Puerto Ricans in the study cohort showed a tri-hybrid admixture pattern, with a slightly higher than expected contribution of Native American ancestry (25%. The genomic diversity of Puerto Ricans is highlighted by the presence of

  17. Los insectos de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres; S. Medina Gaud

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a brief summary of the natural history and importance of the insects of Puerto Rico. We briefly discuss the orders of insects present in Puerto Rico and some of their families. Where possible, we have tried to avoid technical terms for better comprehension of a general audience. We present the observations or characteristics of insects that humans admire...

  18. Attitude and its effect on exports in small and medium-sized enterprises in Puerto Rico: multisales study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ortiz Soto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Puerto Rican SME’s have a domestic focus, which may require an analysis of the factors that influence the decision- making process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the attitude of the entrepreneur/owner toward export business, risks, and innovation on the behavior (decision-making toward exportation. The research intention is to compare the characteristics of the non-exporters, exporters, and former exporters by the use of multicase study. The study revealed that the attitudes toward export business and toward risks are the factors that most influence behavior toward export activity.

  19. Resisting Erasure and Developing Networks of Solidarity: "Testimonios" of Two Puerto Rican Scholars in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Roldán, Carmen M.; Quiñones, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a critical qualitative study aimed at better understanding the ways that language, history, and geography mediate our work and identities as educational researchers. As scholars whose particular sociocultural and political histories are often absent in scholarly discussions about language and education, we…

  20. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  1. Food insecurity is associated with subsequent cognitive decline in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Living with hunger and fear of not having enough food is a growing worldwide concern. In our previous cross-sectional study, we found that food insecurity was associated with poor cognitive function, but the direction of this relation remains unclear. Objective: We investigated whether f...

  2. Parenting Predictors of Relational Aggression among Puerto Rican and European American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharice Angel; Arnold, David H.; Dobbs, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between parenting and physical aggression is well established. However, less consideration has been given to parenting and relational aggression. The present study investigated four aspects of maternal parenting--overreactivity, laxness, positive affect and negative affect--and their relationships to relational aggression, in a…

  3. Knowledge and Beliefs of Breast Cancer Among Elderly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    nuevos modelos * conceptuales e hip6tesis de investigaci6n que pueden ser cornprobadas posteriorrnente con un ni~mero mayor de sujetos (O’Brien 1993...de mama. 1. Las mujeres que han tenido cdncer de mama tienen m6.s Riesgos posibilidad de desarrollarlo de nuevo . 2. Las mujeres que tuvieron su primer...4 A. Instrucciones Generales .......................... 4 B. Responsabilidades de la entrevistadora ........... 6 C. Materiales a ser llevados al

  4. A Framework for Studying Minority Youths' Transitions to Fatherhood: The Case of Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Szalacha, Laura A.; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed for studying minority young men's involvement with their babies that combines the integrative model of minority youth development and a life course developmental perspective with Lamb's revised four-factor model of father involvement. This framework posits a relationship between demographic and family background…

  5. Cross Purposes: Love and Purity at a Puerto Rican Protestant High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Collazo, James

    2013-01-01

    A "native" Christian ethnographer finds religious education at this church-sponsored school to pursue two distinct, and occasionally conflicting, curricula: "love" and "purity." The curriculum of love draws on what Turner called liminality and communitas in an effort to promote spiritual "encounters with…

  6. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Adame, Patricia; Brandeis, Thomas J; Uriarte, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon sp...

  7. Rediscovery of Eugenia fajardensis (Myrtaceae), a rare tree from the Puerto Rican Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge C. Trejo-Torres; Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz; Miguel A. Vives-Heyliger; Christian W. Torres-Santana; William Cetzal-Ix; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Tomas A. Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia fragrans var.? fajardensis was described in 1895 and raised to species status in 1923 as E. fajardensis. In 1925, it was relegated to the synonymy of Anamomis fragrans (Myrcianthes fragrans). Since 2001, we have re-discovered wild plants and herbarium specimens, including a previously unidentified isotype of E. fajardensis, supporting the validity of this...

  8. Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIQING LI; MING XU; XIAOMING ZOU

    2006-01-01

    Wet tropical forests play a critical role in global ecosystem carbon (C) cycle, but C allocation and the response of different C pools to nutrient addition in these forests remain poorly understood. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), litterfall, root biomass, microbial biomass and soil physical and chemical properties in a wet tropical forest from May 1996 to July...

  9. Attitudes toward seeking therapy among Puerto Rican and Cuban American young adults and their parents

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    Angela P. Rojas-Vilches

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una muestra de adultos jóvenes americanos de origen cubano y puertorriqueño, así como uno de sus padres (la madre o el padre, cumplimentaron una serie de instrumentos, entre ellos, Beliefs toward Mental Illness Scale, Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help, y Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form. Entre los padres, pero no así en sus hijos, cuanto más creían la existencia de un estigma social ligado a aquellos con enfermedad mental y a pensar que la enfermedad mental es intratable, menor probabilidad presentaban de buscar ayuda terapéutica para problemática emocional. Por el contrario, los adultos jóvenes estaban más abiertos a buscar terapia y eran menos proclives a percibir la gente con enfermedad mental como estigmatizados, peligrosos y carentes de habilidades sociales. Tanto para los padres como para los adultos jóvenes, el aumento en aculturación hacia la cultura estadounidense se asoció significativamente con actitudes menos peyorativas hacia la enfermedad mental y su terapia. Se comentan otros resultados y se proporciona recomendaciones para los terapeutas que ayuden a clientes americanos de procedencia cubana y puertorriqueña.

  10. Analyzing Student Perceptions on Translanguaging: A Case Study of a Puerto Rican University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Adrian J.; Mazak, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging in the classroom is gaining traction as a viable pedagogical choice. Often overlooked, though, are the students' attitudes in response to strategic classroom translanguaging. This study seeks to determine whether students' language attitudes influence their perceptions of an instructor's translingual pedagogy. The study took place…

  11. Conversion and recovery of Puerto Rican mangroves: 200 years of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Martinuzzi; W.A. Gould; A.E. Lugo; E. Medina

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have dramatically reduced the world’s area of mangroves just as the ecological services they provide are becoming widely recognized. Improving the conservation tools available to restore lost mangroves would benefit from a better understanding of how human activities influence the conservation of these ecosystems. We took advantage of historical...

  12. Using Intervention Mapping to Develop Health Education Components to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in Puerto Rico

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    Yolanda A. Serra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionColorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR. Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase.MethodsWe used intervention mapping (IM, a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs in PR.ResultsTo inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication.ConclusionThe use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps

  13. Exposure to gun violence and asthma among children in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramratnam, Sima K; Han, Yueh-Ying; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Forno, Erick; Brehm, John M; Rosser, Franziska; Marsland, Anna L; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Miller, Gregory E; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    Although community violence may influence asthma morbidity by increasing stress, no study has assessed exposure to gun violence and childhood asthma. We examined whether exposure to gun violence is associated with asthma in children, particularly in those reporting fear of leaving their home. Case-control study of 466 children aged 9-14 years with (n = 234) and without (n = 232) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Lifetime exposure to gun violence was defined as hearing a gunshot more than once. We also assessed whether the child was afraid to leave his/her home because of violence. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for the statistical analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, gender, household income, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke, prematurity and residential distance from a major road. Cases were more likely to have heard a gunshot more than once than control subjects (n = 156 or 67.2% vs. n = 122 or 52.1%, P violence, those who had heard a gunshot more than once and were afraid to leave their home due to violence had 3.2 times greater odds of asthma (95% CI for OR = 2.2-4.4, P violence is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children, particularly in those afraid to leave their home. Stress from such violence may contribute to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Ricans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Intervention Mapping to Develop Health Education Components to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Yolanda A; Colón-López, Vivian; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Ayala, Alelí; Fernández, María E

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR). Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase. We used intervention mapping (IM), a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in PR. To inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives) and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication. The use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps, and tasks, we used community level information

  15. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  16. Reducing quality-of-care disparities in childhood asthma: La Red de Asma Infantil intervention in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Marielena; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; González-Gavillán, Jesús A; López-Malpica, Fernando; Morales-Reyes, Beatriz; Marín, Heriberto; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Mario H; Mitchell, Herman

    2013-03-01

    Although children living in Puerto Rico have the highest asthma prevalence of all US children, little is known regarding the quality-of-care disparities they experience nor the adaptability of existing asthma evidence-based interventions to reduce these disparities. The objective of this study was to describe our experience in reducing quality-of-care disparities among Puerto Rican children with asthma by adapting 2 existing evidence-based asthma interventions. We describe our experience in adapting and implementing 2 previously tested asthma evidence-based interventions: the Yes We Can program and the Inner-City Asthma Study intervention. We assessed the feasibility of combining key components of the 2 interventions to reduce asthma symptoms and estimated the potential cost savings associated with reductions in asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits. A total of 117 children with moderate and severe asthma participated in the 12-month intervention in 2 housing projects in San Juan, Puerto Rico. A community-academic team with the necessary technical and cultural competences adapted and implemented the intervention. Our case study revealed the feasibility of implementing the combined intervention, henceforth referred to as La Red intervention, in the selected Puerto Rican communities experiencing a disproportionately high level of asthma burden. After 1-year follow-up, La Red intervention significantly reduced asthma symptoms and exceeded reductions of the original interventions. Asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department use, and their associated high costs, were also significantly reduced. Asthma evidence-based interventions can be adapted to improve quality of care for children with asthma in a different cultural community setting.

  17. A well-resolved phylogeny of the trees of Puerto Rico based on DNA barcode sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María; Erickson, David L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zimmerman, Jess K; Kress, W John

    2014-01-01

    The use of phylogenetic information in community ecology and conservation has grown in recent years. Two key issues for community phylogenetics studies, however, are (i) low terminal phylogenetic resolution and (ii) arbitrarily defined species pools. We used three DNA barcodes (plastid DNA regions rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) to infer a phylogeny for 527 native and naturalized trees of Puerto Rico, representing the vast majority of the entire tree flora of the island (89%). We used a maximum likelihood (ML) approach with and without a constraint tree that enforced monophyly of recognized plant orders. Based on 50% consensus trees, the ML analyses improved phylogenetic resolution relative to a comparable phylogeny generated with Phylomatic (proportion of internal nodes resolved: constrained ML = 74%, unconstrained ML = 68%, Phylomatic = 52%). We quantified the phylogenetic composition of 15 protected forests in Puerto Rico using the constrained ML and Phylomatic phylogenies. We found some evidence that tree communities in areas of high water stress were relatively phylogenetically clustered. Reducing the scale at which the species pool was defined (from island to soil types) changed some of our results depending on which phylogeny (ML vs. Phylomatic) was used. Overall, the increased terminal resolution provided by the ML phylogeny revealed additional patterns that were not observed with a less-resolved phylogeny. With the DNA barcode phylogeny presented here (based on an island-wide species pool), we show that a more fully resolved phylogeny increases power to detect nonrandom patterns of community composition in several Puerto Rican tree communities. Especially if combined with additional information on species functional traits and geographic distributions, this phylogeny will (i) facilitate stronger inferences about the role of historical processes in governing the assembly and composition of Puerto Rican forests, (ii) provide insight into Caribbean

  18. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10−6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10−4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10−6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

  19. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroushka Ballester

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn's disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10-6 and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10-4. The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and "local" continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10-6. Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci.

  20. Una mirada hacia las actitudes lingüísticas en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Mojica De León

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de San Juan de Puerto Rico hacia al español del país y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se presentan los resultados que revelan las actitudes lingüísticas de los puertorriqueños hacia su español, las diversas creencias cognitivas y afectivas que las motivan y la percepción que muestran hacia el resto de las variedades del español. Nuestros hallazgos revelan que los puertorriqueños presentan una actitud positiva hacia su variedad y la variante peninsular, aunque rechazan algunos fenómenos lingüísticos de ambos dialectos. Se constata, además, que el habla de los grupos migratorios, representada en nuestro caso por la variedad dominicana, se percibe con menos prestigio. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Juan de Puerto Rico towards Spanish spoken in the country and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results of the study reveal the linguistic attitudes of Puerto Ricans toward their variety of Spanish, their cognitive and affective beliefs, and the perception they have of the other varieties of the Spanish language. Our findings confirm that Puerto Ricans have positive attitudes towards their own variety and the

  1. Impact of Secondary Prevention on Mortality after a First Ischemic Stroke in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maria E; Marsh, Wallace; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Rodríguez-Benitez, Rosa J; Zevallos, Juan C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the prescription of secondary prevention therapies on mortality in Puerto Rican patients hospitalized with a first ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective secondary data analysis of the 2007 and 2009 Puerto Rico Stroke Registry electronic database. Information was obtained from the medical charts of patients discharged with ICD-9 codes 434 and 436 from 20 hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Descriptive analyses were conducted for demographics and comorbidities. Chi2 statistics compared the proportion of patients prescribed secondary prevention therapy and the proportion of patients not prescribed secondary prevention therapy. Lastly, survival rates were calculated from 2007 up to and including December 2010. The mean age of the 3,965 patients was 70 (±14) years. Secondary prevention therapy was prescribed to only 1% of the patients. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (85%), diabetes (52%), and hyperlipidemia (25%). The case fatality rate for patients prescribed secondary prevention therapy was 16%, compared to 26% for patients not prescribed secondary prevention therapy (p<0.01). The mean survival for stroke patients prescribed secondary preventions was 450 days (95% CI;182−718), compared to 266 days (95% CI; 244−287) for those not prescribed secondary prevention therapy (p = 0.175). A low percentage of patients with a first ischemic stroke were prescribed secondary prevention therapy. While not statistically significant, survival analysis suggests that secondary prevention therapy decreased mortality in patients with a stroke.

  2. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B. However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945 were obtained from our “HIV Genotyping” test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001–2014. REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%, B-like (3%, B/D recombinant (6%, and D/B recombinant (0.6%. Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions: A1B (0.3%, BF1 (0.2%, subtype A (01-AE (0.1%, subtype A (A2 (0.1%, subtype F (12BF (0.1%, CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%, and others (0.1%. Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  3. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Nayra; Vargas, Freddie; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-23

    HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B). However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945) were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001-2014). REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%), B-like (3%), B/D recombinant (6%), and D/B recombinant (0.6%). Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions): A1B (0.3%), BF1 (0.2%), subtype A (01-AE) (0.1%), subtype A (A2) (0.1%), subtype F (12BF) (0.1%), CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%), and others (0.1%). Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  4. Direct and indirect impact of federal transfer to individuals and to the government of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Ruiz Mercado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico Planning Board classifies individual transfer payments into two categories: “earned transfers” and “granted” transfers. The purpose of this work is to estimate the direct and indirect economic effects of federal and other transfer payments to Puerto Rico using two input-output models and two vectors of employment and income coefficients base on tables for years 1992 and 2002. The economic impacts were estimated for three economic indicators namely, gross output, direct and indirect employment and direct and indirect wage income. The results presented in this work shows that the argument that Puerto Ricans enjoy relatively generous income supplements and retirement benefits without imposing heavy tax burdens on highly compensated workers failed to distinguish that most of the transfer payments to individuals were in the category of earned transfers. It is doubtful that this type of transfer “imposeheavy tax burdens” to American taxpayers. Since we are an open economy mostof the income generated by transfer to individuals is spent of goods and servicesa substantial amount of which comes from United States. It is also doubtful thatearned transfer to individuals (especially transfers in the form of pensions andpayments to veterans have any significant impact on the labor force participation rate or the incentives to work.

  5. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  6. Community-Academic Partnership to Implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Education Program in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; González, Daisy; Vélez, Camille; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Ayala-Escobar, Kelly; Ayala-Marín, Alelí M; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Calo, William A; Pattatucci-Aragón, Angela; Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Fernández, María E

    2017-12-01

    To describe how a community-academic partnership between Taller Salud Inc., a community-based organization, and the Puerto Rico Community Cancer Control Outreach Program of the University of Puerto Rico was crucial in the adaptation and implementation of Cultivando La Salud (CLS), an evidencebased educational outreach program designed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. This collaboration facilitated the review and adaptation of the CLS intervention to improve cultural appropriateness, relevance, and acceptability for Puerto Rican women. A total of 25 interviewers and 12 Lay Health Workers (LHWs) were recruited and trained to deliver the program. The interviewers recruited women who were non-adherent to recommended screening guidelines for both breast and cervical cancer. LHWs then provided one-on-one education using the adapted CLS materials. A total of 444 women were recruited and 48% of them were educated through this collaborative effort. Our main accomplishment was establishing the academic-community partnership to implement the CLS program. Nevertheless, in order to promote better collaborations with our community partners, it is important to carefully delineate and establish clear roles and shared responsibilities for each partner for the successful execution of research activities, taking into consideration the community's needs.

  7. Community-Academic Partnership to implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer screening education program in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; González, Daisy; Vélez, Camille; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Soler, Alana Feldman; Escobar, Kelly Ayala; Ayala-Marín, Alelí M.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Calo, William A.; Aragón, Angela Pattatucci; Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Fernández, María E.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe how a community-academic partnership between Taller Salud Inc., a community-based organization, and the Puerto Rico Community Cancer Control Outreach Program of the University of Puerto Rico was crucial in the adaptation and implementation of Cultivando La Salud (CLS), an evidence-based educational outreach program designed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. This collaboration facilitated the review and adaptation of the CLS intervention to improve cultural appropriateness, relevance, and acceptability for Puerto Rican women. Methods A total of 25 interviewers and 12 Lay Health Workers (LHWs) were recruited and trained to deliver the program. The interviewers recruited women who were non-adherent to recommended screening guidelines for both breast and cervical cancer. LHWs then provided one-on-one education using the adapted CLS materials. Results A total of 444 women were recruited and 48% of them were educated through this collaborative effort. Conclusions Our main accomplishment was establishing the academic-community partnership to implement the CLS program. Nevertheless, in order to promote better collaborations with our community partners, it is important to carefully delineate and establish clear roles and shared responsibilities for each partner for the successful execution of research activities, taking into consideration the community’s needs. PMID:29220062

  8. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among street-recruited injection drug users in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan C; Colón, Héctor M; Robles, Rafael R; Rios, Eddy; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan; Marrero, Carmen Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth

    2006-11-01

    Throughout the world, injection drug users (IDUs) are the group at highest risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. IDUs residing in the island of Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican IDUs residing in the U.S. mainland have been shown to be at very high risk of infection with HIV. However, the extent to which HCV infection has spread among IDUs in Puerto Rico is not yet known. The aims of this study were to estimate seroprevalence of HCV and to identify the correlates associated with HCV transmission. The sample was drawn through street outreach strategies and was comprised of 400 injection drug users not in treatment, living in the San Juan metropolitan area. HCV and HIV infection were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the results were confirmed by Western blot. Information on sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and risk behaviors was obtained through structured interviews. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess covariates of infection with HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection was 89%. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, HCV infection was positively associated with increasing years of injection, injecting in a shooting gallery, tattooing in prison, and self-reported STD infection. Notably, IDUs who had initiated drug injection within the year prior to the study interview had an HCV infection rate of 57%. This study indicates that more aggressive educational programs are urgently needed to reduce the spread of HCV infection among IDUs in Puerto Rico.

  9. Correlation of global risk assessment with cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus living in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vigil, Efraín; Rodríguez-Chacón, Migdalia; Ruiz Valcarcel, José J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the current relationship between certain demographics and chemical factors, and the risk of cardiovascular complications, within a Puerto Rican population with diabetes mellitus. A total of 2075 patients with diabetes mellitus were retrospectively evaluated to determine the influence of certain demographics and chemical variables on the appearance of cardiovascular complications. A group of demographic and laboratory variables were analyzed. Our sample was obtained, based on convenience, from an endocrinologist's office in an area of about 250 000 people. All the patients met the American Diabetes Association (ADA) definitions for diabetes mellitus. The study covered a time period of 8 years. The patients signed an informed consent document at their first office visit. Data were obtained by the endocrinologist in charge. We considered the demographic variables of sex, age, time with diabetes, lipid profile, metabolic control (measured with glycated hemoglobin levels), and microalbumin renal excretion. Cardiovascular complications were more prevalent in patients with poor metabolic control, those with prolonged disease duration, men, and patients who were more than 50 years of age. We found no relationship between cardiovascular disease, systolic blood pressure over 130 mm Hg, body mass index and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels over 100 mg/dL. In Puerto Rican patients with diabetes mellitus, there is a statistically significant relationship between patient's gender, age, disease duration, glycemic control and increased kidney microalbumin excretion with cardiovascular complications.

  10. Patient profiles and their relationship with the CES-D scale at the Diabetes Center for Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José R; Rodríguez, Rosa Janet; Disdier, Orville M

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Puerto Ricans has been identified and reported as being disproportionately higher as compared to other metabolic pathologies. Recently, diabetes has been identified as the third cause of mortality in Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico Health Department, Vital Statistics Annual Report, 1999-2001). The Research Center, Education and Medical Services for Diabetes in Puerto Rico (also known as the "Centro de Diabetes para Puerto Rico" [CDPR]) is a public corporation in the island created by the government to reduce diabetes prevalence, mortality and morbidity. The CDPR offers Diabetes Self Management Educational Training Program Schools for patients (DSMETPS) island wide. The research design was an ex-post facto. As part of the process, patients are administered an extensive sociodemographic and health information questionnaire, which also includes the CES-D (a symptomatology depressive scale). This study pretends to describe the diabetic patient profiles (n=27) using information from the DSMETPS of the CDPR and explore the association with the CES-D. Variables such as patients' needs, knowledge and understanding of the condition (i.e., pathology management, type and medications utilized and exercise and nutritional patterns), patient attitudes to diabetes and their relations with the CES-D were explored. Results show a negative association, controlling for age and gender, between patients diabetic education/knowledge and CES-D score. Diabetes educators in Puerto Rico need to identify depressive symptomatology in order to prevent mental health complications in their patients since this may affect their future treatment and prognosis. An interdisciplinary team is recommended to improve the effectivity of the intervention.

  11. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Camacho-Mercado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region and high (Northwest-Central Region mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of

  12. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  13. Ataques de nervios in Puerto Rico: culture-bound syndrome or popular illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J

    1993-04-01

    Ataque de nervious is a popular illness category among Puerto Ricans and other Latinos written about in anthropological and psychiatric literature for over thirty years. This paper discusses the issue of categorizing ataque de nervios as a "culture-bound syndrome" using data from the first community-based study of this phenomena using epidemiological methods. The paper summarizes the social and psychological correlates of ataques de nervios and provides a preliminary overview of the situations which provoke ataques and the symptoms people experience. The paper critically examines the use of the "culture-bound syndrome" framework analyzing ataques de nervios and suggests that the term "popular illness" is a more effective label for categorizing this syndrome.

  14. Children's Attitudes toward People with AIDS in Puerto Rico: Exploring stigma through drawings and stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivera, Milagritos; Bauermeister, Josè A.

    2014-01-01

    AIDS stigma refers to prejudice and discrimination directed at people or groups perceived to have HIV/AIDS (Herek, 1999). Although AIDS stigma has been found in adolescent and adult populations, few researchers have explored it among children. Misconceptions about people with AIDS (PWA) might lead to negative attitudes toward PWA and obstruct HIV prevention efforts. The authors assessed 110 Puerto Rican children’s attitudes toward PWA using drawings (n = 65) and stories (n = 45). Although participants held stigmatizing attitudes toward PWA across both methods, the approaches captured different beliefs and attitudes. Drawings depicted PWA as physically deteriorated and performing socially condemned behaviors, whereas stories describing PWA highlighted children’s fear of contagion and death. Stigma toward PWA was more pronounced than toward other illnesses (e.g., cancer). The study highlights the importance of assessing children’s attitudes through creative data collection procedures. PMID:17220395

  15. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico 131.40 Section 131.40... Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters. In addition to the Commonwealth's adopted use designations, the following waterbodies in Puerto Rico...

  16. Puerto Rico’s forests, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Jeffery A. Turner; NO-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of the fourth forest inventory of the islands of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Forest area on mainland Puerto Rico held steady, or increased slightly, from 2004 to 2009. This change would seem to indicate that the rate of forest cover increase on mainland Puerto Rico has slowed since the forest inventory began in 1980. But the...

  17. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  18. Drinking and Driving in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Romano, Eduardo; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-01-09

    Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p Puerto Rico was high, but the proportion of people arrested for DUI in a span of 12 months or during their lifetime was low. Stricter enforcement of DUI laws may be necessary to minimize DUI in urban Puerto Rico.

  19. The Indians of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert; And Others

    Produced for use in a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for other students whose native language is Spanish, this book about the Indians of Puerto Rico is intended as supplementary reading material for pre-school through fifth grade. The book, illustrated with black and white drawings,…

  20. Arquitectura de Llanquihue: Puerto Varas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Varas fue fundada por Vicente Pérez Rosales en 1852. Se le dio el nombre en homenaje al entonces Ministro del Interior, Don Antonio Varas, quien apoyó en forma decidida la llegada de colonos a esa región.

  1. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  2. Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M

    2017-08-01

    Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among insured of a health insurance company in Puerto Rico: 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Perdomo, R; Pérez-Cardona, C; Rodríguez-Lugo, L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in persons covered by a health insurance company. The medical claims of persons insured with Triple S Health Insurance Co. of Puerto Rico, whose main diagnosis was diabetes (ICD9-250.0-9), were selected for analysis. Prevalence and medical utilization rates were estimated. General characteristics and services utilization were compared by age and sex using the chi-square distribution. Overall prevalence was 4.73%. Prevalence in the male population (5.07%) was higher than that of females (4.43%) in all age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The proportion of diabetic cases was larger in the > 60 age group. 64% of the cases had 1 or more visits to a physician office, 2% were hospitalized, and almost 3% had emergency room visits. 29% of the cases had insulin prescriptions while 59% had oral prescriptions. The younger age group (diabetes in this group was lower than the prevalence reported in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This may be partially explained by the fact that the study group did not represent the composition of the Puerto Rican population. Prevalence studies using other groups will be helpful to determine the prevalence of diabetes in Puerto Rico.

  4. A Story told through Plena: Claiming Identity and Cultural Autonomy in the Street Festivals of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Guerrero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Las Fiestas de la Calle de San Sebastián is a four day-long festival in San Juan, Puerto Rico. While the festival comprises music and dance that is a combination of various Caribbean and Latin American aesthetics, there is a small group of local musicians who insist on staying away from the larger throngs to specifically play a Puerto Rican music medium known as plena. By defining a distinct physical space that is separate from the rest of the festival, but also a part of the festival, they sing throughout the night speaking to contemporary issues of American imperialism, class warfare, and corrupt politicians. During the festival the complex power dynamics of Puerto Rico as a United States territory, lacking both independence as a sovereign nation and the same rights as a state, are manifested in festival performance. This performance tries to negotiate how the island remains autonomous while being attached to a more powerful mainland economy.

  5. Impact of managed care health insurance system for indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Casas, Yesenia; González-Rivera, Tania; Castro-Santana, Lesliane; Ríos, Grissel; Martínez, David; Rodríguez, Vanessa; González-Alcover, Rafael; Mayor, Angel M; Vilá, Luis M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome among indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Puerto Rico receiving their healthcare in a managed care system, as compared with non-indigent patients treated in fee-for-service settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 214 Puerto Ricans with RA (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria). Demographic features, health-related behaviors, cumulative clinical manifestations, disease activity (per disease activity score 28), comorbid conditions, functional status (per Health Assessment Questionnaire), and pharmacologic profile were determined. Data were examined using uni- and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of the study population was 56.6 (13.5) years; 180 (84.1 %) were women. The mean (SD) disease duration was 10.8 (9.6) years. Sixty-seven patients were treated in the managed care setting, and 147 patients received their healthcare in fee-for-service settings. In the multivariable analyses, RA patients treated in the managed care setting had more joint deformities, extra-articular manifestations, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, fibromyalgia syndrome, and poorer functional status while having a lower exposure to biological agents than those treated in fee-for-service settings. Efforts should be undertaken to curtail the gap of health disparities among these Hispanic patients in order to improve their long-term outcomes.

  6. The Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Kidney Disease In An HIV Infected Cohort In Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Angel M.; Dworkin, Mark; Quesada, Luis; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nephropathy in HIV-infected patients has been associated with progression to AIDS and death. The virus, several co-morbid conditions and certain medications may contribute to the development and progression of kidney disease. Methods This study analyzed data collected from HIV-infected persons enrolled in a HIV registry in Puerto Rico during January 1998 through September 2006. Demographic factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings at enrollment, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescriptions were compared between patients with and without kidney disease. Death status and cause of death by December 2006 were also evaluated and compared. Results The study included 1,283 subjects, 69.0% male, 39.7% injecting drug users, 19.5% hepatitis C infected, 6.5% with diabetes mellitus (DM-II), 11.6% had hypertension (HTN) and 9.0% had kidney disease. Patients with kidney disease had significantly higher (pPuerto Ricans HIV-infected patients with nephropathy. Kidney disease preventive strategies that include aggressive control of HIV-infection and chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are recommend as an approach to reduce this health disparity. PMID:20521408

  7. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals substantial Native American ancestry in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruzado, J C; Toro-Labrador, G; Ho-Fung, V; Estévez-Montero, M A; Lobaina-Manzanet, A; Padovani-Claudio, D A; Sánchez-Cruz, H; Ortiz-Bermúdez, P; Sánchez-Crespo, A

    2001-08-01

    To estimate the maternal contribution of Native Americans to the human gene pool of Puerto Ricans--a population of mixed African, European, and Amerindian ancestry--the mtDNAs of two sample sets were screened for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) defining the four major Native American haplogroups. The sample set collected from people who claimed to have a maternal ancestor with Native American physiognomic traits had a statistically significant higher frequency of Native American mtDNAs (69.6%) than did the unbiased sample set (52.6%). This higher frequency suggests that, despite the fact that the native Taíno culture has been extinct for centuries, the Taíno contribution to the current population is considerable and some of the Taíno physiognomic traits are still present. Native American haplogroup frequency analysis shows a highly structured distribution, suggesting that the contribution of Native Americans foreign to Puerto Rico is minimal. Haplogroups A and C cover 56.0% and 35.6% of the Native American mtDNAs, respectively. No haplogroup D mtDNAs were found. Most of the linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence suggests that the Ceramic culture of the Taínos originated in or close to the Yanomama territory in the Amazon. However, the absence of haplogroup A in the Yanomami suggests that the Yanomami are not the only Taíno ancestors.

  8. Ecological consequences of petroleum spillage in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J M

    1978-01-01

    Ecological consequences of petroleum spillage in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico can be severe to corals, sea grasses, and mangroves, particularly red mangroves, according to case studies. The initial acute effect can be large, but chronic long-term effects are also possible. Oil coating of fringing stands of the red mangrove and the associated intertidal communities of their prop roots impairs productivity and destroys the attached organisms. Oil becomes trapped and may not be retrieved or cleaned from the forest. The abundance and persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments within the roots correlate with the absence of benthic organisms four years after an oil spill. Coral reefs are least impacted, and beds of the sea grass. Petroleum spills near the Puerto Rican coast include dumping of 10,000 tons of crude oil from the grounded Argea Prima on July 16, 1962., spilling the entire crude oil cargo of the Ocean Eagle on March 3, 1968 (after which dispersants did more harm than good), dumping of 37,000 bbl of crude oil by the grounded Zoe Colocotronis on March 18, 1973, spilling of 10,000 bbl of bunker C and 2000 bbl or diesel fuel from a barge on December 9, 1975, and dumping of 1000 bbl of crude from a grounded tanker in March 1977.

  9. Los bosques de Puerto Rico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humfredo Marcano Vega; Thomas J. Brandeis; Jeffery A. Turner; No Other

    2015-01-01

    Este informe presenta los resultados del cuarto inventario forestal de las islas del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. El área de bosque en la isla grande de Puerto Rico se mantuvo constante o aumentó ligeramente del año 2004 al 2009. Este cambio parece indicar que la tasa de incremento de cubierta forestal en la isla grande de Puerto Rico ha disminuido desde que...

  10. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  11. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  12. Predictors of school dropout among adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.

  13. Characterization of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis attending the Muscular Dystrophy Association-Supported Clinics in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliz, Brenda; Ramos, Kathya; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical and functional profile of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients evaluated at Puerto Rico's Muscular Dystrophy Association-supported (MDA) clinics. A retrospective review of 76 medical records of ALS patients evaluated at any of four MDA-sponsored clinics in Puerto Rico. The mean age of diagnosis was 57.4 ± 11.1 yrs. Most of the patients (52.3%) were women. The majority of the cases were sporadic (48.7%). Over 40% of the patients were diagnosed at one year or earlier. Patients with initial upper extremity involvement (63.2%) were diagnosed earlier (≤ 6 months) than any of the others. The most common presentation of the disease overall was lower extremity weakness (34.2%), which was followed by a bulbar presentation (31.6%). There was a marked difference between men and women in disease presentation, with bulbar involvement in 75% of the women. This study characterized a sample of ALS patients in Puerto Rico who are receiving services at the MDA-sponsored clinics. Puerto Rican patients have similarities with published data from the United States and other countries, including: sporadic pattern, initial symptoms in extremities, and time to diagnosis. Major differences are that the disease was more common in women than in men and that a higher than expected percentage of patients presented with bulbar onset. This may partly account for the overall predominance of the disease in women over men as found in our study, since the bulbar presentation has been reported to be more common in women. Studies with a greater number of patients are needed to determine whether our findings are reproducible. This study will serve as a basis for designing future analytic studies regarding etiology or the factors that might modulate disease progression.

  14. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which all...

  15. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  16. The homeless pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Umo I

    2017-09-01

    Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.

  17. Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture...

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Hands Increases Risk of Cross-Contamination among Low-Income Puerto Rican Meal Preparers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Paciello, Stefania; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of microbial contamination of the meal preparer's hands with microbial status of food and kitchen/utensil surfaces during home preparation of a "Chicken and Salad" meal. Design and Setting: Observational home food safety assessment. Before starting meal preparation, participants' hands were tested to…

  19. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardioprotective effects of vitamin B-6 independent of homocysteine suggest that additional mechanisms may be involved. Objective: Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of ...

  20. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  1. The folate hydrolase 1561 C>T polymorphism is associated with depressive symptoms in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low plasma folate has been associated with depression. Variants of genes involved in the uptake, retention and metabolism of folate have been linked with plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations. It remains unclear whether such variants are also associated with depressive symptoms, directly or ...

  2. Court of Appeals Decision Upholding PSD Actual to Potential Applicability Rules Puerto Rican Cement Co., Inc. v. EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Longitudinal associations of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles with blood pressure and systemic inflammation in Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlin, Laura; Woodin, Mark; Hart, Jaime E; Simon, Matthew C; Gute, David M; Stowell, Joanna; Tucker, Katherine L; Durant, John L; Brugge, Doug

    2018-04-05

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the association between ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, particles blood pressure and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, a biomarker of systemic inflammation). Residential annual average UFP exposure (measured as particle number concentration, PNC) was assigned using a model accounting for spatial and temporal trends. We also adjusted PNC values for participants' inhalation rate to obtain the particle inhalation rate (PIR) as a secondary exposure measure. Multilevel linear models with a random intercept for each participant were used to examine the association of UFP with blood pressure and hsCRP. Overall, in adjusted models, an inter-quartile range increase in PNC was associated with increased hsCRP (β = 6.8; 95% CI = - 0.3, 14.0%) but not with increased systolic blood pressure (β = 0.96; 95% CI = - 0.33, 2.25 mmHg), pulse pressure (β = 0.70; 95% CI = - 0.27, 1.67 mmHg), or diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.55; 95% CI = - 0.20, 1.30 mmHg). There were generally stronger positive associations among women and never smokers. Among men, there were inverse associations of PNC with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In contrast to the primary findings, an inter-quartile range increase in the PIR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.00, 2.06 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.36, 1.66 mmHg), but not with pulse pressure or hsCRP. We observed that exposure to PNC was associated with increases in measures of CVD risk markers, especially among certain sub-populations. The exploratory PIR exposure metric should be further developed.

  4. Creation of the Quebrada Arriba Community and Academic Partnership: An Effective Coalition for Addressing Health Disparities in Older Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M; González-Laboy, Yolanda; De Jesús-Rosario, Amarelis

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a community-academic coalition partnership to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address health disparities in older adults with chronic conditions living in the Quebrada Arriba community. We used the 'Developing and Sustaining CPPR Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum', to create the Quebrada Arriba Community-Academic Partnership (QACAP). We assessed the meetings effectiveness and the CBPR experiences of the coalition members in the community-academic partnership. The stepwise process resulted in: the development of The Coalition for the Health and Wellbeing of Older People of Quebrada Arriba; the partnership's mission and vision; the operating procedures; the formulation of the research question, and; the action plan for obtaining funding resources. The mean levels of satisfaction for each of the items of the Meeting Effectiveness Evaluation tool were 100%. The mean agreement rating scores on variables related to having a positive experience with the coalition, members' representativeness of community interest, respectful contacts between members, the coalition's vision and mission, the participation of the members in establishing the prioritized community problem, and sharing of resources between the members was 100%. The steps used to build the QACAP provided an effective structure to create the coalition and captured the results of coalition activities. Partners' time to build trust and developing a sufficient understanding of local issues, high interest of the community members, flexibility of the partners, capitalization on the partners' strengths, and the shared decision building process were key contributors of this coalition's success.

  5. Pyrethroid Resistance Alters the Blood-Feeding Behavior in Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Exposed to Treated Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control; it decreases effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has b...

  6. The Three Roots and Papa's Advice. A Puerto Rican Migration Story. A Learner-Centered Model Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herendeen, Noemi Carrera; Mitchell, Alaire; Dinos, Carmen

    This document is part of a series of guides for teachers in which the Division of Bilingual Education of the New York City Board of Education presents a learner-centered model in which the learner sees himself or herself in the story. Learners are able to relive their own experiences or those of their parents or grandparents as they left their own…

  7. Ethnic Diversity and Latino/a College Access: A Comparison of Mexican American and Puerto Rican Beginning College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that there are differences among the diverse Latino/a ethnic groups in their K-12 educational experiences, but little is known about variations in their postsecondary experiences. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by the theory of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, this research examined Mexican American and…

  8. Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence R. Walker; Aaron B. Shiels; Peter J. Bellingham; Ashley D. Sparrow; Ned Fetcher; Fred H. Landau; Deborah J. Lodge

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic variables are critical drivers of succession in most primary seres, but how their influence on biota changes over time is rarely examined. Landslides provide good model systems for examining abiotic influences because they are spatially and temporally heterogeneous habitats with distinct abiotic and biotic gradients and post-landslide erosion. In an 18-year...

  9. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura; Bello-Pagan, Melissa; Lozier, Matthew; Ryff, Kyle R; Espinet, Carla; Torres, Jomil; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Febo, Mitchelle Flores; Dirlikov, Emilio; Martinez, Alma; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Rivera, Aidsa; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Rosinger, Asher; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Chung, Koo-Whang; Pate, Lisa L; Harris, Angela; Hemme, Ryan R; Lenhart, Audrey; Aquino, Gustavo; Zaki, Sherif; Read, Jennifer S; Waterman, Stephen H; Alvarado, Luisa I; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Thomas, Dana; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). In December 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection. This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico (6,7). A confirmed case of Zika virus infection is defined as a positive result for Zika virus testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus in a blood or urine specimen. A presumptive case is defined as a positive result by Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)* and a negative result by dengue virus IgM ELISA, or a positive test result by Zika IgM MAC-ELISA in a pregnant woman. An unspecified flavivirus case is defined as positive or equivocal results for both Zika and dengue virus by IgM ELISA. During November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016, a total of 23,487 persons were evaluated by PRDH and CDC Dengue Branch for Zika virus infection, including asymptomatic pregnant women and persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease or suspected GBS; 5,582 (24%) confirmed and presumptive Zika virus cases were identified. Persons with Zika virus infection were residents of 77 (99%) of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities. During 2016, the percentage of positive Zika virus infection cases among symptomatic males and nonpregnant females who were tested increased from 14% in February to 64% in June. Among 9,343 pregnant women tested, 672 had confirmed or presumptive Zika virus infection, including 441 (66%) symptomatic women and 231 (34%) asymptomatic

  10. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe dehydration, chronic malabsorption resulting in fetal growth restriction, and in the case of E. histolytica , invasive disease, including amebic liver abscess and colitis. Pregnant women should avoid swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, ...

  12. The morbidity and mortality associated with kidney disease in an HIV-infected cohort in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Angel M; Dworkin, Mark; Quesada, Luis; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    Nephropathy in HIV-infected patients has been associated with progression to AIDS and death. The virus, several comorbid conditions and certain medications may contribute to the development and progression of kidney disease. This study analyzed data collected from HIV-infected persons enrolled in a HIV registry in Puerto Rico during January 1998 through September 2006. Demographic factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings at enrollment, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescriptions were compared between patients with and without kidney disease. Death status and cause of death by December 2006 were also evaluated and compared. The study included 1,283 subjects, 69.0% male, 39.7% injecting drug users, 19.5% hepatitis C infected, 6.5% with diabetes mellitus (DM-2), 11.6% had hypertension (HTN) and 9.0% had kidney disease. Patients with kidney disease had significantly higher (P Puerto Rican HIV-infected patients with nephropathy. Kidney disease preventive strategies that include aggressive control of HIV-infection and chronic medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are recommend as an approach to reduce this health disparity.

  13. The prevalence of ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rico disaster study. The role of culture in psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Canino, G; Rubio-Stipec, M; Bravo, M

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents one of the few epidemiological studies of a popular category of distress, ataques de nervios (attacks of nerves), in the cross-cultural psychiatric literature. As part of a major study of the psychological consequences of the 1985 floods and mudslides which caused considerable damage and death in Puerto Rico, a question was added to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement concerning ataques de nervios. This additional item provided the opportunity to carry out the first study of this important Puerto Rican popular category of distress using a representative, community-based sample. This paper addresses several key questions about ataques de nervios which come from previous psychiatric and anthropological literatures concerning the social correlates of who experiences an ataque de nervios and the relationship of ataques to social distress and psychiatric disorder. People who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and formerly married. They were also more likely to meet criteria for anxiety and depressive disorders than those who had not experienced an ataque. The picture that emerges from our analyses is that those who suffer from a combination of social disadvantage, psychiatric disorder, and poor perceived health are more likely to experience an ataque de nervios.

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on temperament in the first year of life: the Puerto Rico Infant Twin Study (PRINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Judy L; Miguel, Vivian Febo San; Murrelle, E Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Bates, John E; Canino, Glorisa; Egger, Helen; Eaves, Lindon J

    2005-08-01

    Three dimensions of temperament -- difficult temperament, unadaptablility and unsociability -- were assessed in the first year of life by maternal interview in twins born in Puerto Rico during 2001 and 2002. Eight hundred and sixty-five eligible mothers (80%) were traced and interviewed. Model-fitting results showed that additive genetic factors and the individual specific environment contributed to variation in all three dimensions. In addition, the pattern of variances and correlations suggested that sibling contrast effects influence ratings of difficult temperament. Moderate effects of the shared environment contributed to ratings of adaptability and sociability. There was a significant genetic correlation between difficult temperament and unadaptability. Genetic and environmental effects do not differ significantly between boys and girls. The study is the first population-based study of Puerto Rican twins and one of few to attempt the assessment of behavior in the first year. Preliminary results for difficult temperament and sociability were consistent with those in other populations and ages. In contrast, a significant effect of the shared environment on the temperamental trait of unadaptability has not been reported previously.

  15. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  16. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  17. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  18. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: KARST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  19. Puerto Rico Relative Vulnerability to Erosion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical factors, such as the slope of the land, the texture of the soil, and the precipitation regime influence erosion in an area. Parts of Puerto Rico are very...

  20. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: WETLANDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  3. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  4. Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.

  5. Resistance Status and Resistance Mechanisms in a Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Alden S; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Waits, Christy M; Louton, Jessica E; Becnel, James J

    2017-11-07

    Puerto Rico (PR) has a long history of vector-borne disease and insecticide-resistant Aedes aegypti (L.). Defining contributing mechanisms behind phenotypic resistance is critical for effective vector control intervention. However, previous studies from PR have each focused on only one mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. This study examines the contribution of P450-mediated enzymatic detoxification and sodium channel target site changes to the overall resistance phenotype of Ae. aegypti collected from San Juan, PR, in 2012. Screening of a panel of toxicants found broad resistance relative to the lab susceptible Orlando (ORL1952) strain. We identified significant resistance to representative Type I, Type II, and nonester pyrethroids, a sodium channel blocker, and a sodium channel blocking inhibitor, all of which interact with the sodium channel. Testing of fipronil, a chloride channel agonist, also showed low but significant levels of resistance. In contrast, the PR and ORL1952 strains were equally susceptible to chlorfenapyr, which has been suggested as an alternative public health insecticide. Molecular characterization of the strain indicated that two common sodium channel mutations were fixed in the population. Topical bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) indicated cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification accounts for approximately half of the resistance profile. Transcript expression screening of cytochrome P450s and glutathione-S-transferases identified the presence of overexpressed transcripts. This study of Puerto Rican Ae. aegypti with significant contributions from both genetic changes and enzymatic detoxification highlights the necessity of monitoring for resistance but also defining the multiple resistance mechanisms to inform effective mosquito control. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Thermo King de Puerto Rico Incorporated in Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermo King de Puerto Rico, Inc. facility is located in the Zeno Gandia Industrial Area in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Major features of the facility include six buildings used for manufacturing and storage, a wastewater treatment plant, a hazardous waste and no

  7. Epidemiology of anal HPV infection in high-risk men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Colón-López

    Full Text Available Recent studies in Puerto Rico have reported an increasing incidence of anal cancer in Puerto Rican men. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 205 men 18 years and older. A comprehensive survey was administered that included a demographic and a behavioral assessment. Separate logistic regression models were performed to determine factors associated with any, high-risk (HR, and multiple anal HPV infection.The mean age of the study sample was 38.0±13.5 years. The most common HR types were 58, 51 and 31. Overall, HR anal HPV infection was found in 53.5% of the participants. Multiple HPV types in the anal canal were found in 47.6% of the sample. A third (29.8% of participants reported being men who had sex with men (MSM. MSM had a significantly higher prevalence of any, HR and multiple HPV infection (p-value<0.05. Separate multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being MSM was associated with any (OR = 4.5; [95%CI: 1.9-10.7], HR (OR = 3.4; [95%CI: 1.1-10.3 and multiple anal HPV infection (OR = 3.6; [95%CI: 1.5-9.1. HIV was marginally associated with multiple anal HPV infection in multivariate analysis (OR = 3.3; 95%CI = 1.0-11.0.Anal HPV is common among sexually active men attending this STI clinic, with higher likelihood of anal HPV infection among MSM.

  8. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-9 - Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico. 1.1402(a)-9 Section 1.1402(a)-9...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-9 Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. A resident of Puerto... alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, shall compute his net earnings from...

  10. 33 CFR 165.755 - Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico (a) The following area is established as a safety zone during the... the Eco-Electrica waterfront facility in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico. The safety zone remains in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto...

  11. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  12. Sexual Behaviors, Experiences of Sexual Violence, and Substance Use among Women Who inject Drugs: Accessing Health and Prevention Services in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Vargas, Erika M; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Mowatt, Rasul; Otero-Cruz, Ilia M; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence. Utilizing a transformative theoretical perspective, a mixed-methods study was conducted with a sample of 90 Puerto Rican women who reported recent (past 12 months) injection drug use (IDU) This manuscript focused on Phase 1, in which participants completed an interviewer-administered survey eliciting information about sexual behaviors, drug use, experiences of sexual violence, and access to healthcare services. Phase 2 involved an in-depth interview focused on sexual health and access to healthcare services. Female PWID were found to engage in a variety of sexual behaviors throughout their lifespans and at their most recent sexual events. There were significant differences across age groups for participants, those being time of most recent sexual event (p = 0.007), partner's sex (p = 0.039), relationship with partner (p = 0.023), contraception method used (p = 0.057), and reports of partner orgasm (p = 0.055). Over half of all participants reported having experienced sexual violence in their lifetime. This study extends the literature on PWID in Puerto Rico by underscoring the diversity of female PWID sexual experiences and needs while illustrating how those experiences are often mediated by drug use. The findings highlight the need for further research on female PWID in Puerto Rico to better develop programs that include sexual violence prevention as part of future interventions for this population.

  13. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  14. Comparing the oral health status of diabetic and non-diabetic children from Puerto Rico: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López del Valle, Lydia M; Ocasio-López, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes have infrequently been the subjects of studies examining oral health status (caries and gingival diseases); in addition, no study of this type has ever been on Puerto Rican children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of Puerto Rican children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) either with or without type 1 diabetes and compare the two groups with regard to that status. This was a matched case-control study. A convenience sample of 25 children with type 1 diabetes (cases) and 25 non-diabetic children (controls), all ranging in age from 6 to 12 years and matched by age and gender, was evaluated by a calibrated dentist for caries, bleeding on probing, and plaque and calculus indexes. A sample of saliva was taken from each subject and analyzed to determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to describe and assess the data. We used the caries index to evaluate the teeth of the children participating in our study; we found significant differences in the number of lesions in the permanent teeth of diabetic children compared to the number found in the permanent teeth of non-diabetic children (1.43 and 0.56, respectively; p = 0.05). The mean number of sites of bleeding on probing for diabetic children was 23.9; for non-diabetic children it was 4.2. Diabetic children had more plaque than did the control children (plaque index = 2.5 vs. 0.8; p = 0.007) and more bleeding on probing (p = 0.001). High levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic children were statistically significantly associated with a greater number of sites with bleeding on probing. Diabetic children are at higher risk for caries and gum disease than are non-diabetic children.

  15. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  16. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in Northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.M.; Clements, R.G.; Rosa, L.I.; Santos, F.

    1975-01-01

    In October, 1973, the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority sought the initiation of studies aimed at determining background radiological characteristics of the northwestern quadrant of Puerto Rico using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Some of the studies were required for supporting data for the environmental report submitted as part of the licensing procedure in the establishment of thermonuclear electric power generation facilities in Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Previous studies of radiological characteristics of the area had been made using sodium iodide sensing equipment in an airplane flying at an altitude of 500 ft. The results are expressed in counts per second, and provide useful comparative levels for radioactivity measured with the thermoluminescent detectors. (U.S.)

  17. La puesta en valor del paisaje a través de la educación, propuesta para el desarrollo de la Isla de Vieques (Puerto Rico = The enhancement of landscape through education proposal for the development of the island of Vieques (Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Zorrilla Lassus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La isla municipio de Vieques, Puerto Rico, es un territorio emblemático no solo para los puertorriqueños que lo habitan, sino para la población nacional e internacional que conoce sus largas luchas contra la Marina de los Estados Unidos, ara su salida del enclave, ocupado durante 60 años. Diez años más tarde de la retirada del cuerpo castrense, Vieques, también denominada Isla Nena, se enfrenta a grandes retos sociales, económicos y educativos para integrarse en la economía mundial y mejorar la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. Este artículo describe eventos puntuales del desarrollo histórico y cultural de la isla, enmarcados dentro de un conjunto de símbolos sociales que parten del entramado cultural y natural. Finalmente, se describe y presenta la autogestión empresarial a través del turismo sustentable como una estrategia educativa para la puesta en valor del paisaje natural y cultural como condición fundamental para el éxito del proyecto piloto «Mis recursos y yo… somos Puerto Rico» de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, comprometido en el desarrollo local.The island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, is a landmark not only for the Puerto Ricans who inhabit it, but for the population nationally and internationally known for their long struggles against the United States Navy out of the enclave, occupied for sixty years. Ten years after the withdrawal of the military body, Vieques faces great social, economic and educational challenges. This article describes specific events of the historical and cultural development of the island, framed within a set of social symbols that are based on natural and cultural framework. Finally, this article describes and presents self-management business through sustainable tourism as an educational strategy for the implementation of the value of the natural and cultural landscape as a fundamental condition for the success of the pilot project ‘My resources and I are Puerto Rico

  18. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition [es

  19. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it.

  20. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  1. Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

  2. Island in Crisis: Response to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    On September 6, 2017, Hurricane Irma, a Category 5 storm packing winds of 185 miles per hour skirted the northern coast of Puerto Rico, leaving 1 million residents without electrical power. Schools were closed for 5 days, but a major calamity was narrowly avoided. Overall, residents were grateful for their good fortune, but the same could not be…

  3. Tortuguero Bay [Puerto Rico] environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, plant and fish communities. (U.S.)

  4. Areas naturales protegidas de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solórzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    En este mapa mostramos las areas naturales protegidas designadas para la conservacion de los recursos naturales en Puerto Rico y regiones reguladas por ley con el potencial de mejorar la conservacion de los mismos. La designacion de areas protegidas es un proceso dinamico debido a que es el resultado de la constante evolucion de valores en los diferentes sectores de la...

  5. Lichens in Puerto Rico: an ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Díaz; William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez; Robert. Lücking

    2015-01-01

    This work presents basic information on tropical lichenology. It also describes general aspects about the ecology and biodiversity of these organisms in eight forest ecosystems present along an elevational gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico. These ecosystems consist of elfin woodlands, palo colorado, sierra palm, tabonuco, lowland moist, dry, mangrove, and...

  6. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  7. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  8. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary

  9. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  10. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  11. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  12. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  13. Diabetes is associated with chronic liver disease and liver cancer in the adult population of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ana P; Romero, Carlos; Disdier, Orville; Santana, Erik; Torres, Margaret; Torres, Esther A; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been proposed as a risk factor for both chronic liver disease (CLD) and for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, studies among Hispanics are limited. Puerto Rico (PR) has a high prevalence of DM (13%), supporting the need for a better understanding of the public health implications associated with DM in this population. We assessed the association of DM with CLD and with HCC in a population of Puerto Rican adults with health insurance. The study sample consisted of 1,040,025 individuals, aged > or = 18 years, all covered by the government-run healthcare program in PR, in 2002. The ICD-9 codes for DM, CLD, and HCC were obtained in order to determine the prevalence of these conditions. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association of DM with CLD and with HCC, after adjusting for covariates. The prevalence of DM was higher in patients with CLD (17%) and those with HCC (18%) than it was in patients without either of these conditions (8% and 7%, respectively). Among women, those with DM were significantly more likely to have CLD than were those without DM (POR: 35-49 yrs: 3.26, 95% CI = 2.12, 5.00; POR: 50-64 yrs: 2.10, 95% CI = 1.63, 2.71; POR: > or = 65 yrs: 2.33, 95% CI = 1.67, 3.25). Among men, those with DM were more likely to have CLD than were those without DM; this association was significant among males aged 50-64 (POR: 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.63) and those aged > or = 65 yrs (POR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.35-2.80). Consistent with other studies, we observed a strong association of DM with CLD and HCC. In order to reduce the burden of these conditions in PR, research and public health efforts should be concentrated on gaining a better understanding of these associations.

  14. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  15. Number and Type of Meals consumed by Children in a Subset of Schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alan M; Rodríguez-Quintana, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Eating patterns of children have been investigated in the U.S. and have been found to be changeable over extended time periods. Trends can be correlated to changes in the same periods for determinants of overall health such as body mass index (BMI). In Puerto Rico, there have been no such studies so similar correlations cannot be done. Herein, we present baseline information on the number and types of eating occasions in a convenience sample of children from the area of San Juan so that future changes in patterns can be monitored over time. Multiple 24 hour recall questionnaires were administered to school children at 3 different grade levels. Number of eating occasions and type of meal (breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks) were quantified. Factors considered for analysis were age, gender and BMI of the children, participation in the School Lunch Program (SLP) and if meals were eaten on a weekday or weekend day. Approximately 40% of children were categorized as overweight. There was a trend toward fewer eating occasions in older vs. younger children and fewer eating occasions on weekend days vs. weekdays. Lunch and dinner were consumed more frequently than breakfast and participants in the SLP had more eating occasions than non-participants. The number of eating occasions in Puerto Rican youth is maintained at about 5 for weekdays and about 4.5 per day for weekend days with a trend toward fewer meals as a function of increasing age. This data can be used as baseline information in future studies that wish to correlate changes in dietary patterns with health.

  16. Building Bridges to Address Health Disparities in Puerto Rico: the "Salud para Piñones" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rivera, Enid J; Pacheco, Princess; Colón, Marielis; Mays, Mary Helen; Rivera, Maricruz; Munet-Díaz, Verónica; González, María Del R; Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez, Rebecca; Morales, Astrid

    2017-06-01

    Over the past several decades, Puerto Ricans have faced increased health threats from chronic diseases, particularly diabetes and hypertension. The patient-provider relationship is the main platform for individual disease management, whereas the community, as an agent of change for the community's health status, has been limited in its support of individual health. Likewise, traditional research approaches within communities have placed academic researchers at the center of the process, considering their knowledge was of greater value than that of the community. In this paradigm, the academic researcher frequently owns and controls the research process. The primary aim is contributing to the scientific knowledge, but not necessarily to improve the community's health status or empower communities for social change. In contrast, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model brings community members and leaders together with researchers in a process that supports mutual learning and empowers the community to take a leadership role in its own health and well-being. This article describes the development of the community-campus partnership between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine and Piñones, a semi-rural community, and the resulting CBPR project: "Salud para Piñones". This project represents a collaborative effort to understand and address the community's health needs and health disparities based on the community's participation as keystone of the process. This participatory approach represents a valuable ally in the development of long-term community-academy partnerships, thus providing opportunities to establish relevant and effective ways to translate evidence-based interventions into concrete actions that impact the individual and community's wellbeing.

  17. Building Bridges to Address Health Disparities in Puerto Rico: the “Salud para Piñones” Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rivera, Enid J.; Pacheco, Princess; Colón, Marielis; Mays, Mary Helen; Rivera, Maricruz; Munet-Díaz, Verónica; González, María del R.; Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez, Rebecca; Morales, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Puerto Ricans have faced increased health threats from chronic diseases, particularly diabetes and hypertension. The patient-provider relationship is the main platform for individual disease management, whereas the community, as an agent of change for the community’s health status, has been limited in its support of individual health. Likewise, traditional research approaches within communities have placed academic researchers at the center of the process, considering their knowledge was of greater value than that of the community. In this paradigm, the academic researcher frequently owns and controls the research process. The primary aim is contributing to the scientific knowledge, but not necessarily to improve the community’s health status or empower communities for social change. In contrast, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model brings community members and leaders together with researchers in a process that supports mutual learning and empowers the community to take a leadership role in its own health and well-being. This article describes the development of the community-campus partnership between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine and Piñones, a semi-rural community, and the resulting CBPR project: “Salud para Piñones”. This project represents a collaborative effort to understand and address the community’s health needs and health disparities based on the community’s participation as keystone of the process. This participatory approach represents a valuable ally in the development of long-term community-academy partnerships, thus providing opportunities to establish relevant and effective ways to translate evidence-based interventions into concrete actions that impact the individual and community’s wellbeing. PMID:28622406

  18. Plan estratégico del Puerto de Paita

    OpenAIRE

    Dávila Salazar, Javier Erwin; Morales Dávila, Eric Rubén; Pomar Hachimine, Cecilia Sofía; Santos Conde, Alina Liliana

    2016-01-01

    xix, 252 h. : il. ; 30 cm El presente estudio desarrolla el Plan Estratégico del Puerto de Paita con el objetivo de lograr posicionarlo dentro de los principales 25 puertos de contenedores de Latinoamérica. Los análisis realizados en base al modelo secuencial del proceso estratégico revelan que el puerto tiene importantes ventajas comparativas y competitivas que generan estrategias de tipo intensiva y de diversificación, cuya aplicación convertirá al Puerto de Paita en el principal eslabón...

  19. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  20. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Preparándonos para vencer: Programa para identificar las necesidades de información y apoyo para las mujeres sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama...of recruitment. Controls were identified from participants in the Estudio Continuo de Salud (ECS), a National Health Survey in Puerto Rico, which was...menopausal at interview, as expected by the age criteria for inclusion . Eighty eight percent (88%) of the participants had their first pregnancy before age

  1. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  2. Puerto Rico: Information for Status Deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Rico has suffered a temporary setback from the destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo , both the availability and quality of the island’s housing stock...34"ý Prnce omi Puerto Rico aw (US li ANTIUDAN (U.S.) ,M S oh’ Montserrat (UK) !tGuadsiffupe (FR.) HONDURAS DOMdINICA Caribbean Sea Rosea q Martinique...Housing (the most recent data available). While the island has suffered a temporary setback because of the destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo

  3. Cartagena : puerto comercial (1533-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás del Castillo Mathieu

    1979-02-01

    Full Text Available Dos flotas zarpaban cada año de Sevilla (y en el siglo XVIII de  Cádiz. Se la primera, con destino a Veracruz, en el Virreinato de Nueva España, se separaban algunos pocos barcos para el comercio de las Antillas Mayores y se desgranaban otros dos hacia los puertos de Caballos, Trujillo y Bodegas del Golfo Dulce con el propósito de surtir a Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador.

  4. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  5. Sand and gravel resources of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rafael W.

    Many of Puerto Rico's beaches are eroding, and though rates of erosion vary, it is a major concern for the tourism and residential development industries. More than 85 percent of the population lives within 7 kilometers of the coast and they are heavily dependent on tourists that are attracted by the island's beaches and coral reefs. High-quality scientific data are needed to help formulate public policy regarding residential and commercial construction along the coast, beach replenishment, and future use of marine resources. Scientists have long recognized that the causes of coastal land loss are not limited to a relative rise in sea level, but can be manmade as well. For example, sediment supply to beaches especially along the north shore of Puerto Rico has been strongly affected by upstream river channeling, dam construction, various agricultural practices, paving and urbanization, as well as shallow-water oceanographic processes. The response to coastal erosion in Puerto Rico has been mostly crisis based leading to engineered solutions that have a negative effect on the coastal environment.

  6. Periodontal disease, hypertension, and blood pressure among older adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Campos, Maribel; Zevallos, Juan C; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2013-02-01

    Current scientific evidence addressing the relationship between periodontitis and hypertension is limited to studies producing inconsistent results. All participants of an ongoing representative cohort of Puerto Rican elderly who were ≥70 years old and residing in the San Juan metropolitan area were invited to this cross-sectional study. Periodontal probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) were summarized using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology definition for severe periodontitis (≥2 teeth with AL ≥6 mm and ≥1 tooth with PD ≥5 mm). Three repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements taken were averaged using a standardized auscultatory method. Information on hypertension history, use of antihypertensive medications, and potential confounders (age, sex, smoking, heavy and binge drinking, diabetes, use of preventive dental services, flossing, body mass index, consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole wheat bread, and high-fiber cereal) was collected during in-person interviews. High BP was defined as average systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between severe periodontitis, hypertension history, and high BP. The study population comprised 182 adults. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between severe periodontitis and hypertension history (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40 to 2.48). Severe periodontitis was associated with high BP, with OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 1.25 to 6.84), after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and binge drinking. This association was stronger when restricted to those with hypertension or taking antihypertensive medications: OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 1.28 to 13.80). The results of this study suggest that periodontitis may contribute to poor BP control among older adults.

  7. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: A Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Fry, B.; Smith, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1??? for ?? 13C and 2-3??? for ?? 15N, among the invertebrates, only nematodes, oligochaetes, and nereid polychaetes from native mangroves exhibited stable isotopes consistent with a mangrove-derived diet. Certain fauna, in particular tubificid oligochaetes, had ?? 13C values consistent with the consumption of mangrove leaves, but they were depleted in 15N, suggesting their primary nitrogen source was low in 15N, and was possibly N 2-fixing bacteria. In introduced mangroves, all feeding groups appeared to rely heavily on non-mangrove sources, especially phytoplankton inputs. Mixing model results and discriminant analysis showed clear separation of introduced and native mangrove sites based on differential food source utilization within feeding groups, with stronger and more diverse use of benthic foods observed in native forests. Observed differences between native and invasive mangrove food webs may be due to Hawaiian detritivores being poorly adapted to utilizing the tannin-rich, nitrogen-poor mangrove detritus. In addition, differential utilization of mangrove detritus between native and introduced mangroves may be a consequence of forest age. We postulate that increasing mangrove forest age may promote diversification of bacterial food webs important in N and S cycling. Our results also suggest a potentially important role for sulfur bacteria in supporting the most abundant infaunal consumers, nematodes, in the most mature systems. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  8. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  9. Evolution of Rehabilitation Counseling in Puerto Rico: Organizational and Legislative Efforts Evolución de la consejería en rehabilitación en Puerto Rico: Esfuerzos organizacionales y proyectos legislativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel A. Villafañe Santiago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain a the historical, organizational, and legislative efforts that have contributed to the development of the Rehabilitation Counseling profession, b how these efforts have contributed to the development of the professional identity of the rehabilitation counselors and c how these events have contributed to the development of programs and the provision of quality services to people with special needs in Puerto Rico. Through oral history and literature review, it is possible to recognize the importance of the establishment of the federal legislation that promoted the first program of services to people with special needs in the United States and Puerto Rico. Those legislative mandates have also promoted the development of the Rehabilitation Counseling profession in the 20th Century and the development of professional organizations that have been determinant for the professionalization. This paper illustrates how at the end of 1960, in Puerto Rico, the creation of the Rehabilitation Counselors Association (Asociación de Consejeros en Rehabilitación, ACER by its Spanish acronym was critical for the transformation of the profession and for the creation of the Puerto Rico’s Professional Society of Rehabilitation Counselors (Colegio Profesional de los Consejeros en Rehabilitación de Puerto Rico at the beginning of the 21st Century. The study refers to the subsequent legislative efforts and the approval of new mandates as the amendment to the Puerto Rican Law of Mental Health made to include the Rehabilitation Counseling professionals among the professionals authorized to provide such services to people with mental health conditions in the country. After this theoretical historical review, it is concluded that although more marketing is required in terms of promoting the profession, this innovative profession has kept up-to-date over time, and that is a guarantee of the professional commitment to continue

  10. Los conflictos de la modernidad: la élite política en Puerto Rico, 1898-1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, María Dolores

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the "98" and its meanings, namely the fact that the Porto Rican élite acepted it as a path opened for developement of a modernizing project under US leadership. A re-organization of the country was expected as a consequence of the Empire's democratic liberalism. This was however resisted by the local economical, social and cultural conditions. Although some achievements must be recognized, it is necessary to analyze whom they benefited and what they were meant for.

    Análisis de los significados del 98 a partir del estudio de la aceptación de la élite puertorriqueña, que en esa coyuntura vio la oportunidad de realizar un proyecto modernizador bajo la égida de Estados Unidos. El liberalismo democrático del imperio posibilitaría la puesta en marcha de una reorganización del país que, sin embargo, chocó con las condiciones particulares y estructuras económicas, sociales y culturales de Puerto Rico. Aceptando la consecución de algunos logros, cabe preguntarnos para qué se hicieron y quiénes se beneficiaron de ellos.

  11. Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-04

    After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

  12. 78 FR 3495 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13437 and 13438] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00017 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Dated 01/03/2013. Incident: Heavy...

  13. 76 FR 47286 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12699 and 12700 Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00013 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Puerto...

  14. 75 FR 39060 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12214 and 12215] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00009 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1919-DR...

  15. 76 FR 55155 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/ 27/2011...

  16. 76 FR 67244 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  17. 75 FR 51294 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12270 and 12271] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PUERTO RICO dated 08/11/2010. Incident: Severe...

  18. 76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  19. 75 FR 69733 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  20. 75 FR 68394 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369 Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA--1946--DR...

  1. 78 FR 4966 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13445 and 13446] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00018 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dated 01/10/2013. Incident: Tropical...

  2. 76 FR 55154 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR...

  3. 76 FR 56858 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  4. 76 FR 44647 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12699 and 12700] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00013 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR...

  5. 76 FR 66768 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12897 and 12898] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4040-DR), dated 10/ 18/2011...

  6. 75 FR 2165 - Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration Nos. 12004 and 12005; Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007] Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of...

  7. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  8. Characterization of the Network of Protected Areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; Maya Quinones; William Gould

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and associated landscape diversity and forest cover characteristics within the network of terrestrial protected areas in Puerto Rico. We conducted spatial analysis to quantify different indicators of diversity at these sites. We found that protected areas in Puerto Rico overlap the most species-rich regions on the island,...

  9. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  10. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  11. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  12. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  13. Machismo y educacion en Puerto Rico [Machismo and Education in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Isabel

    This book is the result of a study that investigated the influence of "machismo" (a set of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that perpetuates the myth of male superiority) in elementary education. The study included (1) a content analysis of textbooks used in Spanish and social studies classes in public and private schools in Puerto Rico…

  14. 20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresidents of Puerto Rico. 404.1089 Section 404.1089 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. If you are a resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not you are an alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, you must figure your net earnings from self...

  15. 78 FR 20887 - Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-132-2012] Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico On December 7, 2012, the Executive Secretary... activation limit of FTZ 7, on [[Page 20888

  16. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  17. The lesser spotted pregnant surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L C

    2017-10-19

    With more women entering surgical training, it will become more commonplace to encounter pregnant surgeons. This paper discusses the evidence for work-related risk factors as well as outlining the rights of a pregnant doctor. There are, in fact, very few real risks to pregnancy encountered as a surgeon, with the main risks involving standing or sitting for long periods and fatigue, which can be managed with support from the department. It is important for women in surgery to know that it is possible to continue their training while pregnant so they do not feel pressured into changing to a less demanding specialty or even leaving medicine entirely. It is also important for other professionals to understand the risks and choices faced by pregnant surgeons so that they can better support them in the workplace.

  18. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  19. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  20. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  1. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gould

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic information helps plan and balance the reinvention and invigoration of the agriculture sector while maintaining ecological services. We used simple criteria that included currently protected lands and the importance of slope and forest cover in protection from erosion to identify land well-suited for conservation, agriculture and forestry in Puerto Rico. Within these categories we assessed U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA farmland soils classification data, lands currently in agricultural production, current land cover, and current land use planning designations. We found that developed lands occupy 13 percent of Puerto Rico; lands well-suited for conservation that include protected areas, riparian buffers, lands surrounding reservoirs, wetlands, beaches, and salt flats, occupy 45 percent of Puerto Rico; potential working lands encompass 42 percent of Puerto Rico. These include lands well-suited for mechanized and non-mechanized agriculture, such as row and specialty crops, livestock, dairy, hay, pasture, and fruits, which occupy 23 percent of Puerto Rico; and areas suitable for forestry production, such as timber and non-timber products, agroforestry, and shade coffee, which occupy 19 percent of Puerto Rico.

  2. Burden of stroke in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Juan; Santiago, Fernando; González, Juan; Rodríguez, Abiezer; Pericchi, Luis; Rodríguez-Mercado, Rafael; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the first cause of long-term disability in Puerto Rico. Trained staff reviewed and independently validated the medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with possible stroke at any of the 20 largest hospitals located in Puerto Rico during 2007, 2009, and 2011. The mean age of the 5005 newly diagnosed stroke patients (51·2% female) was 70 years. At the time of hospitalization, women were 4½ years older, were less likely to be married (60·2% vs. 39·9%, P diabetes (56·0% vs. 54·8%), hypertension (89·1% vs. 85·0%), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) > 100 mg/dL (65·7% vs. 57·5%) P < 0·05. Ischemic stroke represented 75% of all types of strokes. Atrial fibrillation was mentioned in 7·9% of the medical records. The risk for dying before discharge was similar for both genders, but was 40% higher for women than for men at one-year follow-up: age-adjusted odds ratio = 1·4 (95% confidence interval = 1·2-1·5). © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  3. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  4. Greening the Hotel Operations: Puerto Princesa Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina S. Viernes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available - The study was conducted to assess the extent of implementation of green practices in the housekeeping and food and beverage departments among standard hotels in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan with respect to solid waste management, water conservation and energy utilization. The descriptive design was utilized in this research. Respondents of this study were the supervisors and staff of the Housekeeping and Food and Beverage Departments of the 13 standard hotels in Puerto Princesa City. Using total enumeration, 52 hoteliers were asked to answer the survey questionnaire to be able to come up with data needed in the study. Frequency counts, percentages, means and Analysis of Variance were used to interpret and analyze the data gathered. Among the three groups of green practices included in the study, solid waste management obtained the highest mean for both the housekeeping department and food and beverage department which indicates that green practices under this category are the most extensively implemented. Conversely, respondents from the housekeeping department rated green practices related to energy utilization as the least implemented while food and beverage department respondents revealed that green practices pertaining to water conservation are the least implemented. Using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, the responses revealed that there is no significant difference in the extent of implementation of green practices in all the three categories that were studied within hotels. However, a significant difference among hotels was found out when it comes to the extent of implementation of green practices for the same categories.

  5. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of Five Projects in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Memorias de Melgarejo). Melgarejo mentions that one of these three mills was located next to the mouth of the Loiza River, and that this was also the...Mexico. Cordova, Pedro Tomas de Memorias historicas de Puerto Rico. D-3 D’Alzina, Ismael 1957 Historia gr~fica de Puerto Rico, 1. Primera Epoca. Ed...Servidumbre de faja de terreno de 5.0 metros de ancho y 400.46 metros de largo a favor de la Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico

  6. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  7. Radionuclide content of soils from Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.McB.; Clements, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and interpret gamma ray energy spectra from natural radioactivity and fallout radionuclides measured on soil samples collected in the projected thermonuclear power plant exclusion zone in Barrio Islote, Puerto Rico

  8. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Ground Validation Points 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  9. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  10. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  11. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  12. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  13. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: SHELFBND (Shelf Boundary)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  14. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BENTHIC (Benthic Marine Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  15. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: MGT (Management Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  16. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  17. National Status and Trends: Guanica, Puerto Rico Contaminants Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses chemical contaminant status in sediment and coral tissues (Porites astroides) collected in and around Guanica Bay, Puerto Rico in 2009....

  18. 75 FR 68393 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12366 and 12367] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster [[Page 68394

  19. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  20. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...