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Sample records for pregnant pony mares

  1. RECURRENT, IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA IN A TONGA PONY MARE

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    T. Ahmad, G. Muhammad and M. H. Hussain

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-Yearold tonga (a light wheeled horse cart pony mare was presented for the treatment of a condition characterized by generalized urticarial wheals, anemic mucous membranes, concentrated urine, inappetance and unilateral chemosis. Haematological alterations included a marked leucocytosis (WBC = 14x103/ul with monocytosis (2.5x109/L and moderate anemia (RBC count = 4.lx1012/L; PCV = 18; hemoglobin = 8.2 gm/dl. There was no history of exposure to agents known tQtrigger urticaria. Parental administration of a corticosteroid preparation (prednisolone plus dexamethasone and antihistamine (pheniramine maleate in 4 rounds of treatment over a 16 days period was associated with rebounding of signs of urticaria after cessation of each round oftherapyo

  2. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Shetland pony mares.

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    Schurink, A; Ducro, B J; Bastiaansen, J W M; Frankena, K; van Arendonk, J A M

    2013-02-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic disease present in horses worldwide. It has been shown that IBH is under genetic control, but the knowledge of associated genes is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify and quantify genomic regions contributing to IBH in the Dutch Shetland pony population. A total of 97 cases and 91 controls were selected and matched on withers height, coat colour and pedigree to minimise the population stratification. A blood sample was collected from participating Shetland pony mares, their IBH phenotype was scored and the owner filled in a questionnaire. A total of 40 021 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were fitted in a univariable logistic model fitting an additive effect. Analysis revealed no effects of population stratification. Significant associations with IBH were detected for 24 SNPs on 12 chromosomes [-log(10) (P-value) > 2.5]. Odds ratios of allele substitution effects of the unfavourable allele were between 1.94 and 5.95. The most significant SNP was found on chromosome 27, with an odds ratio of 2.31 and with an allele frequency of the unfavourable allele of 0.72 in cases and 0.53 in controls. Genome-wide association studies on additional horse populations are desired to validate the identified associations, to identify the genes involved in IBH and to develop genomic tools to decrease IBH prevalence.

  3. Effects of periovulatory gonadotrophin treatment on luteal function and endometrial expression of selected genes in cyclic pony mares.

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    Köhne, Martin; Ille, Natascha; Erber, Regina; Adib Razavi, Mahsa S; Walter, Ingrid; Aurich, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Progestin concentration in plasma during the early luteal phase is crucial for endometrial function and conceptus development. We hypothesized that periovulatory gonadotrophin treatment via support of luteal function affects endometrial gene expression in horses. Effect of age was analyzed as well. Shetland mares (n = 8, age 4-25 years) were assigned to the following treatments during five consecutive cycles in alternating order following a cross-over design: treatment hCG/-: preovulatory injection of hCG, but no gonadotrophin injection at detection of ovulation, treatment -/hCG: no preovulatory gonadodrophin injection, but injection of hCG at detection of ovulation, treatment eCG/-: preovulatory injection of eCG, but no gonadotrophin injection at detection of ovulation, treatment -/eCG: no preovulatory gonadotrophin injection, but injection of eCG at detection of ovulation, treatment control: no treatment. Concentration of progestin was analyzed by ELISA from the day of ovulation until Day 10. On Day 10, endometrial cells were collected transvaginally by cytobrush technique. Expression of mRNA of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin F2α-synthase, prostaglandin E-synthase, progesterone receptor (PR), estradiol receptor (E2R), acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (ACAD), uteroglobin (UGB), uteroferrin, and uterocalin was analyzed by RT qPCR. Immunohistological staining of endometrial tissue, obtained via biopsy, was performed for COX-2, PR and UGB. The P4 concentration was influenced by day of cycle (P PR positive stromal cells (e.g. mare 1 (4 years): 65.5 ± 2.6, mare 2 (24 years): 82.7 ± 2.2%, P function and expression of PRs in the endometrium can at least in part be explained by differences in the reproductive physiology between horses and ponies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

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    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  5. Effects of estradiol-17beta administration on steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid (MRNA) encoding equine alpha and LH/CGbeta subunits in pituitaries of ovariectomized pony mares.

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    Sharp, D C; Wolfe, M W; Cleaver, B D; Nilson, J

    2001-03-15

    The process of sexual recrudescence in the springtime in mares is characterized by renewal of follicular growth and acquisition of steroidogenic competence. Concomitant with renewal of follicular steroidogenesis is re-establishment of LH biosynthesis and secretion. Research results from our laboratory indicate that increased estradiol and LH secretion occur in close temporal association before the first ovulation of the year. Therefore, the hypothesis tested in this experiment was that estrogen administration to ovariectomized pony mares during the equivalent time of early vernal transition would enhance LH biosynthesis as monitored by messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding for the pituitary subunits of LH (alpha and LH/CGbeta). Mares were administered either sesame oil vehicle control, or estradiol (5 mg i.m. twice daily in sesame oil) for 3, 6 or 9 days, beginning on February 2. The pituitary glands were harvested, and examined for LH subunit mRNA by Northern Blot and slot blot analysis. There was a significant increase in LH secretion after 6 days of estradiol secretion compared with control vehicle administration. Similarly, there was a significant increase in both alpha and LH/CGbeta subunit mRNA when estradiol was administered for 9 days. These data indicate that estrogen stimulates LH subunit formation in mares during early equivalent vernal transition. These data do not, however, discriminate between a direct pituitary effect of estrogen, and a hypothalamic effect. Whether the surge of estradiol just prior to the first ovulation of the year is essential for the renewed biosynthesis of LH subunits cannot be determined from these data. However an important role of estrogen in the final stages of sexual recrudescence is indicated.

  6. Experimental exposure of pregnant mares to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus

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    J.T. Paweska

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, virological and serological responses were evaluated in 10 pregnant mares after different challenge exposures to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV. The outcome of maternal infection on the progeny was also investigated. Mares were inoculated intranasally (n = 4, intramuscularly (n = 2, intravenously (n = 1, or contact-exposed (n = 3. All inoculated mares developed pyrexia, 5 showed mild clinical signs related to EAV infection and 2 remained asymptomatic. Viraemia was detected in all the inoculated animals and shedding of virus from the respiratory tract occurred in 6. Five mares were re-challenged intranasally 7 and 15 weeks after inoculation. Clinical signs of the disease in these mares were limited to mild conjunctivitis. After re-challenge, virus was recovered from buffy coat cultures of 2 mares 2-6 days after re-infection. EAV was not recovered from colostrum and milk samples during the 1st week post partum. All inoculated mares seroconverted to EAV 8-12 days post inoculation and also seroconverted after re-challenge. No clinical signs of EAV infection were observed in the 3 mares kept in close contact during the post-inoculation and re-challenge periods. Serum neutralising antibody to the virus was detected in 1 in-contact mare only, while a detectable concentration of specific IgG was found by ELISA in the colostrum of 1 of the other in-contact mares. Eight of the mares gave birth to clinically normal foals, although 1 was born prematurely. Shortly after birth, 7 foals developed fever and variable clinical signs; 5 foals became septicaemic and 3 of them died 2-5 days after birth, while the remaining 2 were euthanased at 1 month of age. EAV was not recovered from the placenta, from buffy coat fractions of blood collected from foals immediately after birth and 1-3 days later, or from a range of tissues taken from the 3 foals that died and 2 that were euthanased. Virus was not isolated from tissues collected from

  7. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

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    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  8. Longitudinal changes in serum catecholamines, dopamine, serotonin, ACTH and cortisol in pregnant Spanish mares.

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    Marcilla, María; Muñoz, Ana; Satué, Katy

    2017-01-21

    Systemic physiological changes required for placental and fetal development during pregnancy are associated with an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in women, but this fact has not been investigated in mares. Venous blood samples were taken monthly from 31 successful Spanish mares during the 11months of pregnancy. During the first 4months of pregnancy, adrenaline (AD), dopamine (DOPA) and ACTH increases, whereas 5-hydroxitryptamine (5-HT) decreased, and noradrenaline (NAD) and cortisol (CORT) did not change. Serum NAD increased at 8th month, 5-HT at 5th, 7th months, and DOPA increased progressively between the 5th and 8th months and CORT concentrations peak at 5th month. During the three last months of pregnancy, NAD, 5-TH and DOPA decreased, particularly at the 11th month. These results confirmed an activation of the SNS and the HPA axis in pregnant mares during successful pregnancies. The next step would be to elucidate whether these changes also appear in unsuccessful pregnancies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Length of gestation periods of horses and ponies belonging to different breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Mey, G.J.W. van der

    1980-01-01

    The mean gestation periods of mares belonging to different horse and pony breeds common in The Netherlands have been calculated using data from the birth registers of five stud-book societies. The following mean values have been determined: Fjord pony: 342.2; Haflinger pony: 341.3; Draught horse: 34

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy in a pregnant mare: identification of histopathological changes in the brain of a mare and fetus.

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    Johns, I C; Del Piero, F; Wilkins, P A

    2007-08-01

    An 11-year-old Thoroughbred broodmare was evaluated for suspected hepatic dysfunction. Clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy were evident at admission. Hepatic ultrasonographic evaluation revealed an increase in hepatic size, rounded borders and normal echogenicity. There was no evidence of cholelithiasis or bile duct distention. Increased activity of hepatic enzymes, increased bile acid and bilirubin concentration and an increased ammonia concentration were supportive of a diagnosis of hepatic disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Histopathological evaluation of a liver biopsy specimen was consistent with chronic active hepatitis. The mare was treated with intravenous fluids and antimicrobials, pentoxyfilline, branched-chain amino acids and dietary manipulation. Clinical improvement was observed initially; however, 3 weeks later, deterioration in the mare's condition necessitated euthanasia. Pathological lesions at necropsy were restricted to the liver and brain. The liver was diffusely firm with a prominent reticular pattern on the cut surface. A large choledocholith was present in the main bile duct of the left liver lobe. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed severe fibrosis, with hyperplastic bile ducts and mononuclear and neutrophilic inflammation. Pathological changes consistent with hepatic encephalopathy, (Alzheimer type II cells), were evident in the cerebrum of both the mare and the fetus.

  11. Penggunaan Follicle Stimulating Hormone dan Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin untuk Superovulasi pada Sapi Persilangan Brahman

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    Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty cattle were used in this experiment to determine the effect of administration follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG hormones on superovulation of Brahman cross cattle. The experiment was designed into completely randomized design with 5 treatments as follows. Treatments 1 (T1: 4 mg of FSH was injected twice a day intra-ovary, T2: 8 mg of FSH was injected twice a day intra-ovary, T3: 300 IU of PMSG was injected single dose intra-ovary, T4: 600 IU of PMSG was injected single dose intra-ovary, T5: 40 mg of FSH was injected intramuscular. All experimental cattle were oestrus synchronized using 15 mg of PGF2α twice at 11-days intervals. Number of corpus luteum (CL was detected by rectal palpation at day-7 after artificial insemination. Results showed that 19 cattle (95% indicated oestrus sign. Eleven cattle (57.9% showed oestrus sign 2 days after PGF2α injection and the rest 8 cattle (42.1% oestrus sign was detected at 3 days after PGF2α injection. FSH and PMSG treatments increased significantly (P<0.05 number of CL. The highest CL number was found in T5, meanwhile number of CL in T2 and T4 were higher compared to T1 and T3. The average treatment effect could produce 6.8±5.42 CL with range 2–26 CL. On the other hand single dose treatment of 600 IU PMSG (T4 showed high significant number of non ovulatory (persistent follicle compared to other treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T5 on average number of persistent follicle 2.0±1.97 from 19 cattles. It is concluded that the best superovulation treatment was produced by injection 40 mg of FSH intra-musculary.

  12. Effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection on litter size in young Etawah-cross does

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    N.M Artiningsihi

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of twins and/or multiple births in 20 heads of young Etawah-cross does was studied following oestrous synchronization using intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterorle acetate (Repromap for 15 days . Twenty four hours priorto sponges withdrawal, the does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG at dose rates of 0 (Group A, 10 (Group B, 15 (Group C and 20 iu/kg (Group D body weight. Amature buck fitted with an apron was used to detect the onset of oestrus at every four hours. The oestrous doe was naturally mated twice, 12 hours after onset of oestrus and 10 hours later. About 3-5 days after oestrus, all does were subjected to mid-ventral laparoscopy to detect ovulation rate . Two months after mating all does were subjected to pregnancy test using diagnostic ultrasonography. Results showed that all does exhibited clear sign of oestrus. The onset of oestrus occurred 15-43 hours after sponges withdrawal or 39-59 hours after PMSG injection. Does injected with PMSG (Groups B, C and D showed oestrus 16-21 hours earlier (P0 .05 than that of control (Group A . However, there was no significant differences among the PMSG-treated groups . Ovulation rates increased from 1.0 in Group Ato 1.8 in Group B and 2.6 in bah Groups Cand D. Average litter size in Groups A, B, C and D were 1.0, 1.8, 2.4 and 1.0, respectively. It was concluded that injection of 15 iu PMSG/kg body weight gave the best result for increasing litter size in young Etawah-cross does .

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of a delta inulin-adjuvanted inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine in pregnant mares and foals.

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    Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Prow, Natalie A; Wang, Wenqi; Tan, Cindy S E; Coyle, Mitchell; Douma, Alysha; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Hall, Roy A; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-12-17

    In 2011, following severe flooding in Eastern Australia, an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in South-Eastern Australia, caused by Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and a new variant strain of Kunjin virus, a subtype of West Nile virus (WNVKUN). This prompted us to assess whether a delta inulin-adjuvanted, inactivated cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine (JE-ADVAX™) could be used in horses, including pregnant mares and foals, to not only induce immunity to JEV, but also elicit cross-protective antibodies against MVEV and WNVKUN. Foals, 74-152 days old, received two injections of JE-ADVAX™. The vaccine was safe and well-tolerated and induced a strong JEV-neutralizing antibody response in all foals. MVEV and WNVKUN antibody cross-reactivity was seen in 33% and 42% of the immunized foals, respectively. JE-ADVAX™ was also safe and well-tolerated in pregnant mares and induced high JEV-neutralizing titers. The neutralizing activity was passively transferred to their foals via colostrum. Foals that acquired passive immunity to JEV via maternal antibodies then were immunized with JE-ADVAX™ at 36-83 days of age, showed evidence of maternal antibody interference with low peak antibody titers post-immunization when compared to immunized foals of JEV-naïve dams. Nevertheless, when given a single JE-ADVAX™ booster immunization as yearlings, these animals developed a rapid and robust JEV-neutralizing antibody response, indicating that they were successfully primed to JEV when immunized as foals, despite the presence of maternal antibodies. Overall, JE-ADVAX™ appears safe and well-tolerated in pregnant mares and young foals and induces protective levels of JEV neutralizing antibodies with partial cross-neutralization of MVEV and WNVKUN.

  14. Administration of RRR-α-tocopherol to pregnant mares stimulates maternal IgG and IgM production in colostrum and enhances vitamin E and IgM status in foals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo, Tine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of a vitamin E supplement given to pregnant mares on immunoglobulins (Ig) levels in foals. In addition, the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of the mares’ milk was assessed. Milk α-tocopherol concentrations were compared between pregnant Danish Warmblood mare...

  15. Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Podesta, S.C.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Frankena, K.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine skin allergy caused by bites of Culicoides spp. and impacts on the welfare of affected horses. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for IBH. Data from 3453 Friesian horse mares and 7074 Shetland pony mares scored for IBH by i

  16. Peningkatan Produktivitas Domba pada Skala Peternakan Rakyat Melalui Pemberian Hormon Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL HOLDER FARMS SHEEP PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPHIN

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    Andriyanto .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The administration of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG hormone to stimulate superovulation has been proven to improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth anddevelopment, milk production, litter size, as well as pre and post weaning growth. This study was conductedto apply the administration of PMSG hormone technology in small-holder farms. One hundred ewes weredivided into two groups. Group I (control: 50 ewes ewes without administration of PMSG and Group 2(treatment: 50 ewes ewes with administration of PMSG to stimulate super ovulation and improveendogenous secretion of pregnant hormones. The application of PMSG increased the numbers of lamb bornby 26.8% (69 vs. 87 with average litter size of 20.7% (1.38 vs. 1.74. The lamb weight at birth was alsoincreased by 25.7% (2.76 ± 0.33 vs. 3.47 ± 0.35 kg. The milk production of the dam was also increased by29.7% (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.91 ± 0.22 L/ewe/day. Lambs born to ewes administered PMSG had better weaningweight 22.1% (12.32 ± 2.44 vs. 15.04 ± 1.11 kg/ewe. The number of survival lamb to reach weaning age washigher compared to the control group. The weight at weaning age was almost twice (628.4 kg vs. 1202.8 kgcompared to the control group. Using simple economic analysis calculation, the application of this hormonetechnology could increase gross revenue by Rp 294.280- per ewes. It was concluded that the administrationof PMSG is economically feasible to be applied in to the small-holder farms.

  17. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. I: Dose-dependent effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins.

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    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    Five hundred and eight mature female Wistar rats divided into 35 different groups were stimulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG) (0, 5, 10, 20 & 40 IU) at the late diestrus stage to induce multiple follicular development. No chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) was used for ovulation induction. The quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of fetuses on Day 14 of gestation and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 and 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. However, concurrent with the larger number, higher proportions of abnormal oocytes and embryos were found. High doses of PMSG caused lower in vitro fertilisability of oocytes and greater degrees of embryonic degeneration. Although, the number of oocytes and Day 2-embryos were higher in the 20PMGS dose group, the pregnancy rate was significantly reduced to 27%. In the 40PMSG group no viable pregnancy was noted. Most embryo demise occurred by day 3-5 of pregnancy, probably within the oviducts and before the implantation stage. In rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 and 40 IU of PMSG, the number of morphologically normal looking embryos was greatly reduced by Day 3-5 of pregnancy. In the 40PMSG group, there were no embryos retrieved by Day 4 and 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The effects of time and dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on reproductive efficiency in hair sheep ewes.

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    Quintero-Elisea, Juan A; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Álvarez-Valenzuela, Francisco D; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; González-Reyna, Arnoldo; Lucero-Magaña, Froylan A; Soto-Navarro, Sergio A; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dose and application time of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on reproductive performance of hair sheep ewes synchronized with fluorogesterone acetate (FGA) under tropical conditions of Northeastern Mexico. Ninety-nine hair ewes (63 Blackbelly and 36 Pelibuey) were treated with intravaginal sponges during 10 days. After insertion of FGA sponges, ewes were divided into four groups, and PMSG was injected intramuscularly at doses of 100, 200, and 400 IU. Relative to FGA sponge removal, PMSG was administrated at -48 h, -24 h, and at sponge removal. PMSG was not administered to the control group. Control ewes had similar (P > 0.05) lambing rate, fertility, and fecundity than those treated with 100 IU of PMSG, but lower (P 0.05) by administration time of PMSG. Both dose and time of PMSG application did not affect (P > 0.05) pregnancy rate, percentage of single and multiple lambing, and prolificacy. In conclusion, results show that the dose of 400 IU of PMSG administered before sponge withdrawal in an estrus synchronization protocol improved reproductive efficiency of hair sheep ewes.

  19. Pemberian Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin Sebelum Perkawinan dan Jamu Selama Kebuntingan untuk Memperbaiki Performa Anak Domba (ADMINISTRATION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND JAMU DURING GESTATION TO IMPROVE FOR LAMB PERFOMANCE

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    Andriyanto .

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Administration of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG hormone prior to mating increasesquality of lamb born on one and two litter sizes, but in three litter size the motality is higher. Administrationof traditional herbal medicine “jamu” consisting of ginger,green chiretta, cinnamon, Zingiberzerumbet, andpepper during gestation increases performance of lambs. This research was conducted to explore theeffectivity of PMSG injection prior to mating and jamu administration during gestation to increase lambsperformance. Eighteen priangan fat-tail ewes with weight around 20-25 kg were injected with PGF2á at adose of 10 mg/ewe twice with 11 days interval to synchronize estrous cycle. Injection of PMSG at a dose of200 IU/ewe was conducted at the second PGF2á injection. The experimental ewes were mated naturally anddivided into a randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with three replications. The firstfactor was dose of PMSG with two levels i.e., 0 and 200 IU/ewe. The second factor was dose of jamu withthree levels i.e., 0, 15, and 30 mL/ewe. Jamu was administered orally every week during gestation. Injectionof PMSG and administration of jamu decreased prenatal mortality, increased ratio of lamb per ewe, increased total lamb born with average birth weight and total birth weight were higher in jamu at a doseof 15 and 30 mL/ewe by 30.02 and 31.76%, repectively. During the first month postnatal, lambs born toewes injected by PMSG and administered jamu had higher number of lambs survive, average weight, totalweight around 3 times as compared to control. It was concluded that injection of PMSG prior to mating andadministration of jamu during pregnancy increase lamb birth weight and improve the quality of lamb.

  20. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

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    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  1. 新源县孕马蠕虫体内滞留情况调查%The Retention Investigation of Worms in Pregnant Mare Body of Xinyuan County

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    李佳; 李永畅; 冉多良; 王伟; 巴音查汗

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the helminthes retention in 253 pregnant mares that have been dewormed in Xinyuan County of Xinjiang. [ Methods ] Eggs floating technology and EPG test were used. [Results]The infection rate of helminthes in pregnant mares was 98. 8%. And the main infected parasites were Strongylus equines, Parascaris equorum, coccidia and Strongyloides. Their infection rates were 90. 9% , 66.4% ,83. 4% and 20. 6%,respectively. The EPG test showed that the quantity of Strongylus equines, Parascaris equorum,coccidia,Strongyloides were, on the average, 466,255,312 and 94 in one gram feces, respectively. [Conclusion]The results will provide reference for preventing and treating local pregnant mare parasitic diseases and promoting the healthy development of the horse industry.%[目的]调查新疆新源县驱虫后的孕马体内蠕虫滞留情况.[方法]采集样品253份,采用虫卵漂浮法和EPG检查法.[结果]孕马总感染率为98.8%,主要感染的虫体有马圆线虫、马副蛔虫、球虫、类圆线虫,感染率分别为90.9%、66.4%、83.4%、20.6%.感染强度(EPG)的检查圆线虫平均466 个/g;马副蛔虫平均255个/g,球虫平均312个/g,类圆线虫平均94个/g.[结论]调查数据可为地方孕马寄生虫病的防治及马产业的健康发展提供参考.

  2. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clulow John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus. Methods Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs, and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina were also examined with hCG. Results When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU. Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone to more than 50% (p = 0.035, and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p Conclusions This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana and some bufonids that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG. The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU, 24

  3. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    stabled ponies to re-establish natural feeding patterns and offers a viable alternative to meal and forage feeding. The more slowly ingested chaff form maximized time spent feeding and limited changes in DEI during the introductory period. Although CS and ADG increased over the first 4 weeks, growth...... (23 (s.e. 1.2) per bite, P spent more time feeding (0.50 (s.e. 1.3) of the time, P ...-detergent fibre (NDF, 0.53) and gross energy (GE) were neither altered by food processing nor time. Apparent digestibilities (DM, 0.49; GE, 0.50; NDF, 0.40 in period 1) of the pelleted and chaff- based diets were similar within periods but decreased (P

  4. Male, female and management risk factors for non-return to service in Dutch mares.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, van A.; Westers, P.; Colenbrander, B.

    2003-01-01

    The "effect" of stallion, mare and management-related factors on the odds of pregnancy per cycle in the horse were identified and quantified from the breeding records of Dutch Warmblood (n=4491), Friesian (n=1467) and Shetland-pony mares (n=3267) mated either naturally or by artificial insemination

  5. Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurink, Anouk; Podesta, Sabrina C; Ducro, Bart J; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Frankena, Klaas

    2013-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine skin allergy caused by bites of Culicoides spp. and impacts on the welfare of affected horses. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for IBH. Data from 3453 Friesian horse mares and 7074 Shetland pony mares scored for IBH by inspectors during obligatory foal inspections were analysed using breed-specific multivariable logistic regression models. The combined effect of month and year of scoring, Province and inspector were significantly associated with IBH in both breeds. In Shetland pony mares, withers height and coat colour were also significantly associated with IBH, while body condition had a nearly significant effect. The outcomes from this study on risk factors might contribute to the development of more efficient measures to reduce the prevalence of IBH.

  6. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

  7. Effects of natural exposure to high levels of zinc and cadmium in the immature pony as a function of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, D.F.; Gunson, D.E.; Shoop, C.R.; Ramberg, C.F. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    To study the effects of environmental exposure to zinc and cadmium in immature foals, five pregnant ponies were raised within 2.9 km of the New Jersey Zinc Smelter in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The mares and their foals were kept outdoors on timothy hay and orchard grass. The foals were examined daily for signs of illness and blood samples were taken monthly for estimation of serum zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin levels. The foals were sacrificed at 2.5, 4.5, 8.5, 13.5, and 18.5 months of age. Necropsy revealed generalized osteochondrosis in joints of the limbs and cervical vertebrae, lymphoid hyperplasia, and eosinophilia. Two of the foals had developed mild lameness. The concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, magnesium, and calcium were determined in liver, kidney cortex, and pancreas. The concentration of cadmium and zinc were the only elements that were greatly elevated in all three tissues as compared to control animals. The concentration of cadmium was directly correlated with age in the three tissues (e.g., 23.9 to 212.7 micrograms/g wet wt in kidney cortex), whereas zinc was significantly increased (range 132 to 954 micrograms/g wet wt in liver) but there was no correlation with age. It was concluded that the development of osteochondrosis is associated with increased exposure to zinc and possibly cadmium. The classical signs of cadmium toxicosis, such as renal damage and osteomalacia, were not observed.

  8. Foaling rates and risk factors for abortion in pregnant mares presented for medical or surgical treatment of colic: 153 cases (1993–2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenier, Tracey S.; Whitehead, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine foaling rates in mares presented for medical or surgical treatment of colic, and to examine risk factors associated with abortion following colic. A retrospective analysis of 153 medical records found that mares treated surgically for colic (P = 0.0007) were 3.5 times more likely to have a negative pregnancy outcome than were mares treated medically for colic. Anesthetic time (P = 0.01) and intra-operative hypotension (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with negative pregnancy outcome. Mares with an anesthetic time ≥ 3 h were 6 times more likely to abort. Signs of endotoxemia (P = 0.30), hypoxia (P = 0.89), flunixin meglumine administration (P = 0.13), mucous membrane color at the time of presentation (P = 0.82) and capillary refill time (P = 0.76) were not associated with pregnancy outcome. There was no difference in the foaling rate for mares that had received progestin supplementation versus those that had not (P = 0.42). In this study, the significant risk factors for abortion were surgically treated colic, long anesthetic time, and intraoperative hypotension. PMID:19436632

  9. Passive transfer of naturally acquired specific immunity against West Nile Virus to foals in a semi-feral pony herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Glaser, Amy L; McDonnell, Sue M

    2006-01-01

    Horses naturally exposed to West Nile Virus (WNV) or vaccinated against WNV develop humoral immunity thought to be protective against development of clinical disease in exposed or infected animals. No reports evaluate the efficacy of passive transfer of naturally acquired specific WNV humoral immunity from dam to foal. The purpose of this study was to investigate passive transfer of naturally acquired immunity to WNV to foals born in a herd of semi-feral ponies, not vaccinated against WNV, in an endemic area, with many dams having seroconverted because of natural exposure. Microwell serum neutralization titers against WNV were determined in all mares and foals. Serum IgG concentration was determined in foals by serial radial immunodiffusion. Differences in IgG concentration between seropositive and seronegative foals were examined by means of the Mann-Whitney U-test. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between mare and foal titers. Seventeen mare-foal pairs were studied; 1 foal had inadequate IgG concentration. IgG concentration was not different between seronegative and seropositive foals (P = .24). Mare and foal titers were significantly correlated in foals with adequate passive transfer of immunity (Spearman's rho = .84; P 90% of the foal's titer was explained by the mare's titer (R2 = 0.91; P immunity to WNV is present in pony foals with adequate passive transfer of immunity born to seroconverted mares.

  10. Sex preferences in Jeju pony foals (Equus caballus) for mutual grooming and play-fighting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Jeong Rae; Srygley, Robert Baxter; Choe, Jae Chun

    2007-08-01

    We investigated mutual grooming by Jeju pony (Equus caballus) foals to determine whether male foals preferentially interact with potential future sexual partners or competitors. We predicted that relative to female foals, male foals would exchange grooming more frequently with young mares and that in general, foals would mutually groom more frequently with the opposite sex rather than the same sex. Observing 53 foals between April and October 1998, we recorded 113 mutual grooming events. Male foals exchanged grooming with yearling mares more frequently than with their mother, while female foals exchanged grooming with their mother more frequently than with yearling mares. Contrary to the prediction, foals were not more likely to mutually groom with a foal of the opposite sex than with a foal of the same sex. In our study, 21 instances of play-fighting behavior followed mutual grooming between peers. Relative to intersexual grooming events, play-fighting was more likely to follow intrasexual mutual grooming, and male foals were much more likely to play fight than female foals. These results provide evidence that Jeju pony foals develop and maintain social relationships at the earliest stage of their lives. We suggest that early social experiences might influence social bonding later when the male foal begins to form a harem after separation from its mother.

  11. Ecological Impact and Carrying Capacity of Ponies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objectives of the study were to determine (1) the grazing patterns of the ponies living within the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, (2) the effects...

  12. Long-term adaptation capacity of ponies: effect of season and feed restriction on blood and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Riek, A; Gerken, M

    2017-07-10

    Domesticated horses are increasingly kept under semi-natural housing conditions, whereas their adaptation capacity is not fully investigated. In all, 10 Shetland pony mares were held under semi-extensive conditions for 1 year. In winter animals were allocated into two feeding groups (60% and 100% of maintenance energy requirement, respectively). Triiodothyronine, thyroxine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total bilirubin, total protein, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and hair length were measured at monthly intervals, whereas BW, body condition score, cresty neck score and resting heart rate were recorded every 2 weeks. From summer to winter all Ponies showed a reduction in resting heart rate (P0.05). Refeeding of restrictively fed ponies resulted in a rapid increase in resting heart rate and BW and a return of blood parameters to reference values. Adequately supplied animals adapted without difficulty to varying environmental conditions, whereas feed restriction in ponies during winter resulted in reduced resting heart rates suggesting a reduced basal metabolic rate. The energy restriction was compensated by mobilizing body fat reserves which led to changes in blood parameters. Refeeding in feed restricted animals revealed a remarkably quick recovery of physiological and blood parameters to reference values. We therefore suggest that year round-outdoor housing can be a suitable housing system for robust horse breeds provided that an adequate food supply is available.

  13. Serum Macrominerals, Glucose and Triglycerides in Arabian Mares during Different Phases of Reproduction Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Meliani*, Bouabdellah Benallou, Miloud Halbouche1, Abdellatif Niar and Abdelkarim Naceri2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the difference in biochemical serum constituents of Arabian mares during different phases of the reproduction cycle. According to there reproductive status, mares were assigned to one of the following six groups, i.e., filly (n=5, late pregnancy (n=7, early pregnancy (n=11, estrual mares (n=8, infertile mares (n=8 and mares in post partum less than 8 days (n=4. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, glucose and triglycerides were determined. Calcium and phosphorus levels were significantly (P<0.05 higher in infertile and filly group, respectively. Sodium level was significantly lower in infertile than in all other groups and the higher serum level was observed in early pregnant mares. Concerning potassium, mean levels were significantly higher than in filly and the lowest mean values were observed in post foaling mares, however, no significant difference was observed in magnesium levels between all groups. Glucose concentration in early pregnant mares was lower than all other groups, but the difference was significant with mares in estrus and fillies. Triglycerides were significantly (P<0.05 higher in late pregnancy and infertile mares than in filly, in early pregnancy, in estrus and in post foaling mare groups. In this study, results pointed towards the significant influence of reproductive statuses on some biochemical serum constituents in mares.

  14. A comparative stereological study of the term placenta in the donkey, pony and Thoroughbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Villani, M; Wilsher, S; Contri, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare horse and donkey placentae using stereological techniques. Term placentae were collected at spontaneous foaling from seven Thoroughbred mares, seven pony mares, and six jenny donkeys. Maternal and foal weights were recorded and the mass, volume, and gross area of each allantochorion was also recorded. Ten random biopsies were recovered and processed for light microscopy from which the surface density of the microcotyledons (S(v)) and the total microscopic area of fetomaternal contact were calculated stereologically. Gestation length was longer in the donkeys than the other two groups (median values: 371 vs. 327 and 341 days, P donkey placenta than the other groups (median values: 0.05 vs. 0.03 and 0.04 microm(-1), P donkeys (median values: 0.87 vs. 1.33 and 1.32 kg/m2, P donkey, that of the donkey develops more complex microcotyledons, as judged stereologically, and exhibits a lower placental efficiency. These differences may be related to maternal genotype and/or the longer gestation length shown by the donkey compared to the horse, but a negative correlation (rho = -0.92, P donkeys.

  15. Evaluation of saddle and driving aptitudes in Monterufoli pony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monterufoli pony is an endangered Tuscan breed. In the 80’s began a project for the conservation of the breed and at present there are roughly 200 individuals. The equine was once utilized for saddle and driving and this study deals with the training for these two aptitudes. The mor- phologic type of the pony seems suited for saddle, in particular for children and beginners, and driving. The ponies showed developed chest, strong legs with short shanks: all these characters were useful for trot and driving. In this trial 3-4 years old never tamed Monterufoli ponies were opportunely choose and subsequently trained for saddle and driving. The ponies were submitted to the “aptitude test” for the two aptitudes and the results were good both for practical and character sides. The marks for sad- dle and driving were 8.16 and 8.06 respectively. Also the 3 ponies showed good results for the Aptitude Index: 7.60, 7.87 and 7.89. The results of the trial showed the excellent ability of the Monterufoli pony for saddle and driving. The good results of the test are important for the diffusion of the breed in the territory and in particular in horse centres and in equestrian tourism sites.

  16. Antibiotic treatment of experimentally Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Fu; Ku, Yu-We; Chang, Chao-Fu; Chang, Ching-Dong; McDonough, Sean P; Divers, Thomas; Pough, Margaret; Torres, Alfonso

    2005-05-20

    The objective of this study is to determine whether doxycycline, ceftiofur or tetracycline could be effectively used to treat equine Lyme disease. Ponies experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick exposure were treated with doxycycline, ceftiofur or tetracycline for 4 weeks (28 days). Doxycyline and ceftiofur treatment were inconsistent in eliminating persistent infection in this experimental model. However, tetracycline treatment seems to eliminate persistent infection. Although serum antibody levels to B. burgdorferi in all ponies declined gradually after antibiotic treatment, three out of four ponies treated with doxycline and two out of four ponies treated with ceftiofur, serum KELA titers were raised again 3 month after treatment was discontinued. Five months after antibiotic treatment, tissues aseptically collected at necropsy from ponies with increased antibody levels after antibiotic treatment also showed culture positive to B. burgdorferi in various post-mortem tissues. However, all four-tetracycline treatment ponies showed a negative antibody level and culture negative from post-mortem tissues. Untreated infected ponies maintained high KELA titers throughout the study and were tissue culture positive.

  17. Hepatoencephalopathy and hypocalcemia in a miniature horse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarratt, W K; Furr, M O; Robertson, J L

    1991-12-15

    A pregnant, miniature horse mare had clinical signs of hepatoencephalopathy and concurrent hypocalcemia. The signs included dullness, inappetence, blindness, head pressing, weakness, muscle fasiculations, uveitis, and urinary incontinence. Hepatic dysfunction and hypocalcemia were confirmed by serum biochemical analysis. The mare was treated successfully with a continuous infusion of Ringer solution, calcium gluconate, dextrose, B-complex vitamins, sodium ampicillin, and flunixin meglumine; topical administration of ophthalmic ointments; and decompression of the urinary bladder. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen revealed acute hepatic necrosis, which likely was associated with administration of a vaccine of equine origin 2 months earlier.

  18. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Shetland pony mares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Frankena, K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic disease present in horses worldwide. It has been shown that IBH is under genetic control, but the knowledge of associated genes is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify and quantify genomic regions contributin

  19. Uterus unicornis in two mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Hodder, A D J; Benak, J; Liu, I K M; Ball, B A

    2007-09-01

    Two American Paint Horses, a 3-year-old nulliparous mare and a 7-year-old primiparous mare, presented for recent infertility and a pre-breeding examination, respectively. Examination of the internal reproductive tract of both mares using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography revealed the presence of the cervix, uterine body, left uterine horn and bilateral ovaries. The right uterine horn could neither be palpated nor imaged. The clinical diagnosis of uterus unicornis in one mare was confirmed at necropsy, which revealed combined aplasia of the right uterine horn and oviduct.

  20. Early migration of Sarcocystis neurona in ponies fed sporocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitsur, E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Murphy, J E; Saville, W J A

    2007-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurologic disease of the horse. In the present work, the kinetics of S. neurona invasion is determined in the equine model. Six ponies were orally inoculated with 250 x 10(6) S. neurona sporocysts via nasogastric intubation and killed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 postinoculation (PI). At necropsy, tissue samples were examined for S. neurona infection. The parasite was isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes at 1, 2, and 7 days PI; the liver at 2, 5, and 7 days PI; and the lungs at 5, 7, and 9 days PI by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knock out mice (KO) and from cell culture. Microscopic lesions consistent with an EPM infection were observed in brain and spinal cord of ponies killed 7 and 9 days PI. Results suggest that S. neurona disseminates quickly in tissue of naive ponies.

  1. Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, C G; Sangiah, S

    1993-07-01

    Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days. At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers. Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is not significantly effective in accelerating healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under conditions of this study.

  2. HORMONETHERAPY IN MARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. Marinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When compared with other domestic animals the equine species is that present the minors reproductive indices. Besides some parameters of estrous cycle are variable to we consider each mare individually, what hinders the reproductive handling, these females respond the alterations of seasonality, this fact limits in reproduction its potential. Therefore, the uses of innovative reproductive biotechnologies and hormonal protocols have shown indispensable for the producers who wish to increase the reproductive rate of this species. Hormontherapy has shown great efficiency in handling the estrous cycle of these females. Thus, this literature review aimed to perform an update regarding hormonal protocols used in the equine species. Dealt with the main hormones used to control the estrous cycle of mares, as prostaglandin F2a (PGF2α, estrogens, progestogens, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, equine pituitary extract (EPE, the purified equine follicle stimulating hormone (eFSH and oxytocin. It became evident that the knowledge of hormontherapy applied in equine reproduction is of utmost importance, allowing higher profitability by improving the reproductive efficiency of animals of high genetic value, generating benefits for both the professional as to the owner

  3. REVIEW paper: mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, M M; Bernard, W V; Riddle, T W; Latimer, C R; Fitzgerald, T D; Harrison, L R

    2008-09-01

    An epidemic of early fetal loss (EFL), late fetal loss (LFL), fibrinous pericarditis, and unilateral uveitis which occurred during the spring of 2001, are together now known as the mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A similar epidemic with less intensity was reported during the same period of time from southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Tennessee. The same syndrome with lesser intensity recurred in 2002. The estimated economic loss from the syndrome in 2001 and 2002 together was approximately $500 million. Both EFL and LFL were characterized by the absence of specific clinical signs in aborting mares. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Actinobacillus spp. accounted for 65% of the organisms isolated from fetuses submitted for a postmortem during the MRLS period in 2001 and 2002. The pathologic findings in fetoplacental units of LFL included bronchopneumonia and funisitis, and there were no findings in EFL. Epidemiologic studies conducted in 2001 suggested an association between the presences of eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) in pastures with MRLS. Experimental studies in pregnant mares by exposure to ETC, or administration by stomach tube or with feed material, reproduced EFL and LFL. Similar experimental studies in mouse, rats, and goats with ETC were unsuccessful. Currently, 2 hypotheses are proposed for MRLS. One hypothesis proposes that an ETC-related toxin with secondary opportunistic bacterial invasion of the fetus leads to MRLS. The second hypothesis suggests that a breach of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity by hairs of ETC leads to a bacteremia and results in MRLS. In 2004, a similar equine abortion storm was reported from Australia and caterpillar exposure was identified as a risk factor for the abortion. In 2006, the syndrome was observed in Florida and New Jersey.

  4. The Blue Pony Lacrosse Program: Embracing the Spirit of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An offshoot of a Denver, Colorado, alcohol and drug abuse prevention program, Blue Pony reclaims lacrosse as a Native American sport, and uses it to bridge tribal differences and promote cultural awareness, self-empowerment, and healthy lifestyles among urban Native American children. Discusses the game's history, a literacy program utilizing…

  5. Hyperlipoproteinaemia in ponies: Mechanisms and response to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, Th.; Gent, C.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Kroneman, J.

    1975-01-01

    1. (I) The lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in sera of 4 healthy and 9 hyperlipaemic patients were determined. From the results of the analyses, it is suggested that three types of hyperlipoproteinaemia can be distinguished in ponies: 1.1. (a) Type 1, characterised by a very pronounced increas

  6. Administration of sulpiride or domperidone for advancing the first ovulation in deep anestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, G; Morganti, M; Merlo, B; Castagnetti, C; Parmeggiani, F; Govoni, N; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2009-04-01

    Since results with using sulpiride and domperidone are conflicting and since both have not been tested at the same time, the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of these substances for the induction of ovulation in deep anestrous mares in the same experimental conditions and to determine their fertility after artificial insemination (AI) at the induced estrus. Twenty-six non-pregnant, non-lactating standardbred anestrous mares were randomly assigned to three groups and treated daily for 25 days (from February 3rd to February 28th) with either sulpiride (1mg/kg of body weight im SID, n=10), or domperidone (1mg/kg po SID, n=10); 6 animals were used as control. The beginning of the transition period and the first ovulation were hastened in sulpiride (16.4+/-0.8 days) but not in domperidone (46.0+/-3.3 days) treated mares (Psulpiride group (Psulpiride group (36.9+/-2.5 days) than in the domperidone (74.7+/-3.3 days) and control (81.4+/-3.1) groups. The establishment of pregnancy was significantly (Psulpiride (61.0+/-35.2 days) but not in domperidone (83.0+/-44.0 days) treated mares. Treated mares not pregnant after the first AI, showed normal estrous cycles with regular interovulatory intervals (P>0.05). It was concluded that sulpiride is effective in advancing the beginning of transition period and the first ovulation whereas domperidone is successful only in some mares.

  7. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El 25 de junio de 2004 falleció el Dr. Hielke Haak, un destacado colega que fue muy considerado no sólo por su trayectoria académica sino además por su calidad personal. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares nació el 21 de mayo de 1948 y luego de seguir sus estudios en nuestra Alma Mater, en 1974 obtuvo el Grado Acadé- mico de Bachiller en Biología, luego en 1975 obtuvo el Título Profesional de Biólogo y en 1976 el Grado Académico de Magíster en Bioquímica, siendo becario de la Fundación Kellogg. Posteriormente en 1989 se graduó de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas.

  8. Soome kooli kitsaskohad / Mare Leino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leino, Mare, 1961-

    2016-01-01

    Helsingi ülikooli professorite Liisa Keltikangas-Järvineni ja Sari Mullola raamatust "Maailma parim kool?" (ilmunud 2016. aastal Mare Leino tõlkes ka Eestis), kus Soome kooli puudusi päevavalgele tuuakse

  9. Helium resources of Mare Tranquillitatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, Univ. of Wisc., Madison, Wisc. Mare Tranquillitatis, about 300000 sq km in area, is currently the most promising lunar source of He-3 for fueling fusion power plants on Earth. About 60 pct. of the mare regolith consists of particles 100 microns or less in diameter. Helium and other gases derived from the solar wind are concentrated in the fine size fractions. Studies of very small craters indicate that the average regolith exceeds 3 m in areas away from larger craters and other mare features not amenable to mining. There is no evidence of decrease of helium content of regolith and depth. Helium is known to be enriched in regoliths that are high in TiO2 content. Remote sensing indicates that about 90 pct. of Mare Tranquillitatis is covered by regolith ranging from about 6 to +7.5 pct. TiO2; inferred He contents range from 20 to at least 45 wppm total helium (7 to 18 wppb He-3). Detailed studies of craters and inferred ejecta halos displayed on high resolution photographs of the Apollo 11 and Ranger 8 areas suggest that as much as 50 pct. of the mare regolith may be physically minable, on average, with appropriate mining equipment. Assuming that the average thickness of regolith is 3 m, and that 50 pct. of the mare area is minable, the He-3 content of minable regolith containing 20 to 45 wppm total He is estimated at about 94,000 tonnes.

  10. Investigation of Guizhou Pony in Ziyun County of Guizhou Province%紫云县贵州矮马资源评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 田松军; 王荣明; 冉雪琴; 雷红梅; 王嘉福; 王三铭

    2012-01-01

    The population and distribution of Guizhou pony were investigated in Ziyun county, Guizhou Province in the present work. The result showed that total population of ponies was 1421 including 611 males and 810 females. Their coat colors were of bay and chestnut. No significant difference in height, body length, hend length and neck length were observed between sexes, however the cannon circumference of male pony was larger than that of the female. Male contained much more erythrocytes, platelets, intermediate cells, conversely much low level of serum total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterd ( HDL). Female in pregnant decreased the platelet numbers and low density lipoprotein cholesterd ( LDL) levels while increased her carbon dioxide combining power. These characteristics might be related with the susceptibility to respiratory disease in female pony individuals. Guizhou pony was good at loading and climbing in the local mountain region, however, their management and disease prevention were poor. It suggested that the Guizhou pony should need lowering the body height and improving the disease prevention in Ziyun county of Guizhou province.%对贵州省紫云县境内现存的贵州矮马数量及分布进行了调查.全县12个乡镇中,贵州矮马存栏1421匹,其中公马611匹,母马810匹;其毛色以骝毛和栗毛为主.雌雄矮马的体高、体长、胸围、头长和颈长没有明显差异,但雄性个体的管围明显较粗.雄性矮马的红细胞数量较多但体积较小,血小板和中间细胞数量较高,血清总胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平较雌性的低;雌性矮马妊娠时血小板数量和低密度脂蛋白水平代偿性下降,但中性粒细胞数量和CO2结合能力升高.雄性矮马与雌性矮马的使役能力没有明显差别.目前贵州矮马混养、无序买卖及疾病预防不足是其死亡率高、体高上升的重要原因.

  11. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  12. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males.

  13. Concentrações séricas de retinol de éguas gestantes em haras do Vale do Rio Doce e Sul de Minas Gerais Retinol serum concentration in pregnant mares in farms of Vale do Rio Doce and Sul de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Garcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de retinol de 16 éguas gestantes em haras de duas diferentes regiões de Minas Gerais (Vale do Rio Doce e Sul de Minas. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagens com sal mineral à vontade, sem qualquer suplementação concentrada. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas a cada 30 dias, nos meses de maio a novembro de 2002, objetivando verificar a necessidade de suplementação das éguas com vitamina A nos meses de seca. A concentração de betacaroteno das pastagens também foi correlacionada com as concentrações sorológicas de vitamina A, a fim de verificar a utilização da reserva hepática dessa vitamina pelos eqüinos. As análises do retinol sorológico e do betacaroteno das pastagens foram realizadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O experimento foi em parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, e os resultados foram comparados pelo teste Duncan. A correlação entre as concentrações séricas de retinol e betacaroteno das pastagens foi estimada pelo método de Pearson. Os resultados demonstraram que, no ano de 2002, não houve necessidade de suplementação das éguas dos haras das regiões estudadas nos meses de seca e que não houve correlação entre os teores de retinol plasmático das éguas com os de betacaroteno das pastagens.Retinol serum concentrations were analyzed from 16 pregnant mares raised in farms of two different regions of Minas Gerais state, Brazil (Vale do Rio Doce and Sul de Minas. The animals were maintained on pasture with free access to mineral supplement without grain concentrate supplementation. Blood samples were collected monthly from May to November 2002, aiming to verify the need of vitamin A supplementation during the dry season. The concentration of beta-carotene from pasture samples was also correlated with blood plasma concentration to verify the utilization of hepatic stock of vitamin A. High performance liquid

  14. [Effects of excess caloric fat feeding on the lipid metabolism in Shetland ponies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühlmeier, R; Gück, T; Deegen, E; Busche, R; Sallmann, H P

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the influence of overweight and dietary fat supplementation on lipid and insulin glucose metabolism of Shetland ponies, eight Shetland pony geldings were fed a hypercaloric (30 MJ DE/150 kg bwt. and day) fat diet (10% fat as soybean oil) or a carbohydrate control diet for nine months until ponies gained an overweight of 15%. Afterwards oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT; 5, 6 mmol/kg bwt.) were performed after a 12 hour fast and after a fast which led to an increase of plasma triglyceride concentrations to a threshold of 3 mmol/l (36-65 hrs.). Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were determined for 480 minutes after the glucose load. Ponys having had received the control diet tended to a higher insulin secretion in case of both oGTTs, whereas the glucose tolerance was similar in both groups but lower than in ponies of normal weight. During the oGTTs after fasting leading to the plasma triglyceride threshold, triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly (p ponies. Additionally, fat fed pony showed significantly (p ponies.

  15. Differences in polymorphonucleocyte function and local inflammatory response between horses and ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.M.; Veenman, J.N.; Boom, R.; Rutten, V.; Niewold, T.A.; Broekhuisen-Davies, J.M.; Lees, P.; Armstrong, S.; Weeren, van P.R.; Barneveld, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Wound healing proceeds faster in ponies than in horses and complications during healing, such as wound infection, occur less frequently in ponies. Earlier studies suggested that this difference might be related to differences in the initial post traumatic inflammatory r

  16. Prueba oral de tolerancia al almidón del grano de avena en ponies (Oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe efectuó una Prueba Oral de Tolerancia al Almidón del grano de Avena en ponies, para desarrollar una curva de glucemia propia de estas razas, compararla con las curvas de glucemia de equinos de mayor alzada, consumiendo pasturas o dietas mixtas de forrajes y concentrados, y observar si algún pony pudiera ser considerado unvalor atípico.SummaryAn oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies was carried out to develop a glycaemic curve specific to these breeds, compared it with glycaemic curves of larger height horses, pasture fed or forage and concentrates fed, and see if any pony could be considered outlier.

  17. Role of horse flies in transmission of wquine infectious anemia from carrier ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, M J; McClain, D S; Matthysse, J G

    1978-02-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus was transmitted from an acutely ill and an inapparently infected pony to uninfected ponies by the interrupted feeding of horse flies (tabanids). Transmission from acutely ill ponies was not accomplished following: (1) the interrupted feeding of a single horse fly, (2) bites of horse flies that had fed on an acutely affected pony 24 hours earlier, (3) bites of horse flies that had oviposited after feeding on an acutely affected pony, or (4) the inoculation of larval material derived from horse flies that had fed to repletion. It was concluded that horse fly transmission of equine infectious anemia virus is mechanical only and that infected horses that are free of clinical signs can be a source of virus for insect transmission.

  18. Uurimus uuematest lauludest / Mare Kõiva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiva, Mare, 1954-

    2003-01-01

    Tutvustus: Tedre, Ülo. Eesti mees ja tema sugu : XIX sajandi lõppriimilises rahvalaulus / [järelsõna: Mare Kõiva] ; Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum. Lisa: Ülo Tedre tööde bibliograafia [1951-2002] / koostanud Karin Maria Rooleid. Tallinn ; Tartu : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum, 2003

  19. Micropolyspora faeni causes airway inflammation but not hyperresponsiveness in sensitized ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, F J; Scott, J S; Slocombe, R F; Robinson, N E

    1987-04-01

    We assessed the effect of aerosol Micropolyspora faeni challenge in two groups of ponies by measuring lung function, airway reactivity to aerosol histamine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology. One group of ponies was sensitized by subcutaneous injection of M. faeni in complete Freund's adjuvant, and the other group served as control. In both groups of ponies, measurements were made at base line and 5 h after aerosol administration of 30 ml of saline or 30 ml of 1% wt/vol particulate M. faeni antigen in saline. Saline challenge had no effect on any of the measured variables. M. faeni challenge had no effect on pulmonary mechanics or gas exchange in the control group but significantly increased respiratory frequency and minute ventilation and decreased arterial CO2 tension in the sensitized ponies. In both groups of ponies, aerosol M. faeni challenge significantly increased total white blood cell count and neutrophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid while large mononuclear cell numbers decreased. Airway responsiveness was unaltered by saline or M. faeni challenge in both pony groups. We conclude that aerosol M. faeni challenge induces pulmonary neutrophilia and abnormalities of ventilation but is not accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized ponies.

  20. The MareNostrum Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlöber, S; Wagner, C; Sevilla, R; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The MareNostrum Universe is one of the biggest SPH cosmological simulations done so far. It contains more than 2 billion particles (2 times 1024^3) in a 500 Mpc/h cubic volume. This simulation has been performed on the MareNostrum supercomputer at the Barcelona Supercomputer Center. We have obtained more than 0.5 million halos with masses greater than a typical Milky Way galaxy halo. We report results about the halo mass function, the shapes of dark matter and gas distributions in halos, the baryonic fraction in galaxy clusters and groups, baryon oscillations in the dark matter and the halo power spectra as well as the distribution and evolution of the gas fraction at large scales.

  1. Controlled test and clinical evaluation of dienbendazole against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, T R

    1989-11-01

    A controlled test was performed to titrate the anthelmintic dosage of dienbendazole in 24 mixed-breed ponies naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyle species, as determined by parasitic egg and larval counts in feces. Comparison of results of treatment was made among 3 dienbendazole dosages--2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight--and a gum (excipient) mixture given by nasogastric intubation. All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied at 7 or 8 days after treatment. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, S vulgaris, S edentatus, small strongyles, and Oxyuris equi were efficaciously eliminated in response to all doses of dienbendazole; Gasterophilus spp were not affected by any dose. There were not sufficient numbers of Draschia megastoma, Anoplocephala spp, or Parascaris equorum in the ponies to evaluate drug effect. Changes in the appearance of the intestinal lining were dose-dependent; in the ponies treated with 5 and 10 mg of dienbendazole/kg, the mucosa appeared clean and smooth, though in ponies given 2.5 mg/kg, it appeared clean, but was nodular and moderately reactive to embedded immature small strongyles. In the gum mixture-treated ponies, the large intestinal mucosa was inflamed, with edematous areas, in response to infections caused by large and small strongyles. A limited clinical titration was done in 12 ponies that were fecal culture negative for S vulgaris larvae, although other strongyles were detected. Two ponies in each of 6 groups were given the following dosages: 0 (gum mixture only), 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg of dienbendazole/kg. One group of 2 ponies was given 5 mg of fenbendazole/kg as a standard treatment control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Clinical use of dopamine antagonist sulpiride to advance first ovulation in transitional mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, D; Zicchino, I; Taras, A; Marmorini, P; Crisci, A; Rota, A; Camillo, F

    2011-01-01

    Artificial photoperiod treatment is currently the best method to hasten the first ovulation of the breeding season in winter anoestrus mares. However, this is not easy to apply in large herds of mares and, to be effective, has to be planned in the northern hemisphere in December at the latest. Pharmacological treatments have been proposed as alternatives: GnRH agonists, progesterone or its synthetic agonist Altrenogest, and dopamino-antagonists, as pherphenazine, domperidone or sulpiride. Dopamino-antagonists protocols, beginning at a given day of the year, gave controversial results in terms of hastening ovulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an up-to-21-d long dopamine antagonist (sulpiride) treatment on mares at the beginning of the spring transition for its ability to hasten estrous cyclicity. In Study 1, 49 seasonally-acyclic standardbred mares, maintained in paddocks under natural photoperiod, were treated with 1 mg/kg/d sulpiride at the evidence of the first follicle with of 25 mm in diameter until ovulation for a maximum of 21 d (Group S(1); n = 34) or left untreated (Group C(1); n = 15). Group S(1) and C(1) mares showed a follicle of 35 mm in diameter after 8 and 22 d (median; P 0.05) and 50.0% and 61.1% of the remaining became pregnant in the following cycles (P > 0.05), respectively. Beginning with sulpiride treatment when follicles were 25 mm in diameter resulted in a significant advancement of cyclicity in non-photo-stimulated mares. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination of treated mares were similar to those of untreated animals.

  3. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958

  4. [Radiographic diagnosis of abdominal diseases in foals and ponys. II. Pathologic findings in 60 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhards, H; Klein, H J; Offeney, F

    1990-08-01

    A diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic examinations for evaluation of young foals and small ponies with acute abdominal discomfort is presented. Standing right to left lateral abdominal radiographs were taken of 54 foals and 6 ponies using a previously described technique. Interpretation of the radiographs was in conjunction with all clinical and laboratory findings and patient management. Using this approach, the site and cause of acute abdominal discomfort could be diagnosed accurately in 55 of 60 (91%) patients as confirmed by clinical, surgical or necropsy findings. Typical radiographs and photographs taken at surgery or at necropsy are presented. Typical radiographic findings, their interpretation and possible underlying gastrointestinal diseases are listed. The incorporation of standing lateral abdominal radiography in the clinical evaluation of foals and ponies with acute abdominal diseases gives findings of high diagnostic significance and should contribute to clinical decision-making. Abdominal radiography can replace data from rectal palpation in foals and ponies.

  5. Supplementary report on Pony Express-Overland Stage sites in western Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following report is a description by site of Pony Express and Overland Stage stations between Rush Valley and Deep Creek, Utah. Descriptions, including...

  6. Severe combined immunodeficiency in a Fell pony foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelìnek, F; Faldyna, M; Jasurkova-Mikutova, G

    2006-03-01

    Five days after birth of a viable Fell pony filly, yellow watery diarrhoea appeared without any signs of systemic disease. Four days later the diarrhoea ceased. On 11th day, the animal showed apathy, and a few days later, the foal was very lethargic, suffered from muscular weakness and severe watery diarrhoea that reappeared. The illness did not respond to therapy. At the age of 21 days the filly spontaneously died under symptoms of intestinal colic and pneumonia. Haematological examinations revealed lower numbers of erythrocytes as well as non-selective lymphopenia. Phagocytic activity was slightly increased, lymphocyte activity was inhibited. Histopathology showed severe alteration of the lymphatic organs. T and B lymphocytes and antigen-presenting macrophages were not arranged in characteristic areas, and the quantity of these cells was lower than would be expected. Histopathological changes in lymphatic organs resembled those described in the literature as severe combined immunodeficiency.

  7. Comparison between circadian motor activity in pony and horse Comparación de la actividad motora circadiano en ponis y caballos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIUSEPPE PICCIONE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the influence of body mass on the daily rhythm of total motor activity in ponies and horses. Six clinically healthy Shetland pony breed with a body mass of 180 ± 30 kg and six healthy horses Sella Italiana breed with a body mass of 530 ± 20 kg were used. Animals were equipped with actigraphy-based data loggers, Actiwatch-Mini® to record total activity. The application of two-way ANOVA showed a highly significant effect of time of day and body mass on motor activity. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases during the two days of monitoring. Mesor and amplitude were statistically higher in horses than in ponies and no statistically significant differences was found about acrophases and robustness. In conclusion we suppose that the difference in the amount of total motor activity, in animals that differ in breed, as pony and horse, may lie in physical differences.En este estudio hemos investigado la influencia de la masa corporal con respecto al ritmo circadiano de toda la actividad motora en los ponis y los caballos. Han sido utilizados seis sanos Shetland poni con una masa corporal de 180 ± 30 kg y seis sanos caballos biotipo Sella Italiana con una masa corporal de 530 ± 20 kg clínicamente sanos. Los animales han sido equipados con registrador de datos Actiwatch-Mini® para grabar toda la actividad motora. La aplicación de ANOVA dos vías mostró un efecto altamente significante de la hora del día y de la masa corporal sobre la actividad motora. El análisis del Cosinor ha identificado los parámetros periódicos y ellos acrofases en los dos días de seguimiento. Mesor y amplitud fueron estadísticamente más alto en los caballos que en los ponis y ninguna significativa diferencia estadística se encontró sobre las acrofases y robustez. En conclusión suponemos que las diferencias sobre la cantidad de toda la actividad motora en animales de diferente biotipo, como poni y

  8. Comparison between circadian motor activity in pony and horse Comparación de la actividad motora circadiano en ponis y caballos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of body mass on the daily rhythm of total motor activity in ponies and horses. Six clinically healthy Shetland pony breed with a body mass of 180 ± 30 kg and six healthy horses Sella Italiana breed with a body mass of 530 ± 20 kg were used. Animals were equipped with actigraphy-based data loggers, Actiwatch-Mini® to record total activity. The application of two-way ANOVA showed a highly significant effect of time of day and body mass on motor activi...

  9. Tracey Emin - 20 aastat vabadust / Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tralla, Mare, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Edinburghi kunstifestivali "Fringe" raames Šoti moodsa kunsti rahvusgaleriis kuni 9. XI avatud Tracey Emini retrospektiivist "Tracey Emini 20 aastat". Kunstnikust ja tema loomingust. Festivali programmi oli valitud ka Mare Tralla projekt "Kaitstud"

  10. Tundetargad meeskonnad on head suhtekorraldajad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2003-01-01

    Psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Pork defineerib meeskonna emotsionaalse intelligentsuse mõiste ja kirjeldab kõrge EQ-ga meeskonna tunnuseid. Lisad: Mis arendab meeskonna EQ-d?; Meeskonna emotsionaalne intelligentsus EQ nelja komponendi järgi

  11. Tracey Emin - 20 aastat vabadust / Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tralla, Mare, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Edinburghi kunstifestivali "Fringe" raames Šoti moodsa kunsti rahvusgaleriis kuni 9. XI avatud Tracey Emini retrospektiivist "Tracey Emini 20 aastat". Kunstnikust ja tema loomingust. Festivali programmi oli valitud ka Mare Tralla projekt "Kaitstud"

  12. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S

    2012-04-01

    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  13. 75 FR 38116 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Approved Pony Express Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Approved Pony Express... of Land Management (BLM) announces the availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) setting forth the..., 2010, which constitutes the final decision of the BLM and renders the Pony Express Resource Management...

  14. 77 FR 65874 - Kinder Morgan Pony Express Pipeline LLC, Hiland Crude, LLC; Notice of Petition For Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Pony Express Pipeline LLC, Hiland Crude, LLC; Notice of... Commission's Rules of Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Kinder Morgan Pony...

  15. Sotsiaaltöö koolis / Mare Leino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leino, Mare, 1961-

    2000-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Leino, Mare. Õpetaja sotsiaaltöö tegijana : sotsiaalpedagoogika : monograafia = Teacher as a social worker : social pedagogic : a monograph / Mare Leino ; Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool. Tallinn : Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2000. 146 lk. : ill. - (Acta Universitatis Scientiarum Socialium et Artis Educandi Tallinnensis. A, Humaniora =Proceedings of the Tallinn University of Social and Educational Sciences. A, Humaniora = Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli toimetised. A, Humaniora, 1023-1064 ; 18). Bibliogr. lk. 136-146. Kokkuv. inglise keeles

  16. Sotsiaaltöö koolis / Mare Leino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leino, Mare, 1961-

    2000-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Leino, Mare. Õpetaja sotsiaaltöö tegijana : sotsiaalpedagoogika : monograafia = Teacher as a social worker : social pedagogic : a monograph / Mare Leino ; Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool. Tallinn : Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2000. 146 lk. : ill. - (Acta Universitatis Scientiarum Socialium et Artis Educandi Tallinnensis. A, Humaniora =Proceedings of the Tallinn University of Social and Educational Sciences. A, Humaniora = Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli toimetised. A, Humaniora, 1023-1064 ; 18). Bibliogr. lk. 136-146. Kokkuv. inglise keeles

  17. VARIAZIONI DELLE COSTANTI ARMONICHE DELLE MAREE COL LIVELLO DEL MARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIO POLLI

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available L'oscillazione della marea può essere considerata
    quale somma di oscillazioni elementari sinusoidali. Le più importanti
    di queste sono la componente lunare semidiurna principale M2, la
    solare semidiurna principale S2, la lunisolare declinazionale diurna
    Kl, la lunare diurna principale 01, la solare diurna principale PI e
    la lunare semidiurna ellittica maggiore N2. Per caratterizzare la marea
    in un dato posto si determinano le costanti armoniche delle maree
    componenti. Esse sono i valori delle semiampiezze H (in cm delle
    singole onde componenti e le corrispondenti situazioni vere o assolute
    / (in gradi, che rappresentano il ritardo dell'alta marea rispetto al
    passaggio al meridiano di Greenwich dell'astro che produce quella
    marea. Invece della situazione vera y si usa, per maggior comodità,
    la situazione adattata g, cioè riferita al meridiano sul quale è regolata
    l'ora locale.

  18. Mare and foal survival and subsequent fertility of mares treated for uterine torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoormakers, T J P; Graat, E A M; Ter Braake, F; Stout, T A E; Bergman, H J

    2015-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Previous surveys have reported mare and foal survival after correction of uterine torsion varies from 60-84% and 30-54%, respectively. Furthermore, resolution via a standing flank laparotomy (SFL) has been associated with better foal, but not mare, survival. OBJECTIVES:

  19. Effect of collection-maturation interval time and pregnancy status of donor mares on oocyte developmental competence in horse cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, A; Andrés, G; Jarazo, J; Javier, J; Karlanian, F; Florencia, K; De Stéfano, A; Salamone, D F

    2014-02-01

    The current limitations for obtaining ovaries from slaughterhouses and the low efficiency of in vivo follicular aspiration necessitate a complete understanding of the variables that affect oocyte developmental competence in the equine. For this reason, we assessed the effect on equine oocyte meiotic competence and the subsequent in vitro cloned embryo development of 1) the time interval between ovary collection and the onset of oocyte in vitro maturation (collection-maturation interval time) and 2) the pregnancy status of the donor mares. To define the collection-maturation interval time, collected oocytes were classified according to the slaughtering time and the pregnancy status of the mare. Maturation rate was recorded and some matured oocytes of each group were used to reconstruct zona free cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation rates were lower when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 4 h (32/83 vs. 76/136, respectively; P = 0.0128) and when the donor mare was pregnant as compared to nonpregnant (53/146 vs. 177/329, respectively; P = 0.0004). Low rates of cleaved embryos were observed when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 6 to 10 h (11/27 vs. 33/44, respectively; P = 0.0056), but the pregnancy status of donor mares did not affect cloned equine blastocyst development (3/49 vs. 1/27 for blastocyst rates of nonpregnant and pregnant groups, respectively; P = 1.00). These results indicate that, to apply assisted reproductive technologies in horses, oocytes should be harvested within approximately 10 h after ovary collection. Also, even though ovaries from pregnant mares are a potential source of oocytes, they should be processed at the end of the collection routine due to the lower collection and maturation rate in this group.

  20. Comparative analysis of some serum proteins and immunoglobulin G concentration in the blood of Yugoslav Trotter mares and newborn foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some serum protein concentrations was performed on 12 Yugoslav Trotter mares and their newborn foals. The mares included in the evaluation were divided into two groups of 6 each. The mares in the first group were vaccinated against equine herpes virus 1 and 4, in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy, while mares in the second group were not vaccinated at all. Pregnant mares were clinically observed during the last stage of pregnancy and blood for biochemical evaluations was sampled immediately after foaling. Foals were clinically observed for seven days after birth and blood samples were collected immediately after foaling (before nursing, and 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after birth. Foals included in the evaluation were divided into two groups according to the group allocation of the respective mares. All mares gave birth to normal foals in expected terms. Biochemical examination revealed slightly lower total gammaglobulin and IgG values in tested mares compared to the values obtained in other horse breeds. The antibody titres against equine herpes virus-1 reached the level that provides sufficient protection in vaccinated mares. Gammaglobulin and traces of IgG were present in the blood serum of foals tested immediately after birth and before nursing. A significant increase of IgG and gammaglobulin concentration was revealed in all foals after the first 24 hours of life. The observed first day increase of concentration was followed by stagnation of gammaglobulin and IgG levels in all foals. Total protein values showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake of colostrum in all foals. Immunoglobulin G concentration established by semiquantitative test was considered low positive in 16.67% and in 33.34% of foals from vaccinated and unvaccinated mares, respectively. Turbidimetric analyses of the same samples revealed sufficient Ig transfer, i.e. Ig concentration over 8 g/L. Comparison of the results obtained by the

  1. Intrafollicular treatment with prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α inhibits the formation of luteinised unruptured follicles and restores normal ovulation in mares treated with flunixin-meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Boví, R; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-03-01

    Haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle is the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare, but its cause remains unknown. An experimental model to induce luteinised unruptured follicles (LUF) with flunixin-meglumine (FM) has been developed. Luteinised unruptured follicles share similar morphological and hormonal characteristics with haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles. To test the effect of intrafollicular administration of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α during the periovulatory period on ovulation and pregnancy in FM-treated mares. In vivo experiment in a crossover design. Five mares were followed during 2 oestrous cycles each. All mares were given FM at 1.7 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 12 h from Hour 0 (Hour 0 = human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment) to Hour 36. In treatment cycles (n = 5), at Hour 32 the preovulatory follicle was punctured and 0.5 ml of a solution containing 500 μg of PGE2 and 125 μg of PGF2α was deposited within the follicle. In control cycles, water for injection was administered into the follicle at the same time. In 3 control and 3 treatment cycles, mares were also inseminated at Hour 24. Diagnosis of ovulation/LUF formation and pregnancy was performed by ultrasound examination between Hours 36 and 72 and 14 days after ovulation/LUF formation, respectively. During the treatment cycles, all mares ovulated normally (100% ovulation rate) 36-48 h after human chorionic gonadotrophin, while in 4 of 5 control cycles the mares developed an LUF (80%, P<0.05). All 3 inseminated mares became pregnant in the treatment cycles, but not in the control cycles. Intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α overcame the anovulatory effect of FM. This sheds new insights into the knowledge on the possible therapeutic options for ovulatory failure in the mare. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Acute injection and chronic perfusion of kisspeptin elicit gonadotropins release but fail to trigger ovulation in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, Caroline; Caraty, Alain; Briant, Christine; Guillaume, Daniel; Lomet, Didier; Chesneau, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Duchamp, Guy; Reigner, Fabrice; Monget, Philippe; Dufourny, Laurence; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Dardente, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    Kisspeptin has emerged as the most potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretagogue and appears to represent the penultimate step in the central control of reproduction. In the sheep, we showed that kisspeptin could be used to manipulate gonadotropin secretion and control ovulation. Prompted by these results, we decided to investigate whether kisspeptin could be used as an ovulation-inducing agent in another photoperiodic domestic mammal, the horse. Equine kisspeptin-10 (eKp10) was administered intravenously as bolus injections or short- to long-term perfusions to Welsh pony mares, either during the anestrus season or at various stages of the cycle during the breeding season. In all the experimental conditions, eKp10 reliably increased peripheral concentrations of both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The nature of the response to eKp10 was consistent across experimental conditions and physiological states: the increase in gonadotropins was always rapid and essentially transient even when eKp10 was perfused for prolonged periods. Furthermore, eKp10 consistently failed to induce ovulation in the mare. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms, we used acute injections or perfusions of GnRH. We also cloned the equine orthologues of the kisspeptin precursor and Kiss1r; this was justified by the facts that the current equine genome assembly predicted an amino acid difference between eKp10 and Kp10 in other species while an equine orthologue for Kiss1r was missing altogether. In light of these findings, potential reasons for the divergence in the response to kisspeptin between ewe and mare are discussed. Our data highlight that kisspeptin is not a universal ovulation-inducing agent.

  3. Follicle profile and plasma gonadotropin concentration in pubertal female ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve female ponies were examined daily for 30 days and classified as ovulating (OV; N = 6; 197 ± 6 kg or prepubertal (PP; N = 6; 196 ± 9 kg. Follicles were detected by ultrasound and gonadotropins quantified by radioimmunoassay. The mean diameter of the largest follicles was significantly larger in OV (38 ± 1 mm than in PP (26 ± 2 mm but there was no difference between groups in the size of the second largest follicle. There were more small follicles (29 mm than the OV fillies. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels did not differ between groups but PP fillies had lower luteinizing hormone (LH peak (8 ± 1 ng/ml and basal (4 ± 0.5 ng/ml levels, lower peak magnitude (2 ± 0.2 ng/ml and period average (5 ± 0.6 ng/ml than OV fillies (32 ± 4.5, 8 ± 1.2, 17.1 ± 6, and 15 ± 2.3 ng/ml, respectively. The PP group, in contrast to the OV group, showed no relationship between FSH surge and follicle wave emergence. We conclude that an LH concentration higher than 8 ng/ml is needed for follicle growth to a preovulatory size. Wave emergence and FSH secretion seem to be independent events, probably due to an inhibitory neural system in these PP animals. PP fillies may provide a physiological model for the study of follicle wave emergence which apparently does not depend on gonadotropin levels.

  4. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  5. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility meaurements in ponies fed different grass hays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Wartena, F.C.; Zoon, van M.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg-1 D

  6. Repeated measurements of P retention in ponies fed rations with various Ca:P ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, D A; Schaafstra, F J W C; Wouterse, H; Everts, H; Estepa, J C; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Beynen, A C

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether feeding rations rich in P for a period of up to 42 d induces a positive P balance in adult ponies. Biochemical bone markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH; intact as well as whole PTH) were measured to obtain clues as to the effect of P loading on bone meta

  7. Practical experience with the treatment of recipient mares with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in an equine embryo transfer programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Müller, J; Aurich, C

    2010-12-01

    As part of a commercial embryo transfer programme, 20 embryos were transferred to spontaneously synchronous or synchronized recipient mares. In 14 cases, embryo recipients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), receiving flunixin meglumine i.v. at the time of transfer and vedaprofen orally twice a day on the 3 days after embryo transfer, while six embryos were transferred to untreated mares that served as controls. Out of the 14 recipient mares treated with NSAID, 11 (79%) were pregnant at 6-8 days after transfer and in 10 mares, the pregnancy was continued. From the six untreated recipients, only one became pregnant but underwent early embryonic death between day 14 and 35 after ovulation. In conclusion, pregnancy rate in NSAID-treated recipients is higher than that in untreated recipients and above reported average values, indicating that treatment of recipient mares with NSAID helps to increase pregnancy rates after transcervical transfer and can be recommended for equine embryo transfer.

  8. Response of ponies to adjuvanted EHV-1 whole virus vaccine and challenge with virus of the homologous strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, C A; Hannant, D; Mumford, J A

    1995-01-01

    Five yearling ponies were vaccinated with inactivated Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) in Freund's complete adjuvant as a double emulsion and revaccinated 6 weeks later with EHV-1 in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. These ponies and three age-matched controls were challenged intra-nasally after a further 6 weeks with homologous live virus and monitored clinically, biologically and serologically. After challenge, clinical signs were mild in both groups. No cell-associated viraemias were detected in vaccinated ponies. Vaccination induced high levels of complement-fixing (CF) and virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody, and elicited a response to all major viral glycoproteins as shown by western blot analysis.

  9. Experimental infection of ponies with Sarcocystis fayeri and differentiation from Sarcocystis neurona infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, W J A; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Sofaly, C D; Marsh, A E; Elitsur, E; Vianna, M C; Lindsay, D S; Reed, S M

    2004-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis fayeri infections are common in horses in the Americas. Their antemortem diagnosis is important because the former causes a neurological disorder in horses, whereas the latter is considered nonpathogenic. There is a concern that equine antibodies to S. fayeri might react with S. neurona antigens in diagnostic tests. In this study, 4 ponies without demonstrable serum antibodies to S. neurona by Western immunoblot were used. Three ponies were fed 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) sporocysts of S. fayeri obtained from dogs that were fed naturally infected horse muscles. All ponies remained asymptomatic until the termination of the experiment, day 79 postinoculation (PI). All serum samples collected were negative for antibodies to S. neurona using the Western blot at the initial screening, just before inoculation with S. fayeri (day 2) and weekly until day 79 PI. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from each pony were negative for S. neurona antibodies. Using the S. neurona agglutination test, antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in 1:25 dilution of sera from any samples, except that from pony no. 4 on day 28; this pony had received 1 X 10(7) sporocysts. Using indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFATs), 7 serum samples were found to be positive for S. neurona antibodies from 1:25 to 1:400 dilutions. Sarcocystis fayeri sarcocysts were found in striated muscles of all inoculated ponies, with heaviest infections in the tongue. All sarcocysts examined histologically appeared to contain only microcytes. Ultrastructurally, S. fayeri sarcocysts could be differentiated from S. neurona sarcocysts by the microtubules (mt) in villar protrusions on sarcocyst walls; in S. fayeri the mt extended from the villar tips to the pellicle of zoites, whereas in S. neurona the mt were restricted to the middle of the cyst wall. Results indicate that horses with S. fayeri infections may be misdiagnosed as being S. neurona infected using IFAT, and further research

  10. Alfaxalone for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration: continuous infusion compared with intravenous boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Julia; Ekiri, Abel; de Vries, Annemarie

    2017-04-14

    To compare alfaxalone as continuous intravenous (IV) infusion with intermittent IV injections for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing castration. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A group of 33 entire male Welsh ponies undergoing field castration. After preanaesthetic medication with IV detomidine (10 μg kg(-1)) and butorphanol (0.05 mg kg(-1)), anaesthesia was induced with IV diazepam (0.05 mg kg(-1)) followed by alfaxalone (1 mg kg(-1)). After random allocation, anaesthesia was maintained with either IV alfaxalone 2 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) (group A; n = 16) or saline administered at equal volume (group S; n = 17). When necessary, additional alfaxalone (0.2 mg kg(-1)) was administered IV. Ponies were breathing room air. Using simple descriptive scales, surgical conditions and anaesthesia recovery were scored. Total amount of alfaxalone, ponies requiring additional alfaxalone and time to administration, time from induction to end of infusion and end of infusion to standing were noted. Indirect arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rates, end-expiratory carbon dioxide partial pressure and arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. Data were analysed using Student t, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests, where appropriate (p < 0.05). Total amount of alfaxalone administered after induction of anaesthesia (0.75 ± 0.27 versus 0.17 ± 0.23 mg kg(-1); p < 0.0001) and time to standing (14.8 ± 4 versus 11.6 ± 4 minutes; p = 0.044) were higher in group A compared to group S. Ponies requiring additional alfaxalone boluses [four (group A) versus seven (group S)] and other measured variables were similar between groups; five ponies required oxygen supplementation [three (group A) versus two (group S)]. Continuous IV infusion and intermittent administration of alfaxalone provided similar anaesthesia quality and surgical conditions in ponies undergoing field castration. Less alfaxalone

  11. A Non-Synonymous HMGA2 Variant Decreases Height in Shetland Ponies and Other Small Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Plattet, Philippe; Neuditschko, Markus; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Bachmann, Iris; Pacholewska, Alicja; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) such as height and their underlying causative variants is still challenging and often requires large sample sizes. In humans hundreds of loci with small effects control the heritable portion of height variability. In domestic animals, typically only a few loci with comparatively large effects explain a major fraction of the heritability. We investigated height at withers in Shetland ponies and mapped a QTL to ECA 6 by genome-wide association (GWAS) using a small cohort of only 48 animals and the Illumina equine SNP70 BeadChip. Fine-mapping revealed a shared haplotype block of 793 kb in small Shetland ponies. The HMGA2 gene, known to be associated with height in horses and many other species, was located in the associated haplotype. After closing a gap in the equine reference genome we identified a non-synonymous variant in the first exon of HMGA2 in small Shetland ponies. The variant was predicted to affect the functionally important first AT-hook DNA binding domain of the HMGA2 protein (c.83G>A; p.G28E). We assessed the functional impact and found impaired DNA binding of a peptide with the mutant sequence in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. This suggests that the HMGA2 variant also affects DNA binding in vivo and thus leads to reduced growth and a smaller stature in Shetland ponies. The identified HMGA2 variant also segregates in several other pony breeds but was not found in regular-sized horse breeds. We therefore conclude that we identified a quantitative trait nucleotide for height in horses. PMID:26474182

  12. Measurement of cortisol concentration in the tears of horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kelsey A; Kitchings, Kalyn M; Kimura, Shune; Norton, Natalie A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare tear cortisol concentrations between horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and healthy nonaged (≤ 15 years old) and aged (≥ 20 years old) horses and to determine whether serum and tear cortisol concentrations were correlated. ANIMALS 11 horses and ponies with PPID and 20 healthy control horses and ponies (11 nonaged and 9 aged). PROCEDURES Paired tear and serum samples were obtained from PPID and control animals. All animals were free of active ocular disease. Tear and serum cortisol concentrations were measured with an ELISA and chemiluminescent assay, respectively. Groups were compared with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, and Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine relationships between tear and serum cortisol concentrations within groups. RESULTS Median tear cortisol concentration was significantly higher in PPID animals than in aged control animals, despite comparable serum cortisol concentrations in PPID and aged control animals. Median tear-to-serum cortisol concentration ratios were also significantly higher in PPID animals than in aged control animals. Serum and tear cortisol concentrations were not significantly correlated in PPID or control animals. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Some horses and ponies with PPID had increased tear cortisol concentrations, compared with concentrations in healthy aged animals. Localized cortisol production in the tear film or altered cortisol binding dynamics could have contributed to this increase. Further studies are warranted to evaluate these mechanisms and to determine whether increased tear cortisol concentrations are associated with delays in corneal wound healing in horses and ponies with and without PPID.

  13. Owners' perceptions of the health and performance of Pony Club horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Petra; Dunn, Tony; More, Simon J

    2004-04-30

    Pony Club is one of the leading junior equestrian organisations in the world, and was established to teach young people the many aspects of horsemanship. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the health and performance of Pony Club horses from the perspective of their owners. In-depth interviews were conducted with Pony Club members at two sites in Australia, and topics relating to participants' background with horses, horse attributes valued by participants, horse health and performance, and Pony Club-related matters. The in-depth interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed, by describing the themes and issues recorded in the dialogue and conducting cross-case analysis (finding similarities and dissimilarities between participants with respect to each of the above-mentioned topics). A total of 32 interviews were conducted. The participants' background with horses varied greatly. The horse attributes valued by > or =59% of participants included temperament, size, ability and suitability for riders. A range of issues relating to health and performance were important to > or =53% of participants, including horse temperament, nutrition, internal parasites, lameness and foot-care, and colic. Soundness and preventive health measures were rarely mentioned (horse people were identified as the first point of contact for horse-health matters, and veterinarians were only used as a last resort or for serious problems. Members of Pony Club learned about their horses by trial and error. Optimal performance was described as a horse that was willing to do as the rider asked. Poor performance was usually the result of the horse misbehaving, and could include a resistance to rider commands, pigrooting and bucking.

  14. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Erganis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012 inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA, as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares’ foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ, total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL, lung samples (CFU/gr, and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares’ foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

  15. Trails, Other, PonyExpress mile markers, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'PonyExpress...

  16. Basalt Thickness in Mare Humorum: New Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Lucey, P. G.

    1996-03-01

    Basalt thicknesses in mare basins have been determined using assumptions about the pre-mare topography of partly buried craters. Differences in those assumptions have led to a factor of two difference in mare thickness estimates. Further, knowledge of thickness is restricted to areas in which buried craters are present. We have shown that craters in the mare sometimes excavate highland material from below the mare cover. Using such craters, and assumptions about their depth of excavation, we can obtain independent estimates of basalt thickness. This method allows testing of pre-mare crater topography models employed in the buried crater method, adds significantly more data points for development of isopach maps, and allows determining of thickness of stratigraphic layers other than mare basalts such as melt sheets where compositional contrast is present.

  17. Study of liquid exchanges between Titan's seas Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Özgur; Dehant, Véronique; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Titan is the only other solar system body with surface seas besides the Earth. Since 2006, Cassini has been observing those seas and, in particular, the two largest ones, Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare. A bathymetry map of Ligeia Mare is now available [1] while, in Kraken Mare, the seafloor was not detected except in Moray Sinus [2]. Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare have recently been shown to be connected by a strait called Trevise Fretum and observations of the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) from February 12, 2015 detected specular reflection away from the specular point on the Ligeia outlet of this strait [3]. This connection could explain the difference in liquid properties observed in Moray Sinus with respect to other areas of Kraken Mare: the methane richer liquid coming from Ligeia could modify the composition of the liquid in the northern part of Kraken Mare. In this work, we simulate the tidally induced liquid exchanges between Ligeia and Kraken Mare by means of SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, www.climate.be/slim_flyer). This will allow us to assess whether or not the tides can bring liquid from Ligeia to Moray Sinus and locally modify the liquid properties. SLIM2D solves the depth-averaged shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh, which allows higher accuracy in the straits without drastically increasing the computational costs. It has recently been used to simulate the tidal response in Ontario Lacus [4]. The impact of the density gradient due to the variation in the composition is then studied by means of the 3D version of SLIM. SLIM3D is a baroclinic model capable of simulating the effect of density gradient on the flow exchanges and, hence, studying accurately the flow in Trevise Fretum. This will be useful for assessing whether or not the solar glints observed in Trevise Fretum could be generated by strong currents [3]. The present study provides new insights into the liquid exchanges between Ligeia and

  18. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  19. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  20. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  1. SERPINB11 frameshift variant associated with novel hoof specific phenotype in Connemara ponies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie J Finno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Horses belong to the order Perissodactyla and bear the majority of their weight on their third toe; therefore, tremendous force is applied to each hoof. An inherited disease characterized by a phenotype restricted to the dorsal hoof wall was identified in the Connemara pony. Hoof wall separation disease (HWSD manifests clinically as separation of the dorsal hoof wall along the weight-bearing surface of the hoof during the first year of life. Parents of affected ponies appeared clinically normal, suggesting an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A case-control allelic genome wide association analysis was performed (ncases = 15, ncontrols = 24. Population stratification (λ = 1.48 was successfully improved by removing outliers (ncontrols = 7 identified on a multidimensional scaling plot. A genome-wide significant association was detected on chromosome 8 (praw = 1.37x10-10, pgenome = 1.92x10-5. A homozygous region identified in affected ponies spanned from 79,936,024-81,676,900 bp and contained a family of 13 annotated SERPINB genes. Whole genome next-generation sequencing at 6x coverage of two cases and two controls revealed 9,758 SNVs and 1,230 indels within the ~1.7-Mb haplotype, of which 17 and 5, respectively, segregated with the disease and were located within or adjacent to genes. Additional genotyping of these 22 putative functional variants in 369 Connemara ponies (ncases = 23, ncontrols = 346 and 169 horses of other breeds revealed segregation of three putative variants adjacent or within four SERPIN genes. Two of the variants were non-coding and one was an insertion within SERPINB11 that introduced a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon. Evaluation of mRNA levels at the proximal hoof capsule (ncases = 4, ncontrols = 4 revealed that SERPINB11 expression was significantly reduced in affected ponies (p<0.001. Carrier frequency was estimated at 14.8%. This study describes the first genetic variant associated with a hoof wall

  2. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Indian horse breeds with special reference to Manipuri pony based on mitochondrial D-loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Manipuri pony is the geographically distant breed of horse from the five recognized horse breeds found in the Indian subcontinent. The phylogenetic relationship of Manipuri pony with the other breeds is unknown. The diversity in the mitochondrial (mt) DNA D-loop region is employed as an important tool to understand the origin and genetic diversification of domestic horses and to examine genetic relationships among breeds around the world. This study was carried out to understand the maternal lineages of Manipuri pony using the 247 bp region of the mtDNA D-loop. The dataset comprised of eleven numbers of self developed sequences of Manipuri pony, 59 and 35 number of retrieved sequences of Indian horse breeds and other worldwide breeds respectively. A total of 35 haplotypes was identified with a high level of genetic diversity in the Indian breeds. A total of seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) was identified in the Indian horse breeds that indicated the abundance of mtDNA diversity and multiple origins of maternal lineages in them. The majority of the studied sequences of Indian breeds (33.3 %) were grouped into haplogroup D and least (3.9 %) in haplogroup E. The Manipuri breed showed the least FST distance (0.03866) with the most diverged Indian breeds and with Thoroughbred horse among the worldwide. This study indicated a close association between Manipuri pony and Thoroughbred.

  5. Villa Rocca al Mares = Villa in Rocca al Mare / Raul Vaiksoo ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaiksoo, Raul, 1955-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Loigu t. 3 asuva villa arhitektuursest lahendusest. Majas on kasutatud palju klaasi, konstruktsioonid on avatud. Arhitekt Raul Vaiksoo, kaasautor Kristo Vaiksoo, sisearhitektid Raul Vaiksoo ja Krista Aren (Raul Vaiksoo Arhitektuuribüroo). Raul Vaiksoo pälvis Rocca al Mare villa eest EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2010. a. arhitektuuripreemia

  6. Mare Pork : Koolitus olgu puhkus ja pingutus / Mare Pork ; interv. Urve Vilk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. märts lk. 16-17. Koolitaja Mare Pork leiab, et töös võiks olla rohkem lõbu ja loovust ning koolitus võiks olla nii korralik pingutus kui ka korralik puhkus täis-ümberlülitusega

  7. Mare Pork: emotsionaalsed kangid on kõige tõhusamad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork tutvustab vestluses raamatut: Neale, Stephen; Spencer-Arnell, Lisa; Wilson, Liz. Emotsionaalse intelligentsuse treening : kuidas tõsta tippjuhi, arengutreeneri ja iseendaga tehtava töö tulemuslikkust. [Tallinn] : Äripäev, 2009

  8. Villa Rocca al Mares = Villa in Rocca al Mare / Raul Vaiksoo ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaiksoo, Raul, 1955-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Loigu t. 3 asuva villa arhitektuursest lahendusest. Majas on kasutatud palju klaasi, konstruktsioonid on avatud. Arhitekt Raul Vaiksoo, kaasautor Kristo Vaiksoo, sisearhitektid Raul Vaiksoo ja Krista Aren (Raul Vaiksoo Arhitektuuribüroo). Raul Vaiksoo pälvis Rocca al Mare villa eest EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2010. a. arhitektuuripreemia

  9. Mare Pork: emotsionaalsed kangid on kõige tõhusamad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork tutvustab vestluses raamatut: Neale, Stephen; Spencer-Arnell, Lisa; Wilson, Liz. Emotsionaalse intelligentsuse treening : kuidas tõsta tippjuhi, arengutreeneri ja iseendaga tehtava töö tulemuslikkust. [Tallinn] : Äripäev, 2009

  10. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of prevalence and severity of bit-induced oral trauma in polo ponies and race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernando; Johnson, Claire; Bishop, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Bit and bridle accessories improperly fitted in ridden horses can cause oral trauma such as bone spurs, commissure ulceration, and tongue lacerations. This study was used to identify, grade, and compare the types of oral traumas commonly found within polo ponies and race horses. Injuries were assessed visually and by palpation on the tongue, lips' commissures, and interdental space. A total of 50 polo ponies and 50 race horses were sampled in the South of England. A Poisson model was successfully fitted to the data (p horses with snaffle bits were predisposed to significantly higher severities and prevalence of oral trauma than were polo ponies in gag bits. Only polo ponies were observed with tongue trauma. Race horses had higher severities of injuries in the commissures and bone spurs. Positive correlations were found between age and/or time in sport and induced biting injuries. Polo ponies had been playing longer before the occurrence of injuries.

  11. GROUND WATER QUALITY FROM PRIVATE WELLS. CASE STUDY: TARNA MARE - SATU MARE COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ROŞU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to assess the ground water quality from nine private wells from Tarna Mare commune located in Satu Mare County. Tarna Mare the northernmost commune of Satu Mare County, it has a population of 3.774 inhabitants and a total surface of 44 km2. The commune is located along the Tarna Valley at the foothills of Oas Mountains. Tarna Mare background is rich in complex ores of non-ferrous metals (copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. In order to evaluate the water quality, several physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and salinity were investigated. The samples were collected in October, November, December 2015 and January 2016. The results showed that the waters were acidic having the pH between 4.7 and 7.52, considerably lower than the limit imposed by national legislation (between 6.5 and 9.5. The investigated wells proved to have a relatively high contented of dissolved salts, having the electrical conductivity between 83.6 μS/cm and 908 μS/cm and the salinity between 0 and 0.4 ‰. Regarding the cations concentrations (mg / L those ranged between: 21.55 – 318.19 for Na+, 16.42 – 556.43 for Ca2+, 5.27 – 149.48 for Mg2+ and 5.7 – 481.83 for K+. Li+ and NH4+ were not detected in analyzed samples.

  12. Genetic study of gestation length in Andalusian and Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, M; Blesa, F; Dos Santos, R; Molina, A

    2006-09-01

    The length of gestation in Andalusian, or Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Arabian (AB) mares reared in Spain was analysed, based on 766 spontaneous full-term deliveries appertaining to 141 mares of SPB breed and 72 mares of AB breed in 31 breeding seasons. The data were obtained from the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera stud farm in Cádiz, Spain. The mean length of gestation was of 336.8+/-0.48 days in the SPB mares and 340.3+/-0.63 days in AB mares. To assess the accurate prediction of time of birth the potential effect of a number of factors was investigated. The influences of the breed, mare, month and year of mating, age of the mother, number of births and sex of the foal were statistically significant. The factor have the greatest influence over the gestation length was the mare itself, with a correlation among consecutive births of around 0.4. The effect of inbreeding, both of the mare and foal, was negligible. Gestation length shortened as the breeding season progressed: in both breeds, a delay of 1 month in mating corresponded to a decrease of 3 days in the gestation length. According to our results, gestation length decrease as the mare gets older, with the shortest gestation periods when the mare is 10-12 years old, and from this point on, it slowly increases. The gestation period shortens as the 4th or 5th birth approaches, and then gets progressively longer. The range of variation in gestation length due to the number of births to the mare is of 2.9 days for the AB mares, and 2.2 days for SPB mares. The heritability for the gestation length for AB and the SPB breeds was 0.2, with a repeatability of 0.36 and 0.37, for SPB and AB breeds, respectively. With the data from both breeds, and using a classical approach, the response to selection was estimated if mares with extreme gestation lengths were culled, i.e. lengths which are under 310 days, or over 360 days. According to our results, in the case of SPB, a decrease of 14-45% would occur in the number

  13. HUMAN AND MARE'S MILK - PROTEIN FRACTION AND LIPID COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In human population if the infants are not breast-fed, a substitute for breast milk is nee¬ded. Use of cow's milk can induce allergies during the first 3 years of life. Alternative could be mare's milk. The objectives of this review were to compare human and mare's milk protein fraction and lipid composition as well as to determine adequacy of mare's milk as substitute for breast milk. Similarities are found regarding the protein and salt content; whey protein and NPN concentrations; structure of protein micelles and lipid globules; proportion of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Taking into account determined similarities of human and mare's milk, it could be concluded that mare's milk is suitable nourishment for infants.

  14. Antinociceptive effects, metabolism and disposition of ketamine in ponies under target-controlled drug infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, M.; Portier, C.J.; Levionnois, O.L.; Theurillat, R.; Thormann, W.; Spadavecchia, C.; Mevissen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic in a variety of drug combinations in human and veterinary medicine. Recently, it gained new interest for use in long-term pain therapy administered in sub-anesthetic doses in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPk) model for ketamine in ponies and to investigate the effect of low-dose ketamine infusion on the amplitude and the duration of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR). A target-controlled infusion (TCI) of ketamine with a target plasma level of 1 μg/ml S-ketamine over 120 min under isoflurane anesthesia was performed in Shetland ponies. A quantitative electromyographic assessment of the NWR was done before, during and after the TCI. Plasma levels of R-/S-ketamine and R-/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. These data and two additional data sets from bolus studies were used to build a PBPk model for ketamine in ponies. The peak-to-peak amplitude and the duration of the NWR decreased significantly during TCI and returned slowly toward baseline values after the end of TCI. The PBPk model provides reliable prediction of plasma and tissue levels of R- and S-ketamine and R- and S-norketamine. Furthermore, biotransformation of ketamine takes place in the liver and in the lung via first-pass metabolism. Plasma concentrations of S-norketamine were higher compared to R-norketamine during TCI at all time points. Analysis of the data suggested identical biotransformation rates from the parent compounds to the principle metabolites (R- and S-norketamine) but different downstream metabolism to further metabolites. The PBPk model can provide predictions of R- and S-ketamine and norketamine concentrations in other clinical settings (e.g. horses). PMID:16919695

  15. Referenzbereiche für Insulin, Insulinwachstumsfaktor-1 und Adrenocorticotropes Hormon der Ponys

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, Karoline; Karoline Ahlers,

    2010-01-01

    Das Equine metabolische Syndrom, das Equine Cushing Syndrom und die häufig daraus resultierende Hufrehe stellen den behandelnden Tierarzt noch immer vor Probleme bezüglich Diagnostik und Therapie. Grund hierfür sind fehlende einheitliche endokrinologische Parameter, die eine Einschätzung des Krankheitszustandes des jeweiligen Tieres ermöglichen. Für Ponys fehlt es gänzlich an statistisch validen Referenzbereichen für die, an den Krankheiten beteiligten Hormonen. In der vorliegenden ...

  16. The efficacy of fenbendazole in the control of immature strongyle infections in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J L; McBeath, D G; Best, J M; Preston, N K

    1977-07-01

    The efficacy of fenbendazole against immature stages of Trichonema spp., Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus was evaluated. Naturally infected 6 to 12 month old ponies were given single, oral doses of 0, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg of body weight. A dose response relationship was noted between increasing dose levels and efficiency against larval trichonemes and migrating stages of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus. Dose levels of 30 mg/kg and higher removed 93 per cent of mucosal stages of Trichonema spp., while doses of 60 mg/kg removed 83 per cent and 89 per cent of the migrating larvae of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus respectively.

  17. Horse species symposium: a novel approach to monitoring pathogen progression during uterine and placental infection in the mare using bioluminescence imaging technology and lux-modified bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P L; Christiansen, D L; Hopper, R M; Walters, F K; Moulton, K; Curbelo, J; Greene, J M; Willard, S T

    2011-05-01

    Uterine and placental infections are the leading cause of abortion, stillbirth, and preterm delivery in the mare. Whereas uterine and placental infections in women have been studied extensively, a comprehensive examination of the pathogenic processes leading to this unsatisfactory pregnancy outcome in the mare has yet to be completed. Most information in the literature relating to late-term pregnancy loss in mares is based on retrospective studies of clinical cases submitted for necropsy. Here we report the development and application of a novel approach, whereby transgenically modified bacteria transformed with lux genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens or Photorhabdus luminescens origin and biophotonic imaging are utilized to better understand pathogen-induced preterm birth in late-term pregnant mares. This technology uses highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging camera systems to localize and monitor pathogen progression during tissue invasion by measuring the bioluminescent signatures emitted by the lux-modified pathogens. This method has an important advantage in that it allows for the potential tracking of pathogens in vivo in real time and over time, which was hitherto impossible. Although the application of this technology in domestic animals is in its infancy, investigators were successful in identifying the fetal lungs, sinuses, nares, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems as primary tissues for pathogen invasion after experimental infection of pregnant mares with lux-modified Escherichia coli. It is important that pathogens were not detected in other vital organs, such as the liver, brain, and cardiac system. Such precision in localizing sites of pathogen invasion provides potential application for this novel approach in the development of more targeted therapeutic interventions for pathogen-related diseases in the equine and other domestic species.

  18. Angiography of the corpus cavernosum penis in the pony stallion during erection and quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, J E; Beckett, S D; Brown, B G

    1984-07-01

    Serial arteriography was used to determine the vascular pattern and blood flow in the penis of the pony stallion. Ponies were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and catheters were surgically introduced into the internal pudendal and obturator arteries. The vascular anatomy was visualized by angiography via image-intensified fluoroscopy and was recorded on 70-mm film at 3 frames/s or by direct radiography. Blood flow into the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) was limited during quiescence because the blood was immediately shunted into the venous system. After vasodilation with mild stimulation from an electroejaculator, there was increased filling of the CCP and corpus spongiosum penis. Contrast medium injected into the internal pudendal artery entered the bulb of the penis during peak erection, but medium injected into the obturator artery could not enter the crus penis during peak erection. The contrast medium stopped in the obturator artery at the edge of the ischiocavernous muscles due to the occlusion of the deep arteries of the penis by contraction of these muscles. When contrast medium was injected directly into the CCP near the glans to outline the body of the penis, there was no evidence of venous outlets along the body.

  19. Effectiveness of fenbendazole against later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Baird, J D

    1983-12-01

    Twelve pony foals (reared worm-free) were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. Approximately 8 weeks later, 4 of the foals were given fenbendazole (10% suspension) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight daily for 5 days and 4 foals were given the suspension at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg daily for 3 days; the remaining foals were given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Fenbendazole was 99.6 and 97.9% effective in the 2 treatment groups, respectively, in eliminating later 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae located near the origin of major intestinal arteries. On microscopic examination of the ileocolic artery from fenbendazole-treated foals, a few larval remnants were found beneath the tunica intima in small organized mural thrombi overgrown with endothelium. It would appear that larvae are rapidly destroyed after administration of fenbendazole. A pony foal reared on pasture and with arteriographic evidence of arteritis of the cranial mesenteric and ileocolic arteries was treated with fenbendazole (10% suspension) by stomach tube at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg of body weight daily for 3 days. By arteriographic examination made 4 weeks later, there was evidence of regression of the lesion, and at necropsy done a week later, there was no arteritis or larvae in the lumen of those arteries.

  20. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  1. 77 FR 52018 - Kinder Morgan Pony Express Pipeline LLC; Belle Fourche Pipeline Company; Notice of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Pony Express Pipeline LLC; Belle Fourche Pipeline Company...) of the Commission's Rules of Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Kinder Morgan...

  2. Comparison of pH and refractometry index with calcium concentrations in preparturient mammary gland secretions of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Tsujimura, Koji; Nambo, Yasuo

    2013-01-15

    To test the usefulness of measuring pH and refractometry index, compared with measuring calcium carbonate concentration, of preparturient mammary gland secretions for predicting parturition in mares. Evaluation study. 27 pregnant Thoroughbred mares. Preparturient mammary gland secretion samples were obtained once or twice daily 10 days prior to foaling until parturition. The samples were analyzed for calcium carbonate concentration with a water hardness kit (151 samples), pH with pH test paper (222 samples), and refractometry index with a Brix refractometer (214 samples). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each test were calculated for evaluation of predicting parturition. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for calcium carbonate concentration determination (standard value set to 400 μg/g) were 93.8% and 98.3%, respectively. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for the pH test (standard value set at 6.4) were 97.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for the Brix test (standard value set to 20%) were 73.2% and 96.5%, respectively. Results suggested that the pH test with the standard value set at a pH of 6.4 would be useful in the management of preparturient mares by predicting when mares are not ready to foal. This was accomplished with equal effectiveness of measuring calcium carbonate concentration with a water hardness kit.

  3. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  4. Coat color and gestation length in thoroughbred mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dring, L A; Hintz, H F; Van Vleck, L D

    1981-01-01

    Average gestation periods for bay, chestnut, dark bay, gray, and black Thoroughbred mares were compared. A total of 1359 gestation periods were used. A linear model including factors for age of mare, sex of foal, month and year of breeding, and sire effects was used in the analysis. Dam and sire coat-color combinations were also investigated in a similar manner. No significant differences in gestation length could be attributed to coat color of the mare of to dam and sire coat-color combinations. Heritability of gestation length was estimated to be 0.38. The results of this study strongly suggest that coat color is not associated with gestation length in Thoroughbred mares.

  5. Jules Verne Mare Soils as Revealed by Clementine UVVIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    To determine the nature of potentially low-Ca pyroxene (noritic) spectra in six South Pole-Aitken basin mare deposits, we undertake a multispectral analysis of a representative of these deposits, that associated with Jules Verne crater.

  6. Mare Hunt laseb elul ennast laineharjal kanda / intervjueerinud Anu Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Mare, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastab Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia õppejõud, Tartu Mänguasjamuuseumi kunstiline juht ja raamatuillustraator Mare Hunt, kes arvab, et elus pole juhuseid, kõik on kuidagi omavahel seotud

  7. Characteristics of dietary and quality attributes of mare milk lyophilisates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk due to its 40% share of whey proteins is defined as albumin milk. It is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as lysozyme and lactoferrin, exhibiting antibacterial properties. Since mare milk is a seasonal product, it was attempted to lyophilise it to provide its supply throughout the year. The aim of the study was to characterise selected functional properties of lyophilised mare milk, determine the composition of fatty acids and aroma compounds in mare milk lyophilisate, as well as evaluate liquid milk as a raw material for the production of lyophilised milk. Milk for the production of lyophilisate was characterised by very high hygienic quality and low contents of fat and protein. Results of analyses indicated a slight deterioration of physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of cold-stored milk lyophilisate.

  8. Prevalence of Yeasts in English Full Blood Mares

    OpenAIRE

    Różański, Paweł; Ślaska, Brygida; Różańska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a quantitative and qualitative analysis of microflora, presentation of current data about prevalence of the microflora on the skin and mucous membranes, and determination of its possible effect on reproduction of English full blood horses bred in Poland. The material for analyses was sampled from the skin and mucous membranes (385 samples) of 55 English full blood mares. Taking into account reproduction traits, the mares were classified into three groups. Six yeast-li...

  9. Interaction between anthelmintic treatment and vaccine responses in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Rubinson, E F; Chambers, T M; Horohov, D W; Wagner, B; Betancourt, A; Reedy, S E; Jacobsen, S

    2015-04-15

    Anthelmintics and vaccines are commonly given concurrently in routine equine management, but it is unknown to what extent an interaction between the two exists. Cyathostomins can modulate the local immune response by stimulating a type 2 helper T cell (Th2) response. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects of ivermectin have been found in rodent models. It is unknown whether these anti-inflammatory effects affect the acute phase response elicited by commonly used vaccines. This study evaluated how the acute phase inflammatory response, leukocyte expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and vaccine-specific titers induced by simultaneous injection of three vaccines (West Nile Virus, Equine Herpes Rhinopneumonitis, and Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) were modulated by concurrent administration of ivermectin or pyrantel pamoate in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins. Mixed-breed yearling ponies were blocked by gender and fecal strongyle egg count, then randomly assigned to three treatment groups: ivermectin (n=8), pyrantel pamoate (n=8), and control (n=7). All ponies received vaccinations intramuscularly on days 0 and 29, and anthelmintics were administered on the same days. Whole blood, serum and plasma samples were collected one, three and 14 days after each vaccination. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of acute phase reactants (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen and iron), mRNA expression levels of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ) in leukocytes, and vaccine-specific antibody titers. A marked acute-phase response was noted following both vaccinations. In contrast, the pattern of change in cytokine expression was less pronounced and more variable. Statistical differences were observed between groups for haptoglobin, fibrinogen, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10, but differences were generally small and none of the vaccine titers were different between the groups. Taken together, the study

  10. Clinical evaluation of detomidine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine as short term TIVA in Spiti ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, B P S; Sharma, S K; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Adarsh

    2011-06-01

    Veterinarians working under remote field conditions are routinely presented with variety of surgical interventions in equines like castrations, management of wound, traumatic and congenital hernias and musculoskeletal disorders thus necessitating the use of general anaesthesia for management of these conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate and recommend the suitable short term anaesthetic technique for Spiti ponies under field conditions. Seven clinically healthy male Spiti ponies presented for castration were evaluated for short term Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) using detomidine (0.02 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.01 mg kg(-1)), 5% guaifenesin (20 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.0 mg kg(-1)). The studies conducted were open label trials and all the animals received same treatment. After proper tetanus prophylaxis and preanesthetic fasting, detomidine was administered intravenously. Subsequently at head down position the animals received butorphanol intravenously. Thereafter, guaifenesin was administered intravenously. As soon as the signs of ataxia developed, the induction of surgical anaesthesia was achieved by intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride. The onset of sedation was observed in 2.43 +/- 0.53 min following detomidine administration and the animals were ataxic in 1.43 +/- 0.43 min after butorphanol and guaifenesin administration when ketamine was injected. The ponies were in surgical plane of anaesthesia within 2.28 +/- 0.42 min following ketamine administration. During recovery the limb/head movement and sternal recumbency were attained in 18.71 +/- 1.98 and 26.14 +/- 1.62 min, respectively whereas standing ataxia and normal gait were seen at 29.42 +/- 3.21 and 71.14 +/- 4.74 min, respectively. There was excellent to good muscle relaxation. The surgical anaesthesia remained for 22.57 +/- 1.48 min. The recovery was smooth. Moderate to good suppression of palpebral and corneal reflexes were observed immediately after

  11. Polo pony injuries: player-owner reported risk, perception, mitigation and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, C M; Morgan, K L

    2015-07-01

    Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and

  12. Identification of a mutation associated with fatal Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the Fell and Dales pony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Y Fox-Clipsham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Fell and Dales are rare native UK pony breeds at risk due to falling numbers, in-breeding, and inherited disease. Specifically, the lethal Mendelian recessive disease Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIS, which manifests as B-lymphocyte immunodeficiency and progressive anemia, is a substantial threat. A significant percentage (∼10% of the Fell ponies born each year dies from FIS, compromising the long-term survival of this breed. Moreover, the likely spread of FIS into other breeds is of major concern. Indeed, FIS was identified in the Dales pony, a related breed, during the course of this work. Using a stepwise approach comprising linkage and homozygosity mapping followed by haplotype analysis, we mapped the mutation using 14 FIS-affected, 17 obligate carriers, and 10 adults of unknown carrier status to a ∼1 Mb region (29.8 - 30.8 Mb on chromosome (ECA 26. A subsequent genome-wide association study identified two SNPs on ECA26 that showed genome-wide significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing: BIEC2-692674 at 29.804 Mb and BIEC2-693138 at 32.19 Mb. The associated region spanned 2.6 Mb from ∼29.6 Mb to 32.2 Mb on ECA26. Re-sequencing of this region identified a mutation in the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene (SLC5A3; this causes a P446L substitution in the protein. This gene plays a crucial role in the regulatory response to osmotic stress that is essential in many tissues including lymphoid tissues and during early embryonic development. We propose that the amino acid substitution we identify here alters the function of SLC5A3, leading to erythropoiesis failure and compromise of the immune system. FIS is of significant biological interest as it is unique and is caused by a gene not previously associated with a mammalian disease. Having identified the associated gene, we are now able to eradicate FIS from equine populations by informed selective breeding.

  13. Prevalence of yeasts in English full blood mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różański, Paweł; Slaska, Brygida; Różańska, Dorota

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was a quantitative and qualitative analysis of microflora, presentation of current data about prevalence of the microflora on the skin and mucous membranes, and determination of its possible effect on reproduction of English full blood horses bred in Poland. The material for analyses was sampled from the skin and mucous membranes (385 samples) of 55 English full blood mares. Taking into account reproduction traits, the mares were classified into three groups. Six yeast-like species, including five species from the genus Candida (C. albicans, C. guiliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. sp., and C. tropicalis) and Trichomonascus ciferrii, were detected on the skin and mucous membranes in the English full blood mares. Growth of yeasts was observed in more than half of the samples taken from mares that had foaled and approximately 46 % of non-conceiving and barren mares. The high prevalence of various yeast strains in the mouth, nostrils, and collateral groove may suggest widespread occurrence of the microflora in the breeding environment. The results obtained indicate that the yeasts isolated in this study may be components of the normal microflora of the skin and mucous membranes in horses. The analysis results do not indicate unambiguously that the isolated microflora affects reproduction in mares, although this cannot be excluded.

  14. Confirmation of sublunarean voids and thin layering in mare deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Ashley, J. W.; Boyd, A. K.; Wagner, R. V.; Speyerer, E. J.; Ray Hawke, B.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.

    2012-08-01

    Typical flow thicknesses of lunar mare basalts were not well constrained in the past, because as craters and rilles age, downslope movement of loose material tends to mix and bury stratigraphy, obscuring the three dimensional nature of the maria. New Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera high resolution images unambiguously reveal thicknesses of mare basalt layers exposed in impact craters, rilles, and steep-walled pits. Pits up to one hundred meters deep present relatively unmodified, near-vertical sections of mare in three cases, and many young impact craters also expose well preserved sections of mare. Oblique views of each pit and many of these craters reveal multiple layers, 3 to 14 m thick, indicating that eruptions typically produced a series of ˜10 m thick flows (or flow lobes) rather than flows many tens to hundreds of meters thick. Additionally, these images unambiguously show that the floors of two pits extend beneath the mare surfaces, thus revealing sublunarean voids of unknown lateral extent. We also document the occurrence of pits that may be expressions of collapse into subsurface voids in non-mare impact melt deposits. These voids are compelling targets for future human and robotic exploration, with potential as temporary shelters, habitations, or geologic museums.

  15. The effect of feeding on CO2 production and energy expenditure in ponies measured by indirect calorimetry and the 13C-bicarbonate technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Kyrstein, T. D.; Junghans, P

    2015-01-01

    and EE in the field. In this study, four Shetland ponies were used to explore the effect of feeding on CO(2) production and EE measured simultaneously by IC and (13)C-BT. The ponies were individually housed in respiration chambers and received either a single oral or intravenous (IV) bolus dose of (13)C......-labelled sodium bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). The ponies were fed haylage 3 h before (T(-3)), simultaneously with (T(0)) or 3 h after (T(+3)) administration of (13)C-bicarbonate. The CO(2) produced and O(2) consumed by the ponies were measured for 6 h with both administration routes of (13)C...

  16. The maintenance and modiifcation of Goebel pony roll cutter and its innovative development%Goebel盘纸分切机维修改造与创新开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长国; 李艳平

    2015-01-01

    In this paper were introduced the structure of Rapid-d1250 pony roll cutter made by Goebel and the experience on the maintenance and modification to an old pony roll cutter by Henan Dazhi. Based on the experiences on design and application of pony roll cutter more than 10 years, a kind of special pony roll cutter was developed through the digestion and absorption with the imported cutter.%介绍了Goebel产Rapid-d1250型盘纸分切机的各部分结构和河南大指公司对旧盘纸分切机维修改造的经验。对进口设备进行消化吸收,结合本企业十多年使用和设计分切机的经验,开发出具有独特结构的盘纸分切机。

  17. Trails, Other, u83 pony express mile markers, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'u83 pony...

  18. The effectiveness of the haemodialysate Solcoseryl for second-intention wound healing in horses and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, J M; Stolk, P W; van Weeren, P R; Barneveld, A

    2000-06-01

    Second-intention healing of limb wounds in horses is often problematic. Solcoseryl is a protein-free, standardized dialysate/ultrafiltrate (HD) derived from calf blood, which has been shown to improve healing in both animals and humans. The efficacy of HD in the healing of deep wounds in horses and ponies was investigated. Deep wounds of 20 by 35 mm were created on both metatarsi (skin, subcutis, periosteum) and on both femoral biceps muscles (skin, subcutis, muscle) of five horses and five ponies. The wounds on one side were treated with HD, four times a week during the period that the wounds were bandaged and once daily thereafter. The wounds on the other side were left untreated. In the first 4 weeks of the healing period HD stimulated healing but inhibited healing thereafter. This pattern was significant for all wound groups (P < 0.001). Because of this change in effect, the overall effect on wound healing over the entire period was not significant (P = 0.77). HD stimulated healing initially by provoking a greater initial inflammatory response, faster contraction and faster formation of granulation tissue. Subsequently, HD inhibited healing because it significantly delayed epithelialization and caused protracted inflammation. The effects of HD were most pronounced in the horses. Because this study distinguished between contraction and epithelialization, it could be shown that HD stimulated contraction but inhibited epithelialization. Therefore, HD is useful in horses for the treatment of deep wounds during the initial phase of healing by second intention, i.e. during the first weeks when wound contraction can be expected. Treatment should be ceased when epithelialization becomes predominant.

  19. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT BY STANDING LAPAROSCOPY AND INGUINAL CELIOTOMY APPROACH OF THE CRYPTORCHID CANADIAN PONY STALLION – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Igna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available SURGICAL MANAGEMENT BY STANDING LAPAROSCOPY AND INGUINAL CELIOTOMY APPROACH OF THE CRYPTORCHID CANADIAN PONY STALLION – CASE REPORT   Cornel IGNA1*, Roxana DASCALU1, Daniel BUMB1, Bogdan Sicoe1, Larisa SCHUSZLER1 1 Banat’s University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, “King Michael I of Romania” from Timisoara, Romania *Corresponding author, e-mail: ignacornel@gmail.com Keywords: cryptorchidectomy, inguinal celiotomy, laparoscopic, stallion pony Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery has become an accepted method of identification and removal of intra-abdominal testes in the horse. Wilson and Madison – 1989 describe the use of laparoscopy to diagnose an abdominal retained testes. Since then numerous laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy techniques have been described. Aims: In the encountered specialty literature there are few reports in which standing laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy could not be performed in stallions including miniature horse too. Because there are no informations regarding laparoscopic surgery in large animals in romanian literature this report describes the surgical management of a Canadian pony diagnosed with partial abdominal unilaterally cryptorchidism at which laparoscopic castration has failed and the removal of the retained testicle has been made through inguinal celiotomy. Materials and Methods: A 4-year-old unilaterally cryptorchid Canadian pony was admitted for castration. The left testis was in the scrotum, but neither the right testis nor the right epididymis could be located by external palpation of the right inguinal canal. The proposed treatment was laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy with pony standing in stock. With a long-handled forceps inserted into the abdominal cavity, the testis cord is gently grasped and moderate traction without success in bringing the testicle into the abdomen - retained testis. After the failure of laparascopic cryptorchidectomy but having an exact diagnosis - partial

  20. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansen, O; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Jacobs, M P T; Everts, H; van Doorn, D A

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NE/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NE/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P < 0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance.

  1. - Factores relacionados con el aborto en yeguas (Related factors with the abortion in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2006-01-01

    torsión del cordón umbilical (entre los 6 y 9 meses de gestación, especialmente cuando éste mide más de 90 cm. En este caso; hay obstrucción de los vasos sanguíneos y el feto muere por anoxia. Las principales infecciones bacterianas que producen aborto son por Salmonella abortus equi, Leptospira spp., Enrlichia risticii y Streptococcus zooepidermicus. Algunos virus, como el de la artritis viral equina y el herpesvirus equino 1, son agentes causales de aborto en las yeguas. El aborto por hongos también es posible, principalmente debido a Aspergillus spp y algunos tipos de Cándida. El principal método para provocar un aborto es con la administración de PGF2a a las hembras preñadas, debido a la acción luteolítica que posee. Para evitar un aborto se pueden llevar a cabo ciertas medidas, por ejemplo, la administración de progesterona a aquellas yeguas con amenaza de aborto, evitar cubriciones dobles, mantener a las yeguas gestantes alejadas de animales ajenos al rebaño, vacunarlas periódicamente contra el herpesvirus equino y la artritis viral y mantenerlas alejadas de la humedad; además de mantener el nivel nutricional correcto y evitar el maltrato y los golpes. The abortion is the interruption of the gestation with expulsion of a non viable fetus that, in the case of the mares, it is the expulsion of the product before the day 290 of gestation. The signs that precede to an abortion are similar to those of a normal childbirth; however the intensity of these will depend on the time of the gestation, among more advanced she/he is the gestation, more intense they will be the signs. Many factors that predispose to the abortion exist. The abrupt cooling can give origin to an abortion when being stimulated the uterine contractions; also the ingestion of oxytocic plants (as the sorghum, the rye ergot, etc for the pregnant mare they can cause abortion. The reduced ingestion of foods or with deficiencies of certain substances, they cause abnormalities in uterine

  2. Miks tuli "Kevade" läinud aastal teisiti / Mare Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Mare

    2008-01-01

    "Aasta rosina" auhinna võitnud Oskar Lutsu "Kevade" kommenteeritud kooliväljaandest "Kui Arno isaga koolimajja jõudis..." (Tallinn : Ilo, 2007), mille koostasid Aili Kalavus ja Mare Müürsepp ning illustreeris Mare Hunt

  3. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dansen, O.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Jacobs, M.P.T.; Everts, H.; Doorn, van D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1

  4. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-01-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  5. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-11-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  6. Bilateral occurrence of granulosa-theca cell tumors in an Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Lisa M; Gerard, Mathew P; Pinto, Carlos R F; Gradil, Carlos M

    2007-05-01

    An Arabian mare was referred for right granulosa-theca cell tumor (GTCT) evaluation. The mare was presented 4.5 years later for a left GTCT, after successfully conceiving and delivering a normal foal in the interim. The concurrent or nonconcurrent occurrence of bilateral GTCT in mares appears to be rare.

  7. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n = 50

  8. Evaluation of administration of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration on depression of a nociceptive withdrawal reflex evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadavecchia, Claudia; Levionnois, Olivier; Kronen, Peter W; Leandri, Massimo; Spadavecchia, Luciano; Schatzmann, Urs

    2006-05-01

    To investigate effects of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the forelimb of ponies as a method for quantifying anesthetic potency. 7 healthy adult Shetland ponies. Individual MAC (iMAC) for isoflurane was determined for each pony. Then, effects of isoflurane administered at 0.85, 0.95, and 1.05 iMAC on the NWR were assessed. At each concentration, the NWR threshold was defined electromyographically for the common digital extensor and deltoid muscles by stimulating the digital nerve; additional electrical stimulations (3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mA) were delivered, and the evoked activity was recorded and analyzed. After the end of anesthesia, the NWR threshold was assessed in standing ponies. Mean +/- SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.0 +/- 0.2%. The NWR thresholds for both muscles increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner during anesthesia, whereas they decreased in awake ponies. Significantly higher thresholds were found for the deltoid muscle, compared with thresholds for the common digital extensor muscle, in anesthetized ponies. At each iMAC tested, amplitudes of the reflex responses from both muscles increased as stimulus intensities increased from 3 to 40 mA. A concentration-dependent depression of evoked reflexes with reduction in slopes of the stimulus-response functions was detected. Anesthetic-induced changes in sensory-motor processing in ponies anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations of approximately 1.0 MAC can be detected by assessment of NWR. This method will permit comparison of effects of inhaled anesthetics or anesthetic combinations on spinal processing in equids.

  9. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samia Meliani; Bouabdellah Benallou; Miloud Halbouche; Zohra Haddouche

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods: Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results:A total of 78.07%of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions:The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant.

  10. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  11. Dark and baryonic matter in the MareNostrum Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gottloeber, S.; Yepes, G.; Khalatyan, A.; Sevilla, R.; Turchaninov, V.

    2006-01-01

    We report some results from one of the largest hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of large scale structures that has been done up to date. The MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation consists of 2 billion particles (2 times 1024^3) in a cubic box of 500 h^-1 Mpc on a side. This simulation has been done in the MareNostrum parallel supercomputer at the Barcelona SuperComputer Center. Due to the large simulated volume and good mass resolution, our simulated catalog of dark matter halos comprise...

  12. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.; Carson, John M., III

    2017-01-01

    On December 11, 1972, Apollo 17 marked the last controlled U.S. lunar landing and was followed by an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides scientific measurement of the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau and the first post-Apollo U.S. soft lunar landing. It includes the first demonstration of a crew survivability-enhancing autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  13. Critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with four benzimidazoles: mebendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D; Kates, K C

    1977-08-01

    The comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. Mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S. endentatus, S. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Limited data indicated that all benzimidazoles were completely effective against adult Oxyuris equi and 95 to 100% effective against the 4th stage larvae. There was activity also against the large roundworm, Parascaris equorum, although the low levels of infection and skew distribution among the test animals did not permit a definitive determination of efficacy. Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, and Trichostrongylus axei were found in digests of the stomach but none were recovered in the feces after treatment; percent efficacy for these species was not calculated. None of the benzimidazoles showed activity against stomach bots, Gasterophilus spp., and tapeworms, Anoplocephala spp. nor against immature large and small strongylids outside the lumen of the digestive tract.

  14. Ponis, santuarios y guerreros: la dimensión ritual del caballo en el mundo galo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabaldón Martínez, María del Mar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In ancient Gaul —and in Celtic culture as a whole— horse was a special animal not only because of its role as symbol of prestige and richness but also because of its strong religious and ritual dimension. There are horses in burials and in sanctuaries (like Vertault in Côte d´Or being sacrified together with other domestic animals or with the warriors as we see in some cult places in Picardy as the well known of Gournay-sur-Aronde (Oise or the so called ‘trophy’ of Ribemont-sur-Ancre (Somme.

    Entre los pueblos galos —y en la Céltica en general— el caballo fue un animal especial, no sólo por ser un símbolo de prestigio y de riqueza, sino también por su indudable valor religioso y ritual, apareciendo —de manera directa o indirecta— en las sepulturas y siendo sacrificado junto a otras especies domésticas en los santuarios, como Vertault (Côte d´Or, o con el guerrero, poniéndolo a su misma altura, como sucede en algunos lugares de culto de Picardía como el conocido Gournay-sur-Aronde (Oise o el llamado «trofeo» de Ribemont-sur-Ancre (Somme.

  15. Klõsheiko, Mare Vint, effid / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Kinomajas esilinastusid 28. okt. kolm uut dokumentaalfilmi eesti kunstnikest : "F.F.F.F. läheb laiali" (Kuukulgur Film 2005, rezh. Marko Raat, "Mare Vint" (Exitfilm 2005, rezh. Anri Rulkov) ja "Jaan Klõsheiko" (Estonia Film 2005, rezh.-d Eve Ester, Igor Ruus)

  16. Juhid otsustavad saatuste üle / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Spekter, nr. 1, 2002, lk. 25-26. Psühholoogiaprofessor ja juhtimiskonsultant Mare Pork sellest, et tunded mõjutavad juhte rohkem, kui nad seda tajuvad ning, et juhid mõjutavad omakorda inimsaatusi. Erinevatest meetoditest juhtide hindamiseks, 360o tagasiside meetod

  17. Prostaglandins and the regulation of parturition in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousey, J C; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    Prostaglandins play an essential role during the perinatal period in the mare. Prostaglandin concentrations are low for the majority of pregnancy due to the regulatory action of progestagens on those enzymes responsible for metabolism of prostaglandins. Towards term, prostaglandin concentrations gradually increase, closely associated with upregulation of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, stimulation of the prostaglandin synthesising enzyme PGHS-2 and changes in the ratio of progestagens and oestrogens. Recent evidence in the mare indicates that proinflammatory cytokines are key mediators of prostaglandin synthesis both at term parturition in healthy mares and at preterm parturition associated with placental infection. Prostaglandin concentrations rise substantially during active labour and decline after birth, associated with delivery of the placenta. During induced labour, prostaglandin concentrations are variable depending on the proximity to spontaneous parturition at term. Once the proinflammatory endocrine cascade is initiated, it is difficult to prevent active labour by administration of drugs that reduce prostaglandin concentrations in peripheral plasma. Further work is needed to establish the inter-relationships between prostaglandin production and other endocrine changes associated with labour at term and preterm in the mare.

  18. Use of different pressures for transvaginal follicular aspiration in mares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M.A.F. Sá; S.O. Paiva; G.A. Dutra; C.G. Barbosa; M.R.B. Mello; J.C.F. Jacob

    ... estrous cycles as follows: G150 = 150mmHg (n = 10); G280 = 280mmHg (n = 10); G400 = 400mmHg (n = 10). Every estrous cycle, the group that the mare would participate was drawn, and each animal participated once in each group...

  19. Klõsheiko, Mare Vint, effid / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Kinomajas esilinastusid 28. okt. kolm uut dokumentaalfilmi eesti kunstnikest : "F.F.F.F. läheb laiali" (Kuukulgur Film 2005, rezh. Marko Raat, "Mare Vint" (Exitfilm 2005, rezh. Anri Rulkov) ja "Jaan Klõsheiko" (Estonia Film 2005, rezh.-d Eve Ester, Igor Ruus)

  20. Vesipiip avab mõnuainete maailma / Mare Liiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiger, Mare

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli sotsiaaltöö magistrandi Mare Liigeri arvates määrab lapse suhtumise uimastitesse vanemate suhtumine. Mida nooremalt tarbitakse tubakat ja alkoholi, seda tõenäolisem on, et hakatakse tarbima ka muid mõnuaineid

  1. Bioassay for follicle stimulating activity of equine gonadotropic hormone in mare serum using frozen/thawed transiently transfected reporter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmi, F; Nicola, E; Price, C A

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to establish a cell line-based bioassay for FSH in horse serum for screening samples with high eCG bioactivity. A cell line (HEK293) was transiently cotransfected with an FSH reporter expression plasmid and a cAMP-responsive β-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Cells were bulk frozen, and thawed for assay purposes. This assay was specific for FSH, with no cross-reaction with LH or insulin-like growth factor-1. Standard curves (eCG) and serum samples from pregnant mares passed parallel line bioassay validity tests (linearity and parallelism). Estimates of bioactivity with this bioassay were highly correlated with estimates obtained with the Steelman-Pohley hCG augmentation assay. The colorimetric end point permitted the use of this assay as a rapid screen for FSH bioactivity without the need for animal use or complex cell culture facilities.

  2. Ecología del lobo (Canis lupus), del poni salvaje (Equus ferus atlanticus) y del ganado vacuno semiextensivo (Bos taurus) en Galicia: interacciones depredador - presa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La población de lobo (Canis lupus) de Galicia constituye aproximadamente un tercio de la población española. En gran parte del oeste y centro de Galicia, los lobos coexisten con ponis salvajes (Equus ferus atlanticus) y el ganado vacuno semiextensivo (Bos taurus) es otro de los principales recursos tróficos disponibles. En estas zonas se presume un importante nivel de depredación de lobo sobre ponis salvajes y ganado vacuno semiextensivo, pero estas interacciones depredador-presa no habían si...

  3. Effect of clenbuterol on cardiopulmonary parameters and intramuscular blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized ponies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong H.; Clarke, Kathleen W.; Alibhai, Hatim I. K.

    1994-09-01

    The cardiopulmonary affects and the affects on muscular microperfusion of the beta adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol (0.8 mcg/kg intravenously), were investigated in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Muscle microcirculation was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, utilizing fine optical fiber probes. Other measurements included heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, and arterial blood gas tensions. Clenbuterol injection caused a regular, but transitory rise in muscle microcirculation, an increase in heart rate, and cardiac output and a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure. Clenbuterol did appear to prevent the continuing fall in arterial blood oxygen tensions seen in the treatment groups, but had only minimal affects in reversing the hypoxia already present.

  4. Anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of romifidine, tramadol and their combination administered intravenously slowly in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanna L; Cristarella, Santo; Quartuccio, Marco; Interlandi, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of slow intravenous (IV) injection of tramadol, romifidine, or a combination of both drugs in ponies. Within-subject blinded. Twenty ponies (seven male, 13 female, weighing mean ± SD 268.0 ± 128 kg). On separate occasions, each pony received one of the following three treatments IV; romifidine 50 μg kg(-) (R) tramadol 3 mg kg(-1) given over 15 minutes (T) or tramadol 3 mg kg(-1) followed by romifidine 50 μg kg(-1) (RT). Physiologic parameters and caecal borborygmi (CB) were measured and sedation and response to electrical stimulation of the coronary band assessed before and up to 120 minutes following drugs administration. Results were analyzed using the Friedman's test and 2 way anova as relevant. When compared to baseline, heart (HR, beats minute(-1) ) and respiratory rates (fR , breaths minute(-1) ) increased with treatment T (highest mean ± SD, HR 43 ± 1; fR 33 ± 2) and decreased with R (lowest HR 29 ± 1 and fR 10 ± 4) and RT (lowest HR 32 ± 1 and fR 9 ± 3). There were no changes in other measured physiological variables. The height of head from the ground was lower following treatments R and TR than T. There was slight ataxia with all three treatments. No excitatory behavioural effects were observed. The response to electrical stimulation was reduced for a prolonged period relative to baseline following all three treatments, the effect being significantly greatest with treatment RT. Tramadol combined with romifidine at the stated doses proved an effective sedative and anti-nociceptive combination in ponies, with no unacceptable behavioural or physiologic side effects. Slow controlled administration of tramadol should reduce the occurrence of adverse behavioural side effects. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  5. Reduced anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in mares with hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Akbarinejad, V; Youssefi, R; Masoudifard, M; Hasani, N

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has been observed to decrease with the development of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) in mares. Two studies were conducted to evaluate AMH concentration in mares with HAFs compared to seasonally anoestrous and cyclic mares, and to elucidate changes of AMH with the development of luteinised unruptured follicles (LUFs). In study 1, AMH and progesterone were evaluated in seasonally anoestrous, anovulatory (with HAF) and cyclic mares (at mid luteal phase). In study 2, mares in control and LUF groups were treated with 1500 IU/case hCG when they had a ≥32-mm follicle and an endometrial oedema score of three (day 0). Mares in the control group received no further treatment. Mares in the LUF group received 1.7 mg/kg flunixin meglumine at the time of hCG administration, and 12, 24 and 36 h after it. Ultrasonography and blood collection for AMH and progesterone measurement were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In study 1, AMH concentration was lower in seasonally anoestrous and HAF mares than cyclic mares (P0.05). In study 2, AMH was not different between LUF and control mares (P>0.05); however, progesterone had a lower concentration and a delayed rise after hCG administration in LUF mares compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that similar to seasonally anoestrous mares, AMH concentrations decreased in mares with HAFs. LUFs were also found to be functionally different from HAFs. PMID:27175127

  6. 贵州矮马血清蛋白的多态性研究%Study on Polymorphism of the Serum Proteins in Guizhou Pony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵星艳; 王嘉福; 冉雪琴; 田松军; 黄勇; 覃信忠

    2011-01-01

    以西南马为对照,采用非变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术对31匹贵州矮马的转铁蛋白(TF)、白蛋白(Alb)、α1B糖蛋白(AlB)3种血清蛋白进行了多态性研究.结果表明,AlB位点呈现单态,TF、Alb蛋白位点均表现出不同程度的多态性.Alb位点共发现6种蛋白型,对应3个等位基因,贵州矮马Alb位点的基因频率分别为A(0.2097)、B(0.5645)、C(0.2258);TF位点共发现8种蛋白型对应5个等位基因,贵州矮马TF位点的基因频率分别为A(0.0484)、B(0.5806)、C(0.1129)、D(0.1452)、E(0.1129).Alb、TF位点的多态信息含量(PIC)和遗传杂合度均较大,说明贵州矮马的遗传多样性较高,具有较大的选育空间.但是贵州矮马在白蛋白及转铁蛋白位点的杂合度均低于西南马,说明在相对闭锁的环境中生存的贵州矮马,保持了较为纯净的原始基因库.贵州矮马的Alb和TF的个体识别率及累积非父排除率均较高,提示这两个蛋白的多态性可应用于贵州矮马的谱系鉴定和个体鉴别.%Polymorphism of the serum proteins for the pony in Guizhou province was carried out by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE).Based on the band types of three proteins on native-PAGE,the protein variant types and its gene allele frequency were compared among albumin (Alb), α1-B glycoprotein (AlB) and transferring (TF) proteins.Both of the Alb and TF loci,except for AlB,showed polymorphisms.Six protein variants were found from the Alb protein of Guizhou pony and Southwest horse,which corresponded to three alleles of A,B and C.Gene frequencies of Alb loci in Guizhou pony were A (0.2097),B (0.5645) and C (0.2258),respectively.Seven variant types were found in the TF protein from Guizhou pony,which was controlled by five gene alleles (A, B, C, D and E).Gene frequencies of TF in Guizhou pony were A (0.0484), B (0.5806),C (0.1129),D (0.1452) and E (0.1129),respectively.The polymorphism information content (PIC) and

  7. Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Holland, S J

    2002-12-16

    In order to assist in the accurate prediction of the timing of parturition in the mare true gestation length, along with the potential effect of a number of factors, was investigated. Data from 433 Thoroughbred foal pregnancies were used. Sequential ultrasonic scanning allowed the true gestation length (fertilisation-parturition) to be ascertained, as apposed to previous work, which used the mating-parturition interval. An average gestation length of 344.1 +/- 0.49 days was evident. Colt foal pregnancies were significantly (P gestation length in all foals (P gestation length range (315-388 days), all resulting in viable foals is noteworthy and of clinical importance when considering the classification of dysmaturity in foals, (ii) mares carrying colt foals due to be born in the middle of the breeding season (April) are likely to have the longer gestation lengths.

  8. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  9. Dark and baryonic matter in the MareNostrum Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlöber, S; Khalatyan, A; Sevilla, R; Turchaninov, V I

    2006-01-01

    We report some results from one of the largest hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of large scale structures that has been done up to date. The MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation consists of 2 billion particles (2 times 1024^3) in a cubic box of 500 h^-1 Mpc on a side. This simulation has been done in the MareNostrum parallel supercomputer at the Barcelona SuperComputer Center. Due to the large simulated volume and good mass resolution, our simulated catalog of dark matter halos comprises more than half a million objects with masses larger than a typical Milky Way galaxy halo. From this dataset we have studied several statistical properties such as the evolution of the halo mass function, the void distribution, the shapes of dark and gas halos and the large scale distribution of baryons.

  10. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  11. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a postpartum mare concurrent with encephalopathy in the neonatal foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Charles E; Gould, Daniel H; Davidson, Ann H; Avery, Paul R; Legare, Marie E; Hyatt, Doreene R; DebRoy, Chitrita

    2008-03-01

    A postpartum mare and foal were presented for evaluation of fever and lethargy in the mare. The mare was diagnosed with endometritis and initially responded well to treatment. On the second day of hospitalization, the mare developed renal insufficiency characterized by oliguria, azotemia, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia. Concurrently, the foal developed rapidly progressive central nervous system signs culminating in refractory seizures. Both animals failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. Thrombotic microangiopathy involving glomeruli was evident on microscopic examination of the mare's kidneys. Microscopic evidence of brain edema was the principal postmortem finding in the foal. No specific etiology was confirmed in either case. Notably, Escherichia coli 0103:H2 was isolated from the mare's uterus and the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which an organism implicated as a cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was isolated from an animal with clinical signs and postmortem findings consistent with the disease.

  12. Improving Information Management at Mare Island Naval Shipyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDEN’F CATION %(,MBER .)RGAN’ZAT.ON (if apicable) 8c ADDRESS(Cmy State. and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT IT...600,000 drawings as well as records for modified drawings and documents specifically for Mare Island. e. Engineering Analisis This system is used for...method of maintaining records for accomplishing industrial plant equipment maintenance. j. ICS - Instrument Calibration System ICS is used primarily in

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sujaya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the Sumbawa mares milk The Isolation of LAB was conducted in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. The isolates were characterized by standard methods, such as Gram staining, cell morphology study and fermentation activities. The ability of the isolates to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria was studied by dual culture assay. Isolates showing the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria were further identified using API 50 CHL. The results showed that Sumbawa mare milk was dominated by lactobacilli and weisella/leuconostoc. As many as 26 out 36 isolates belong to homofermentative lactobacilli and another 10 isolates belong to both heterofermentative lactobacilli and weissella or leuconostoc. Twenty four isolates inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli 25922, Shigela flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus 29213. Two promising isolates with the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus sp. SKG34 and Lactobacillus sp. SKG49, were identified respectively as Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus ramnosus SKG49. These two isolates were specific strains of the sumbawa mare milk and are very potential to be developed as probiotic for human.

  14. Clinical efficacy of intravenous administration of marbofloxacin in a Staphylococcus aureus infection in tissue cages in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, M; van Soest, J M; van Duijkeren, E; Ensink, J M

    2006-12-01

    Tissue cages (TC), implanted subcutaneously in the neck in eight ponies, were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to determine the clinical efficacy of marbofloxacin in the treatment of this infection. From 21 h after inoculation, marbofloxacin (6 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) once daily for 7 days. Samples of the tissue cage fluid (TCF) were taken to determine marbofloxacin concentrations (days 1, 3 and 7), using high-pressure liquid chromatography, and numbers of viable bacteria [colony forming units (CFU)] (days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21). Statistical analysis was used to compare CFU before and after treatment. Clinical signs and CFU were used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. Although, there was a slight decrease in CFU in all TC initially, the infection was not eliminated by marbofloxacin treatment in any of the ponies and abscesses formed. As the MIC (0.25 microg/mL) did not change during treatment and the concentration of marbofloxacin during treatment (mean concentration in TCF was 0.89 microg/mL on day 1, 0.80 microg/mL on day 3 and 2.77 microg/mL on day 7) was above MIC, we consider that the treatment failure might be attributable to the formation of a biofilm by S. aureus. Based on the present results, i.v. administration of marbofloxacin alone is not suitable for the elimination of S. aureus infections from secluded sites.

  15. [Evaluation of immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum of mares by ELISA, refractometry and colostrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Monica; Markus, R G; Strutzberg-Minder, K; Nogai, K; Beyerbach, M; Klug, E

    2008-01-01

    In 360 samples of colostrum and 36 samples of blood of warmblood mares, the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was evaluated in the post partal period with an ELISA and the results were compared to values obtained with 2 field methods--refractometry and colostrometry. A significant correlation (p refractometry (r = +0.93). So both field-methods seem suitable for evaluation of the colostral IgG-concentration in mares. Further the kinetic of the IgG concentration in colostrum, the volume of colostrum and the total amount of IgG was measured in the 12 hours post partum (p.p.) in each half udder of 36 mares of different parity. Immediately p.p. primiparous mares have a greater mean concentration of IgG (68 mg/ml) than multiparous mares (51 mg/ml). However, multiparous mares have a mean colostral volume of 1020 ml whereas, in primiparous mares, a mean volume of 527 ml was determined within the first three hours p.p. As a result of this the total amount of IgG was lower in primiparous (31.5 g) than in multiparous mares (48.5 g). A significant decrease of IgG concentration was measured in multiparous mares in the 1.5 hours following partum versus 3 hours in primiparous mares. The mean IgG concentration in the blood serum of the 36 mares immediately p.p. was 13.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml. No significant correlation was observed between values of IgG concentration in the blood and in the colostrum of the mares.

  16. Inflammatory response in chronic degenerative endometritis mares treated with platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghini, Maria Fernanda S; Ramires Neto, Carlos; Segabinazzi, Lorenzo G; Castro Chaves, Maria Manoela B; Dell'Aqua, Camila de Paula F; Bussiere, Maria Clara C; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Papa, Frederico O; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    2016-07-15

    Degenerative changes of the endometrium are directly related to age and fertility in mares. Chronic degenerative endometritis (CDE) is correlated with uterine fluid retention and reduced ability to clear uterine inflammation. Recent research in the areas of equine surgery and sports medicine has shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment acts as an immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the uterine infusion of PRP could modulate the local inflammatory response and modify the intrauterine NO concentrations after artificial insemination (AI) in both normal mares and those with CDE. Thirteen mares with endometrium classified as grade III on the histology (mares with CDE) and eight mares with endometrial histological classification I or II-a normal mares were selected to investigate the effect of PRP therapy. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen in two consecutive cycles in a crossover study design. Thereby, each mare served as its own control and the treatment was performed with intrauterine PRP infusion four hours after AI. The percentage of neutrophils in uterine cytology (CIT, %), uterine fluid accumulation observed on ultrasonography (FLU, mm) and nitric oxide concentration of uterine fluid (NO, μM) were analyzed before and 24 hours after AI. The results reported that mares with CDE (CIT, 68.3 ± 3.27, FLU, 10.7 ± 1.61) have a higher (P inflammatory response after AI than normal mares (CIT, 24.4 ± 3.56, FLU, 0), but NO concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between categories of mares. In treated cycles with PRP, the intrauterine inflammatory response decrease (P inflammatory response to semen in mares with CDE but did not reduce NO concentrations in intrauterine fluid.

  17. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of Mare Australe: The North Australe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Ostrach, L. R.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Giguere, T. A.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is to investigate volcanic processes at different temporal and physical scales, with one emphasis being the characterization of ancient (meaning, greater than 3.9 Ga) volcanic units. One such ancient volcanic terrain is Mare Australe, a loosely-circular collection of mare basalts centered at approximately 38.9 deg S, 93 deg E (Fig. 1). Mare Australe is a complex, extensive, and poorly understood volcanic region.

  18. Ages and stratigraphy of lunar mare basalts in Mare Frigoris and other nearside maria based on crater size-frequency distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2010-03-01

    We report on ages derived from impact crater counts for exposed mare basalt units in the northern part of the lunar nearside hemisphere (Mare Frigoris), the eastern and northeastern part of the nearside hemisphere (Lacus Temporis, Joliot, Hubble, Goddard, Mare Marginis, and Mare Smythii), the central part of the nearside hemisphere (Palus Putredinis, Mare Vaporum, and Sinus Medii), and the southwestern part of the nearside hemisphere (Grimaldi, Crüger, Rocca A, Lacus Aestatis, and Schickard). In Mare Frigoris, we dated 37 basalt units, showing ages from 2.61 to 3.77 Gyr, with most units being formed in the late Imbrian period between 3.4 and 3.8 Gyr ago. In Mare Vaporum we dated six spectrally homogeneous units that show model ages of 3.10 to 3.61 Gyr. Our model ages of basalts in Mare Marginis range from 3.38 to 3.88 Gyr and are mostly older than basalts in Mare Smythii (3.14-3.48 Gyr). The model ages of four units in Sinus Medii indicate that the basalts in this region formed 3.63 to 3.79 Gyr ago. We find an excellent agreement of our crater size-frequency model ages of the Palus Putredinis area, which contains the Apollo 15 landing site, with the radiometric ages of Apollo 15 samples. According to our crater counts, basalts in Palus Putredinis are 3.34 Gyr old and this compares favorably with the radiometric ages of 3.30-3.35 Gyr of the olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts of the Apollo 15 landing site. Lacus Aestatis is a small irregular-shaped mare patch in the southwestern nearside and shows an Imbrian age of 3.50 Gyr; basalts in Lacus Temporis in the northeastern nearside formed between 3.62 and 3.74 Gyr ago and are, therefore, older than the basalts in Lacus Aestatis. We found that basalts in craters of the southwestern nearside (Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, and Rocca A) are also mostly younger than basalts in craters of the northeastern nearside (Hubble, Joliot, and Goddard). While basalt ages vary between 3.16 and 3.75 Gyr in the southwest

  19. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    briefly discusses an example of a jack-of-all-trades in Dutch (adnominal PPs with van ‘of’; see Rijkhoff 2009b for a more detailed treatment), then focuses on a one-trick-pony in Danish, the adjective stakkels ‘poor’  (as in Stakkels pige! ‘Poor girl!’), and compares it with its translational counterpart...

  20. SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS AND OXYTOCIN IN THE TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRITIS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad, N. Ahmad. M.K. Mansoor and H.A. Samad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of oxytocin with or without intrauterine antibiotics infusion, on conception rates in 150 endometritic mares. Uterine swabs were collected from each mare and processed for antibiotic sensitivity tests. Samples from 135 mares showing bacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity were divided into following groups: Control given oxytocin only, Gentamicin or gentamicin + Oxytocin, Chloramphenicol or Chloramphenicol + Oxytocin, Streptopenicillin + Kanamycin or Streptopenicillin + Kanamycin + Oxytocin and Norfloxacin or Norfloxacin + Oxytocin. After treatment for five days one heat was missed and on second heat mares were bred through natural. mating and examined for pregnancy at least 60 days after service. The overall conception rate in mares of groups treated using antibiotics without oxytocin (62.22% was significantly higher (P<0.05 as compared to 40.00% in the control group. However, conception rates in mares of former groups did not differ from one , another. Similarly. overall conception rate in mares treated using antibiotic + oxytocin combination (82.62% was significantly higher (P<0.05 than overall conception rate in mares treated with antibiotics alone (62.22% or control (40.00%. It was concluded that oxytocin alongwith some suitable antibiotic (s may be used for the treatment of endometritis and improvement of conception rates in endometritic mares

  1. Reproduction in the zebra mare Equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Smuts

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive characteristics of Burchell's zebra mares are described using data collected from captive and free ranging animals and the reproductive tracts of 310 mares shot during a game cropping campaign. The pubertal interval in zebra mares ranges from age 16 to 22 months, succesful mating occurring for the first time at 23 months of age. Full reproductive capacity is attained at three years. Zebra mares are seasonally polyoestrous, with an average of 85 of all mating and foaling occurring during the wet summer months (October to March.

  2. Immune Responses and Viral Replication in Long-Term Inapparent Carrier Ponies Inoculated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott A.; Li, Feng; McKeon, Brian M.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627–9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840–3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 103-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  3. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  4. Soome Citycon ostis Eesti omanikelt Rocca al Mare kaubanduskeskuse / Kadri Masing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masing, Kadri

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 27. juuli lk. 4. Rocca al Mare kaubanduskeskuse soomlastest uued omanikud hakkavad laiendama sealset kaubanduspinda, mille arendamiseks on ette nähtud 3 aastat ning sellest peaks saama Eesti üks suurimaid müügikeskusi. Vt. samas: Konkurendid rõõmustavad. Lisa: Uus omanik tahab muuta Rocca al Mare suurimaks

  5. Soome Citycon ostis Eesti omanikelt Rocca al Mare kaubanduskeskuse / Kadri Masing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masing, Kadri

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 27. juuli lk. 4. Rocca al Mare kaubanduskeskuse soomlastest uued omanikud hakkavad laiendama sealset kaubanduspinda, mille arendamiseks on ette nähtud 3 aastat ning sellest peaks saama Eesti üks suurimaid müügikeskusi. Vt. samas: Konkurendid rõõmustavad. Lisa: Uus omanik tahab muuta Rocca al Mare suurimaks

  6. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. 117.169 Section 117.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  7. Toonart Rääski ja Aivar Riisalu firma ostab Rocca al Mare Suurhalli / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. okt. lk. 7. Rocca al Mare Suurhalli aktsionärid otsustasid müüa suurhalli hotelliärimehe Toonart Rääski ja meelelahutusettevõtja Aivar Riisaluga seotud firmale Neckman Group. Diagramm: Lemminkäinen Eesti, Neckman Groupi, Eesti riigi ja Tallinna linna osalused Rocca al Mare Suurhallis

  8. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : reproductive performance after foal heat breeding versus breeding in a subsequent heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Postpartum reproductive performance was studied in 54 Friesian brood mares with and 50 without retained placenta. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. The group of mares with retained placenta was subdivided into mares i

  9. [Surgical removing of an ectopic tooth in an Iceland mare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicht, S; Del Chicca, F; Fürst, A

    2011-12-01

    Ectopic teeth occur because of failure of the first branchial cleft to close during development and are found mostly in young horses. Such dentigerous cysts are often located at the base of the ear, forming a notable swelling with a fistula, as it was the case with the two year old Iceland mare «Runa». In order to confirm the diagnosis, x-ray images were taken, which is also necessary to locate the ectopic tooth correctly. While operating, the whole cystic membrane should be removed and it is important to prevent adjacent nerves and blood vessels from damage. Prognosis for complete healing after removing an ectopic tooth is excellent.

  10. Capital, dialogue, and community engagement—My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic understood as an alternate reality game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Veale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experience of engaging with the television show My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic is structurally and affectively analogous to the experience of an alternate reality game. The community presents multiple tiers of engagement in which individual contributions can be recognized; the creators of the show include material with the specific intent that it be taken up by the community but without any control of the way in which it is used, and material created by the community is folded into the text by the creators in a dialogue. The context of the cocreative dialogue that surrounds the show and its community is a good example of both what Paul Booth identifies as a digi-gratis economy and the forensic fandom used by Jason Mittell to understand community engagement and response to Lost.

  11. ANTIBODIES DETECTION TO RHODOCOCCUS EQUI IN VACCINATED MARES AND FOALS BY INDIRECT ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS ANTI-Rhodococcus equi EM ÉGUAS VACINADAS E POTROS PELO ENSAIO IMUNOENZIMÁTICO INDIRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Braga Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response in ‘Brasileiro de Hipismo’ (BH breed and Breton mares was compared after using the Rhodococcus equi vaccine, and the effect of maternal immunoprophylaxis on antibody transfer to newborn foals through the colostrum was evaluated. Blood samples were obtained from 16 pregnant mares vaccinated against R. equi, 16 foals (offspring from vaccinated mares, 8 unvaccinated pregnant mares and 8 foals (offspring from control mares. R equi serum antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA after the immunization of pregnant mares using two different antigens, APTX and the commercial vaccine. There was no difference in antibody production between the two breeds. Significant increase in R. equi antibody titers was observed in mares after vaccination (p<0.01, reaching a peak at foaling. Afterward, titers tended to decrease for up to 60 days after birth (dab and then remained constant until 150 dab. Significant antibody transfer to the vaccinated mares newborn foal occurred through the colostrum. A slight reduction in antibody titer was observed at 60 dab, after which titers remained constant for up to 150 dab. The commercial antigen detected significantly higher antibody titers than did APTX (p<0.01.

    KEY WORDS: Antibodies, ELISA, Rhodococcus equi, immunization, foals.
    Comparou-se a resposta imune humoral em éguas da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH e Bretão, após a imunização com a vacina anti-Rhodococcus equi, bem como avaliou-se o efeito da imunoprofilaxia ativa materna na transferência de anticorpos pelo colostro em equinos recém-nascidos. Coletaram-se amostras sanguíneas de dezesseis éguas prenhes vacinadas contra R. equi, dezesseis potros filhos das éguas vacinadas, oito éguas prenhes não vacinadas e oito potros filhos das éguas não vacinadas. Determinou-se a titulação de anticorpos anti-R. equi utilizando-se o ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA com os dois

  12. Electrical conductivity anomaly beneath Mare Serenitatis detected by Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 16 magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanian, L. L.; Vnuchkova, T. A.; Egorov, I. V.; Basilevskii, A. T.; Eroshenko, E. G.; Fainberg, E. B.; Dyal, P.; Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations measured by the Lunokhod 2 magnetometer in the Bay Le Monnier are distinctly anisotropic when compared to simultaneous Apollo 16 magnetometer data measured 1100 km away in the Descartes highlands. This anisotropy can be explained by an anomalous electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath Mare Serenitatis. A model is presented of anomalously lower electrical conductivity beneath Serenitatis and the simultaneous magnetic data from the Lunokhod 2 site at the mare edge and the Apollo 16 site are compared to the numerically calculated model solutions. This comparison indicates that the anisotropic fluctuations can be modeled by a nonconducting layer in the lunar lithosphere which is 150 km thick beneath the highlands and 300 km thick beneath Mare Serenitatis. A decreased electrical conductivity in the upper mantle beneath the mare may be due to a lower temperature resulting from heat carried out the magma source regions to the surface during mare flooding.

  13. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...

  14. José Fuentes Mares, un historiador adelantado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Velasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una valoración de la obra historiográfica de José Fuentes Mares. El material de trabajo está constituido por los cuatro libros que escribió acerca de Benito Juárez y tres textos más donde expresó sus conceptos sobre teoría y filosofía de la historia. El punto de partida es el análisis de ocho de los elementos que caracterizaron su labor historiadora: conciencia de la propia historicidad, dinámica interpretativa, actitud sobre esencialismos, humanización de la historia, estilo narrativo, posición anímica ante lo historiado, información de detalles y contingencias y el uso de recursos de la dramaturgia. El resultado del análisis plantea una hipotética "teoría de la historia de Fuentes Mares". Finalmente se expone una semblanza del entorno adverso que el historiador tuvo que enfrentar para desarrollar su labor exitosamente.

  15. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extralunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. There is a twofold to fourfold contrast in the integral impact flux between the Apollo 14 and 16 sites and the older mare surfaces. This is judged insufficient to account for the contrasting lithology between these two sites: basalts and soil breccias in the maria, annealed breccias and impact melts in the highlands. Therefore, these rocks and their ages (3.9-4.0 b.y.) are thought to predate the surfaces in which they are found. Estimation of the flux needed to produce these lithologies, and difficulties associated with extrapolating this further back in lunar history give support to the "cataclysm" hypothesis of Tera, Papanastassiou, and Wasserburg. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the "normal" flux during the first 600 million years of lunar history and the "peak" that apparently occurred 4.0 billion years ago. The most likely sources for the normal flux are comets from the vicinity of Uranus and Neptune. The most promising source for the peak is tidal disruption by Earth or Venus of a Ceres-size asteroid initially in a Mars-crossing orbit. Alternative possibilities are suggested.

  16. Dark and baryonic matter in the MareNostrum Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.; Khalatyan, A.; Sevilla, R.; Turchaninov, V.

    2006-11-01

    We report some results from one of the largest hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of large scale structures that has been done up to date. The MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation consists of 2 billion particles (2 × 10243) in a cubic box of 500 h-1 Mpc on a side. This simulation has been done in the MareNostrum parallel supercomputer at the Barcelona SuperComputer Center. Due to the large simulated volume and good mass resolution, our simulated catalog of dark matter halos comprises more than half a million objects with masses larger than a typical Milky Way galaxy halo. From this dataset we have studied several statistical properties such as the halo mass function, the distribution of shapes of dark and gas components within halos, the baryon fraction, cumulative void volume etc. This simulation is particularly useful to study the large scale distribution of baryons in the universe as a function of temperature and density. In this paper we also show the time evolution of the gas fractions at large scales.

  17. The Concentrations of Circulating Plasma Oxytocin and the Pattern of Oxytocin Release in Mare during Oestrus and after Ovulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Eun

    Mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) accumulate intrauterine fluid after mating. One of the factors causing delayed uterine clearance is thought to be impaired uterine contractility. Oxytocin is central in controlling myometrial contractility. The objective of the present study was to describe peripheral oxytocin release during estrus and in the early postovulatory period in reproductively-normal mares and to compare the baseline circulating oxytocin concentrations in reproductively-normal mares and mares with PMIE. Blood samples were collected from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) from day -5 of estrus to day 2 postovulation and every 5 min for 30 min from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) and mares with PMIE (n=5) on day 3 of estrus. Pulsatile secretion of oxytocin was observed in all mares. Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (Poxytocin concentrations tended to increase. On day 3 of estrus, plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (Poxytocin concentrations between mares to PMIE. The low plasma oxytocin concentrations in mares with PMIE may contribute to predisposing factors in their poor uterine clearance in these mares.

  18. PCR-RFLP Polymorphism of Promoter Region of MSTN Gene in Southwest Pony%西南矮马肌肉生长抑制素基因启动子区PCR-RFLP多态性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙鑫; 杨胜林; 杨海兵; 李爱萍; 王忠霞

    2012-01-01

    In this present study, promoter region of myostation(MSTN) gene of Guizhou pony, Debao pony and Ningqiang pony were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated that there was one Ssp I digestion site in the 204 bp amplified fragment. An T→C mutation at the site 156 bp of this gene by DNA sequencing which produced two sorts of genotypes, AA and AB, however, BB genotype was not founded in this study. The genotype frequency of AB in Guizhou pony and Ningqiang pony were higher than AA, while AA genotype was preponderant in Debao pony. The allele frequency of A were higher than B in all these three pony breeds. Guizhou pony and Debao pony were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0. 05) , but Ningqiang pony was significantly different (P<0. 05).%利用PCR-RFLP技术对贵州矮马、德保矮马和宁强矮马3个品种的45个个体的肌肉生长抑制素(myostatin,MSTN)基因的启动子区进行多态性分析.结果表明,大小为204 bp的扩增片段经限制性内切酶Ssp I酶切后,不同基因型经过测序发现156T→C突变,产生AA和AB两种基因型,没有发现BB基因型.贵州矮马和宁强矮马中AB基因型频率大于AA基因型,德保矮马中AA基因型占优势,在3种矮马品种A等位基因频率均大于B等位基因.卡方检测结果发现,贵州和德保矮马在该酶切位点处于平衡状态(P>0.05),而宁强矮马在该位点分布差异显著(P<0.05).

  19. Real-time characterization of the uterine blood flow in mares before and after artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J C; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Thompson, D L; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-09-01

    The present experiment was divided into two studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares throughout the immediate post-breeding period. In study 1, uterine blood flow was characterized in mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII and GIII, respectively). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤ 6 years) and old (≥ 15 years) mares (n = 7 mares/group). Uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated every hour from H0 (moment immediately before AI) to H12. In study 1, a pronounced and transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was detected (P blood flow. In study 2, a transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was also observed in both age groups during the first hour after mating. However, mesometrial PI of young and old mares was similar (P > 0.05) and constant (P > 0.7) through the first 12h after AI. Results demonstrated, for the first time, the immediate changes on uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial PI in response to semen infusion. Moreover, reduced blood flow of the uterus during the post-breeding period was strongly associated with endometrial degenerative changes in mares, regardless of age.

  20. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  1. AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBIAL PADA SUSU KUDA SUMBAWA [Antimicrobial Activity of the Sumbawa Mare Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawati D1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives where to verify the antimicrobial activity of mare milk from Sumbawa island and to further study the characteristics of the antimicrobial compound. The experiments were conducted involving 115 milk samples of Sumbawa mare and three different groups of control milk i.e. from 20 milk samples of working/ cart mares from Java, 2 samples of racing mares from Tangerang horse farm and 15 samples of dairy cows from Bogor.The results concluded that all milk samples of Sumbawa mares contained strong antimicrobial activity as tested to 9 species of bacteria. All control samples did not show antimicrobial activity, except milk samples from racing mares which showed low antibacterial activity. The racing mares were then indentified as crossbred between male Thoroughbred and female Sumbawa horse. This finding supports and suggests that the native Sumbawa horses have genetic potential to the antimicrobial activity in their milk produced. Polarity tests using 5 organic solvents of different polarity indicated that the antimicrobial activity compound was very polar but had lower polarity than water. The bioactive coumpound did not dissolve in non polar hexane but strongly dissolved in the polar methanol solvent.

  2. Investigating the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium flow emplacement with Earth-based radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G. A.; Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Hawke, B. R.

    2016-08-01

    The lunar maria are the product of extensive basaltic volcanism that flooded widespread portions of the Moon's surface. Constraining mare volcanic history therefore provides a window into the endogenic processes responsible for shaping the Moon. Due to the low magma viscosity and the associated thin nature of lava units, the majority of mare surface structures are masked and subdued by impact regolith. Subtle individual mare flow morphologies, coupled with spatial limitations in the use of crater size distributions to distinguish surface units close in age, restrict our understanding of mare stratigraphy. Earth-based 70 cm wavelength (P band) radar can reveal features beneath the regolith and highlight very subtle changes in the ilmenite content of the flows, providing a unique means to map mare units. Here we map volcanic units in Mare Imbrium using high-resolution (200 m/pixel), Earth-based P band data. Situated within the heat-producing potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus terrane, Mare Imbrium experienced some of the most long-lived (and recent) lunar volcanism, and its surface exhibits a significant diversity of basaltic chemistry. Our investigation identifies at least four distinct stages of volcanic activity, originating from multiple sources within Imbrium. The most recent of these stages comprises extensive, yet relatively thin volcanic flow units that left remnant kipukas of older mare material distributed across much of the basin. From a future mission perspective, it may be possible to collect samples expressing a wide range in age from small areas of Mare Imbrium. Our map also places important constraints on the interpretation of the Chang'e-3 Lunar Penetrating Radar measurements.

  3. Investigations on the endometrial response to intrauterine administration of N-acetylcysteine in oestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkus, E; Witte, T; Walter, I; Heuwieser, W; Aurich, C

    2013-08-01

    In mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis contributes to low fertility. The condition is in part related to delayed clearance of mucus accumulated within the uterine lumen. The objective of this study was to investigate the endometrial response of healthy mares to intrauterine (i.u.) treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oestrous mares (n = 12) were randomly assigned to a treatment (TM) or control (C) group and received an i.u. infusion of 5% NAC and saline (total volume 140 ml), respectively. Endometrial biopsies were collected in five of the mares 24 h after treatment, in the remaining seven mares 72 h after treatment. Endometrial biopsies were evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The integrity of endometrial epithelial cells was not affected by treatment (no statistical differences between groups or times). At 24 h after treatment, the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies from NAC- and C-mares did not differ, but at 72 h after treatment, number of PMN was significantly higher (p NAC-treated mares (2.3 ± 0.2 PMN/field). At 72 h after treatment, the intensity of staining for COX2 was significantly higher after saline than after NAC treatment (p NAC-treated mares than in C-mares 72 h after treatment (p mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups at 24 h after treatment (p NAC does not adversely affect the endometrial function. Moreover, an anti-inflammatory effect on the equine endometrium was observed.

  4. Effects of estradiol on uterine perfusion in anesthetized cyclic mares affected with uterine vascular elastosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2016-01-01

    Uterine vascular elastosis in mares is characterized by degeneration of uterine vasculature through thickening of the elastin layers. Factors commonly associated with this degeneration include age, parity, and chronic uterine endometritis. Affected mares have also been shown to exhibit decreases in uterine blood flow and perfusion of the uterus. Due to the increased thickness of the elastin layers, we hypothesize that vasodilatation of the uterine vasculature is also impaired. To test the functionality of these vessels, we evaluated the vasodilatory effects of estradiol on the uterine vascular bed in mares with normal vasculature and mares with severe elastosis. Both groups were tested in estrus and diestrus. Fluorescent microspheres were used to determine basal blood perfusion, followed by the intravenous administration of 1.0 μg/kg of 17β-estradiol. After 90 min, perfusion was measured once again to determine the vascular response to estradiol. Control mares in estrus displayed a significant increase in total uterine blood flow after the administration of estradiol when compared to baseline levels. No other group had a significant increase in total blood flow and perfusion after estradiol administration. The administration of estradiol in control mares induced regional increases in perfusion in the uterine horns and uterine body during estrus and only in the uterine horns during diestrus. Mares affected by elastosis exhibited no regional differences in perfusion levels post-estradiol administration. The difference in the vasodilatory response induced by estradiol between reproductively healthy mares and mares affected with elastosis indicates that the functionality of the affected vessels is compromised.

  5. Biodegradable estradiol microspheres do not affect uterine involution or characteristics of postpartum estrus in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrott, C; Macpherson, M; Blanchard, T; Varner, D; Thompson, J; Simpson, B; Bruemmer, J; Vogelsang, S; Fernandez, M; Fleet, T; Burns, P

    1994-08-01

    Quarterhorse mares were used to investigate effects of estradiol-17beta on uterine involution, duration of estrus, interval to ovulation, and fertility achieved by breeding on the first postpartum estrus. On the day of foaling, mares were injected with biodegradable poly (DL-lactide) microspheres containing either 100 mg estradiol-17beta (25 mares) or no drug (27 mares). The treatment period was considered to last for 12 to 15 d. Estrus was determined by teasing mares (n=16) with a stallion. Ovulation was detected by transrectal ultrasonographic examination of ovaries (n=48). On Days 6, 11 and 16 post partum, transrectal ultrasonography was used to measure cross-sectional diameters of the uterine body, uterine horns, and fluid within the uterine lumen (n=28). Uteri were swabbed for bacteriologic culture, and uterine biopsies were obtained from the previously gravid uterine horn on Days 11 and 16 post partum, for assessment of endometritis and morphometric analysis of endometrial histioarchitecture (n=19). Twenty-two mares were bred on foal-heat, and pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography on 14 to 16 and 30 to 35 d after breeding. With only one exception (diameter of previously gravid uterine horn on Day 11), mean values for all measures of uterine involution did not differ between treatment groups (P > 0.05). No differences were detected between treatment group means for length of estrus or interval to ovulation (P > 0.05). No differences were detected between treatment group liklihoods for recovery of potential bacterial pathogens, presence of endometritis, or presence of intrauterine fluid at 11 or 16 d post partum (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate of mares treated with estradiol (5 11 ; 45%) was not different from that of control mares (9 11 ; 82%; P > 0.05). Estradiol treatment did not hasten uterine involution, increase duration of estrus, delay ovulation, or increase fertility in these postpartum mares.

  6. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhajali, Haifa; Ezzaouia, Mohammed; Lunel, Christophe; Charfi, Faouzia; Hausberger, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares), night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares). The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets). Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002) and more fertility (p = 0.024) in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares). Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  7. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Benhajali

    Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  8. A study (1977-1992) of population dynamics of endoparasites featuring benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population S) in Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Stamper, S; Swerczek, T W; Granstrom, D E

    1996-11-01

    Critical tests (91) were done between 1977 and 1992 in Shetland ponies to evaluate drug susceptibility and population dynamics (present paper) of endoparasites. The test ponies, most less than 1 year old, were from a herd where older animals were treated every 8 weeks initially with cambendazole (CBZ) (1974-1978) and then with oxibendazole (OBZ) (1978-1992). Previous field test data (1974-1992) on older ponies in the breeding herd indicated the presence of benzimidazole (BZ) resistant small strongyles. Data on population dynamics from the present critical tests indicated that 28 species of small strongyles persisted over the study period in spite of initial susceptibility and later refractiveness of six species to both CBZ and OBZ. Changes in intensities and other aspects were observed for the six BZ-resistant species (Cyathostomum catinatium, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, and Cylicostephanus longibursatus). Variabilities, some striking, were found in prevalence and intensity in bots, stomach worms, ascarids, eyeworms, large strongyles, pinworms and tapeworms.

  9. Clinical Trials during Late Pregnancy in Mares: Prevention of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill PLEMYASHOV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper observed the influence of the integrated treatment of abortion in mares with the supplement Haemobalans® to replace high-turnover vitamins, amino acids and minerals; and probiotics BF-15® which contains Bifidobacterium bifidum. The aims of this study were to prove the application of Haemobalans and BF-15 as adaptogens during late gestation. We examined 60 healthy adult Thoroughbred mares that were divided into four equal groups (n=15 on the 270 - 300th days of gestation. Test animals received the following treatment: 1 intramuscular injection of Haemobalans in 3 days, in a dose of 1 ml per 45 kg of body weight. BF-15 was also given for 10 days: 20 ml of the oral solution with oats two times per day. Reflex-1 group was treated with the same dose of Haemobalans. Reflex-2 group was treated with the same dose of BF-15. Control animals were also examined. Blood samples were taken before the treatment and two weeks after it. First examination showed the basic level of investigated sources, the last one showed the result of the treatment. The difference between the data (which were obtained before and after treatment was compared in each group. In case of significant differences between the data of the test group relative to the other three groups, we talked about the reliability of the outcomes. Tissue of placentae were taken after delivery, fixed with neutral formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Zones of pathological changes were identified. Database of categorical data was created in placental study. Number of cases for markers of placental insufficiency (PI was determined. In the personal database of one animal the presence of a pathological case was marked (1 and the absence was marked (0. The objective excess of (1 was regarded as PI. The concentrations of glucose, total protein, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin B12, ESR, count of lymphocyte and MCHC in the test group were significantly higher: 16.4%; 10.78%; 17.87%; 11

  10. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  11. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  12. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  13. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  15. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  17. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  18. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  20. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  2. Mars at Ls 93o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    22 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurred in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Location near: 86.1oN, 208.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  3. Mars at Ls 230o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    28 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurred in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  4. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  5. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  7. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  8. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  10. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  11. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  12. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  13. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  14. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  17. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  18. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  19. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  20. Casereport - Agalactia of mare, agammaglobulinemia and arthritis in foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is physiological state of the organism and the final process of the female reproductive cycle. Milk in the first days after birth (colostrum, in addition to the necessary nutrients contains antibodies, with whose ingesting only a newborn individual receives passive immunity that protects it from various infections over time. Mammary gland dysfunction and a lack of breast milking is called agalactia. Due to the occurrence of agalactia in mother, newborn animal is denied of intake of colostrum in its body. Thus prevents ingestion of nutrients and passive immunity, which results in the occurrence of various diseases especially infectious etiology. This paper describes the treatment of agammaglobulinemia in foal after ascertaining the occurrence of primary agalactia in mare. There is described the possibility of substitution, ie. benefits of breast milk substitutes, and the procedure of diagnosis and treatment of carpal arthritis in foal.

  1. Neutrino mass calorimetric searches in the MARE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nucciotti, A

    2010-01-01

    The international project ``Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE) aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-electronvolt sensitivity. Calorimetric neutrino mass experiments measure all the energy released in a beta decay except for the energy carried away by the neutrino, therefore removing the most severe systematic uncertainties which have plagued the traditional and, so far, more sensitive spectrometers. Calorimetric measurements are best realized exploiting the thermal detection technique. This approach uses thermal microcalorimeters whose absorbers contain a low transition energy Q beta decaying isotope. To date the two best options are 187Re and 163Ho. While the first beta decays, the latter decays via electron capture, but both have a Q value around 2.5 keV. The potential of using 187Re for a calorimetric neutrino mass experiment has been already demonstrated. On the contrary, no calorimetric spectrum of 163Ho has been so far measured wit...

  2. Alkali norite, troctolites, and VHK mare basalts from breccia 14304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Keil, Klaus; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Warren, Paul H.

    1986-09-01

    Twelve clasts were separated from breccia 14304 for consortium study: six pristine highlands rocks, two mare basalts, and four nonpristine highlands rocks. The pristine highlands rocks include representatives of the magnesian troctolite-anorthosite and alkali suites, the two most common subgroups of the Mg suite found at the Apollo 14 site. Two troctolite clasts have olivine (~Fo 90) and plagioclase (~An 94) compositions similar to one group of Apolo 14 troctolites. One also contains spinel (Mg' 66-85). Incompatible element abundances in one are similar to those of 14305 troctolites, although the HREE (heavy rare earth elements) pattern is distinct among Apollo 14 troctolites. A dunite clast (~Fo 89) may be an unrepresentative piece of a troctolite. Alkali lithologies include an alkali anorthosite and an alkali norite, which is a rock type not previously described. The alkali norite has a pristine igneous texture and contains inverted pigeonite (Mg' 64), plagioclase (An82), K-feldspar, ternary feldspar, REE-rich phosphates, and silica. It resembles alkali gabbronorites from Apollo 14 and 67975 in mineralogy and mineral compositions. Alkali lithologies and phosphate-bearing magnesian anorthosites from Apollo 14 may have formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated various amounts of material rich in P and REE. This material could be a fractionated derivative of urKREEP. another pristine clast from 14304 is an Mg-gabbronorite. The two mare basalt clasts are very high potassium (VHK) basalts. They have 4 mg/g K and K/La ratios of 580 and 700. The parent magmas of VHK basalts could have formed from typical low-Ti, high-Al basaltic magmas by assimilation of K-rich material. This material could also be a fractionated derivative or urKREEP. Nonpristine 14304 clasts include melt-textured anorthosites and an augite-rich poikilitic melt rock. The latter is probably polymict, but its major component must be an Mg-suite gabbro.

  3. Bottleneck Effect Analysis of Five Pony Populations in China%中国5个矮马品种的瓶颈效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜林; 徐龙鑫; 杨海兵; 李爱萍

    2013-01-01

    利用13个微卫星基因座对中国5个矮马品种(德保、贵州、宁强、四川、云南)群体进行了遗传平衡检测.根据微卫星等位基因频率,应用无限等位基因模型(infinite allele model,IAM)、双相突变模型(two-phased model of mutation,TPM)和逐步突变模型(step-wise mutation model,SMM)3种模型,符号和Wilcoxon符号—秩2种检验方法,对5个矮马群体的突变—漂移平衡进行分析.结果表明,在IAM下,Wilcoxon符号—秩检验中,德保矮马和云南矮马达到了显著性水平(P<0.05);在SMM下,宁强矮马在符号检验中达到了显著水平(P<0.05);在TPM下,5个群体均未达到显著水平(P>0.05).因此,德保、云南和宁强矮马近期可能经历了瓶颈效应.本研究结果对中国矮马的保护和利用具有重大意义.%Thirteen microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic equilibrium of five pony populations in China (Debao, Guizhou, Ningqiang, Sichuan, Yunnan). According to the allele frequency, under IAM, TPM and SMM three models, the sign test and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used to analyze bottleneck of five pony populations. The results showed that Debao and Yunnan pony were observed in the significant level under IAM and Wilcoxon sign-rank test(P0. 05). The results revealed significant level suggesting possible cryptic demographic in Debao, Yunnan and Ningqiang pony. The exploit and conservation priorities about pony populations in China were determined according to the result of the present study.

  4. THE PREGNANT MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet‟ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age”

  5. Rocca al Mare Kaubanduskeskuse omanikud nopivad eduka äri vilju / Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    2005-01-01

    Kaubanduskeskus ostis oma kahelt aktsionärilt tagasi ligi 11,5 protsenti nende käes olnud aktsiatest, mille eest maksti omanikele ligi 40 miljonit krooni. Diagramm: Rocca al Mare saab vähendada aktsiakapitali

  6. Rocca al Mare Kaubanduskeskuse omanikud nopivad eduka äri vilju / Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    2005-01-01

    Kaubanduskeskus ostis oma kahelt aktsionärilt tagasi ligi 11,5 protsenti nende käes olnud aktsiatest, mille eest maksti omanikele ligi 40 miljonit krooni. Diagramm: Rocca al Mare saab vähendada aktsiakapitali

  7. Positiivsust saab õppida / Mare Pork ; intervjueerinud Signe Rummo ; kommenteerinud Toivo Aavik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2014-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Porkiga positiivsest psühholoogiast ja raamatust Boniwell, Ilona. Positiivne psühholoogia : tõhusa toimimise põhitõed. Tallinn : Äripäev, 2014.

  8. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  9. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy (glucocorticoids (GC) and mycobacterium cell wall extract (MCWE)) on the endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in susceptible mares with induced infectious endometritis. Endometrial gene expr...

  10. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  11. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (Phorse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (Phorse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased abruptly immediately before fetal death, suggesting luteolysis due to active prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) secretion. It is concluded that the greater incidence of abortion in mares impregnated by donkeys is associated with different kinds of luteal malfunction. Deficiency of eCG may be a primary cause of many of these cases, either by failing to stimulate enough luteal progesterone secretion and/or by failing to protect the corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy from endogenous PGF2alpha secretion.

  12. High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Salam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury.

  13. Effects of vascular elastosis on uterine blood flow and perfusion in anesthetized mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2015-04-01

    In the uterus of the mare, data obtained using transrectal Doppler ultrasonography indicate that uterine blood flow (UBF) is dynamic and changes throughout the estrous cycle. Degenerative lesions in the uterus are associated with subfertility and infertility. Among these lesions, vascular elastosis has been reported in aged, multiparous, and infertile mares. Angiosis of the uterine vasculature could potentially compromise UBF. The objectives of this experiment are to determine levels of UBF and perfusion of reproductively healthy mares and compare them to levels of subfertile/infertile mares affected by uterine vascular elastosis. Twenty mares were classified on the basis of degree of vascular degeneration and stage of cycle. A fluorescent microsphere technique was used to measure reproductive organ perfusion, where microspheres were injected into the left ventricle of the heart and became trapped in capillary beds in proportion to blood flow and tissue perfusion. The reproductive tract was removed, sectioned, and the fluorescent intensity evaluated to measure blood flow and perfusion. Additionally, full-thickness samples of the uterine wall were examined postmortem to further assess the degree of vascular degeneration in all layers of uterine wall. The mean value of uterine perfusion for the control mares during estrus (n = 5) was higher (P perfusion was not different (P > 0.05) during estrus (n = 5) and diestrus (n = 5); 5.9 and 7.2 mL/min/100g, respectively. Uterine perfusion in subfertile/infertile mares affected by elastosis was lower than that of control mares during both estrus (P perfusion between the control and elastosis groups indicate that elastosis of the uterine vasculature is associated with decreased uterine perfusion during both phases of the estrous cycle. In the uterus, a compromise in UBF could have implications in endometrial glandular development, postbreeding endometritis, uterine clearance, development of the conceptus, and

  14. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  15. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  16. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  17. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  18. 75 FR 52621 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...) Conditions of use in horses and ponies--(1) Amount. One implant per mare subcutaneously in the neck. (2... than 30 millimeters in diameter. (3) Limitations. Do not use in horses or ponies intended for...

  19. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Clulow John; Clulow Simon; Guo Jitong; French Andrew J; Mahony Michael J; Archer Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae) has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of...

  20. The effect of consignment to broodmare Sales on physiological stress measured by faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in pregnant Thoroughbred mares.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin; Becker, Annet; Ganswindt, Stefanie; Guthrie, Alan; Stout, Tom; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Validation of a method for the minimally-invasive measurement of physiological stress will help understanding of risk factors that may contribute to stress-associated events including recrudescence of Equid herpesvirus (EHV), which is anecdotally associated with sales consignment of preg

  1. The effect of consignment to broodmare Sales on physiological stress measured by faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in pregnant Thoroughbred mares.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin; Becker, Annet; Ganswindt, Stefanie; Guthrie, Alan; Stout, Tom|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828831; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Validation of a method for the minimally-invasive measurement of physiological stress will help understanding of risk factors that may contribute to stress-associated events including recrudescence of Equid herpesvirus (EHV), which is anecdotally associated with sales consignment of

  2. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, J; Stock, K F; Wulf, M; Aurich, C

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (pGestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (pgestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  3. Effects of isoenergetic quantities of a low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre vs. oat grains on the glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnia, M; Schürer, C; Gottschalk, J; Einspanier, A; Hillegeist, D; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Greef, J M; Glatter, M; Zeyner, A

    2017-06-01

    Aim of this study was to compare glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies after feeding isoenergetic quantities of low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre (FF) or oat grains (OG). Six sport ponies were randomly assigned to one of these two treatment groups for 2 × 3 weeks according to a crossover-design. Ponies received two equal meals/day of either semi-crushed OG (1 g starch/kg bwt*meal(-1) ) or an isoenergetic quantity of FF. Hay was also given in two equal meals/day and provided the remaining metabolisable energy up to 1.3-fold maintenance level. On day 21, blood was sampled 1 h after each pony received 0.5 kg hay (0 min). Then, the concentrate was provided and blood sampled 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min thereafter. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were analysed, and the areas under the curve (AUC) was calculated 120 and 300 min postprandial (PP). Feed intake patterns were measured in 4 ponies/group via a modified halter. OG was ingested faster than FF (feed intake time; FITDM in min/kg DM: 8.8 ± 1.6 vs. 15.9 ± 1.62, p glucose tended to decline following the intake of FF, which might be beneficial for equines with reduced glucose tolerance. This, however, requires further investigation. In this study, the ponies consumed OG unexpectedly rapidly. The rate of feed intake was similar to the results previously reported in the literature for warmblood horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Massimo Gezzi (Sant’Elpidio a Mare, 1976

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    Paolino Nappi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Gezzi ha publicado los libros de poesía Il mare a destra (Edizioni Atelier, 2004, L’attimo dopo (Luca Sossella Editore, 2009, Premios Metauro y Marazza Giovani, Il numero dei vivi (Donzelli, 2015, Premio Carducci, Premio Tirinnanzi y Premio suizo de literatura 2016 y Uno di nessuno. Storia di Giovanni Antonelli, poeta (Edizioni Casagrande, 2016, además del opúsculo en tres idiomas In altre forme/En d’autres formes/In andere Formen, con traducciones al francés de Mathilde Vischer y de Jacqueline Aerne al alemán (Transeuropa, 2011. Sus poemas han sido traducidos al inglés, castellano, francés, alemán, croata y polaco. Ha realizado una edición comentada de Diario del ’71 e del ’72 de Eugenio Montale (Mondadori, 2010 y ha editado el volumen Poesie 1975-2012 de Franco Buffoni (Mondadori, 2012. En Tra le pagine e il mondo (Italic Pequod, 2015 ha recopilado diez años de entrevistas a poetas y reseñas de libros de poesía. Vive en Lugano, donde trabaja como profesor de italiano en el Liceo 1.

  5. PROBIOTIC POTENCY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

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    I Nengah Sujaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.

  6. Preliminary investigation into a potential role for myostatin and its receptor (ActRIIB in lean and obese horses and ponies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa K Morrison

    Full Text Available Obesity is a widespread problem across the leisure population of horses and ponies in industrialised nations. Skeletal muscle is a major contributor to whole body resting energy requirements and communicates with other tissues through the secretion of myokines into the circulation. Myostatin, a myokine and negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, has been implicated in obesity development in other species. This study evaluated gene and protein expression of myostatin and its receptor, ActRIIB in adipose tissues and skeletal muscles and serum myostatin concentrations in six lean and six obese animals to explore putative associations between these factors and obesity in horses and ponies. Myostatin mRNA expression was increased while ActRIIB mRNA was decreased in skeletal muscles of obese animals but these differences were absent at the protein level. Myostatin mRNA was increased in crest fat of obese animals but neither myostatin nor ActRIIB proteins were detected in this tissue. Mean circulating myostatin concentrations were significantly higher in obese than in lean groups; 4.98 ng/ml (±2.71 and 9.00 ng/ml (±2.04 for the lean and obese groups, respectively. In addition, there was a significant positive association between these levels and myostatin gene expression in skeletal muscles (average R2 = 0.58; p<0.05. Together, these results provide further basis for the speculation that myostatin and its receptor may play a role in obesity in horses and ponies.

  7. Effekte der L-Carnitinsupplementierung auf das metabolische Profil adipöser und insulinresistenter Ponys im Verlaufe einer mehrwöchigen Körpergewichtsreduktion

    OpenAIRE

    Schmengler, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung: Effekte der L-Carnitinsupplementierung auf das metabolische Profil adipöser und insulinre- sistenter Ponys im Verlaufe einer mehrwöchigen Körpergewichtsreduktion Author: Uta Schmengler Institut für Tierernährung, Ernährungsschäden und Diätetik, Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Universität Leipzig Eingereicht im September 2012 76 S., 16 Abb., 23 Tab., 169 Lit., Anhang Einleitung: Das ”Equine Metabolische Syndrom” ist gekennzeichnet durch eine region...

  8. Distribución de la variabilidad genética en poblaciones de ponis españoles: resultados preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The genetic variability has been analyzed through the allelic frequencies distribution of ten STR (Short Tandem Repeat) equine loci of three different horse populations, Asturcón, Pottoka and Thoroughbred (PSI), which is considered as an outgroup. The genetic variability found in the pony breeds is higher than for PSI and only one of the ten loci analyzed is significantly desviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (= 0.01) in Asturcón and Pottoka populations. The FST value (0.054) shows a s...

  9. Comparison of respiratory function during TIVA (romifidine, ketamine, midazolam) and isoflurane anaesthesia in spontaneously breathing ponies Part I: blood gas analysis and cardiorespiratory variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steblaj, Barbara; Schauvliege, Stijn; Pavlidou, Kiriaki; Gasthuys, Frank; Savvas, Ioannis; Duchateau, Luc; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Kowalczk, Lidia; Moens, Yves

    2014-11-01

    To compare pulmonary function and gas exchange in ponies during maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane or by a total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) technique. Experimental, cross-over study. Six healthy ponies weighing mean 286 (range 233-388) ± SD 61 kg, age 13 (9-16) ± 3 years. The ponies were anaesthetized twice, a minimum of two weeks apart. Following sedation with romifidine [80 μg kg(-1) intravenously (IV)], anaesthesia was induced IV with midazolam (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.5 mg kg(-1), then maintained either with inhaled isoflurane (Fe'Iso = 1.1 vol%) (T-ISO) or an IV infusion of romifidine (120 μg kg(-1) hour(-1)), midazolam (0.09 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) IV) and ketamine (3.3 mg kg(-1) hour(-1)) (T-TIVA). Ponies were placed in lateral recumbency. Breathing was spontaneous and Fi'O(2) 60%. After an instrumentation/stabilisation period of 30 minutes, arterial and mixed venous blood samples were taken simultaneously every 10 minutes for 60 minutes and analysed immediately. Oxygen extraction ratio (O(2)ER) and venous admixture were calculated. Tidal volume (TV), minute volume (MV), respiratory rate (f(R)), packed cell volume (PCV), arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured and recorded. Data were analysed with mixed model anova (α = 0.05). Treatments were compared overall and at two selected time points (T30 and T60) using Bonferroni correction. Arterial and mixed venous partial pressures of O(2) and CO(2), and TV were significantly lower and MV and f(R) were higher in T-TIVA compared to T-ISO. Venous admixture did not differ between treatments. O(2) R was significantly higher in T-TIVA. Mean arterial pressure was higher and HR was lower in T-TIVA compared to T-ISO. Whilst arterial CO(2) was within an acceptable range during both protocols, the impairment of oxygenation was more pronounced with the T-TIVA evidenced by lower arterial and venous oxygen partial pressures. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American

  10. Hydrogeology and water quality of the stratified-drift aquifer in the Pony Hollow Creek Valley, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Miller, Todd S.; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The lithology, areal extent, and the water-table configuration in stratified-drift aquifers in the northern part of the Pony Hollow Creek valley in the Town of Newfield, New York, were mapped as part of an ongoing aquifer mapping program in Tompkins County. Surficial geologic and soil maps, well and test-boring records, light detection and ranging (lidar) data, water-level measurements, and passive-seismic surveys were used to map the aquifer geometry, construct geologic sections, and determine the depth to bedrock at selected locations throughout the valley. Additionally, water-quality samples were collected from selected streams and wells to characterize the quality of surface and groundwater in the study area. Sedimentary bedrock underlies the study area and is overlain by unstratified drift (till), stratified drift (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits), and recent post glacial alluvium. The major type of unconsolidated, water-yielding material in the study area is stratified drift, which consists of glaciofluvial sand and gravel, and is present in sufficient amounts in most places to form an extensive unconfined aquifer throughout the study area, which is the source of water for most residents, farms, and businesses in the valleys. A map of the water table in the unconfined aquifer was constructed by using (1) measurements made between the mid-1960s through 2010, (2) control on the altitudes of perennial streams at 10-foot contour intervals from lidar data collected by Tompkins County, and (3) water surfaces of ponds and wetlands that are hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. Water-table contours indicate that the direction of groundwater flow within the stratified-drift aquifer is predominantly from the valley walls toward the streams and ponds in the central part of the valley where groundwater then flows southwestward (down valley) toward the confluence with the Cayuta Creek valley. Locally, the direction of groundwater flow is radially

  11. Pregnant Woman's Custom in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Foods are one of the important things in order to keep the life of pregnant women in good condition, because they must bring up a new life in their bodies In early Showa Age, the life of Japanese common people was in difficult circumstances. At that time the food life of pregnant women were restricted by various food taboos. For instance, if the pregnant women ate Tororo, brayed yam, she was considered to deliver a baby who had no tooth. They kept many taboos and prayed to their guardian deit...

  12. Induction of antibody responses to African horse sickness virus (AHSV in ponies after vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA.

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    Rachael Chiam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African horse sickness virus (AHSV causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2. MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen-specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable.

  13. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  14. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of lunar high-Ti mare basalts and soils for oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. G.; Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; McKay, D. S.

    1995-07-01

    Efficient lunar resource utilization requires accurate and quantitative evaluation of mineral and glass abundances, distribution, and extraction feasibility, especially for ilmenite. With this in mind, true modal analyses were performed on high-Ti mare basalts and soils with X ray/backscattered electron signal digital-imaging techniques, and these data indicate that (1) ilmenite concentrations are similar for basalts and immature-submature soils with similar TiO2 content; (2) ilmenite liberation of crushed mare basalts and immature-submature mare soils are comparable (i.e., both contain similar amounts of free ilmenite); and (3) because of impact melting and agglutination of primary minerals, mature mare soils contain less ilmenite (both free and attached). Modal analyses of magnetic separates of high-Ti mare basalts and soils show that (1) ilmenite was concentrated by a factor of >=3.3 and (2) soil ilmenite was concentrated to factors of 1.7-2.3. The lower soil ilmenite separation efficiency is attributed to Fe°-bearing agglutinitic glass and amorphous rinds adhered to soil particles. Mass yields of magnetically generated feedstocks were generally less than 5 wt.% in most cases. Calculation of oxygen yield (as released by hydrogen gas reduction of ilmenite) show that (1) beneficiated basalt will provide the most oxygen (8-10%), because of higher ilmenite concentration; (2) reduction of raw immature-submature mare soils and basalts will produce similar amounts of lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) (2.1-3.1%) and (3) raw Fe-rich pyroclastic soil, 74220, will provide more oxygen (5.4%) than beneficiated high-Ti mare soils and half that of beneficiated high-Ti mare basalts. High-Ti mare soils are attractive resources for lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) production because of their unconsolidated nature, high ilmenite abundance, and widespread occurrence. Energy-intensive excavation and comminution likely prohibits the basalt mining during early lunar occupation. Orange soils are

  15. Effects of nutritional cues on the duration of the winter anovulatory phase and on associated hormone levels in adult female Welsh pony horses (Equus caballus

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    Briant Christine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mares have an annual reproductive rhythm, with a phase of inactivity in midwinter. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of food restriction on physiological and metabolic hallmarks of this rhythm. Methods Over three successive years, 3 groups of 10 mares were kept under natural photoperiod. A 'well-fed' group was fed to maintain the mares in good body condition; a 'restricted' group received a diet calculated to keep the mares thin and a 'variable' group was fed during some periods like the 'restricted' group and during some other periods like the 'well-fed' group, with the aim of mimicking the natural seasonal variation of pasture availability, but a few months in advance of this natural rhythm. Results Winter ovarian inactivity always occurred and was long in the restricted group. In contrast, in the 'well-fed' group, 40% of mares showed this inactivity, which was shorter than in the other groups. Re-feeding the 'variable' group in autumn and winter did not advance the first ovulation in spring, compared with the 'restricted' group. Measurements of glucose and insulin concentrations in mares from the 'restricted' group during two 24 h periods of blood sampling, revealed no post-prandial peaks. For GH (Growth hormone, IGF-1 and leptin levels, large differences were found between the 'well-fed' group and the other groups. The glucose, insulin, GH and leptin levels but not melatonin level are highly correlated with the duration of ovulatory activity. Conclusions The annual rhythm driven by melatonin secretion is only responsible for the timing of the breeding season. The occurrence and length of winter ovarian inactivity is defined by metabolic hormones.

  16. A novel strategy of mesenchymal stem cells delivery in the uterus of mares with endometrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambelli, L I; Winter, G H Z; Kerkis, A; Malschitzky, E; Mattos, R C; Kerkis, I

    2013-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because of their immunomodulation and trophic activities, in addition to their capacity to regenerate damaged tissues, have potential for treatment of many diseases. The success of stem cell therapies depends, in part, on the method of cell delivery, which should provide wide cell distribution and homing in to injured sites. The objective of the present study was to developing a novel strategy for delivery of MSCs into the uterus of mares with endometrosis (degenerative alteration of uterine glands and surrounding stroma). Endometrosis was confirmed in all mares (N = 6) used in this study. To trace multipotent equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAT-MSCs) in endometrial tissue, before transplantation, cells were stained with a fluorescent dye. During a synchronized estrus, the eAT-MSCs (2 × 10(7) diluted in 20 mL of sodium chloride 0.9%) were inoculated into uterus using a simple technique, similar to artificial insemination (AI) in mares. At 7 and 21 days after transplantation, homing of fluorescently labeled eAT-MSCs was observed by confocal microscopy of uterine biopsies collected from the uterine body and in both uterine horns, including glandular and periglandular spaces, in three of four treated mares. Herein, we propose a new method of MSCs delivery in uterus of mares with endometrosis, which was minimally invasive and technically simple.

  17. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  18. The relationship between consecutive pregnancies in Thoroughbred mares. Does the location of one pregnancy affect the location of the next, is this affected by mare age and foal heat to conception interval or related to pregnancy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Hinchliffe, J

    2009-04-15

    Delayed uterine involution is a major cause of early reproductive failure in mares. Involution is affected by mare age, and foaling to covering interval. Involution rates vary between the previously non-gravid horn (PNGH), which recovers the quicker, and the previously gravid horn (PGH). Location of a pregnancy and its likely success may, therefore, be affected by its location relative to the previous pregnancy. This study aimed to determine: (i) the location of concepti in consecutive pregnancies; (ii) whether this varies with mare age or foaling to conception interval; (iii) whether location in relation to the previous pregnancy affects success. 1383 Thoroughbred mares were monitored by ultrasonic scanning during oestrus and early pregnancy. Significantly (psuccess are greatest. The larger number of pregnancies locating in the PGH in older mares and those with shorter foaling to conception intervals may in part account for the higher conceptus mortality rates in such mares. Hence breeding older mares on alternate years and maximising foaling to conception interval may improve reproductive success. Alternatively termination of pregnancies located in the PGH followed by timely recovering may be justifiable as might ET in older mares covered close to foaling.

  19. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  20. Pregnant? Don't Smoke!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer, heart disease, and stroke. But women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their developing babies ...

  1. Titan Submarine: Exploring The Depths of Kraken Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I for 2014. The effort investigated what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon approximately 93 Kelvin (-180 degrees Centigrade) seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (approximately100 kilograms) it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive and exciting science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare The submerged science includes mapping using side looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the sea at all depths, as well as sampling of the sea's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 kilometers inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (approximately 2047) to allow for continuous lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth (DTE) communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid/sediment/chemical interactions. An estimated 25 megabits of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system. This paper discusses the results of Phase I as well as the plans for Phase II.

  2. Correlations of unfavorable movement characteristics in warmblood foals and mares with routinely assessed conformation and performance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A-C; Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2013-01-01

    New movement traits reflecting unfavorable movement characteristics were defined on the basis of detailed movement evaluations (DME) of warmblood foals and mares performed in connection with regular breeding events of the Oldenburg horse breeding societies in 2009 and 2010. DME information was available for 3374 foals and 2844 mares and used for correlation analyses with conformation information on 1987 mares from studbook inspections (SBI) in 2009 and performance information on 2758 mares from mare performance tests (MPT) in 2000 to 2008. Analyses of variance revealed few significant differences between scores for SBI and MPT traits in mares without and with indications of imbalance (IMB) in general or specific findings like irregular tail tone or posture (TTP). SBI scores for general impression and development were significantly lower and MPT scores for trot under rider tended to be higher in IMB-positive mares. Genetic parameters were estimated in linear animal models with residual maximum likelihood. Additive genetic correlations and Pearson correlation coefficients between univariately predicted breeding values indicated unfavorable genetic correlations of IMB and TTP with dressage-related conformation and performance traits. For SBI and MPT traits, we found similarities between the correlation patterns for DME traits in foals and mares. The results implied that breeding of dressage horses may benefit from revision of current movement evaluation and consideration of specific movement characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of growth models for follicle development and ovulation in Lusitano mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, F

    2012-12-01

    Several growth models are commonly used in the biological sciences, to model the follicle growth occurring in the estrous cycle. The aim of this project was to find the model that best fit the follicular size growth data for Lusitano mares. Retrospective data collected from reproduction book records of n=84 mares and n=124 cycles was used to find the series to be fitted to the models. The exponential, Gompertz, logistic, von Bertalanffy, Richards and Weibull models were used, and the most parsimonious and best fit was achieved with the logistic model (r(2)=0.999). The logistic model fits the Lusitano mare's follicle size growth data very well and its parameters were also shown to have a credible biological interpretation.

  4. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood profile in mares during the last 3 months of gestation and the peripartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Christina; Trenk, Lisa; Aurich, Jörg; Wulf, Manuela; Aurich, Christine

    2016-10-15

    In this study, peripartum changes in complete blood count, plasma electrolyte concentrations, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined in pregnant Warmblood mares (n = 10). Blood was collected from Days 245 to 330 of gestation (phase A), 2Days 3 to 1 before foaling (phase B), repeatedly within 12 hours after foaling (phase C), and on Days 1 to 3 postpartum (phase D). On the same days as blood collection, blood pressure and cardiac beat-to-beat intervals were measured and time domain HRV variables were calculated. Blood pressure decreased during the past 3 months of gestation, reached a nadir at foaling and increased rapidly thereafter (P Heart rate increased in phase A, reached a maximum in phase B, and decreased directly after foaling (P < 0.001) while HRV increased transiently after foaling (P < 0.001). The number of polymorphonuclear granulocytes was higher during phases B, C, and D than that during phase A (P < 0.001) and total leukocyte numbers peaked in phase C (P < 0.001). Erythrocyte counts and hematocrit increased immediately after foaling with a rapid decrease thereafter (P < 0.001), while plasma total protein was highest 1 hour after foaling (P < 0.001). Sodium and chloride concentrations increased from phases A to C and decreased in phase D (P < 0.001). Calcium concentrations were lowest immediately after foaling. In conclusion, changes in cardiovascular function and a transient hemoconcentration occur in peripartum mares. These changes may favor adequate uterine perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T

    2009-12-01

    The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation.

  6. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P coconut oil lowered P4 levels in diestrus in a dose-dependent fashion and did not prolonged the luteal phase of the mares.

  7. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  8. Inflammatory responses to induced infectious endometritis in mares resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-a, IL-1 receptor antagonist [ra] and serum amyloid A (SAA) in endometrial tissue and circulating leukocytes in response to uterine...... inoculation of 105 colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in mares. Before inoculation, mares were classified as resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis based on their uterine inflammatory response to infusion of 109 killed spermatozoa and histological assessment of the endometrial quality...

  9. A MODEL OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES BASED ON EVIDENCE FROM COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the managerial competencies of human resources in the companies from the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. A model of these competencies is provided also, according to the identified relationships between various managerial competencies. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007-2013 Programme. They were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft.

  10. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  11. Avaliação de ruído na região central de Maringá e Universidade Estadual de Maringá = Noise evaluation in the central region of Maringá and State University of Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Costa Dutra Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se o mapeamento acústico para salas de aulas,laboratórios e biblioteca pertencentes à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, bem como para a região central da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Na primeira etapa do trabalho, realizou-se estudo e revisão bibliográfica sobre os parâmetros de interesse quando se deseja qualificar uma sala ou ambiente quanto ao seu nível de ruído, bem como o levantamento dos principais pontos a serem estudados. A segunda etapa compreendeu as medições in locu desses parâmetros, executadas conforme normas ABNT, ISO e recomendações da literatura. Por último, analisaram-se, estatisticamente, os dados para que pudessem ser comparados com os valores estipulados por leis vigentes. Após análise dos dados obtidos, pode-se perceber que a maioria dos pontos apresentou-se acima dos valores permitidos por lei, principalmente em relação à cidade de Maringá, e alguns trechos apresentaram-se com níveis de ruído bastante elevados. Com relação à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, grande parte dos pontos apresentou-se acima do permitido, mas em alguns casos apresentaramexcelente qualidade. This project intended to carry through an acoustic mapping of theclassrooms, laboratories and library pertaining to the State University of Maringá, as well as for the downtown of Maringá, Paraná State. The first stage will consisted of studying and presenting the parameters of interest to characterize a room or an environment as for its noise level, as well as the survey of the main points to be studied. The second stage included the in locu measurements of these parameters, according to ABNT and ISO norms and literature recommendations. Finally, collected data was statistically analyzed so that they could be compared to values stipulated by effective laws. After analyzing the collected data, it was possible to notice that the majority of the points were above the values allowed bylaw, especially

  12. The Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE): a next-generation calorimetric neutrino mass experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Monfardini, A; Brofferio, C; Capelli, S; Capozzi, F; Cremonesi, O; Enss, C; Fiorini, E; Fleischmann, A; Foggetta, L; Gallinaro, G; Gastaldo, L; Gatti, F; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C A; Margesin, B; McCammon, D; Nones, C; Nucciotti, A; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pergolesi, D; Pessina, G; Porter, F S; Prest, M; Previtali, E; Repetto, P; Ribeiro-Gomez, M; Sangiorgio, S; Sisti, M

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but can't determine their absolute mass scale. Therefore the neutrino mass is still an open question in elementary particle physics. An international collaboration is growing around the project of Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE) for directly measuring the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2eV/c2. Many groups are joining their experiences and technical expertise in a common effort towards this challenging experiment. We discuss the different scenarios and the impact of MARE as a complement of KATRIN.

  13. Effect of β-carotene integration to Italian trotter mares in peripartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Falaschini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy trotter horses begin racing activity in the summer, two years after their birth year, so that the foals born in the first months of the year are better developed than those born in late spring-summer. As it is known, mares are characterised by an oestrus cyclic activity, which founds its best time in spring. The management of trotter mares tries to anticipate the foaling at first months of the year and therefore the next oestrus cycle, too...

  14. Establishment and characteristics of a Yunnan pony ear marginal fibroblast cell line%云南矮马耳缘组织成纤维细胞系的建立及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向梅; 马月辉; 关伟军; 赵德明

    2004-01-01

    A Yunnan pony ear marginal tissue fibroblast cell line (NYPEM 2/2) was successfully established using the explant of the ear marginal tissue and then trypsinization the cells from the outgrowth. Observations on cell morphology and dynamic growth, analysis of karyotype and isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were carried out. The expression of recombinant green fluorescence protein in the cells were also undertaken. The results showed that the population doubling time (PDT) of the cells was 24 h; the frequency of cell chromosome number to be 2n = 64 was 92.9%; the banding patterns of the isozymes of the two enzymes had significant difference between the Yunnan pony ear marginal fibroblast cell line and the fibroblast cell lines of PEM 2/2, MSHEM 2/2 and BLCHE 2/2 derived from the Picdmont bovine ear, Mongolian ovine ear and Beijing local chicken embryo respectively. Tests for the contamination from bacteria, fungi or mycoplasma were negative; the transfection efficiency for the recombinant plasmid was 32.3%. This newly established cell line make the Yunnan pony breed, a national important genetic resource preserved at cell level, as well as will provide an effective experimental material for genetic studies on the Yunnan pony [ Acta Zoologica Sinica 50(5): 863-868, 2004].

  15. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kuhl

    Full Text Available Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse, Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD. Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001. Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05. Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05. It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  16. Struktur komunitas mangrove di Pulau Mare, Kota Tidore Kepulauan, Provinsi Maluku Utara (Community structure of mangrove in Mare Island, Tidore City, Maluka Utara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebuchadnezzar Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi indeks ekologi mangrove di Pulau Mare, Tidore Kepulauan, Maluku Utara. Pengambilan data pada tahun 2015 yang terbagi atas tiga lokasi yang ditetapkan berdasarkan keterwakilan dan reprsentasi mangrove. Pengambilan contoh mangrove, di lakukan dengan menggunakan metode “line transect quadrant”. Hasil penelitian diperoleh ketebalan mangrove diantara 85-150 meter  dengan 5 jenis dari 3 famili mangrove. Jenis mangrove Rhizophora ditemukan paling mendominasi disetiap stasiun. Indeks ekologi mangrove kategori kerapatan, frekuensi, tutupan dan keanekaragaman jenis paling tinggi terdapat di stasiun satu. Sedangkan kriteria nilai penting pada setiap stasiun adalah 300. Analisis vegetasi jenis mangrove pada setiap stasiun diperoleh kerapatan, frekuensi, keanekaragaman jenis dan nilai penting jenis tertinggi adalah Rhizophora apicullata, kemudian tutupan jenis tertinggi adalah Sonneratia alba. Keseluruhan hasil pengamatan dan analisis, menggambarkan bahwa kondisi mangrove di pulau Mare masuk dalam kategori rendah.

  17. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted…

  18. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  19. Interovulatory intervals in mares receiving deslorelin implants in Ireland (2009 to 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, I S F; Brama, P; Osborne, M; Beltman, M E

    2012-05-26

    Deslorelin acetate implants, recently licensed in Ireland and the UK for ovulation induction in mares, have been associated with prolonged interovulatory intervals in USA studies, leading to the practice of removing implants postovulation. Trial data in Australia indicate a less pronounced effect on interovulatory intervals, suggesting possible geographical variation. Objectives of the current study were to assess the effect of deslorelin implants, with and without removal on oestrous cycle length in Irish- and UK-based Thoroughbred broodmares. Data were collected retrospectively from 88 oestrous cycles. A statistically significant difference (P=0.02) was found between interovulatory intervals in mares in which the deslorelin implant was not removed, compared with administration and removal of the implant or the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The results suggest that implant removal when possible is advisable. The delay in subsequent ovulations was less marked than that reported in some studies from the USA. This information is useful in deciding when to schedule subsequent breeding for mares which received a deslorelin implant during the previous oestrous period and provides evidence to counter-concerns that mares treated with deslorelin implants may experience a long delay in return to oestrus if the implant is not removed.

  20. Oral single dose of allopurinol in thoroughbred foals born from mares with placentitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira de Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Allopurinol in foals born from mares with placentitis. Twenty foals were assigned into two groups: Healthy foals (n=10, born from healthy mares and Placentitis foals (n=10, born from mares with placentitis. Five foals from each group were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Treatment groups received Allopurinol (40mg kg-1 orally six hours after birth. Blood samples were collected for estimation of hematological variables and serum concentration of calcium, chloride, creatinine, phosphorus, glucose, lactate and magnesium. Placentitis foals presented leukopenia and neutropenia when compared with Healthy foals, at birth. The white blood cell (WBC count was lower in the Placentitis foals untreated at 12 hours. No adverse effects related to the use of Allopurinol were detected. Treated Placentitis foals showed higher serum calcium and glucose levels within 12 hours than untreated Placentitis foals. Administration of Allopurinol PO in foals born from mares with placentitis did not result in adverse effects and can help in stabilizing serum calcium and glucose levels.

  1. Unilateral white line disease and laminitis in a quarter horse mare

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Ray A.

    2003-01-01

    A 5-year-old quarter horse mare presented with unilateral, severe, chronic forelimb lameness. Radiographs revealed extensive hoof wall separation and capsular rotation of the distal phalanx. Treatment included dorsal hoof wall resection, phenylbutazone, a bar shoe, and stall rest. Whether white line disease or laminitis was the primary lesion remains unclear.

  2. Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare

    OpenAIRE

    Lightbody, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    A 16-hour-old white foal, born to a registered quarter horse mare, was examined for signs of colic. The foal had Overo lethal white syndrome, which causes ileocolonic agangliosis. This was confirmed by DNA testing. Since there is no treatment for Overo lethal white syndrome, the foal was euthanized.

  3. Prolonged spring oestrus in mares: The use of progestogens with specific reference to proligestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, W. van der; Laar, P. H. van; Oldenkamp, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of prolonged spring oestrus in mares, which is often associated with multifollicular ovaries (MFO), are described in the context of the need to produce foals early in the year. The results obtained, in terms of pregnancy and time of ovulation, after the intramuscular administration of a

  4. Serum fructosamine concentrations in relation to metabolic changes during late pregnancy and early lactation in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Natalija; Stojević, Zvonko; Prvanović, Nikica

    2010-01-01

    The changes in blood serum fructosamine concentrations as indicators of glycaemia during a longer period of time were investigated in mares during late pregnancy and early lactation, as well as their relationship to the changes in the concentration of biochemical indicators of energetic status. The samples were taken from eleven mares on 60 +/- 10 and 20 +/- 10 days before foaling, and 20 +/- 10 and 60 +/- 10 days after foaling. Concentrations of serum fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides were higher during late pregnancy (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.0005), while the concentrations of beta- hydroxybutyrate increased significantly (P < 0.00001) during early lactation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of fructosamine and metabolic parameters was observed. The results indicate a relationship between energetic status and serum fructosamine in mares. Higher concentrations of fructosamine are related to the adaptation to late pregnancy. Therefore, the measurement of the serum fructosamine concentrations could serve as an indicator of energetic status of mares during pregnancy and lactation.

  5. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M.; Gill, A.; de Louw, P.G.B.; van den Hoek Ostende, L.W.; Hume, J.P.; Rijsdijk, K.F.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence

  6. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : incidence, risk factors, therapy, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495 p

  7. Troppo Mare: la búsqueda de un oasis de tierra en el desierto marino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Martín Puya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this article is to put Troppo Mare in context within Javier Egea’aaesthetics. Also it pretends to figure out the main keys which make it up into a poetical tradition basedon the breaking off that gathers ideas, motifs and aestehtic resources already present in Baudelaire andgoing on until XX century avant-garde literature.

  8. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome : intrafollicular endocrine milieu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-01-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human

  9. Evaluation of a vessel-sealing device for use in laparoscopic ovariectomy in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Reese; Rakestraw, Peter; Taylor, Tex

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate a vessel-sealing instrument (LigaSure) as a method for hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. Prospective study. Thirteen mares (8 experimental, 5 patients), aged 2 to 20 years and weighing 405 to 500 kg. Thirteen mares had standing bilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy using a vessel-sealing device (LigaSure) to provide hemostasis. Eight reproductively normal experimental mares were divided into 2 groups: 1 group was re-examined laparoscopically 72 hours and the other group 10 days after the initial standing laparoscopic ovariectomy. The vessel-sealing device uses high current and low voltage, along with pressure, to reorganize the collagen into a translucent seal to achieve hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. No major operative or postoperative complications were encountered. Complete hemostasis of the ovarian pedicle was accomplished. One mare had a fever for 24 hours' postoperatively; this responded to a single dose of flunixin meglumine. The LigaSure appears to be a safe method for hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. Benefits of the LigaSure include no foreign material remaining in the abdomen and minimal to no need for surgical dissection before application. The LigaSure eliminates complications with potential ligature slippage and bleeding during dissection. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  10. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  11. Kuidas möödus vaheaeg? / Sulev Valdmaa, Alli Lunter, Epp-Mare Kukemelk ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Kuusalu keskkooli õpetaja-metoodik Sulev Valdmaa, Viljandi maagümnaasiumi eesti keele õpetaja Alli Lunter, Tallinna 37. keskkooli ja Tallinna Lilleküla gümnaasiumi meediaõpetaja Epp-Mare Kukemelk, haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi kommunikatsioonibüroo konsultant Rein Joamets ja Unipiha algkooli õpetaja Lembit Jakobson

  12. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares.

  13. The Depth, Composition, and Sea State of Titan’s Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Lorenz, Ralph; Hofgartner, Jason; Lunine, Jonathan; Zebker, Howard; Donelan, Mark; Wall, Stephen; Stofan, Ellen; Karatekin, Ozgur; Notarnicola, Claudia; Malaska, Michael; Le Gall, Alice; Mitchell, Karl; Paillou, Philippe; Encrenaz, Pierre; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-11-01

    On August 21st, 2014, the Cassini spacecraft will perform its 104th flyby of Titan. The T104 fly-by will present a unique opportunity to sound the depth of Titan’s largest sea - Kraken Mare, and characterize the sea state of both Kraken and Ligeia Mare. Based on the recent May 2013 (T91) nadir observations of Ligeia Mare, which were used to construct a bathymetric profile and determined the sea’s loss tangent, we expect to detect echoes from both the surface and seafloor of Kraken with the opportunity to derive the depth and composition of this sea. In addition, the T104 observations will be interpreted in the context of wave activity. On Earth, it is rare to observe a body of water whose surface is not disturbed by some form of wave activity. On Titan, Cassini observations through the end of its Equinox Mission in Dec. 2010 showed no indication of waves. These observations are intriguing given the predominance of aeolian features at equatorial latitudes and have been attributed to the light winds predicted during the Titan winter. More recently, however, the previous series of upper limits and non-detections are giving way to indications that the expected freshening of winds in northern summer may be causing sporadic ruffling of the sea surfaces. Specifically, apparent sunglints offset from the geometric specular point has been observed by VIMS in Punga Mare and a transient radar signature, known as Titan’s “Magic Island”, has been observed over the surface of Ligeia Mare. The T104 observation will be acquired at an incidence angle that will either confirm or deny the Magic Island’s transient nature.We will present a summary of the discoveries made during the T104 flyby, which represents one of the most exciting Titan observations of the Cassini mission and has the potential to significantly enhance our understanding of Titan’s methane cycle. The discussion will address the total volume of liquid hydrocarbon contained in Titan’s lakes and seas, the

  14. Oxidant/antioxidant status during foal heat in Arab mares and their relation to ovarian hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal M AboEl-Maaty; Fawzia YH Shata; Manal B-E Mahmoud; Faten I Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of some oxidative stress biomarkers in conception during foal heat. Methods:Ultrasound scanning was used to confirm the presence of mature ovulating follicle (>30mm) in mares exhibited foal heat on days7 to9 postpartum.Daily blood samples were collected from parturition till foal heat to measure equine lysozymes, nitric oxide(NO), catalase (CAT), total proteins and globulins.Lipid peroxide(MDA), reduced glutathione(GSH), ascorbic acid(AA) and zinc were measured during foal heat expression form day7 to10 post foaling. Results:Lysozymes were high on days1 and9 postpartum but low level was recorded on day 6.NO, total proteins and globulin peaked on days5 and6 but low level was recorded on day9. HighMDA(P<0.03), zinc(P<0.05) levels were observed on days8 and9.HighGSH was observed on day9.AA(P<0.03) andCAT levels were low on days8 and9.Non conceived mares had high MDA, low zinc,AA,CAT andGSH.Conclusions:Mares during the foal heat are subjected to oxidative stress on days8 and9 as expressed by lowAA, zinc, andGSH and highMDA and mares with sufficient antioxidant capacity can overcome this stress and conceive.Some mares need to be supplied during foal heat with antioxidants to improve their immunity and overcome oxidant/antioxidant imbalance to conceive.This study recommends the use of ascorbic acid and zinc as supplements during foal heat.

  15. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  16. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  18. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  19. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  20. Uterine involution in colombian fine pace mares, measured by ultrasonography and endometrial cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ramírez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there still exists a controversial issue, as to the high incidence of early embryonic death in mares, mated on the first post partum oestrus. The purpose of this study was first, to determine the post partum period of uterine involution in fine pace Colombian mares using endometrial cytology and ultra sonograph. Secondly, to determine the relation between the neutrophil percentages found in cytology and the echogenicity of accumulated intrauterine fluid during the first 30 post partum days. Twenty (n=20 mares were examined beginning on the 6th post partum day and on alternate days, up to the 30th day. All subjects were grazing Kikuyo grass (Pennisetum clandestinum at la Sabana de Bogotá, 2.600 meters over sea level, 4 º north latitude and with an average temperature of 13 º C. From the 3rd postpartum day, all 20 mares were exposed to 2 healthy stallions, to establish their heat behaviour. Ten of them, following complete randomization, were inseminated on the first postpartum heat, while the others were inseminated on the second post partum heat. Genital examination was carried out by a technician, who did not know the reproductive history of any of the experimental mares. Examinations included rectal palpation, ultra sonograph (Pie Medical 480, linear array, 5 MHz, vaginal swabs and endometrial cytology. Uterine dimension was recorded by rectal palpation and ultra sonograph, it was included the uterine horn dimensions (tip, middle, and corporo-cornual junction of previously gravid and non gravid uterus. Intrauterine fluid detection was performed by the use of an echogenicity scale. Ovaric structures were recorded (preovulatory follicles and ovulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on day 15 post ovulation and then confirmed on day 40. Endometrial cytology samples were taken from uterus after the perineal area was disinfected using non covered isopos with a Pollanski speculum. Smears specimens were fixed with metil alcohol for 15

  1. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  2. A preliminary study on the induction of dioestrous ovulation in the mare – a possible method for inducing prolonged luteal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl Hans

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong oestrous symptoms in the mare can cause problems with racing, training and handling. Since long-acting progesterone treatment is not permitted in mares at competition (e.g. according to FEI rules, there is a need for methods to suppress unwanted cyclicity. Spontaneous dioestrous ovulations in the late luteal phase may cause a prolongation of the luteal phase in mares. Methods In this preliminary study, in an attempt to induce ovulation during the luteal phase, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (3000 IU was injected intramuscularly in four mares (experimental group in the luteal phase when a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm was detected. A fifth mare included in this group was not treated due to no detectable dioestrous follicles ≥ 30 mm. Four control mares were similarly injected with saline. The mares were followed with ultrasound for 72 hours post injection or until ovulation. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice weekly for one month and thereafter once weekly for another two to four months. Results Three of the hCG-treated mares ovulated within 72 hours after treatment and developed prolonged luteal phases of 58, 68 and 82 days respectively. One treated mare never ovulated after the hCG injection and progesterone levels fell below 3 nmol/l nine days post treatment. Progesterone levels in the control mares were below 3 nmol/l within nine days after saline injection, except for one mare, which developed a spontaneously prolonged luteal phase of 72 days. Conclusion HCG treatment may be a method to induce prolonged luteal phases in the mare provided there is a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm that ovulates post-treatment. However, the method needs to be tested on a larger number of mares to be able to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness.

  3. Study of the continuum removal method for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and its application to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun-Yu; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The absorption band center of visible and near infrared reflectance spectra is a key spectral parameter for lunar mineralogical studies, especially for the mafic minerals (olivine and pyroxene) of mare basalts, which have two obvious absorption bands at 1000 nm (Band I) and 2000nm (Band II). Removal of the continuum from spectra, which was developed by Clark and Roush and used to isolate the particular absorption feature, is necessary to estimate this parameter. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data are widely used for lunar mineral identification. However, M3 data show a residual thermal effect, which interferes with the continuum removal, and systematic differences exist among optical data taken during different optical periods. This study investigated a suitable continuum removal method and compared the difference between two sets of M3 data taken during different optical periods, Optical Period 1B (OP1B) and Optical Period 2A (OP2A). Two programs for continuum removal are reported in this paper. Generally, a program respectively constructs two straight lines across Band I and Band II to remove the continuum, which is recommended for locating band centers, because it can find the same Band I center with different right endpoints. The optimal right endpoint for continuum removal is mainly dominated by two optical period data at approximately 2480 and 2560nm for OP1B and OP2A data, respectively. The band center values derived from OP1B data are smaller than those derived from OP2A data in Band I but larger in Band II, especially for the spectra using longer right endpoints (>2600 nm). This may be due to the spectral slopes of OP1B data being steeper than those of OP2A data in Band I but gentler in Band II. These results were applied to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium, and the measurements were found to mainly vary from intermediate- to high-Ca pyroxene.

  4. Baia Mare Geological and Mining Park – a potential new Geopark in the northwestern part of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Marinel Kovacs; Alexandrina Fülöp

    2009-01-01

    The Baia Mare region is a very well known mining area, with an excellently studied regional geology in Romania. The geological heritage has been strongly incorporated in the economic and social development of the region which is now subject to the cease of the mining-based activities. The natural heritage, as well as the historical and cultural values of the region, will contribute substantially to the future development. The region of Baia Mare has a high potential for founding a new Geopark...

  5. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  7. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  8. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  13. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. Modeling approaches to describe H2O and CO2 exchange in mare ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A.; Novenko, E.; Volkova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The modern climatic conditions is strongly influenced by both internal variability of climatic system, and various external natural and anthropogenic factors (IPCC 2007). Significant increase of concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and especially the growth of atmospheric CO2 due to human activity are considered as the main factors that are responsible for global warming and climate changes. A significant part of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by land biota and especially by vegetation cover. However, it is still not completely clear what is the role of different land ecosystems and especially forests and mares in global cycles of H2O and CO2 and what is a sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate changes. Within the frameworks of this study the spatial and temporal variability of H2O and CO2 fluxes in different types of mare ecosystems of the forest-steppe zone in European part of Russia was described using modeling approaches and results of field measurements. For this modeling and experimental study the mare ecosystems of Tula region were selected. The Tula region is located mostly in the forest-steppe zone and it is unique area for such studies because almost all existed types of mare ecosystems of Northern Eurasia distinguished by a geomorphological position, water and mineral supply can be found there. Most mares in Tula region have a relatively small size and surrounded by very heterogeneous forests that make not possible an application of the classical measuring and modeling approaches e.g. an eddy covariance technique or one-dimensional H2O and CO2 exchange models for flux estimation in such sites. In our study to describe the radiation, sensible heat, H2O and CO2 exchange between such heterogeneous mare ecosystems and the atmosphere a three-dimensional model Forbog-3D and one-dimensional Mixfor-SVAT were applied. The main concept used in the Forbog-3D and Mixfor-SVAT models is an aggregated description of physical and

  15. The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons.

  16. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  17. Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals - Specific Issues for Baia Mare Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Mirela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mining activity, practices in Baia Mare for over 100 years, has led to pollution and economic sealing oflarge areas of land; it has adversely affected the environment and now poses a significant risk to human health. Theactual sources of pollution, current or historical, in Baia Mare Depression are SC Romplumb SA, SC Cuprom SA andCNMPN Remin SA. The mining activities left over wide areas ponds, mine waste dumps and the underground watersthat come across the existing mine galleries spring out contaminated and sometimes in an uncontrolled manner. Heavymetals are present in the environmental factors from this area and significantly affect local ecosystems and humanhealth. The paper presents details on soil pollution with heavy metals, problem that has gradually found a solution in theenvironmental rehabilitation projects, activities that requiring investment of time and specialists in this field.

  18. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma associated with a retained molar in an Oldenburg mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Butler, Abigail M; Gomez-Ibañez, Sara E; Lowder, Michael Q; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    An 11-year-old Oldenburg mare presented with a 3-month history of weight loss and swelling of the posterior right mandible. Physical examination and radiographs showed a soft-tissue mass in the right mandible with foci of mineralization, periosteal proliferation, and a retained molar. The tumor increased in size over several weeks, and the mare was euthanized. On necropsy, a 24 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm firm, white mass had obliterated the posterior right mandible. The mass was multinodular with discrete clusters of blood-filled cystic spaces. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic odontogenic epithelium and pulpal mesenchyme with an accumulation of eosinophilic material resembling dentin or enamel. Microscopic and immunohistochemical staining features of the neoplasm were most consistent with an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma.

  19. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  20. Klaasikunstnikus on koos kunstnik ja disainer! / Mare Saare ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saare, Mare, 1955-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia klaasikunsti osakonna juhataja Mare Saare pälvis Jaapanis Kanazawa klaasinäitusel tööga "Laine sünonüümid" ühe neljast hõbemedalist. Kristiina Uslar märgiti ära töö "+-" eest. Kanazawa näitusest, Euroopa klaasinäitustest, eesti klaasikunsti olukorrast ja tulevikust, klaasitööstusest, Olustvere majanduskooli plaanist hakata õpetama klaasimeistreid, klaasikunsti õpetamisest kunstiakadeemias

  1. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we analyze the chronology and statistical distribution of lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ antmet/ lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. The Compendium was last modified on May 12, 2008.

  2. An Epidemiological Study of Leptospira-Induced Abortion in Mares in Central Kentucky (1990-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-02

    effects of temperature, precipitation, and naturally occurring water location on equine leptospiral abortions . It is important, therefore, to look at...precipitation and that the two act in tandem to cause the effect . As mentioned earlier, the most likely cause of death of a leptospire in the natural...EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LEPTOSPIRA-INDUCED ABORTION IN MARES IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY (1990-2004) 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT HALL DAVID C 7. PERFORMING

  3. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding.

  4. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah D; Sawyer, Jason; Ghaffari, Noushin; Johnson, Charlie D; Dindot, Scott V

    2012-02-17

    The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  5. Whole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Ryan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs, and copy number variants (CNVs in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Results Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. Conclusions This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  6. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, Ryan

    2012-02-17

    BACKGROUND: The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse\\'s genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  7. Lost in the Mediterranean: Theories, Discourses, Borders and Migration Policies in the ‘Mare Nostrum’

    OpenAIRE

    Gjergji, Iside

    2015-01-01

    For quite some time the Mediterranean region has become a prime arena for political action and reflection. As a consequence, there has been growing debate on its particular history, culture and anthropology. However, a good deal of this debate has proved incapable of successfully describing and analyzing the contemporary Mediterranean. Taking migratory movements, policies and bordering practices as its perspective, this article aims to shatter the postcard image of Mare Nostrum. Engaging with...

  8. Klaasikunstnikus on koos kunstnik ja disainer! / Mare Saare ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saare, Mare, 1955-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia klaasikunsti osakonna juhataja Mare Saare pälvis Jaapanis Kanazawa klaasinäitusel tööga "Laine sünonüümid" ühe neljast hõbemedalist. Kristiina Uslar märgiti ära töö "+-" eest. Kanazawa näitusest, Euroopa klaasinäitustest, eesti klaasikunsti olukorrast ja tulevikust, klaasitööstusest, Olustvere majanduskooli plaanist hakata õpetama klaasimeistreid, klaasikunsti õpetamisest kunstiakadeemias

  9. The Mares Conference on Marine ecosystem Health and Conservation 2016: key themes

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez, Tim; Brownlie, Katherine; Officer, Rick A.; Cunha, Marina; Erzini, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Marine environments are generally considered as highly valuable and their health and conservation status are seen as key priorities. However, marine wildlife and habitats are facing multiple threats ranging from eutrophication to overfishing and ocean acidification, all of which directly or indirectly affect the biodiversity of marine ecosystems. The Mares Conference 2016 aims to address the main issues of marine ecosystems health and conservation. To do this, six thematic subjects will be ex...

  10. Marine Arctic Ecosystem Study (MARES): Pilot Project - Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine Mammal Tagging and Tracking Francis Wiese Stantec Consulting Ltd 2515 A Street Anchorage, AK 99503-2709 phone: (907) 343-5276 email...inter-relationships of biophysical and chemical parameters on living resources, including marine mammals that use this ecosystem. This larger picture...decrease in sea ice. The marine mammal component of MARES is providing habitat use information through animal mounted sensors that transmit

  11. Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Macarena G; Wills, Tamara B; Christopherson, Peter; Hines, Melissa T

    2011-03-01

    A 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare was evaluated for bilateral epistaxis that had been present for at least 3 years. The mare had mild anemia, platelet count within the reference interval, unremarkable coagulation times, and a negative Coggins test. On endoscopic examination, structural abnormalities were not observed in the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or either guttural pouch, but petechiation was noted in the nasal mucosa. Additional tests revealed prolonged cutaneous bleeding time, normal concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen, an abnormal clot retraction test, and failure of plalelet aggregation in response to agonists, suggesting a functional disorder of platelets. Genetic analysis indicated the horse was homozygous for a 10-base-pair deletion that included the last 3 base pairs of exon 11 and the first 7 base pairs of intron 11 of the gene encoding glycoprotein IIb. The diagnosis was Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) caused by a structural defect in glycoprotein IIb. GT is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex on platelet surfaces. Separate genes encode each glycoprotein, and mutations in either gene can result in GT. This case of GT is unique given the age of the mare at the time of diagnosis. We conclude that GT, although an inherited disorder, should be considered in horses with suspected dysfunctional platelets, regardless of age. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Uterine Microbiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Isolated Bacteria from Mares with Fertility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson U

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Uterine microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in 239 mares with fertility problems in a prospective study in Sweden. Uterine swab samples were collected with double guarded swabs and transported overnight before being cultured. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC was determined for a panel of antimicrobials. From 152 of the 239 mares at least one bacterial species was isolated, most frequently E. coli (104 isolates, β-haemolytic streptococci (31 and fungi (16. β-haemolytic streptococci were more frequently (p E. coli (p β-haemolytic streptococcal isolates some resistance was noted for 4 of 11 tested antibiotics, however, all isolates were susceptible to the widely used penicillin G. Among E. coli isolates enrofloxacin was the only of the 10 tested antibiotics for which no resistance was noted. Resistance was most commonly noted to cephalothin (39% of the isolates, streptomycin (22%, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (15% and ampicillin (11%. In conclusion, we show that both E. coli and β-haemolytic streptococci are frequently associated with fertility problems in mares and that antimicrobial resistance is a common feature of E. coli but also recognised for β-haemolytic streptococcal uterine isolates.

  13. Mineralogy of speleothems from four caves in the Purcăreţ - Boiu Mare Plateau and the Baia Mare Depression (NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Tamas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Purcăreţ - Boiu Mare Plateau and the southern edge of the Baia Mare Depression, in Sălaj and Maramureş Counties, NW Romania, host over 200 caves located in limestones ranging in age from Upper Eocene to Badenian. The carbonate rocks are interposed with non-karst rocks consisting of shales, sandstones and marls. Four caves hosted by limestones of different lithologies have been investigated for secondary minerals in the composition of their speleothems. Calcite, gypsum, goethite, jarosite, brushite, hydroxylapatite and taranakite were found in the composition of crusts, crystals, aggregates and earthy masses. The mineral association was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Gypsum, goethite and jarosite resulted from sulphide oxidation, whereas the phosphate associations formed through the interaction of phosphoric acid from bat guano with the limestones and detrital sediments. In Lii Cave, hydroxylapatite was also identified in black crusts deposited on fossil rib fragments within the limestones.

  14. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  15. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  16. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  17. THE QUANTITATIVE COMPONENT’S DIAGNOSIS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION CONDITION IN BAIA MARE URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric precipitation, an essential meteorological element for defining the climatic potential of a region, presents through its general and local particularities a defining influence for the evolution of the other climatic parameters, conditioning the structure of the overall geographic landscape. Their quantitative parameters sets up the regional natural setting and differentiation of water resources, soil, vegetation and fauna, in the same time influencing the majority of human activities’ aspects, through the generated impact over the agriculture, transportation, construction, for tourism etc. Especially, through the evolution of the related climatic parameters (production type, quantity, duration, frequency, intensity and their spatial and temporal fluctuations, the pluviometric extremes set out the maxim manifestation of the energy gap of the hydroclimatic hazards/risks which induce unfavourable or even damaging conditions for the human activities’ progress. Hence, the production of atmospheric precipitation surpluses conditions the triggering, or reactivation of some intense erosion processes, landslides, and last but not least, floods. Just as dangerous are the adverse amounts of precipitation or their absence on longer periods, determining the appearance of droughts, aridity phenomena, which if associated with the sharp anthropic pressure over the environment, favours the expansion of desertification, with the whole process of the arising negative effects. In this context, this paper aims to perform the diagnosis of atmospheric precipitation condition in Baia Mare urban area, through its quantitative component, in multiannual condition (1971-2007, underlining through the results of the analyzed climatic data and their interpretation, the main characteristics that define it. The data bank from Baia Mare station from the National Meteorological Administration network, representative for the chosen study area, was used. Baia

  18. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  19. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  20. Mixing Across a Simple Mare-Highland Contact in the Grimaldi Basin: New Insights from Clementine UV/VIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Mustard, J. F.; He, G.

    1996-03-01

    The investigation of the composition of mare-highland boundaries carried out by Mustard et al. using multispectral images from the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) instrument reveals the existence of three distinct mixing systematics across the mare-highland contacts in the region of southwestern Procellarum. The three basic types are narrow, moderate, and complex mixing gradients, and each implies a different set of fundamental processes that have contributed to the observed gradients. However, the 4 km resolution of the Galileo SSI data is too low to critically evaluate the exact properties of these boundaries, particularly in areas with rapidly changing abundances. The higher spatial resolution of Clementine UV/VIS data ( ~200 m/pixel, 5 filters between 0.415- 1.0 am-micrometers) allows the contact of mare-highland to be addressed in more detail. We have begun a series of studies to characterize and model mixing across mare-highland boundaries using these data, beginning with simple boundaries (sharp geologic contact, simple superposition of mare on highland). In this study, the contact between the Grimaldi mare and the highland on the southern edge is investigated through the spectral mixture analysis of Clementine UV/VIS data. Our preliminary analyses reveals the boundary consists of three mixing zones: moderate, steep, and moderate. The moderate zones on the mare and highland sides of the contact are approximately 30km wide, while the steep zone is ~6-8 km wide. We are currently examining other such simple boundaries to determine if the physical dimensions and properties are consistent across the moon, and thus a chracteristic properties of simple boundaries.

  1. Mare Basaltic Magmatism: A View from the Sample Suite With and Without a Remote-Sensing Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the lunar-sample suite returned by the Apollo and Luna missions is biased with regard to its representation of lunar mare basalts. This sampling bias is reflected in both an incorrect portrayal of the volume of mare basalt types and the absence of many basalt groups known to exist from spectral data. This bias obviously affects models for the petrogenesis of mare basalts and the interior of the Moon. Here, we explore the implications of this bias and compare models for lunar magmatism that are derived solely from samples with potential models derived from combined sample and remote-sensing data. We focus on the implications of these contrasts in several areas: volume, distribution, and age of mare basalts, KREEP enrichment on the nearside of the Moon, heat sources for melting, and depth of mare basalt source regions. The mare basalt sample suite indicates that the TiO2 distribution of crystalline mare basalt samples is bimodal, with a majority of the mare basalts occurring in the range of 1.5-5.5 and 10-13 wt% TiO2. A compositional gap appears to exist between 6 and 9 wt% TiO2. Although the population of picritic mare glasses also exhibits a bimodal distribution with regard to Ti02, it is dominated by very low-Ti glasses (Ti02. The simplest interpretation of the bimodal Ti distribution is that two distinct sources were melted to produce the mare basalts: late, rather shallow, Ti-rich lunar magma ocean (LMO) cumulates and early, rather deep, Ti-poor LMO cumulates. More recently, on the basis of Galileo SSI and Clementine UV-VIS data, global TiO2 distribution has been interpreted to be continuous in the maria with no hint of biomodality and an abundance peak between I and 3.5 wt% TiO2. These new observations indicate a mare source model in which a small volume of late, ilmenite-bearing LMO cumulates mixed with a large volume of early LMO cumulates in which ilmenite was absent. These differences in models have implications for heat

  2. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  3. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship Among Five Pony Populations of China%中国矮马群体mtDNA Cytb基因遗传多样性及系统进化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙鑫; 杨胜林; 李爱萍; 乜玉丽; 杨海兵; 戴焰

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide date and scientific basis for utilization and protection ofbiodiversity,diversity and phylogenetic relationships of five pony populations,136 samples were studied.[Method] The PCR amplification and sequencing of mtDNA Cytb gene,the date analyzsis ways of biologic informatics were used.[Result] A total of 27 haplotypes were detected,and 40 polymorphic loci which account for 3.51% of the analyzed sites were found.The Yunnan and Guizhou populations had the highest haplotype diversity (Hd =0.869) and nucleotide diversity (Pi =0.0435),respectively,whereas the Yuexi and Ningqiang populations had the lowest respectively,but not far from each population.Each branch of the phylogenetic tree and NETwork results all had the information of five pony populations.[Conclusion] The five pony populations had higher genetic diversity in all,the Yunnan,Guizhou and Debao ponies had relatively higher genetic diversity,but Yuexi and Nongqiang pony were low.the phylogenetic research suggested that extensive gene flow exists among the five pony populations,and this study has provided evidence for Chinese ponies having multiple maternal origins.%[目的]利用线粒体细胞色素b(mtDNA Cytb)基因为标记,从分子水平探讨中国5个矮马136个样本的遗传多样性和系统进化研究,为中国矮马的开发利用以及生物多样性保护提供基础资料.[方法]对矮马样本mtDNA Cytb基因进行PCR扩增和测序,运用现代生物信息学方法进行数据处理.[结果]共检测到27个单倍型,40个多态位点,约占分析位点总数的3.51%.云南矮马具有最高的单倍型多样度(Hd)(0.869),最低的为四川矮马(0.740),核苷酸多样度(Pi)最高的为贵州矮马(0.00435),最低的为宁强矮马(0.00227),各群体间的遗传多样性相差不大.系统发育树和NETwork图中每一分支均含有5个矮马群体的信息.[结论]5个矮马群体总体上具有较高的遗传多样性,其中云南、贵

  4. Systemic treatment with high dose of flunixin-meglumine is able to block ovulation in mares by inducing hemorrhage and luteinisation of follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Domingo-Ortiz, R

    2011-03-01

    Prostaglandins play an obligatory role during the process of ovulation in mammals. Ovulation can be blocked by intrafollicular administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in several domestic species including the mare as well as by systemic administration of these drugs in women. In the mare, the effect of systemic NSAIDs treatment on ovulation has not been critically studied. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine whether high dose of flunixin-meglumine (FM) administered systemically to mares during the periovulatory period was able to block ovulation; and b) to study the follicular ultrasound characteristics of FM treated mares. Six mares were used in the study during two consecutive estrous cycles. Each mare received 2 mg FM/kg i.v. twice a day starting at the time of treatment with hCG when the follicle reached a diameter of ≥ 32 mm and continuing until ovulation. During the consecutive control cycle (CON) the mares received the same dose of hCG but were not administered FM. During the FM cycles five of six mares failed to ovulate and collapse the preovulatory follicle; but echoic specks were observed within the follicles, which continued to grow until a mean diameter of 55 mm. Eventually, the follicular contents were organised and luteinised. All CON mares ovulated normally. In conclusion, when mares were treated with FM, they had a higher incidence of ovulatory failure and development of luteinised unruptured follicles (83%, P = 0.015) compared with untreated mares. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental considerations in pregnant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khedmat S.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available During the human gestation period, various systemic alterations occur in the mother"nsecondary to endocrine changes. These changes, combined with the presence of the gravid uterus, result"nin conditions affecting the various systems of the mother which must be considered by the dentist."nFetal development is divided into three stages:"n1 The fertilization and implantation period"n2 The embryonic period and"n3 The fetal period."nThe second period characterized by organogenesis which taratogens may result in functional and"nmorphogenic malformations."nThe ideal dental treatment schedule for the pregnant patient is twice during first trimester, at least once"nduring second trimester and once during third trimester."nThe second trimester is an ideal time for performing dental treatment."nEmergency problem should be alleviated immediately during pregnancy."nIndicated medications should not be with held because of pregnancy but patients must be informed of"nbenefits and risks."nWith careful attention to the special needs of the pregnant patient, the dentist can provide high quality"ndental care while minimizing potential risks to mother and fetus."nEmphasis should be on preventive strategies and meticulous oral hygiene to manage common oral"nproblems associated with pregnancy.

  6. The S2 Gene of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Is a Highly Conserved Determinant of Viral Replication and Virulence Properties in Experimentally Infected Ponies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Leroux, Caroline; Craigo, Jodi K.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is genetically one of the simplest lentiviruses in that the viral genome encodes only three accessory genes, tat, rev, and S2. Although serological analyses demonstrate the expression of the S2 protein in persistently infected horses, the role of this viral gene remains undefined. We recently reported that the S2 gene is not essential for EIAV replication in primary equine macrophages, as EIAV mutants lacking the S2 gene replicate to levels similar to those of the parental virus (F. Li, B. A. Puffer, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 72:8344–8348, 1998). We now describe in vivo studies that examine the evolution and role of the S2 gene in ponies experimentally infected with EIAV. The results of these studies reveal for the first time that the S2 gene is highly conserved during persistent infection and that deletion of the S2 gene reduces viral virulence and virus replication levels compared to those of the parental virus containing a functional S2 gene. These data indicate that the EIAV S2 gene is in fact an important determinant of viral replication and pathogenic properties in vivo, despite the evident lack of S2 influence on viral replication levels in vitro. Thus, these observations suggest in vivo functions of EIAV S2 that are not adequately reflected in simple infections of cultured cells, including natural target macrophages. PMID:10590152

  7. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  8. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  9. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women.

  10. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be based on your overall health and how active you are before you get pregnant. Talk to your doctor or midwife about what kind of exercise, and how much, is good for you. Stress, Rest, and Relaxation While you are trying to get pregnant, try ...

  11. Presumed case of "stiff-horse syndrome" caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations.

  12. Presumed case of “stiff–horse syndrome” caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations.

  13. Changes in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis of mares in relation to the winter solstice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, P J; Johnson, L; Fitzgerald, B P

    1992-09-01

    In mares, the amount of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is low in the hypothalamus during seasonal anoestrus, but by early spring, concentrations of GnRH are high. The timing of this response was characterized more precisely by determining concentrations of GnRH in hypothalamic tissue collected immediately before and at various times after the winter solstice (22 December 1986). Ovaries, pituitary gland, hypothalamus and a blood sample were collected from six groups of mares (6-12 mares per group) at death, 1 week before day of the winter solstice and 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks afterwards. No significant changes in weight of the anterior pituitary gland or concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were observed in the anterior pituitary gland (P > 0.1). Mean diameter of the largest follicle, number of follicles > or = 20 mm in diameter and concentrations of LH and FSH in serum remained unchanged for weeks -1 to +3 (P < 0.05), then increased significantly by week 12 (P < 0.001). Content and concentration of GnRH in the median eminence was low at -1 week, increased gradually (P < 0.05) to a maximum by +1 week, then decreased gradually (P < 0.05) to low values at 12 weeks. Means (+/- SEM) for -1, +1 and +12 weeks were 33.5 +/- 5.5, 117.7 +/- 18.6 and 29.8 +/- 3.7 ng GnRH, respectively. Mean content of GnRH in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus showed a reciprocal pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Indigenous nitrogen in the Moon: Constraints from coupled nitrogen-noble gas analyses of mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füri, Evelyn; Barry, Peter H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Marty, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by step-wise CO2 laser-extraction, static-mass spectrometry analysis, are reported for bulk fragments and mineral separates of ten lunar mare basalts (10020, 10057, 12008, 14053, 15555, 70255, 71557, 71576, 74255, 74275), one highland breccia (14321), and one ferroan anorthosite (15414). The mare basalt sub-samples 10057,183 and 71576,12 contain a large amount of solar noble gases, whereas neon and argon in all other samples are purely cosmogenic, as shown by their 21Ne/22Ne ratios of ≈0.85 and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of ≈0.65. The solar-gas-free basalts contain a two-component mixture of cosmogenic 15N and indigenous nitrogen (Earth's primordial mantle or an enstatite chondrite-like impactor. While the lowest δ15 N values allow for nitrogen trapped in the Moon's interior to be inherited from the proto-Earth and/or the impactor, the more 15N-enriched compositions require that carbonaceous chondrites provided nitrogen to the lunar magma ocean prior to the solidification of the crust. Since nitrogen can efficiently be incorporated into mafic minerals (olivine, pyroxene) under oxygen fugacities close to or below the iron-wustite buffer (Li et al., 2013), the mare basalt source region is likely characterized by a high nitrogen storage capacity. In contrast, anorthosite 15414 shows no traces of indigenous nitrogen, suggesting that nitrogen was not efficiently incorporated into the lunar crust during magma ocean differentiation.

  15. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  16. Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bertolini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and relevant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9, ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Francisco Beltrão. The endemicity of HBV marker prevalence in pregnant women was intermediate in Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, and Francisco Beltrão, and low in Curitiba, Londrina, Maringá, and Paranaguá. Multiple logistic regression showed that HBV marker prevalence increased with age, was higher among black women, among women of Italian and German descent, and among women who had family members in neighboring Rio Grande do Sul State. Univariate analysis showed that HBV marker prevalence was also higher among women with no education or only primary education, with a lower family income and whose families originated from the South Region of Brazil. Pregnant women not having positive HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg or anti-HBs detected by ELISA corresponded to 73.7% of the population studied, implying that HBV vaccination needs to be reinforced in Paraná State. The highest prevalence was found in three counties that received the largest number of families from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, where most immigrants were of German or Italian ascendance. This finding probably indicates that immigrants that came to this area brought HBV infection to Southwestern Paraná State.

  17. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  18. Stimulatory effect of PGF2α on PRL based on experimental inhibition of each hormone in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Rodriguez, M B; Duarte, L F; Beg, M A

    2012-12-01

    During the luteolytic period in mares, the peak of 65% of pulses of a PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) and the peak of a pulse of PRL have been reported to occur at the same hour. It is unknown whether the synchrony reflects an effect of PGF2α on PRL or vice versa. Controls, a flunixin meglumine (FM)-treated group (to inhibit PGF2α), and a bromocriptine-treated group (to inhibit PRL), were used at 14 days postovulation in June and in September (n = 6 mares/group/mo). Blood samples were collected hourly from just before treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 10. Concentrations of PGFM in the FM group were lower (P PRL in June were lower (P PRL averaged over groups was lower (P PRL concentrations in mares represents an effect of PGF2α on PRL rather than an effect of PRL on PGF2α.

  19. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome: intrafollicular endocrine milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-03-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human anovulation. The effect of extended increase in circulating LH achieved by administration of recombinant equine LH (reLH) or a short surge of LH and decrease in progesterone induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on LUF formation (Experiment 1), identification of an optimal dose of COX-2 inhibitor (flunixin meglumine, FM; to block the effect of prostaglandins) for inducing LUFs (Experiment 2), and evaluation of intrafollicular endocrine milieu in LUFs (Experiment 3) were investigated. In Experiment 1, mares were treated with reLH from Day 7 to Day 15 (Day 0=ovulation), PGF2α on Day 7, or in combination. In Experiment 2, FM at doses of 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg every 12 h and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (1500 IU) were administered after a follicle ≥32 mm was detected. In Experiment 3, FM at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg every 12 h plus hCG was used to induce LUFs and investigate the intrafollicular endocrine milieu. No LUFs were induced by reLH or PGF2α treatment; however, LUFs were induced in 100% of mares using FM. Intrafollicular PGF2α metabolite, PGF2α, and PGE2 were lower and the ratio of PGE2:PGF2α was higher in the induced LUF group. Higher levels of intrafollicular E2 and total primary sex steroids were observed in the induced LUF group along with a tendency for higher levels of GH, cortisol, and T; however, LH, PRL, VEGF-A, and NO did not differ between groups. In conclusion, this study reveals part of the intrafollicular endocrine milieu and the association of prostaglandins in LUF formation, and indicates that the mare might be an appropriate model for studying the poorly understood LUF syndrome.

  20. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...... tested by PCR for presence of mycoplasmal DNA. The vaginal swab samples were also cultured in the Mycoplasma specific medium. None of the samples were positive for presence of genital mycoplasmas during the screen. The lack of genital mycoplasmas observed in this study may be due to a very extensive use...

  1. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...... tested by PCR for presence of mycoplasmal DNA. The vaginal swab samples were also cultured in the Mycoplasma specific medium. None of the samples were positive for presence of genital mycoplasmas during the screen. The lack of genital mycoplasmas observed in this study may be due to a very extensive use...

  2. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN TERRITORY. CASE STUDY: DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN DÂNGĂU MARE, CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ALEXE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of technical infrastructure in territory. Case study: drinking water supply in Dângău Mare, Cluj County. Water represents an important element in life. Accessibility, water quantity and quality show the standard of living of one community. This article presents a case study, the one of water supply in Dângău Mare from Cluj County. The purpose of this analysis is to reveal the benefits of applying some measures regarding water supply in the rural area, as well as the dysfunction abilities which derive from a bad management (eg. lack of sewage system. Dângău Mare lies near the Gilău Mountains and possesses important and rich resources of surface and underground waters varying under qualitative ratio. The hydrological resources of Dângău Mare are made up of river/rivulet networks (Mireş, Blidaru, Agârbiciu, phreatic waters and natural springs. The identification and delimitation of the Dângău Mare territory represents the first stage of this study, followed by the consultation of bibliographic and cartographic sources, field surveys, to obtain the qualitative and quantitative pieces of information. The second stage consists in the analyzation and classification of information, the integrated study of phenomena and elaboration of cartographic models using GIS. At the end of this study we have made the SWOT analysis to emphasize the characteristics of favourability, the anomalies and the opportunities to improve and develop the territory of Dângău Mare from Cluj County.

  4. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  5. Derivation and characterisation of a live equid herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) vaccine to protect against abortion and respiratory disease due to EHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J R; Bateman, H; Williams, J; Didlick, S

    2003-01-02

    A German abortion isolate of EHV-1 (strain M8) was grown in equine dermal (ED) cells at a low multiplicity of infection in presence of 5-bromo-2-deoxy uridine. The resulting stock was dialysed, titrated and cloned by terminal dilution in ED cells grown in 96-well microtitration plates. Of 192 clones each originating from a single focus, clone 147 (C147) was found to be restricted for growth at and above temperatures of 38.5 degrees C. It was also restricted for growth at 37 degrees C in rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells which are widely used for the isolation and titration of EHV-1; hence clone 147 was EHV-4-like. Clone 147 showed a remarkable efficacy as a vaccine in protecting conventional pregnant Welsh Mountain pony mares against abortions due to EHV-1. A single intranasal (IN) vaccination protected five out of six (83.3%), and four out of five (80%) of mares upon challenge 4 and 5-6 months, respectively, after the immunisation, whereas all six unvaccinated mares aborted between 9 and 19 days after IN EHV-1 challenge. With the exception of the day 9 abortion, foetuses of the remaining five mares were EHV-1 infected. Placenta from the early aborting mare was, however, EHV-1 positive. Both groups of vaccinated mares were also significantly protected against clinical reaction (notably pyrexia), nasal shedding and viraemia following challenge infection.

  6. Voces y silencios en Castelli di rabbia (1991), Oceano mare (1993) y Seta (1996) de Alessandro Baricco.

    OpenAIRE

    Voltarel, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Para el presente trabajo se recorta un corpus de tres obras de Alessandro Baricco: Castelli di rabbia (1991),1 Oceano mare (1993)2 y Seta (1996)3. Las novelas elegidas fueron escritas en los años noventa, pertenecen a un período en que el autor ubica las historias narradas en el siglo XIX; en dos de las novelas seleccionadas (Castelli di rabbia y Oceano mare), las acciones transcurren en ciudades imaginarias; en la tercera, si bien aparecen lugares geográficos reconocibles, la forma en que se...

  7. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P NAC treatment compared to control mares (P mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups (both P NAC treatment does not reduce viscosity of uterine mucus but has an

  8. Voces y silencios en Castelli di rabbia (1991), Oceano mare (1993) y Seta (1996) de Alessandro Baricco.

    OpenAIRE

    Voltarel, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Para el presente trabajo se recorta un corpus de tres obras de Alessandro Baricco: Castelli di rabbia (1991),1 Oceano mare (1993)2 y Seta (1996)3. Las novelas elegidas fueron escritas en los años noventa, pertenecen a un período en que el autor ubica las historias narradas en el siglo XIX; en dos de las novelas seleccionadas (Castelli di rabbia y Oceano mare), las acciones transcurren en ciudades imaginarias; en la tercera, si bien aparecen lugares geográficos reconocibles, la forma en que se...

  9. Genetic Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences in Ningqiang Pony%宁强矮马线粒体DNA D-loop区的遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 路宏朝

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究宁强矮马线粒体DNA (mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA) D-loop区的遗传多样性及其母系起源进化,为其遗传资源保护提供理论数据.[方法]采用PCR和测序技术分析12匹宁强矮马mtDNA D-loop区的600 bp核酸序列,并基于mtDNA D-loop区序列将宁强矮马和NCBI公布的其它马种进行系统树构建.[结果]宁强矮马群体存在9种单倍型,检测到34处SNP位点,占所分析位点总数的5.67%,各单倍型间的遗传距离为0.002-0.035,单倍型多样性为0.978±0.054,核苷酸多性为0.01988±0.00818.聚类分析表明宁强矮马分布在4个支系中,与胡克尔马、设特兰马、德保马、蒙古马和车巨马亲缘关系较近,与纯血马、云南马和韩国济州岛本土马的亲缘关系较远.[结论]宁强矮马具有比较丰富的遗传多样性,在进化的历史过程中受到其它马种的影响较大.%[ Objective ] In order to provide a scientific and theoretical basis for genetic resource protection of Ningqiang pony, the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop and maternal origin of Ningqiang pony was investigated. [ Method ] Twelve 600 bp mtDNA D-loop sequences were analyzed by PCR and sequencing techniques, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the mtDNA D-loop sequences of Ningqiang pony samples and other equine D-loop sequence available from NCBI. [Result] There were 9 unique haplotypes with 34 polymorphic sites in Ningqiang pony, which account for 5.67% of 600 bp sequence analyzed. The haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (tc) were 0.978?.054 and 0.01988?.00818, respectively. Moreover, Ningqiang pony distributed in four branches, and are closely related to Hucul, Shetlan, Debao horse, Cheju horse and Mongolian horse , whereas they are less related to Thoroughbred, Yunnan horse and Jeju native horse. [Conclusion] Ningqiang pony have rather abundant genetic diversity and were greatly affected by other horse breeds in history.

  10. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  11. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  12. POTENTIAL OF WINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: DEALU MARE VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEDELCU ADRIAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wine sector can contribute to the rediscovery of Romania as a possible tourist destination, and the multiplication of interest in this area can offer a wide range of experiences (through rural tourism, wine tourism, active holidays and even business opportunities. The development of tourist destinations is closely linked to their natural environment, cultural distinctiveness, social interaction, security and wellbeing of local populations. These characteristics make wine tourism the driving force for the conservation and development of the tourist destinations in the Dealu Mare vineyard, the largest vineyard in the most important wine-growing area of the country. Romania has a remarkable wine heritage, both on a European and global economic confirmed statistics every year. Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries with significant wine heritage, but is likely sufficiently sustained development, especially wine-growing potential value resulting from the studies undertaken to implementation of European Union wine reform. Dealu Mare is a vineyard where wine tourism could potentially increase the flow of tourists as well as improve their quality.

  13. MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES USED BY EMPLOYERS FROM THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the motivation of human resources in the companies from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007- 2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that employers perceived as most efficient the following motivation instruments: a good communication between employees, basic wage, partial delegation of managerial tasks and optimal working conditions. The efficiency of the motivation instruments in the view of employers differs significantly across activity sectors. Thus, using the ANOVA test, we found that the variation of variables related to basic wage, performance rewarding, bonuses, partial delegation of managerial tasks, work competencies, fear of job loss, need for affiliation to a workgroup, the prestige outside the organisation, working a good reputation organisation, social benefits, home distance can be explained in a proportion ranged from 23,5% to 42,9% by the variation of variable associated to the activity sector.

  14. Composition, seasonal change, and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its microwave thermal emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A. G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Lunine, J. I.; Veyssière, G.; Encrenaz, P.; Karatekin, O.

    2016-02-01

    For the last decade, the passive radiometer incorporated in the Cassini RADAR has recorded the 2.2 cm wavelength thermal emission from Titan's seas. In this paper, we analyze the radiometry observations collected from February 2007 to January 2015 over one of these seas, Ligeia Mare, with the goal of providing constraints on its composition, bathymetry, and dynamics. In light of the depth profile obtained by Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014) and of a two-layer model, we find that the dielectric constant of the sea liquid is loss tangent is liquid methane rather than ethane. A high methane concentration suggests that Ligeia Mare is primarily fed by methane-rich precipitation and/or ethane has been removed from it (e.g., by crustal interaction). Our result on the dielectric constant of the seafloor is less constraining (low-resolution bathymetry map of the sea. We also estimate the temperature variation of the bulk sea between February 2007 and July 2013 to be <2 K, which provides a constraint on its net evaporative cooling currently being explored in ocean circulation models. Lastly, we suggest a lag in the summer warming of the northern polar terrains.

  15. WORK GROUPS'COHESION IN THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Constantin Teodoru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the instruments used by employers from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, in order to maintain and enhance the work groups' cohesion. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007-2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that offering training opportunities to the employees and promoting the higher skilled labour force in the company's hierarchy are the best quoted instruments used by employers from the two counties in order to maintain the group cohesion. By using the ANOVA Test, we found also, that the cohesion instruments used by employers are significant different as regard to the activity sector where the company is active. The frequency of using cohesion instruments as: training opportunities, participation at local employment policies, and support for disadvantaged employees and facilitation of women employment differs significantly across activity sectors. The variation of variables related to these instruments could be explained in a proportion between 23,1% to 26% by the variation of variable associated to activity sector.

  16. Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thiriet, Mélanie; Thorey, Clément

    2016-08-01

    Magmatic intrusions preferentially spread along interfaces marked by rigidity and density contrasts. Thus the contact between a lunar mare and its substratum provides a preferential location for subsequent magmatic intrusions. Shallow intrusions that bend the overlying layer develop characteristic shapes that depend on their radius and on the overlying layer flexural wavelength and hence on their emplacement depth. We characterize the topography of seven, previously identified, candidate intrusive domes located within different lunar maria, using data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Their topographic profiles compare very well with theoretical shapes from a model of magma flow below an elastic layer, supporting their interpretation as intrusive features. This comparison allows us to constrain their intrusion depths and hence the minimum mare thickness at these sites. These new estimates are in the range 400-1900 m and are generally comparable to or thicker than previous estimates, when available. The largest thickness (⩾ 1700 m) is obtained next to the Hortensius and Kepler areas that are proposed to be the relicts of ancient volcanic shields.

  17. Cartografía del desencanto en la novela Los mares del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Reyes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo pretendemos aproximarnos a la obra de Montalbán, en específico a la novela Los mares de Sur, desde la literatura del viaje. Para esto trazamos el recorrido real e imaginario de Carlos Stuart Pedrell y Pepe Carvalho dentro de un marco espacial determinado por el propio escritor, es decir Barcelona, y durante un periodo específico, la transición democrática,todo ello encaminado a mostrar lo que para un gran número de críticos literarios simboliza la narrativa de Manuel Vázquez Montalbán: “la crónica del desencanto”. ABSTRACT: In this study we attempt to approach Montalban’s oeuvre, specifically the novel Los mares de Sur, from the perspective of travel literature. For this purpose we trace the real and imaginary itinerary of Carlos Stuart Pedrell and Pepe Carvalho within a spatial framework provided by the writer himself, that is Barcelona, and during a specific period, the democratic transition, all aimed at revealing what for a large number of literary critics symbolizes Manuel Vázquez Montalbán’s narrative: “the chronicle of disenchantment”.

  18. Management of Stakeholders in Urban Regeneration Projects. Case Study: Baia-Mare, Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina M. Rădulescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of regeneration of abandoned areas or deteriorated structures in the cities of Romania has become a strategy of urban-integrated development. Conversions and/or regeneration of facilities in the form of assets, with different destinations, are part of the new trend of urban regeneration and a strategy used to attract investment capital. The disappearance of mining industry sites in Maramures County, Romania, has allowed the expansion and planning of new spaces for public use and/or semipublic, and most cities have opened new development perspectives. The study is based on empirical research conducted on the brownfields of Baia-Mare City. This research investigates how stakeholders of an urban regeneration project can be more actively involved in the decision-making processes with regard to the strategic elements of the renewal project of Cuprom, as a former mining industry area. This research contributes to the development of the investigation of new types of knowledge of stakeholder analysis and improves the available practices for stakeholder salience. Social networks created and consolidated by stakeholders of an urban regeneration project are the object of analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of the equilibrium between project management and grant of resources and capital. This paper studies the salience of stakeholders of the SEPA-CUPROM project from Baia-Mare using the social networking approach. Visualization by graphical methods of social networking analysis is a useful instrument in the decision-making process of brownfield projects as part of sustainable strategies in Romania.

  19. THE NITROGEN REGIME OF THE SASAR RIVER, IN BAIA MARE SECTION, THE PERIOD 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MUNTEAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baia Mare city - the residence of Maramures county, is known as one of the most polluted cities from Romania, following a long history of mining activities and ores processing. The improper treatment of wastewater from flotation and treatment with cyanide ores and their discharge into the river Sasar led, slowly, but surely destroying the ecosystem. In addition to mining activities have contributed of course, and the metallurgical activities in the area. One of constant pollutions is and disposal of sewage waste water (treated poorly or not at all in the mass water of the Sasar river. The nitrogen regime may provide clues as to the possibility of developing various forms of life, being an indicator of the nutrient regime of aquatic life. This study aims at assessing the quality of the nitrogen regime of Sasar river, in the section upstream and downstream of Baia Mare, in the period 2000-2010, with reference to the Order 161/2006 - regarding the classification of surface water quality to determine the ecological status of water bodies .

  20. Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

  1. Petrology, geochemistry, and age of low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: A possible member of the Apollo 15 mare basaltic suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloda, Jakub; Týcová, Patricie; Korotev, Randy L.; Fernandes, Vera A.; Burgess, Ray; Thöni, Martin; Jelenc, Monika; Jakeš, Petr; Gabzdyl, Pavel; Košler, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Northeast Africa 003 (NEA 003) is a lunar meteorite found as a two paired stones (6 and 118 g) in Libya, 2000 and 2001. The main portion (˜75 vol%) of the 118 g meteorite, used for this study, (NEA 003-A) consists of mare-basalt and a smaller adjacent portion (˜25 vol%) is a basaltic breccia (NEA 003-B). NEA 003-A has a coarse-grained magmatic texture consisting mainly of olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase. The late-stage mineral association is composed mainly of elongated plagioclase, ilmenite, troilite, fayalite, Si-K-rich glass, apatite, and a rare SiO 2 phase. Other accessory minerals include ulvöspinel, chromite, and trace Fe-Ni metal. Olivine and pyroxene contain shock-induced fractures, and plagioclase is completely converted into maskelynite. The Fe/Mn values of the whole rock, olivines and pyroxenes, and the bulk-rock oxygen isotopic composition provide evidence for the lunar origin of NEA 003-A meteorite. This is further supported by the presence of Fe-Ni metal and the anhydrous mineral association. NEA 003-A is geochemically and petrographically distinct from previously described mare-basalt meteorites and is not paired with any of them. The petrography and major element composition of NEA 003-A is similar to the composition of low-Ti olivine mare basalts from Apollo 12 and olivine-normative basalts from Apollo 15. The NEA 003-A meteorite shows obvious geochemical similarities in trace elements contents with Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts and could represent a yet unknown geochemically primitive member of the olivine-normative basalt series. The meteorite is depleted in rare earth elements (REE) and incompatible trace elements indicating a primitive character of the parental magma. The bulk-rock chemical composition demonstrates that the parent melt of NEA 003-A was not contaminated with KREEP components as a result of magma mixing or assimilation processes. Results of crystallization modelling and low minimum cooling rate estimates (˜0.07

  2. Ocorrência de onicomicose em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Occurrence of the onychomycosis in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Martelozo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Onicomicoses são infecções fúngicas que atingem as unhas e acometem cerca de 30% da população. Recentemente tem sido relatado aumento dessas infecções e também alterações em sua etiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência das onicomicoses e perfil dos pacientes acometidos em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Entre janeiro de 1999 a junho de 2003 foram analisadas, no Laboratório de Micologia do Lepac (Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, um total de 435 amostras de pacientes com suspeita clínica de onicomicose. Destas amostras 74,25% (N=323 foram positivas, sendo 15,48% confirmadas por exame direto (N=50, 20,43% exclusivamente por cultura (N=66 e 64,09% por exame direto e cultura (N=207. As mulheres foram mais afetadas que os homens (72,67% e 27,33%, respectivamente, e a maior prevalência foi em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos. As unhas dos pés foram mais acometidas que as unhas das mãos (65,90% e 34,10%, respectivamente. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentes foram as leveduras (52,17% isoladas especialmente das unhas das mãos. Os fungos filamentosos foram prevalentes nas unhas dos pés, destacando-se os dermatófitos responsáveis por 33,85% das onicomicoses e os não dermatófitos (FFND por 13,97%.Onychomycosis are fungal infections that reach the nails and affect about 30% of the population. Recently has been observed increase of these infections and also alterations in its etiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these mycosis and profile of the patients attacked in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Between January 1999 to June 2003 were analyzed at the Mycological Laboratory from the Teaching and Research Laboratory in Clinical Analyses (Lepac a total of 435 samples of patients with clinical symptoms of onychomycoses. Of those samples 74,25% (N=323, were positive, being 15,48% confirmed by direct examination (N=50

  3. Avaliação de ruído na região central de Maringá e Universidade Estadual de Maringá - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i1.1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Costa Dutra Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se o mapeamento acústico para salas de aulas, laboratórios e biblioteca pertencentes à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, bem como para a região central da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Na primeira etapa do trabalho, realizou-se estudo e revisão bibliográfica sobre os parâmetros de interesse quando se deseja qualificar uma sala ou ambiente quanto ao seu nível de ruído, bem como o levantamento dos principais pontos a serem estudados. A segunda etapa compreendeu as medições in locu desses parâmetros, executadas conforme normas ABNT, ISO e recomendações da literatura. Por último, analisaram-se, estatisticamente, os dados para que pudessem ser comparados com os valores estipulados por leis vigentes. Após análise dos dados obtidos, pode-se perceber que a maioria dos pontos apresentou-se acima dos valores permitidos por lei, principalmente em relação à cidade de Maringá, e alguns trechos apresentaram-se com níveis de ruído bastante elevados. Com relação à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, grande parte dos pontos apresentou-se acima do permitido, mas em alguns casos apresentaram excelente qualidade.

  4. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  6. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  7. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  8. Contraception knowledge and practices in pregnant adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villanueva, L A; Campos, R; del Milagro Pérez-Fajardo, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the knowledge and the background in the use of contraceptive methods in 100 pregnant adolescents in the prenatal care of the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González...

  9. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  10. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  11. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  12. Baia Mare Geological and Mining Park – a potential new Geopark in the northwestern part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Kovacs

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Baia Mare region is a very well known mining area, with an excellently studied regional geology in Romania. The geological heritage has been strongly incorporated in the economic and social development of the region which is now subject to the cease of the mining-based activities. The natural heritage, as well as the historical and cultural values of the region, will contribute substantially to the future development. The region of Baia Mare has a high potential for founding a new Geopark in the Gutâi Mts. volcanic area. The main geological, mining/archaeological/historical, ecological and cultural issues of the Baia Mare region offer opportunities for protection and conservation, education and sustainable development, in accordance with the UNESCO guidelines and criteria for establishing a Geopark in a new region. These issues are based on the scientific value, esthetics and a specific geology and mining. This indicates that the impressive natural heritage, as well as the hundreds of years of mining in Baia Mare region, opens a good opportunity to call for a new “Geological and Mining Park“ in Romania as a real social and economic alternative for the development of the local communities.

  13. Algav aasta toob loojatele kuhjaga tööd / Mark Soosaar, Mare Hunt ; interv. Tiina Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Viljandiga seotud Mark Soosaar, Mare Hunt jt. vastavad küsimusele 2007. a. tegemiste ja uue aasta kavatsuste kohta. M. Soosaar räägib uue kunsti muuseumi kolimisest Viljandisse ja Eesti kultuuriesinduse rajamisplaanist Veneetsiasse. M. Hunt tutvustab Tartu mänguasjamuuseumi tööd ja koostatud-illustreeritud raamatuid

  14. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogan, P. T.; Henning, H.; Stout, T. A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships

  15. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  16. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  17. Paratethyan ostracods in the Spanish Lago-Mare : More evidence for interbasinal exchange at high Mediterranean sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout; Fortuin, Anne; Gliozzi, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    A gigantic cascade of Atlantic waters, filling the deep desiccated Mediterranean basin at the beginning of the Pliocene, has commonly been envisaged to end the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Mediterranean lowstand during its final "Lago-Mare" phase, however, has long been subject to major cont

  18. Marika ja Reemi Vartla Mädapea mõis / Aivar Juhanson, Mare Mikof, Simson Seakülast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juhanson, Aivar

    2008-01-01

    15 värv. vaadet; fotod: Sven Arbet; saalis on Aivar Juhansoni saržid, väravapostide metallist öökullid tegi Aivar Simson, rohelises toas on Mare Mikofi skulptuurid "Kotipoisid". 2007. a. avati mõisahoones Virumaa Kunstimuuseum

  19. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  20. Anesthetic Management of Pregnant Patients with Appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Feyzi; Oguz, Abdullah; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Dogan, Erdal; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker Onguc

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to present our anesthesia procedure of pre-diagnosis and laparotomy on pregnant patients with acute appendicitis. After approval Ethics Committee, 77 pregnant patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were evaluated. Patients were separated into two groups: group G (general anesthesia) and Group S (spinal anesthesia), according to the method of anesthesia applied. The patients' age, gestational age, method of anesthesia applied, duration of hospital stay, duration of a...

  1. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  2. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  3. Hormonal and biochemical serum assay in relation to the estrous cycle and follicular growth in Arabian mare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal M Abo-El maaty; K H El-Shahat

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The current study is an endeavor for profound understanding hormonal and biochemical constituents in Arabian mare serum during the estrous cycle.Methods:Ten Arab brood mares of previous foaling records were scanned with ultrasound each other day, and blood samples were collected with each ultrasound examination. The diameter of follicles and corpus luteum was measured. The follicles were classified into small, medium, dominant, 1st and 2nd largest according to their diameter. Hormonal concentrations of thyroxin, progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were assayed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidants concentrations (TAC) were measured. Besides, the levels of total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were assayed. Results:The data revealed that multiple follicles underwent progressive enlargement (≤30 mm). Only the largest (dominant) follicle reached a maximal diameter of (35.82±1.57) mm during estrous phase. During the luteal phase, the corpus luteum reached a maximum diameter of (31.78±1.4) mm. The serum progesterone levels in mare were significantly (P<0.05) higher in luteal phase than those recorded at time of estrus. The reverse was true for estradiol. However, the levels of testosterone and thyroxin did not significantly change during estrous cycle in mare. No significant difference was observed in the serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin in both phases of estrous cycle. Similar finding was observed in SOD concentrations. In contrast, the concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride tended to be significantly (P<0.05) higher at estrous stage than those recorded at luteal one. The same finding was observed in NO levels. On other hand, TAC significantly increased (P<0.05) in mare serum obtained from luteal phase than those obtained at estrous one. A reverse was true for MDA levels.Conlcusions:The steroid hormones and metabolic

  4. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  5. Evaluation of superovulatory treatment with extract of equine hypophysis in creole mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Abril Abril

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the super-ovulatory answer in creole mares which were administered with equine hypophysis extract (EHE in two different doses, compared to FSH of porcine origin (Folltropin V. Twenty cyclical Colombian creole mares were taken whose ages oscillated between 2 and 8 years (5,3 years on average which were randomly selected and assigned to the following four groups: Group 1 also called control group (T1: This group was administered with 5cc of saline solution IM (a.m. , p.m.; Group 2 (T2: 6,25 mg of Foltropin- v (FSH-P IM (a.m., p.m.; Group 3 (T3: 8,3mg EHE IM (a.m., p.m.; Group 4 (T4: 12,5 mg EHE IM (a.m., p.m.. The treatments started seven days after the detection of an ovulation by ultrasound, the 8th day 12,5mg PgF2alfa were administered intramuscular (IM via. The treatment with EHE was canceled when most of the follicles reached a size ≥ 35 mm, at that point 2500 UI of hCG were administered IV (intravenous via, followed by artificial insemination. Between the 7th or 8th day the embryos were collected by means of intrauterine pumping. A one way variance analysis (ANOVA was done specifying the follicular growing between the day of the beginning of treatment and the ovulation, the number of pre-ovulatory follicles sized ≥ 35mm, the number of treatment days and the quantity of embryos collected on each group. A rank test or Duncan multiple comparison was carried out to see differences between the groups, and the condition and the quality of the embryos on each kind of treatment to determine the viability was determined through a relation analysis. The results showed that T4 group developed a higher number of follicles ≥ 35 mm in comparison to the rest of the groups (p<0.005 in 7,4 days of treatment, higher rate of follicle growing (3,01mm/day, higher number of ovulations per treatment (2,8 and a higher number of collected embryos per mare (1,6. So, T4 showed the best results in comparison to the results of the other groups in

  6. MARE2DEM: a 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Kerry

    2016-10-01

    This work presents MARE2DEM, a freely available code for 2-D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data and frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from onshore and offshore surveys. MARE2DEM parametrizes the inverse model using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygons, where unstructured triangular or quadrilateral grids are typically used due to their ease of construction. Unstructured grids provide significantly more geometric flexibility and parameter efficiency than the structured rectangular grids commonly used by most other inversion codes. Transmitter and receiver components located on topographic slopes can be tilted parallel to the boundary so that the simulated electromagnetic fields accurately reproduce the real survey geometry. The forward solution is implemented with a goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method that automatically generates and refines unstructured triangular element grids that conform to the inversion parameter grid, ensuring accurate responses as the model conductivity changes. This dual-grid approach is significantly more efficient than the conventional use of a single grid for both the forward and inverse meshes since the more detailed finite-element meshes required for accurate responses do not increase the memory requirements of the inverse problem. Forward solutions are computed in parallel with a highly efficient scaling by partitioning the data into smaller independent modeling tasks consisting of subsets of the input frequencies, transmitters and receivers. Non-linear inversion is carried out with a new Occam inversion approach that requires fewer forward calls. Dense matrix operations are optimized for memory and parallel scalability using the ScaLAPACK parallel library. Free parameters can be bounded using a new non-linear transformation that leaves the transformed parameters nearly the same as the original parameters within the bounds, thereby reducing non-linear smoothing effects. Data

  7. Infezioni gastroenteriche e fonti di rischio da balneazione nel mare Adriatico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schinaia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: gli obiettivi generali della ricerca sono stati: stimare un eccesso di rischio di insorgenza di gastroenterite a seguito di attività di balneazione o consumo di prodotti ittici nel mare Adriatico; misurare nuovi parametri microbiologici di inquinamento marino.

    Metodi: sono stati condotti i seguenti studi: 1 caso controllo; 2 uno studio di prevalenza (beach survey per descrivere la frequenza di alcune patologie (dell’orecchio, delle vie aeree superiori, della cute rispetto alla balneazione o meno; 3 identificazione di nuovi patogeni nelle acque di balneazione (quali virus o Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Risultati: l’analisi dei fattori di rischio nello studio caso controllo non ha evidenziato un aumento di gastroenterite associata a balneazione. Gli episodi gastroenterici osservati nei casi erano prevalentemente sostenuti da Salmonella sp. e la modalità di infezione era legata ad alcuni alimenti quali la maionese. Il risultato principale dello studio di beach survey è stato che la balneazione nel mare Adriatico non è associata ad un aumento significativo di patologie serie, quali gastroenterite acuta.

    Tuttavia, è stato possibile evidenziare un aumento di rischio statisticamente significativo per forme morbose lievi, quali congiuntivite e dermatite aspecifica, fra chi ha fatto il bagno in mare e chi no. Tale aumentato rischio è stato soprattutto osservato nei bambini e ragazzi al di sotto di 15 anni. I risultati di microbiologia sperimentale dimostrano il ruolo svolto dalle acque marine quale pabulum idoneo alla sopravvivenza delle oocisti di C. parvum. Sono stati validati protocolli di diagnostica molecolare per l’identificazione di enterovirus, rotavirus e reovirus nelle acque di balneazione.

    Conclusioni: l’epidemiologia può contribuire a studiare i rapporti fra balneazione e salute all’interno di una visione generale di salute

  8. Spatial Correlation of Deep Moonquakes and Mare Basalts and Implications for Lunar Present-day Mantle Structure, Magmatism and Thermal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, A. C.; Zhong, S.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand the evolution and interior dynamics of the Moon, it is necessary to understand the petrogenesis of the mare basalts which dominate the nearside surface. Samples and observations from the Apollo program have helped put constraints on the composition and the geological processes of the mare basalts. Geochemical and petrological studies of lunar samples suggest that this magmatism must have originated from a heterogeneous mantle and were mostly emplaced between 3.85 and 3.0 billion years ago although the depth of the source regions of the mare basalts is poorly constrained by petrological experiments with estimated depths ranging from 100 to 500 km [Shearer et al, 2006]. This leads to different hypotheses with shallow and deep physical processes for mare basalt genesis [Zhong et al, 2000 and Wieczorek and Phillips, 2000]. Another important first order observation from the Apollo era is the presence of moonquakes recorded by the Apollo Seismic Network. Significant work has been done to locate the hypocenters of the moonquakes, especially those deemed deep moonquake clusters [e.g., Nakamura, 1982]. The deep moonquakes (DMQs) were found to occur at depths of 700-900 km in about 300 clusters or “nests” mostly on the nearside [Nakamura 2003, 2005]. Understanding the location and cause of the DMQ will help constrain the current state of the mantle, including the presence of heterogeneties. While it remains unresolved whether the nearside distribution of DMQs is due to biasing effects of the nearside distribution of Apollo seismic stations, it has been suggested that most of the DMQ nests tend to occur near mare basalt terrains [Minshull and Goult, 1988]. In this study, we have correlated the presence of mare basalts with the epicenters of ~100 deep moonquake clusters, using recent remote sensing data of FeO as a proxy for mare basalts [e.g.,Lawrence et al, 2000] and newly compiled locations of DMQs clusters [Nakamura, 2005]. Our results show that

  9. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  11. Utilização de métodos contraceptivos entre as usuárias da rede pública de saúde do município de Maringá-PR Contraceptive methods in the public health service ("Sistema Único de Saúde" in Maringá-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Maria Matarezi de Souza

    2006-05-01

    e de detecção de usuárias de pílulas com contra-indicações relativas, com mais de cinco anos de uso.PURPOSE: to evaluate the contraceptive methods adopted by the public health system of Maringá County, Paraná, regarding the orientations for using them, indications, contraindications and reasons for interrupting these methods, as well as the profile of the female users. METHODS: transversal descriptive study, performed through 284 home interviews with women selected from the 62 groups of the Family Health Program, after their free and informed consent, and after the questionnaire had been approved by the Ethics in Research Committee involving human beings of the State University of Maringá (Universidade Estadual de Maringá - UEM. Before applying the questionnaires, they were pretested, focusing on the following sections: characterization of the interviewee, socioeconomical factors and contraceptive methods. Results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software 12.0 version. RESULTS: most women were white, married, between 35 and 49 years old, with high school education, working without salary, and from D and E economical classes. Of them, 22.5% were smokers and 4.9% alcohol users. Contraceptive pills were adopted by 50.3% of the women; condom by 28.1% and tubal ligature by 32%, following, in general, the health professional orientation. Reasons for interrupting the contraceptive methods were the wish to get pregnant, preference for a permanent method, and also because of the side effects of the pill. Smoking was the most prevalent risk factor for pill use. Only 35.9% of the interviewed women started using the pill after a previous medical visit, and almost in the same proportion, 33.6%, without visit before starting to use it. CONCLUSIONS: it was observed that the indications of the contraceptive method to be used, and the orientations accomplished by the health professionals were satisfactory, despite the high levels of tubal

  12. Fractal distributions of dark matter and gas in the MareNostrum Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, Jose

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Large simulations of dark matter and gas structure formation allow us to separate the pure gravitational dynamics from other processes and, hence, to better compare them with observations. AIMS: Our objective is to analyse the recent MareNostrum simulation from a new perspective, regarding the geometry of the dark matter and gas distributions in it. We intend to find the fractal geometry of the dark matter and to determine if the gas distribution is fractal as well. If it is, the question is whether or not the gas distribution is nonetheless biased with respect to the dark matter. METHODS: We use the methods of multifractal geometry, in particular, an improved method of coarse multifractal analysis based on counts in cells. To detemine the gas biasing, we use statistical methods: we use the cross-correlation coefficient and we develop a Bayesian analysis connected with information theory. We also employ entropic measures to characterize both distributions further than the multifractal analysis. RESUL...

  13. Cassini/VIMS observes rough surfaces on Titan's Punga Mare in specular reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W; Sotin, Christophe; Soderblom, Jason M; Brown, Robert H; Hayes, Alexander G; Donelan, Mark; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Mouélic, Stéphane Le; Baines, Kevin H; McCord, Thomas B

    Cassini/VIMS high-phase specular observations of Titan's north pole during the T85 flyby show evidence for isolated patches of rough liquid surface within the boundaries of the sea Punga Mare. The roughness shows typical slopes of 6°±1°. These rough areas could be either wet mudflats or a wavy sea. Because of their large areal extent, patchy geographic distribution, and uniform appearance at low phase, we prefer a waves interpretation. Applying theoretical wave calculations based on Titan conditions our slope determination allows us to infer winds of 0.76±0.09 m/s and significant wave heights of [Formula: see text] cm at the time and locations of the observation. If correct, these would represent the first waves seen on Titan's seas, and also the first extraterrestrial sea-surface waves in general.

  14. MARE-WINT. New Materials and Reliability in Offshore Wind Turbine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a holistic, interdisciplinary overview of offshore wind energy, and is a must-read for advanced researchers. Topics, from the design and analysis of future turbines, to the decommissioning of wind farms, are covered. The scope of the work ranges from analytical, numerical...... of wind turbines. The research was carried out under the auspices of the EU-funded project, MARE-WINT. The work seeks to bridge the gap between research and a rapidly-evolving industry....... and experimental advancements in structural and fluid mechanics, to novel developments in risk, safety & reliability engineering for offshore wind. The core objective of the current work is to make offshore wind energy more competitive, by improving the reliability, and operations and maintenance (O&M) strategies...

  15. The nature of rays and sources of highland material in Mare Crisium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. A.; El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Although highland fragments are rare in the Luna 24 core, they should provide an important source of information on the sequence of formation and lithology of lunar east-limb basins. The numerous rays that cross the Crisium basin suggest several sources of highland materials. Both deposition of primary ejecta and reworking of local material were most likely responsible for the formation of ray systems in Mare Crisium. In addition to the fact that Luna 24 landed near the uprange end of a Giordano Bruno ray, incomplete sampling of the uppermost layer and formation of the ray by reworking of in situ regolith suggest that its materials may be scarce or not present in the core. Highland fragments present are most likely to be representative of several highland sources.

  16. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  17. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  18. Cassini/VIMS Observes Rough Surfaces on Titan's Punga Mare in Specular Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Sotin, Christophe; Soderblom, Jason M.; Brown, Robert H.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Donelan, Mark; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Baines, Kevin H.; McCord, Thomas B.

    2014-08-01

    Cassini/VIMS high-phase specular observations of Titan's north pole during the T85 flyby show evidence for isolated patches of rough liquid surface within the boundaries of the sea Punga Mare. The roughness shows typical slopes of 6°±1°. These rough areas could be either wet mudflats or a wavy sea. Because of their large areal extent, patchy geographic distribution, and uniform appearance at low phase, we prefer a waves interpretation. Applying theoretical wave calculations based on Titan conditions our slope determination allows us to infer winds of 0.76±0.09 m/s and significant wave heights of 2+2-1 cm at the time and locations of the observation. If correct, these would represent the first waves seen on Titan's seas, and also the first extraterrestrial sea-surface waves in general.

  19. Aquatic macrophytes from Danube Delta lagoons Musura Bay and Zatonul Mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava D.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Danube Delta, a unique, young and continuing to grow region situated in the eastern part of Europe, is the largest continuous marshland and the second largest delta on the continent, and also a favorable place for developing a unique flora and fauna in Europe, with many rare and protected species. The predominance of the aquatic environment, led to the existence of a particular macrophytic flora. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of aquatic macrophytes. The present study took place over two years, between 2013-2014, and in each year a number of expeditions were made in the two lagoons (Musura Bay and Zătonul Mare in different seasons, in order to observe the diverse flora, because, due to seasonal variation in water quality, there might be a significantly seasonality of the vegetation also.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF Pb, Cd, Cu AND Zn AVAILABILITY FOR PLANTS IN BAIA MARE MINING REGION

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    LEVEI ERIKA-ANDREA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals in soil from Baia Mare mining region, the total, water and DTPA extractable metal contents were determined. The results showed that despite the high total metals contents and the high percentages of plant available metals only a low percent was water soluble, indicating a potential accumulation of metals in trophic chain and a potential risk for public health. Among the investigated metals, the plant available Pb and Cd species are the most severe contaminants. Significant correlations between total and DTPA extractable metals were found for Cu (r=0.510 and Pb (0.418, and also an affinity between total and water extractable metals were identified for Cu (0.366, Pb (0.502 and Zn (0.597.

  1. Topographically Derived Maps of Valley Networks and Drainage Density in the Mare Tyrrhenum Quadrangle on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2006-12-01

    A novel, automated technique for delineating Martian valley networks from digital terrain data is applied to the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle on Mars, yielding a detailed map for the entire quadrangle. The resultant average value of drainage density for the Noachian part of the quadrangle is D ~ 0.05 km-1, an order of magnitude higher than the value inferred from a global map based on Viking images, and comparable to the values inferred from the precision mapping of selected focus sites. Valleys are omnipresent in Noachian terrain even outside the "highly dissected" Npld unit. This suggests fluvial erosion throughout the Noachian, implying widespread precipitation. The map of continuous drainage density is constructed to study spatial variations of D. This map reveals significant variations in degree of dissection in Noachian on scale of > 100 km. These variations do not correlate with any terrain parameter and their origin requires further study.

  2. Preliminary Regional Analysis of the Kaguya Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) Data through Eastern Mare Imbrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B.L.; Antonenko, I.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Osinski, G.; Ono, T.; Ku-mamoto, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) experiment on board the Kaguya spacecraft is observing the subsurface structure of the Moon, using ground-penetrating radar operating in the frequency range of 5 MHz [1]. Because LRS data provides in-formation about lunar features below the surface, it allows us to improve our understanding of the processes that formed the Moon, and the post-formation changes that have occurred (such as basin formation and volcanism). We look at a swath of preliminary LRS data, that spans from 7 to 72 N, and from 2 to 10 W, passing through the eastern portion of Mare Imbrium (Figure 1). Using software, designed for the mineral exploration industry, we produce a preliminary, coarse 3D model, showing the regional structure beneath the study area. Future research will involve smaller subsets of the data in regions of interest, where finer structures, such as those identified in [2], can be studied.

  3. MARIUS HILLS REGION, MOON: Stratigraphy of low shields and mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Jennifer; Hiesinger, Harry; van der Bogert, Carolyn; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan; Weinauer, Julia; Lawrence, Samuel; Stopar, Julie; Robinson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Marius Hills region consists of more than 250 individual basaltic low shields (usually referred to as "domes") and cones, located on a broad topographic rise. The bases of numerous low shields have slope angles of ~2-3° whereas the upper portions have slopes of ~6-7° [1], interpreted to reflect changes in composition over time [1]. However, the absence of spectral differences between the two dome morphologies and the surrounding mare basalts suggests that the observed morphologies are more plausibly explained by changes in effusion rates, temperature (viscosity), and/or crystallization over time [e.g., 2]. Previous studies indicate that volcanism in this region occurred in the Upper Imbrian (3.2-3.8 Ga) [3], although several other authors reported ages ranging from the Imbrian (~3.3 Ga) to the Eratosthenian (~2.5 Ga) [e.g., 1,2,4]. [2,5] reported that all low shields are embayed by younger mare units, indicating that they formed during an older stage of volcanic activity. Mare basalts surrounding the Marius Hills exhibit absolute model ages of 1.2-3.7 Ga [6]. We used 36 LRO NAC images to perform crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. The images were calibrated and map-projected with ISIS 3 and imported into ArcGIS. Within ArcGIS, we used CraterTools [7] to perform our CSFD measurements. The crater size-frequency distributions were then plotted with CraterStats [8], using the production and chronology functions of [9]. We conducted CSFD measurements for 50 Marius Hills low shields. Our count area sizes ranged from 1.06 x 101 to 8.75 x 101 km2; those for adjacent basalts varied between 6.17 x 100 and 8.01 x 101 km2. We determined absolute model ages (AMAs) of 1.03 to 3.65 Ga for the low shields and did not find a spatial correlation of ages versus their locations. CSFD measurements for 27 adjacent basalts show AMAs of 1.20-3.69 Ga. Of those basalts, 24 exhibit AMAs of 3-3.5 Ga; there is no correlation of AMAs and the geographic position of the

  4. Piometra en una yegua: reporte de un caso – Pyometra in a mare: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González del Pino, Francisco Javier

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo describe el caso clínico de una piometra en un equinohembra de raza Peruano de Paso de 19 años de edad, diagnosticadomediante ecografía y su resolución mediante la técnica de lavajeuterino, utilizando una sonda tipo Foley. Método simple y prácticopara el veterinario que trabaja a campo.SummaryThe article describes a clinical case of a pyometra in 19 years oldPeruvian Pasos female equine. This endometritis was diagnosed bytransrectal ultrasound scanning and microbiological analysis.Streptococcus zooepidemicus, sensible to Penicillin and Amikacin, wasisolated from uterine lavage. The mare was treated by an uterinelavage technique, using a Foley catheter. After 8 days, a negativemicrobiological culture and non-inflammatory endometrial tissue wasobserved. This case report elucidates a simple and practical methodfor veterinarian that works in field conditions.

  5. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  6. Murderous Visions of Relativity In the Novels Das Parfum and Oceano mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Marino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Social rites attempt to fill in the bodily gaps left by death. The aesthetic rituals of the novels Das Parfum (1985 by Patrick Süskind and Oceano mare (1993 by Alessandro Baricco come to terms with death in representations of murder which convey a relativist conception of being as presence, based on creative and critical dissent from the social resentment revolving around the dualist consent of life as absolute essence and death as absence. Both novels present death in ways which dissent from the resentful mourning conventions derived from the consensual distinction between life and death. An interdisciplinary approach, where philosophical perspectivism and post-structuralism, sociological intersectionality, and historical hybridity are integrated, suits to the intercultural analysis of the intertextual relations between these literary works. Their metaphors of dissenting serial murders and murderous social resentment converge in aesthetic rituals which celebrate the cycle of being in death.

  7. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  9. Morphometric Study of the Mare Oviductal Mucosa at Different Reproductive Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouguelar, Horacio; Díaz, Tomás; Borghi, Damiana; Quinteros, Rolando; Bonino, Facundo; Apichela, Silvana Andrea; Aguilar, José Javier

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work were to describe some morphometric characteristics and to establish quantitative parameters of different regions of the equine oviductal mucosa from the isthmus, ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ), and ampulla. Twenty-one mixed-bred mares were used for this study. Mares were selected in the following reproductive phases: anestrus, estrus, and diestrus. The left oviducts were examined with light microscopy, and rights ones were studied through the intraoviductal molds. The isthmus showed the smallest luminal area, mucosal area, epithelial perimeter, and luminal diameter. On the molds surfaces, some grooves extended as longitudinal canals, reducing their depth as they approached to the AIJ. Several small height projections, some obliquely positioned towards utero-tubal junction, were observed in all reproductive phases. These formations may represent pockets or cul-de-sacs in the basal areas of the epithelial folds. The AIJ mucosa gradually changed from the smooth isthmic region toward highly folded ampulla. The number and complexity of epithelial folds showed moderate increase in the same way that many of the morphometric parameters. Multiple curves were observed on the molds of the AIJ, creating a zigzag path in the oviductal lumen. In the ampulla, the high branched epithelial folds occupied most of the lumen, leaving a small luminal area free. A linear relationship between epithelial perimeter and mucosal area was found. The presence of glandular-like structures was observed in all the reproductive stages studied. The equine endosalpinx reveals a highly complex tridimensional arrangement where each region shows very particular and specific designs.

  10. 低乳糖马奶的研制%Studies on the Low Lactose Mare's Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄晓宇; 阿布力米提·克里木; 热娜古丽·木沙

    2016-01-01

    Low lactose mare's milk was Studied in the paper by the method of enzymatic hydrolysis, lactose content was lower than 2.0 g/100 mL. Effects of different pretreatment methods on fresh mare's milk lactose hy-drolysis rate and different sterilization methods and storage temperature on the sensory were studied,based on the optimum conditions of the lactase. Lactose content was lower than 2 g/100 mL and lactose hydrolysis rate 75%, with lactase 2 000 NLU/L,pH=6.2,40℃,2 h. No significant precipitation and slight browning in the high temperature sterilization conditions. Normal temperature for storage was appropriate.%酶法生产乳糖含量低于2.0 g/100 mL的马奶。在乳糖酶与马奶作用的最佳条件的基础上,研究鲜马奶不同预处理方式对乳糖水解率的影响、低乳糖马奶不同杀菌方式和储藏温度对其感官的影响。乳糖酶添加量2000 NLU/L、马奶pH 6.2、40℃、水解2 h,使马奶乳糖水解率达到75%,乳糖含量低于2.0 g/100 mL,高温杀菌后无明显沉淀,轻微褐变,常温储藏较好。

  11. Potential demographic and genetic effects of a sterilant applied to wild horse mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Wild horse populations on western ranges can increase rapidly, resulting in the need for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to remove animals in order to protect the habitat that horses share with numerous other species. As an alternative to removals, BLM has sought to develop a long-term, perhaps even permanent, contraceptive to aid in reducing population growth rates. With long-term (perhaps even permanent) efficacy of contraception, however, comes increased concern about the genetic health of populations and about the potential for local extirpation. We used simulation modeling to examine the potential demographic and genetic consequences of applying a mare sterilant to wild horse populations. Using the VORTEX software package, we modeled the potential effects of a sterilant on 70 simulated populations having different initial sizes (7 values), growth rates (5 values), and genetic diversity (2 values). For each population, we varied the treatment rate of mares from 0 to 100 percent in increments of 10 percent. For each combination of these treatment levels, we ran 100 stochastic simulations, and we present the results in the form of tables and graphs showing mean population size after 20 years, mean number of removals after 20 years, mean probability of extirpation after 50 years, and mean heterozygosity after 50 years. By choosing one or two combinations of initial population size, population growth rate, and genetic diversity that best represent a herd of interest, a manager can assess the likely effects of a contraceptive program by examining the output tables and graphs representing the selected conditions.

  12. Comparison of live weight and body measurements of adult brood mares from different genotypes in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Live weight and 21 body measurements of 110 Thoroughbred, 75 Gidran, 109 Nonius, 97 Hungarian Sport Horse, 172 Hungarian Cold Blooded Horse and 20 Murinsulaner type adult brood mares in 28 studs were evaluated in Hungary. One way ANOVA was used to compare the genotypes. Some body measure indices were determined. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between the live weight and body measurements were estimated. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Significant differences were found between the live weight and 21 body measurements of different genotypes. The rank of the investigated genotypes according to live weight was as follows: Hungarian Cold Blooded Horse (742.1 kg, Murinsulaner type (649.3 kg, Nonius (614.9 kg, Hungarian Sport Horse (600.9 kg, Gidran (563.4 kg and Thoroughbred (542.0 kg. The results of girth measurements for the warm blooded breeds were similar to the data found in the literature. Considerable difference was found between the genotypes in body measure indices. The absolute and relative body size values prove clearly and objectively, that there are significant differences in the conformation of Thoroughbred, Gidran, Nonius, Hungarian Sport Horse, Hungarian Cold Blooded Horse and Murinsulaner type adult brood mares. The most close relationship with the live weight (r=0.89-0.92; P<0.01 was shown the body condition and nutritional status related measurements (heart girth, 2nd width of rump. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and length of body (R2=0.91; P<0.01.

  13. Arsenic and Antimony Content in Soil and Plants from Baia Mare Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oprea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination with arsenic and antimony in Baia Mare, a nonferrous mining and metallurgical center located in the North West region of Romania. The soil in the area is affected by the emissions of powders containing metals from metallurgical factories. Previous studies indicated the soil contamination with copper, zinc, cadmium and lead, but there is few data about the actual level of soil pollution with arsenic and antimony. Approach: The soil samples were collected from 2 districts of Baia Mare: Ferneziu, which is located in the proximity of a lead smelter and Săsar district which is located along the Sasar River in the preferential direction of the wind over a metallurgical factory producing lead. As reference was considered Dura area located in a less polluted hilly area, in the west part of the town. Samples of soil and plants from the residential area of Ferneziu, Săsar and Dura districts were collected. The arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and the antimony determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: In Ferneziu area, the concentration of arsenic in soil ranged between 0.25 and 255 mg kg-1. In Săsar district the arsenic concentration in the soil ranged between 5.5 and 295 mg kg-1. Regarding antimony, in Ferneziu area the concentration ranged between 5.3 and 40.6 mg kg-1; while in Săsar, antimony soils concentrations vary in the range: 0.9-18.4. Arsenic and antimony concentrations in plants were low for almost of the samples, both in Ferneziu and Săsar area indicating a low mobility of these elements in the studied soils. Conclusion: This study indicated the soil pollution with arsenic both in Ferneziu district and in Săsar district. The soil pollution with antimony was found especially in Ferneziu district.

  14. Petrogenesis of Mare Basalts, Mg-Rich Suites and SNC Parent Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    The successful models for the internal evolution of the Moon must consider the volume, distribution, timing, composition and, ultimately, the petrogenesis of mare basaltic volcanism. Indeed, given the paucity of geophysical data, the internal state of the Moon in the past can be gleaned only be unraveling the petrogenesis of the various igneous products on the Moon and, particularly, the mare basalts. most useful in constraining the depth and composition of their source region [Delano, 1980] despite having undergone a certain degree of shallow level olivine crystallization.The bulk of the lunar volcanic glass suite can be modeled as the partial melting products of an olivine + orthopyroxene source region deep within the lunar mantle. Ti02 contents vary from 0.2 wt % -1 7.0wt [Shearer and Papike, 1993]. Values that extreme would seem to require a Ti- bearing phase such as ilmenite in the source of the high-Ti (but not in the VLT source) because a source region of primitive LMO olivine and orthopyroxene, even when melted in small degrees cannot account for the observed range of Ti02 compositions. The picritic glasses are undersaturated with respect to ilmenite at all pressures investigated therefore ilmenite must have been consumed during melting, leaving an ilmenite free residue and an undersaturated melt [Delano, 1980, Longhi, 1992, Elkins et al, 2000 among others]. Multi- saturation pressures for the glasses potentially represent the last depths at which the liquids equilibrated with a harzburgite residue before ascending to the surface. These occur at great depths within the lunar mantle. Because the liquids have suffered some amount of crystal fractionation, this is at best a minimum depth. If the melts are mixtures, then it is only an average depth of melting. Multisaturation, nevertheless, is still a strong constraint on source mineralogy, revealing that the generation of the lunar basalts was dominated by melting of olivine and orthopyroxene.

  15. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  16. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  17. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  18. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  19. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Portes de Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected bythe HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breastfeedingcrossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impedimentfrom the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to theaffectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, theywere interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a PublicHospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy wasnot planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectationsregarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood outthat the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnantreact to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnantsoroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize thespecific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV.

  20. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  1. The determination of in vivo envelope-specific cell-mediated immune responses in equine infectious anemia virus-infected ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Cook, Frank R; Cook, Sheila J; Craigo, Jodi K; Even, Deborah L; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C; Horohov, David W

    2012-08-15

    Distinct from human lentivirus infection, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected horses will eventually enter an inapparent carrier state in which virus replication is apparently controlled by adaptive immune responses. Although recrudescence of disease can occur after immune suppression, the actual immune correlate associated with protection has yet to be determined. Therefore, EIAV provides a model for investigating immune-mediated protective mechanisms against lentivirus infection. Here, we have developed a method to monitor EIAV-envelope specific cellular immunity in vivo. An EIA carrier horse with no clinical signs infected 7 years ago and 4 related experimental ponies infected 6 months previously were used in this study. Forty-four 20-mer peptides, representing the entire surface unit protein (gp90) of EIAV, were combined into 14 peptide pools and intradermally injected into the neck of EIAV-infected horses. An identical volume of saline alone was injected into a fifteenth site as a negative control. After 48 h, those sites with palpable infiltrations were measured prior to the collection of 2mm and 4mm punch biopsies. Total RNA was extracted from each 2mm biopsy for determination of CD3 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression by real-time PCR. The 4mm skin biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for CD3, CD20, CD25 and MAC387 (macrophage marker). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained prior to the injection and tested for in vitro reactivity against the same peptides. Histological examination showed that some of the envelope peptides elicited a lymphocytic cellular infiltration at the injection site, as evidenced by positive staining for CD3. Gp90 peptide-specific increases in CD3 and IFN-γ gene expression were also detected in the injection sites. Furthermore, differences were found between in vivo and in vitro responses to gp90 specific peptides. These results demonstrate a

  2. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  3. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  4. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  5. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  6. Projeto PAC “Contorno Norte” de Maringá: os impactos da obra e o aprofundamento do processo de segregação socioespacial na Região Metropolitana de Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fontana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma construção com a magnitude estrutural e contábil como o Anel Viário PAC-Contorno Norte do município de Maringá não deve ser justificada apenas por seus fins econômicos. Preocupados com esta fundamental questão, os pesquisadores do Observatório Nacional das Metrópoles – Núcleo Região Metropolitana de Maringá realizaram pesquisas nas regiões que sofreram diretamente com os impactos desta obra. Este artigo apresentará os dados oriundos da aplicação de questionários nos bairros localizados no entorno deste Anel Viário. Tais questionários tinham o objetivo de revelar as transformações e as expectativas dos moradores fixados nessas localidades. Os resultados obtidos com a pesquisa mostram a insatisfação da população acerca da obra, o fato da mesma não ter sido consultada acerca desta edificação e as mudanças em toda a vida cotidiana de cada indivíduo que ali habita. Tomando como pressuposto que a produção das cidades se dá através de complexos processos que impactam diretamente a vida da população, nossos dados e análises se deterão sobre a constituição e reprodução do espaço urbano de Maringá no contexto das obras do PAC-Contorno Norte de Maringá.

  7. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  8. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  9. Pseudomembranous colitis in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, T; Pai, R R; Mathai, A M; Tantry, B V; Adhikari, P

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis in association with pregnancy has not been well described in English literature. Recent studies show a drastic increase in the incidence and severity of Pseudomembranous colitis in pregnant women, who were once thought to be at low risk. We report here a case of Pseudomembranous colitis in a young healthy immunocompetent pregnant lady. An early suspicion of this entity with the characteristic appearance of pseudomembranes on colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis enabling prompt treatment and complete recovery without any serious consequences.

  10. Participation of the indigenous vs. alien herbaceous species to the constitution of vegetal layer on the Bozanta Mare tailing ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the distribution of different species of native and alien herbaceous species on the tailing pond Bozânta Mare (Maramureş county in NW Romania and the differences in heavy metal uptake in the roots and shoots relative to: 1. herbaceous species; 2. differential metal uptake and variation within single-species; 3. metal content of soil substrate. In 2007-2009 the contribution of native and alien species to the herbaceous layer forming, were studied on the Bozânta Mare tailing pond, resulted after heavy metal extraction process. The heavy metals found at elevated level in the herbaceous species included for environmental interest are: Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Fe, Cr, Mn, Na, K. Also, the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of the native vs. alien species presence in the colonization process on the tailing pond.

  11. La narrativa histórica de José Fuentes Mares: imaginar el pasado, vivir el presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Salazar Quintana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece una interpretación de la narrativa histórica de José Fuentes Mares a la luz de la tesis de Hayden White sobre los modos de explicación del campo histórico, al tiempo que integra el concepto de carnaval de Mijail Bajtin como mecanismo de subversión. A partir de esta formulación teórica, se intenta probar el carácter satírico así como el enfoque antropológico-cultural del relato histórico de Fuentes Mares, que están en la base de su visión crítica respecto del proyecto de identidad nacional que caracteriza la historiografía generada en el discurso oficial.

  12. Testing freshwater Lago Mare dispersal theory on the phylogeny relationships of iberian cyprinid genera Chondrostoma and Squalius (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona, José Ambrosio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A phylogeny of the species in the genera Chondrostoma and Squalius was constructed based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140pb. The molecular phylogeny was used to test the effect of the Mediterranean Lago Mare dispersal theory on the processes of divergence and speciation of European freshwater fishes. Phylogenetic relationships among Squalius samples and the molecular clock revealed that the ancestor of the current Iberian Squalius species inhabited a wide geographic area in the central and southwestern part of the former Iberian Peninsula during the Miocene before the Lago Mare phase. Similarly, the four main Iberian lineages of the genus Chondrostoma originated in the Middle-Upper Miocene. Hence, the Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea seems to have been a too recent paleogeographic event to have had any major impact on the dispersion of Squalius and Chondrostoma species. However, the reduction of the water-bodies during the Tortonian and Messinian may have intensified the isolation of populations. The Operational Biogeographic Units recovered from the Squalius and Chondrostoma phylogenies also reject the Lago Mare dispersal theory and support the idea that the differentiation processes were due to both the formation of the current hydrographical basin during the Plio-Pleistocene as well as to an earlier endorrheism event that occurred prior to hydrographical configuration.Realizamos una filogenia de los géneros Chondrostoma y Squalius mediante el estudio de la secuencia completa del gen mitocondrial citocromo b (1140pb. La filogenia molecular fue usada para comprobar el efecto que la teoría de dispersión del Mediterráneo Lago Mare ha tenido sobre los procesos de divergencia y especiación en los peces de agua dulce europeos. Las relaciones filogenéticas entre las muestras de Squalius y la aplicación del reloj molecular pusieron de manifiesto que el ancestro de las actuales especies ibéricas de Squalius habitaba

  13. Petrology and chemistry of Apollo 17 regolith breccias - A history of mixing of highland and mare regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of petrological and chemical analyses of ten Apollo 17 breccias, showing that two of these consist predominantly of highland material, seven are mare-dominated, and one is a welded volcanic glass deposit; all were formed at or near the Apollo 17 site, and all contain both mare and highland components. The data are indicative of the Apollo 17 breccias formation from immature source regolith. The breccias are considered to be formed locally after an eruption of basalt and orange glass at the site. Since the formation of the breccias, the regolith at the Apollo 17 site has become more mature, and the orange glass abundance has been somewhat decreased by mixing. One of the sample may contain a previously unreported volcanic glass type.

  14. The effect of oxytocin and PGF2alpha on the uterine involution and pregnancy rates in postpartum Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Mehmet Can; Kaşikçi, Güven; Kaya, Huriye H

    2008-03-03

    In this study, the effects of oxytocin and an analog of prostaglandin (cloprostenol) on the uterine involution and pregnancy rates were investigated. Mares received 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl in Group C (n=10), 30 IU/mare of oxytocin in Group O (n=10) and 250 microg/mare of cloprostenol in Group P (n=10) within 12h after parturition. The gravid uterine horn's cross-sectional diameter was measured by ultrasonography. The mean uterine diameters did not differ significantly between the treatment (O and P) and the control (C) groups (p>0.05). The difference between the postpartum ovulation periods (Group C: 12.6+/-0.72 days, Group O: 15+/-1.33 days, Group P: 14.6+/-1.11 days), the pregnancy rates at foal heat (Group C: 60%, Group O: 60%, Group P: 80%) and the embryonic death rates at foal heat (Group C: 33.3%, Group O: 16%, Group P: 25%) were not found to be statistically significant between the treatment and the control groups. The mean progesterone concentrations were similar in all groups and decreased continuously from parturition to until foal heat (Group C: from 2.43+/-0.24 to 0.66 ng/ml, Group O: from 3.07+/-0.6 to 0.27+/-0.27 ng/ml and Group P: from 2.8+/-0.44 to 0 ng/ml) (p>0.05). In conclusion, it was decided that the oxytocin and PGF2alpha treatments performed on the mares with the purpose of stimulating involution had no effect on the duration of parturition-first ovulation, the shrinkage of the uterus diameter, the pregnancy and embryonic death rates.

  15. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  16. The MARE project: a new {sup 187}Re neutrino mass experiment with sub eV sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D., E-mail: david.schaeffer@mib.infn.it [Universita di Milano-Bicocca and Sezione INFN di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Gatti, F.; Gallinaro, G.; Pergolesi, D.; Repetto, P.; Ribeiro-Gomes, M. [Universita di Genova and Sezione INFN di Genova (Italy); Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Maryland (United States); Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L. [University of Heidelberg, Kirkhhof-Institute of Physics (Germany); Andreotti, E.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Pedretti, M.; Prest, M.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S. [Universita di Insubria, Como and Sezione INFN di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Arnaboldi, C. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca and Sezione INFN di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); and others

    2011-12-15

    A large worldwide collaboration is growing around the project of Micro-calorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE) for a direct calorimetric measurement of the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2 eV/c{sup 2}. Many groups are joining their experience and technical expertise in a common effort towards this challenging experiment which will use the most recent and advanced developments of the thermal detection technique.

  17. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  18. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  19. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  20. Use of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin in donkey semen cryopreservation improves sperm viability but results in low fertility in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Rates, D M; Pugliesi, G; Ker, P G; Arruda, R P; Moraes, E A; Carvalho, G R

    2014-10-01

    The use of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on semen cryopreservation has been related with better sperm viability in several species; however, the effect on fertility is not known in donkey semen. Ejaculates (n = 25) from five donkeys were diluted in S-MEDIUM with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg of CLC/120 × 10(6) spermatozoa. Semen was frozen, and thawed samples were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analyser system (CASA), supravital test, hyposmotic swelling test and fluorescent dyes to assess the integrity of sperm membranes. Mares (n = 60) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen treated with the doses of 0 or 1 mg CLC. Percentages of sperm with progressive motility and with functional plasma membrane were greater (p  0.05) in conception rates was detected between groups (control, 3/30, 10%; CLC-treated, 1/30, 3.3%), fertility was low for artificial insemination programs in mares. Therefore, we firstly demonstrated that frozen semen treated with CLC in S-MEDIA extender before freezing improves the in vitro sperm viability, but semen treated or not with CLC in S-MEDIUM extender results in a very low conception rate in mares inseminated with thawed donkey semen.

  1. THE VULNERABILITY OF THE BAIA MARE URBAN SYSTEM (ROMANIA TO EXTREME CLIMATE PHENOMENA DURING THE WARM SEMESTER OF THE YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOTĂ CARMEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographical position of the Baia Mare Urban System (intra-hilly depression favours the occurrence of a wide range of extreme climate phenomena which, coupled with the industrial profile of the city (non-ferrous mining and metallurgical industry triggering typical emissions (CO2, SOX, particulate matters and Pb, might pose a significant threat to human health. The article is aiming to assess the occurrence, frequency and amplitude of these extreme climate phenomena based on monthly and daily extreme climatic values from Baia Mare weather station in order to identify the areas more exposed. A GIS-based qualitative-heuristic method was used, each extreme climatic hazard being evaluated on a 1 to 3 scale according to its significance/impact in the study area and assigned with a weight (w and a rank (r, resulting the climate hazard map for the warm semester of the year. The authors further relate the areas exposed to the selected extreme climatic events to socio-economic aspects: demographic and economic in order to delineate the spatial distribution of the environmental vulnerability in the Baia Mare Urban System.

  2. Cryptosporidium spp. infection in mares and foals of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; de Brito, Roberta Lomonte Lemos; Zucatto, Anaiza Simão; Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in mares and their respective foals. This study was carried out in 11 farms located in the municipalities of Araçatuba, Birigui, Guararapes and Santo Antônio do Aracangua, in the northwest region of the State of Sao Paulo, from November 2010 to March 2011. A total of 98 mares and 98 foals of several breeds were analyzed; among foals, 59 were males and 39 females, aged from three to 330 days. Feces were collected directly from the rectal ampulla, purified and processed according to modified Kinyoun stain. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 21.4% (21/98) for foals and 18.4% (18/98) for mares. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. had significant association with breeds and age of animals. Results obtained led to the conclusion that foals older than two months and Mangalarga animals are less susceptible to the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp.

  3. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  4. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  5. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  6. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  8. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  9. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  10. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  11. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  12. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  13. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  14. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Pregnancy amongst secondary school learners is a public health concern ... of high risk pregnancies, which require appropriate care during the antenatal, labour and .... ous sizes. According to the Department of Basic. Education (2012), in ... scribes what he or she has observed in order to as- ... pregnant learner in class;.

  15. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  16. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  17. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  18. Mammary adenocarcinoma in a mare Adenocarcinoma mamário em égua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene de Farias Brito

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A non-lactating 17-year-old grey barren Mangalarga Marchador mare was referred to the Large Animal Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, presenting enlargement of the mammary gland. The owner reported that the animal had a lesion in the mammary gland for at least two years, diagnosed and treated as chronic mastitis. Initially only the right gland was involved, presenting ulceration and exudation on the cutaneous surface. After 20 months, the left gland also became affected. The diagnosis of tubulo-papillary adenocarcinoma was based on the typical microscopic lesions. This work shows the importance of the histopathological examination in the differential diagnosis between the neoplasms and the chronic inflammation in the mammary gland of mares, as well as, to show that the cytological examination cannot detect the tumor, in case the puncture is made in areas of secondary infection.Uma égua tordilha, Mangalarga Marchador, de 17 anos, não-lactante e não-prenhe, foi encaminhada ao Hospital de Grandes Animais da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, com histórico de mastite crônica há dois anos. No início da lesão, apenas a glândula mamária direita estava muito aumentada, com exsudação sero-hemorrágica e ulcerada. Após 20 meses, a mama esquerda também estava comprometida. A égua foi tratada para mastite crônica, porém o exame histopatológico revelou tratar-se de um adenocarcinoma túbulo-papilar. Este trabalho evidencia a importância do exame histopatológico no diagnóstico diferencial entre neoplasias e inflamação crônica da mama de éguas, uma vez que o exame citopatológico pode não detectar o tumor, quando a punção é feita em áreas de infecção secundária.

  19. La risorsa mare per la mobilità di merci e persone nella Regione Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available I 512 chilometri di costa campana rappresentano il 6,7% in tutte le coste italiane (7.687 km. Su di esso si affaccia un sistema urbano consolidato formato da grandi e piccoli centri in cui le infrastrutture portuali sono storicamente presenti: si può affermare che nel corso del tempo il sistema delle attrezzature portuali e l'importanza relativa tra di loro sia cambiata, ma non ne è cambiato il numero e l'ubicazione. La morfologia della costa campana ha reso possibile l’insediamento di impianti portuali di dimensioni significative. Esso è quasi interamente sviluppato nel tratto centrale della costa campana e si basa sui porti di Napoli e Salerno (merci e passeggeri, Torre Annunziata (trasporto merci, Castellammare di Stabia (cantieristica, Pozzuoli (merci e passeggeri, oltre che sul sistema portuale, soprattutto passeggeri, di Ischia, Casamicciola, Capri, Procida e Sorrento. Questo complesso sistema ha molti punti di forza e molte carenze e, in una prospettiva di sviluppo territoriale, può dare apporti significativi all'asfittica economia regionale. Proprio per questo motivo alcuni dei processi di pianificazione che interessano la Regione si stanno concentrando sulle azioni possibili per ridare forza al rapporto secolare tra terra e mare, punti di forza del territorio campano. L'importanza di un uso produttivo della risorsa mare deriva da due considerazioni: la prima è la posizione geografica dell'Italia (e al suo interno, della Campania nel Mediterraneo, lungo le rotte tra l'Europa e l'Asia; il secondo è l'impatto potenziale del trasporto di merci e di passeggeri sul territorio e sul sistema economico campano. Analisi e risultati cambiano a seconda che si tratti il trasporto merci o quello passeggeri: nel primo caso diventa significativa la capacità infrastrutturale e il sistema produttivo locale, con le relative connessioni esterne; nel secondo caso è rilevante la valorizzazione delle potenzialità del sistema culturale e ambientale

  20. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....