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Sample records for pregnant ovine endometrium

  1. Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in the ovine endometrium.

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    Vincent Letouzey

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5 and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation.Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated.There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3% in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells.This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research.

  2. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2 in ovine endometrium

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    Bazer Fuller W

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL. These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1 and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFNτ, produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor α (ERα (directly and OTR (indirectly genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFNτ increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFNτ in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFNτ has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFNτ are to inhibit ERα and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus.

  3. Expression of a cytosolic phospholipase A2 by ovine endometrium on days 11-14 of a simulated oestrous cycle.

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    Graf, G A; Burns, P D; Silvia, W J

    1999-03-01

    Oxytocin stimulates the synthesis and secretion of PGF2 alpha from uterine tissues in vivo and in vitro late in the ovine oestrous cycle. The synthesis of eicosanoids is dependent upon the availability of free arachidonic acid which is released through the activity of arachidonate releasing phospholipases. In the present study, the following hypothesis was tested: the ovine endometrium expresses a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and expression or activity of cPLA2 increases as uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin develops late in the oestrous cycle. Endometrial tissue was collected from cyclic ewes on day 15 of the oestrous cycle for the preparation of tissue homogenates and isolation of mRNA to determine whether ovine endometrium expressed a cPLA2. A 110 kDa band was detected by western blotting, indicating the presence of a putative ovine cPLA2. A 834 bp fragment of the ovine cPLA2 shared 87% homology with human and mouse cDNA, and northern blot hybridization analysis indicated a single 3.4 kb transcript. A total of 20 ewes were ovariectomized and treated with progesterone and oestrogen to simulate the oestrous cycle to determine whether the expression or activity of ovine cPLA2 changed during the onset of uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin in vivo. On days 11-14 (n = 5 per day) of a simulated oestrous cycle, caruncular endometrium was evaluated for expression of ovine cPLA2 mRNA and protein and the synthesis of PGF2 alpha in response to melittin (a potent stimulator of PLA2 activity). Immunoreactive cPLA2 and cPLA2 mRNA were observed on all days and did not increase during the development of uterine responsiveness to oxytocin in vivo. Similarly, melittin increased the synthesis of PGF2 alpha irrespective of day, indicating the presence of a functional cPLA2 on all days examined. These data indicate that the ovine endometrium expresses a functional cPLA2 and that ample concentrations of cPLA2 are present by day 11 of a simulated oestrous

  4. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

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    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  5. Blunted response of maternal ovine placental lactogen levels to arginine stimulation after single umbilical artery ligation in pregnant sheep.

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    Newnham, J P; Lam, R W; Hobel, C J; Polk, D H; Fisher, D A

    1986-03-01

    Ovine placental lactogen levels in the maternal circulation are significantly reduced after single umbilical artery ligation in pregnant sheep. We report the ovine placental lactogen response to high-dose amino acid stimulation in four ewes with fetuses that underwent single umbilical artery ligation and six control ewes with fetuses that underwent sham operation. After maternal infusion with 50 gm of arginine in 350 ml of distilled water, mean ovine placental lactogen levels in ewes with fetuses that underwent single umbilical artery ligation increased by 170%, while mean levels in control ewes increased by 294%. Maternal infusions with hypertonic saline solution of osmolality and volume equal to those of the arginine solutions failed to increase maternal ovine placental lactogen levels. Fetal well-being, both during and after the maternal arginine infusions, was confirmed by unchanged fetal arterial blood gases and catecholamines. The ovine placental lactogen levels in the fetal circulation were not altered by maternal arginine infusion. These data suggest that the correlation between maternal ovine placental lactogen levels and functioning placental mass may be enhanced by arginine stimulation. The possible use of this provocation of placental lactogen levels as a test of placental function in clinical practice is discussed.

  6. Variation in stability of endogenous reference genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from healthy and ectopic pregnant women.

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    Gebeh, Alpha K; Marczylo, Emma L; Amoako, Akwasi A; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    RT-qPCR is commonly employed in gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy. Most use RN18S1, β-actin or GAPDH as internal controls without validation of their suitability as reference genes. A systematic study of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy is lacking. The aims of this study were therefore to evaluate the stability of 12 reference genes and suggest those that are stable for use as internal control genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from ectopic pregnancy and healthy non-pregnant controls. Analysis of the results showed that the genes consistently ranked in the top six by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, were UBC, GAPDH, CYC1 and EIF4A2 (fallopian tubes) and UBC and ATP5B (endometrium). mRNA expression of NAPE-PLD as a test gene of interest varied between the groups depending on which of the 12 reference genes was used as internal controls. This study demonstrates that arbitrary selection of reference genes for normalisation in RT-qPCR studies in ectopic pregnancy without validation, risk producing inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

  7. GammadeltaTCR+ cells of the pregnant ovine uterus express variable T cell receptors and contain granulysin.

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    Fox, Annette; Maddox, Jill F; de Veer, Mike J; Meeusen, Els N

    2010-01-01

    Gammadelta T cells are a prominent granulated cell population in the ruminant pregnant uterus and both their number and granule size increase dramatically during pregnancy. Anchor-RT-PCR was used to assess TCRdelta gene usage by gammadelta T cells from the uterine epithelium of pregnant sheep. The TCRdelta genes obtained exhibited distinct combinatorial and junctional diversity and only two out of nine V-D-J rearrangements sequenced were identical. Furthermore, two of the Vdelta elements used are also expressed in peripheral blood, indicating that gammadeltaTCR use in sheep epithelia is neither restricted nor site-specific, similar to humans but in contrast to findings in mice. Protein analysis of purified, granulated uterine gammadelta T cells revealed the presence of large amounts of the antimicrobial peptide, granulysin. The results of the present study indicate that ovine uterine gammadeltaTCR(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes have the potential to recognise diverse antigens and may have a role in protecting the uterus from infection during pregnancy and parturition. A similar protective role for gammadelta T cells may exist in the human decidua parietalis.

  8. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

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    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  9. Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus.

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    Choi, Y; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Berghman, L R; Joyce, M M; Taylor, K M; Stewart, M D; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-10-01

    Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. The positive effects of IFNtau on IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression are mediated by ISG factor 3 (ISGF3), which is composed of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 1, Stat 2, and IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), and by gamma-activated factor (GAF), which is a Stat 1 homodimer. Induction of ISGs, such as ISG17 and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, by IFNtau during pregnancy is limited to the endometrial stroma (S) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the ovine uterus. The IRF-2, a potent transcriptional repressor of ISG expression, is expressed in the luminal epithelium (LE). This study determined effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and IFNtau on expression of Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, IRF-1, and IRF-2 genes in the ovine endometrium. In cyclic ewes, Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-1, and IRF-9 mRNA and protein were detected at low levels in the S and GE. During pregnancy, expression of these genes increased only in the S and GE. Expression of IRF-2 was detected only in the LE and superficial GE (sGE) of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. In cyclic ewes, intrauterine administration of IFNtau stimulated Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, and IRF-1 expression in the endometrium. Ovine IRF-2 repressed transcriptional activity driven by IFN-stimulated response elements that bind ISGF3, but not by gamma-activation sequences that bind GAF. These results suggest that IRF-2 in the LE and sGE restricts IFNtau induction of ISGs to the S and GE. In the S and GE, IFNtau hyperactivation of ISG expression likely involves formation and actions of the transcription factors ISGF3 and, perhaps, IRF-1.

  10. Expression of TRAIL in Mouse Uterine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

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    Dong-mei TAN; Ming-zhong HE; Qi CHEN; Guo-qi LAI; Li-zhi WANG; Yi TAN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of TRAIL in mouse uterine endometrium during embryo implantation and its role in the apoptosis of decidual cells.Methods Expression of TRAIL in uterine endometrium of pregnant mouse from d 1 to d 8 was detected with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Results The expressed level of TRAIL mRNA in uterine endometrium of pregnant mouse from d 1 to d 8 was higher during embryo implantation than that prior to embryo implantation (P<0. 05). No expression of TRAIL protein in mouse utrine endometrium was detected through d 1 to d 3. However, TRAIL protein was found in the luminal epithelial cells to which embryos attached on d 4. Moreover, TRAIL was expressed solely in decidual cells around invadting embryos through d 5 to d 6 while in trophoblastic cells adjacent to decidua through d 7 to d 8.Conclusion Apoptosis of luminal epithelial cells of endometrium induced by TRAIL could be one of mechanisms with which embryos penertrated the epithelial barrier,and apoptosis of both decidual cells and trophoblastic cells induced by TRAIL may play an important role during accruate invasion of trophoblastic cells.

  11. 妊娠与非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜促性腺激素释放激素及其受体的免疫组织化学研究%IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF GnRH AND GnRH RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOMETRIUM OF PREGNANT RATS AND UNPREGNANT RATS

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    夏永娟; 黄威权

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)及其受体在妊娠与非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜中的分布及相对含量,为了解促性腺激素释放激素对子宫内膜的可能功能提供依据。方法:免疫组织化学ABC法及图像分析技术。结果:非妊娠大鼠子宫内促性腺激素释放激素及促性腺激素释放激素受体阳性反应发生在内膜上皮、腺上皮及基质细胞。妊娠大鼠子宫内这二者阳性反应主要发生在内膜上皮及基蜕膜的蜕膜细胞,妊娠大鼠子宫上皮细胞中的促性腺激素释放激素及其受体的相对含量明显高于非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜。结论:妊娠与非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜均能表达促性腺激素释放激素及其受体。%Objective: To study the distribution and relative contents of GnRH and GnRH receptor in the endometrium in pregnant rats and unpregnant rat. Methids: Immunohistochemical ABC method and image analysis were used in the experiment. Results: GnRH and GnRH recepter positive immunoreaction occured in the endometrium epithelium and the glandular epithelium of unpregnant rats, and in the endometrium epithelium and deciduate cells of the basal decidua of rpegnant rat.Conclusion: The GnRH may take partin regulating endometrial function through its receptor, its effect on endometrium may be strong in pregnant uterine than in unpregnant.

  12. Proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from pig uterus endometrium during pregnancy

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    Kang Sunghyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many important molecular events associated with implantation and development occur within the female reproductive tract, especially within the uterus endometrium, during pregnancy periods. The endometrium includes the mucosal lining of the uterus, which provides a suitable site for implantation and development of a fertilized egg and fetus. To date, the molecular cascades in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy periods in pigs have not been elucidated fully. In this study, we compared the functional regulated proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy periods with those in non-pregnant conditions and investigated changes in expression patterns during pregnancy (days 40, 70, and 93 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and western blotting. The functional regulated proteins were identified and discovered from differentially expressed proteins in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy. We discovered 820 protein spots in a proteomic analysis of uterus endometrium tissues with 2-DE gels. We identified 63 of the 98 proteins regulated differentially among non-pregnant and pregnant tissues (matched and unmatched spots. Interestingly, 10 of these 63 proteins are development-, cytoskeleton- and chaperon-related proteins such as transferrin, protein DJ-1, transgelin, galectin-1, septin 2, stathmin 1, cofilin 1, fascin 1, heat shock protein (HSP 90β and HSP 27. The specific expression patterns of these proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy were confirmed by western blotting. Our results suggest that the expressions of these genes involved in endometrium function and endometrium development from early to late gestation are associated with the regulation of endometrium development for maintaining pregnancy.

  13. Regulation of numbers of macrophages in the endometrium of the sheep by systemic effects of pregnancy, local presence of the conceptus, and progesterone.

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    Tekin, Saban; Hansen, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Many species exhibiting hemochorial placentation experience an accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium during pregnancy. For the present study, it was tested whether macrophages also accumulate in the endometrium of the sheep, which is a species undergoing an epitheliochorial placentation. An additional objective was to determine whether regulation of endometrial macrophage number occurs via systemic or local signals and whether progesterone is one of these signals. The approach was to evaluate presence of macrophages immunohistochemically using antibodies to CD68 and CD14. Tissues examined were from cyclic ewes in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, unilaterally-pregnant ewes at day 140 of pregnancy in which pregnancy was surgically confined to one uterine horn, ovariectomized ewes, and ovariectomized ewes treated with progesterone for 44 days. Macrophages were localized predominately to the stromal compartment of the stratum compactum region of the endometrium. In non-pregnant ewes, macrophages were not abundant regardless of physiological status. Increased numbers of endometrial macrophages were seen for both the pregnant and non-pregnant uterine horns of unilaterally pregnant ewes. Numbers of macrophages were higher in the endometrium from the pregnant uterine horn than from endometrium from the non-pregnant uterine horn. Results indicate that macrophages accumulate in the endometrium by day 140 of pregnancy in the sheep and that this induction is because of both systemic and local signals. Progesterone appears not to be an important regulator of numbers of endometrial macrophages.

  14. Secretion of estradiol-17beta by porcine endometrium and myometrium during early pregnancy and luteolysis.

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    Franczak, A; Kotwica, G

    2008-02-01

    Past studies of the source of estrogens secreted during maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs have focused on embryonic rather than uterine origin of these steroids. The present study documents: (1) the expression of the gene CYP 17, encoding cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C(17-20) lyase and (2) the synthesis and secretion of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) in endometrial and myometrial tissues in gilts. The expression of CYP 17 gene was shown in porcine endometrium and myometrium. Basal endometrial secretion of E(2) was higher in pregnant gilts than in cyclic gilts (days 14-16). The myometrium secreted more E(2) during the expected time of luteolysis compared to early pregnancy. Basal secretion of E(2) during pregnancy was higher from the endometrium than from the myometrium. Conversely, during luteolysis E(2) secretion was higher from the myometrium and lower from the endometrium. In pregnant and cyclic gilts (days 14-16), progesterone (P(4), 10(-5)M) in vitro significantly increased E(2) secretion regardless of reproductive status. Oxytocin (OT, 10(-7)M) had no influence on E(2) secretion and did not change the stimulatory effect of P(4) in both tissues examined. In conclusions: (1) the CYP 17 gene transcript is present in porcine endometrium and myometrium; (2) porcine endometrium and myometrium release E(2) in vitro; (3) the endometrium releases more E(2) than the myometrium during early pregnancy; (4) the myometrium releases E(2) mainly during luteolysis; (5) the endometrium and myometrium can increase E(2) release in vitro if substrate (P(4)) is provided during early pregnancy and luteolysis. These data suggest active estrogen production by the myometrium and endometrium as an alternative source for this signal for recognition of pregnancy in the pig.

  15. Endometrium implantation and ectopic pregnancy

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    LIU Yixun

    2004-01-01

    Embryo in uterine implantation is a complex and multifactor-related process and is a downstream and ideal point for woman fertility control.Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism of implantation is a prerequisite for development of anti-implantation contraceptives.In spite of considerable accumulation of information from the laboratory animals that has been achieved,it is difficult to generate such information in human due to ethical restriction and experimental limitation,and the present knowledge for understanding the definitive mechanisms which control these events remains elusive.Embryo implantation can also occur outside uterus.Some women with abdominal pregnancies could successfully complete the processes of gestation and bear normal babies,implying that implantation itself may be not an endometrium-specific process.Reproductive biologists should cooperate with gynecologists to further comparatively study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of implantation normally occurring in endometrium and abnormally appearing outside uterine cavity.Such collaborative studies may generate new important information for developing anti-implantation contraceptive and for techniques of accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.A specially designed GnRH-2 analog and a combination use of Iow dose RU486 and gossypol as anti-implantation contraceptives have been suggested.

  16. Holistic differential analysis of embryo-induced alterations in the proteome of bovine endometrium in the preattachment period.

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    Berendt, Frank J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Schmidt, Susanne E M; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2005-07-01

    During the peri-implantation period, molecular signaling between embryo and endometrium (layer of tissue lining the uterus lumen) is supposed to be crucial for the maintenance of pregnancy. To investigate embryo-induced alterations in the proteome of bovine endometrium in the preattachment period (day 18), we used monozygotic cattle twins (generated by embryo splitting) as a model eliminating genetic variability as a source for proteome differences. One of the twins was pregnant after the transfer of two in vitro produced blastocysts, while the corresponding twin received a sham-transfer and served as a nonpregnant control. The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) analysis of the endometrium samples of three twin pairs (pregnant/nonpregnant) revealed four proteins with significantly higher abundance (p embryo-maternal interactions.

  17. Electronic Scanning of UterineEndometrium in Postpartum Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two postpartum cows were used to study the ultrastructural changes of uterine endometrium by using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the process of repair of uterine endometrium after calving was demonstrated by scanning electron microscope through a series of endometrium biopsy. Some part of the endometrium was damaged after calving and its adjacent endometrium cells became necrosis and exfoliated during the first 7 days post-partum;the cilium and microvillus of the epithelial cell in the undamaged area of the endometrium disappeared. By 26 days postpartum the damaged area reduced and the cilium and microvillus increased in their numbers. The damaged tissues were all repaired by day 60 postpartum.

  18. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  19. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

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    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the alterations in the transcriptome of the endometrium in pigs during the beginning of implantation (days 15-16 of pregnancy) compared to cyclic pigs during the onset of luteolysis (days 15-16 of the estrous cycle). The global expression of genes in porcine gravid and non-gravid endometria was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that, of 589 accurately annotated genes, the expression of 266 genes was up-regulated and expression of 323 was down-regulated in the endometrium harvested during early pregnancy compared with the endometrium during the estrous cycle. In pregnant pigs, genes with the most significantly altered expression were involved in the following biological processes: the metabolic process, cellular process, cell communication, immune system process, developmental process, cell adhesion, antigen processing and presentation, antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, immune response, and the polysaccharide metabolic process. In the pregnant endometrium, cell adhesion molecules and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched biological pathways. Analysis of the interaction network among selected genes showed that androgen receptor (AR) encoding genes interact with genes involved in important processes occurring during early pregnancy. The bioinformatic analysis revealed information about the meaning of differentially expressed genes. The data provided new insight into the dynamic changes of the endometrial gene expression profile during days 15-16 of pregnancy.

  1. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

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    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  2. Histopathological study of endometrium in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding

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    Saroj A. Bolde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest complaints in women and when it occurs without organic lesions like tumor, inflammation, it is called as dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Aim of current study was to find out the histopathological pattern of endometrium in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB also to study organic causes of AUB. Methods: Specimens received as endometrial curettage and hysterectomy specimens were studied followed by correlation of histopathology with age and clinical presentation. Results: The patients were mainly from the age group of 30-49 years (74.24%. The most common menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (46.86%. In dysfunctional uterine bleeding the most common histological pattern of endometrium includes proliferative endometrium (22.8% followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.40%, atrophic endometrium (7.16%, secretory endometrium (5.97%, irregular shedding [1.80%], irregular ripening (1.20% and anovulatory endometrium (0.59%. Organic lesions encountered in AUB cases were leiomyoma (17.92%, endometrial polyp (1.79%, endometrial carcinoma (1.50%, endometriosis (0.59% and choriocarcinoma (0.29%. Conclusion: It is important to know the histological pattern of the endometrium like proliferative endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, atrophic endometrium, secretory endometrium, irregular ripening and shredding and organic lesions in patients diagnosed as AUB in different age groups since recognition of these conditions will help and will avoid further complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1378-1381

  3. Predicting Endometrium Receptivity with Parameters of Spiral Artery Blood Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xuehao; LI Quanshui; ZHANG Qingping; ZHU Guijin

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order To evaluate whether the parameters of spiral artery blood flow, as measured by transvaginal color Doppler, may be used to assess endometrium receptivity prior to embryo transfer (ET), a retrospective study of 94 infertile women who had undergone ART treatments with different outcomes (pregnant or nonpregnant) was done. Subendometrial blood flow was evaluated. The resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) and pulsatility index (PI) were significantly lower in those who achieved pregnancy as compared with those who did not: 0.62±0.04 vs 0.68±0.04 (P<0.001), 2.66±0.33 vs 3.19±0.39 (P<0.01) and 1.15±0.17 vs 1.34±0.22 (P<0.05), respectively. Furthermore, when RI>0.72, PI>1.6, and S/D>3.6, no pregnancy occurred. These data suggest that the parameters of spiral artery blood flow could be used as a new assay in predicting endometrial receptivity before ET.

  4. The sheep conceptus modulates proteome profiles in caruncular endometrium during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianmanesh, Mitra; Fowler, Paul A; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

    2016-12-01

    The stage-specific expression of functional proteins within the endometrium, and their regulation by conceptus-derived signals, are crucial for conceptus development and successful establishment of pregnancy. Accurate knowledge of endometrium-conceptus interactions is key for the development of effective strategies to improve conceptus implantation rates both following natural conception and/or assisted reproductive technologies. The unilateral pregnant ewe provides a powerful experimental model for the study of endometrial function in the presence or absence of conceptuses during the peri-implantation period. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomics were used to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins in caruncular endometrium collected from the gravid uterine horns and the non-gravid uterine horns at the time of conceptus attachment (day 16 of pregnancy) and early post-implantation period (day 20 of pregnancy). Fifty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 16 of pregnancy and twenty seven protein spots were up-regulated in the gravid horn at day 20 of pregnancy. Sixteen proteins with different functions such as protein metabolism, cholesterol and ion transport and cell adhesion were identified. In conclusion, the use of the unilaterally pregnant ewe model provides evidence that the early implantation and post-implanting conceptus-derived signals up-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA-II) and apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1) and down-regulate caruncle endometrial proteins, including adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) and heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (HSP60). These regulated proteins are likely involved in providing a suitable intra-uterine environment required for conceptus attachment, implantation, early post-implantation development and the successful establishment of pregnancy in sheep.

  5. The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses

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    Trohimovych O.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to present views proliferation and apoptosis plays an important role in the mechanisms of placenta formation, particularly in process of vasculogenesis that begins on the third week of pregnancy. Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses. Methods. 98 samples of abortive and surgical material in pregnant women in terms of 4-10 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed. 48 samples were obtained from women with missed abortion (1st group, 20 samples from women with spontaneous abortion (2nd group; 20 samples from women with tubal pregnancy (3rd group; 10 samples from pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancy, after medical abortion on their own wish (control group. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to Ki-67 and bcl-2 were applied. Results. Pathological picture of spontaneous abortion is characterized by the dominance of violation of blood circulation, presence of significant foci of hemorrhage occurring parallel with a pronounced disruption of apoptosis and proliferation in chorionic villi and decidual tissue, leading to the detachment of placenta. Conclusion. In 75% of cases of tubal pregnancy ectopic cytotrophoblast invasion is caused by prominent changes in the structure of the fallopian tube. First of all due to the inflammatory process and a sharp reduction of proliferation in the basal chorion and parietal deciduitis in 65% of cases. Citation: Trohimovych OV. [The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:58-64. Russian.

  6. "Follicular HCG endometrium priming for IVF patients experiencing resisting thin endometrium. A proof of concept study"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D; Zervakakou, G;

    2013-01-01

    A thin endometrium is one of the most difficult problems encountered in assisted reproduction every day practice. Whether a daily dose of 150 IU HCG for 7 days concomitant with estrogen administration in estrogen replacement cycles can increase the endometrial thickness and improve pregnancy outc...

  7. Generating receptive endometrium in Asherman′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Gargett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine administration of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells to a woman with thin endometrium refractory to estrogen stimulation regenerated her endometrium sufficiently to support a pregnancy. Or was it local endometrial damage induced by concurrent curettage that stimulated endogenous endometrial stem/progenitor cells into action? Or both?

  8. Progesterone inhibition of oxytocin signaling in endometrium

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    Cecily Vauna Bishop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR in the endometrium of ruminant species is regulated by the ovarian steroids progesterone (P and estradiol (E. Near the end of the estrous cycle, long-term exposure of endometrial epithelial cells to P results in loss of genomic P receptors (PGRs, leading to an increase in E receptors (ERs. Genomic regulation of the OXTR is mediated via suppression of ER signaling by P. Upon OT binding at the plasma membrane of endometrial cells, a signaling cascade is generated stimulating release of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha. Transport of PGF2alpha to the ovary results in release of OT by luteal cells in a positive feedback loop leading to luteal regression. This signaling cascade can be rapidly blocked by exposing endometrial cells to physiologic levels of P. This mini review will focus on the mechanisms by which P may act to block OXTR signaling and the luteolytic cascade in the ruminant endometrium, with special focus on both non-genomic signaling pathways and non-receptor actions of P at the level of the plasma membrane. While this review focuses on ruminant species, non-classical blockage of OXTR signaling may be important for fertility in women.

  9. The effect of progesterone on oxytocin-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation and prostaglandin secretion in porcine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, G; Oponowicz, A; Kurowicka, B; Franczak, A; Bogacka, I

    2010-01-01

    We have studied in the porcine endometrium the expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA and the effect of progesterone (P4) on oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OT/OTR) function concerning intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation ([Ca2+]i), prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and E2 (PGE2; PG) secretion. Tissue was taken from cyclic and early pregnant pigs (days 14-16). A higher expression of OTR mRNA (P < 0.05) was observed in the endometrium of cyclic than pregnant pigs. The stimulatory (P < 0.05) effect of OT (10(-7) M) on [Ca2+]i mobilisation was noticed within 15-60 s and 30-60 s in endometrial stromal cells of cyclic and pregnant pigs, respectively. In the presence of P4 (10(-5) M) basal and OT-stimulated [Ca2+]i concentrations decreased in stromal cells during luteolysis and pregnancy. In stromal cells P4 delayed mobilisation of [Ca2+]i in response to OT by 15 s during luteolysis and had no effect during pregnancy. In cyclic and pregnant epithelial cells OT stimulated mobilisation of [Ca2+]i in 45 s and 60 s, respectively. Oxytocin increased (P < 0.05) PGF2alpha secretion during luteolysis and pregnancy and PGE2 during luteolysis from endometrial slices. Progesterone did not inhibit this stimulatory effect. During luteolysis OT increased (P < 0.05) PGF2alpha in epithelial and stromal cells and PGE2 secretion in epithelial cells. In the presence of P4 this effect of OT was reduced only in stromal cyclic cells (6 h culture). The presence of P4 decreased the effect of OT on [Ca2+]i mobilisation only in stromal cells. We found that, in most conditions, P4 did not inhibit the OT-stimulated secretion of PG in the porcine endometrium.

  10. Propagation of ovine prions from "poor" transmitter scrapie isolates in ovine PrP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M; Hopkins, Lee; Lockey, Richard; Spiropoulos, John; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2012-02-01

    Ovine prion strains have typically been identified by their transmission properties, which include incubation time and lesion profile, in wild type mice. The existence of scrapie isolates that do not propagate in wild type mice, defined here as "poor" transmitters, are problematic for conventional prion strain typing studies as no incubation time or neuropathology can be recorded. This may arise because of the presence of an ovine prion strain within the original inoculum that does not normally cross the species barrier into wild type mice or the presence of a low dose of an infectious ovine prion strain that does. Here we have used tg59 and tg338 mouse lines, which are transgenic for ovine ARQ or VRQ PrP, respectively, to strain type "poor" transmitter ovine scrapie isolates. ARQ and VRQ homozygous "poor" transmitter scrapie isolates were successfully propagated in both ovine PrP transgenic mouse lines. We have used secondary passage incubation time, PrPSc immunohistochemistry and molecular profile, to show that different prion strains can be isolated from different "poor" transmitter samples during serial passage in ovine PrP transgenic mice. Our observations show that poor or inadequate transmissibility of some classical scrapie isolates in wild type mice is associated with unique ovine prion strains in these particular sheep scrapie samples. In addition, the analysis of the scrapie isolates used here revealed that the tg338 mouse line was more versatile and more robust at strain typing ovine prions than tg59 mice. These novel observations in ovine PrP transgenic mice highlight a new approach to ovine prion strain typing.

  11. Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L; Collett, M G; Pattison, R S; Marshall, J; West, D M; Pomroy, W E

    2012-04-30

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. caninum infection naturally occurring in New Zealand sheep flocks and particularly its impact on reproduction success. Thus, this present study provides preliminary data on the role that Neospora is playing in ovine reproductive failure by establishing the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies and DNA in ewe blood and foetal material present in 21 New Zealand sheep farms with ongoing unexplained abortion problems and 10 farms with consistently high fertility levels. The results of this study demonstrated an overall seroprevalence of 1.4% which varied between Aborting/non-pregnant (1.8%), age-matched pregnant controls (0.6%) and high fertility (2.1%) ewes. However, despite the variation observed, there was no statistical difference between the three groups. In addition, Neospora DNA was detected by PCR in 13% of submitted foetal brains and in ewe blood from aborting/non-pregnant (6.9%), age-matched pregnant controls (3.6%) and high fertility pregnant (2.1%) ewes. When the PCR results were considered with the IFAT and IDEXX ELISA results, there was no correlation between serology positive and PCR positive blood samples. Taken together, these results reveal that reliance on ELISA-based serology or PCR alone may underestimate the involvement of Neospora. Furthermore, determining the involvement of Neospora appears to require a multi-facetted approach where diagnostic methods and serological cut-off values may need to be adjusted as further information about the effect of natural

  12. Evaluation of real-time PCR endogenous control genes for analysis of gene expression in bovine endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Murray D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR gene expression results are generally normalised using endogenous control genes. These reference genes should be expressed at a constant level across all sample groups in a study, and should not be influenced by study treatments or conditions. There has been no systematic investigation of endogenous control genes for bovine endometrium to date. The suitability of both commonly used and novel endogenous control genes was evaluated in this study, with the latter being selected from stably expressed transcripts identified through microarray analysis of bovine endometrium. Fifteen candidate endogenous control genes were assessed across different tissue subtypes in pregnant and cycling Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from two divergent genetic backgrounds. Results The expression profiles of five commonly used endogenous control genes (GAPDH, PPIA, RPS9, RPS15A, and UXT and 10 experimentally derived candidate endogenous control genes (SUZ12, C2ORF29, ZNF131, ACTR1A, HDAC1, SLC30A6, CNOT7, DNAJC17, BBS2, and RANBP10 were analysed across 44 samples to determine the most stably expressed gene. Gene stability was assessed using the statistical algorithms GeNorm and Normfinder. All genes presented with low overall variability (0.87 to 1.48% CV of Cq. However, when used to normalise a differentially expressed gene (oxytocin receptor - OXTR in the samples, the reported relative gene expression levels were significantly affected by the control gene chosen. Based on the results of this analysis, SUZ12 is proposed as the most appropriate control gene for use in bovine endometrium during early pregnancy or the oestrus cycle. Conclusion This study establishes the suitability of novel endogenous control genes for comparing expression levels in endometrial tissues of pregnant and cycling bovines, and demonstrates the utility of microarray analysis as a method for identifying endogenous control gene candidates.

  13. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates ovine endometrial prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis: role of G(i) proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P D; Mendes, J O; Yemm, R S; Clay, C M; Nelson, S E; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    2001-10-01

    Oxytocin stimulates a rapid increase in ovine endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis. The overall objective of these experiments was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin induces endometrial PGF2alpha synthesis. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine whether G(i) proteins mediate oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis. Uteri were collected from four ovary-intact ewes on Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i) proteins, had no effect on the ability of oxytocin to induce PGF2alpha synthesis (P > 0.10). The objective of experiment 2 was to determine whether any of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), or p38 MAPK, mediate oxytocin-induced PGF(2alpha) synthesis. Eleven ovary-intact ewes were given an injection of oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.; n = 5) or physiological saline (i.v.; n = 6) on Day 15 postestrus. Uteri were collected 15 min after injection and caruncular endometrium was dissected. Endometrial homogenates were prepared and subjected to Western blotting. Membranes were probed for both total and phosphorylated forms of all three classes of MAPK. All classes of MAPK were detected in ovine endometrium, but oxytocin treatment had no effect on the expression of these proteins (P > 0.10). ERK1/2 was the only phosphorylated MAPK detected and its concentrations were higher in oxytocin-treated ewes (P Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activity, blocked the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PGF(2alpha synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the ovine oxytocin receptor is not coupled to G(i) proteins. These results indicate that oxytocin induces phosphorylation of ERK1

  14. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4% in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness <6 mm is associated with a trend toward lower probability of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy – frozen embryo transfer (FET cycles appear to give better results due to an improvement in endometrial receptivity (ER. The etiology of thin endometrium plays a significant part in its receptivity. A number of treatments have been tried to improve endometrial growth, but none has been validated so far. Confirming ER of a thin endometrium by an ER array test before FET offers reassurance.

  15. [Solitary fibrous tumor of endometrium--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, O; Dvořáková, E; Laco, J; Spaček, J

    2013-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal tumor. We present a case of SFT occurring in endometrium. Case report. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fingerland Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty of Charles University and Faculty Hospital Hradec Králové. We report a case of 57 years old woman with SFT arising from the endometrium, which was diagnosed and treated at our department. Histological finding was supported by typical immunohistochemical profile of the tumor. Aggressive nature of the tumor wasnt showed. The patient underwent abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy and is followed up in regular periods. Occurence of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the female genital tract is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of SFT occurring in endometrium. Because of potencial aggressive behaviour of the tumor complete surgical excision and close follow-up is highly recommended.

  16. Estrogen signaling in the proliferative endometrium: implications in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira da Costa e Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Even though the physiological role of estrogen in the female reproductive cycle and endometrial proliferative phase is well established, the signaling pathways by which estrogen exerts its action in the endometrial tissue are still little known. In this regard, advancements in cell culture techniques and maintenance of endometrial cells in cultures enabled the discovery of new signaling mechanisms activated by estrogen in the normal endometrium and in endometriosis. This review aims to present the recent findings in the genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways in the proliferative human endometrium specifically associated with the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis.

  17. In vitro fabrication of autologous living tissue-engineered vascular grafts based on prenatally harvested ovine amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benedikt; Kehl, Debora; Bleul, Ulrich; Behr, Luc; Sammut, Sébastien; Frese, Laura; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Achermann, Josef; Stranzinger, Gerald; Robert, Jérôme; Sanders, Bart; Sidler, Michele; Brokopp, Chad E; Proulx, Steven T; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schoenauer, Roman; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) have been proposed as a valuable source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, before clinical implementation, rigorous evaluation of this cell source in clinically relevant animal models accepted by regulatory authorities is indispensable. Today, the ovine model represents one of the most accepted preclinical animal models, in particular for cardiovascular applications. Here, we investigate the isolation and use of autologous ovine AFCs as cell source for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Fetal fluids were aspirated in vivo from pregnant ewes (n = 9) and from explanted uteri post mortem at different gestational ages (n = 91). Amniotic non-allantoic fluid nature was evaluated biochemically and in vivo samples were compared with post mortem reference samples. Isolated cells revealed an immunohistochemical phenotype similar to ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed expression of stem cell factors described for embryonic stem cells, such as NANOG and STAT-3. Isolated ovine amniotic fluid-derived MSCs were screened for numeric chromosomal aberrations and successfully differentiated into several mesodermal phenotypes. Myofibroblastic ovine AFC lineages were then successfully used for the in vitro fabrication of small- and large-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts (n = 10) and cardiovascular patches (n = 34), laying the foundation for the use of this relevant pre-clinical in vivo assessment model for future amniotic fluid cell-based therapeutic applications.

  18. Menstrual cyclic change of metastin/GPR54 in endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tsukasa; Kang, Hyun Sook; Hosoe, Yuko; Kharma, Budiman; Abiko, Kaoru; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Mandai, Masaki; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-06-01

    Metastin/kisspeptin is encoded by KISS1 and functions as an endogenous ligand of GPR54. Interaction of metastin with GPR54 suppresses metastasis and also regulates release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which promotes secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We have previously demonstrated epigenetic regulation of GPR54 in endometrial cancer and the potent role of metastin peptides in inhibiting metastasis in endometrial cancer. However, little is known about how the metastin-GPR54 axis is regulated in the endometrium, the precursor tissue of endometrial cancer. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) within the endometrium show morphological changes when exposed to E2 and P4. In this study, we show that metastin expression is induced in ESCs through decidualization, but is repressed in glandular components of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer relative to EGCs. The promoter of GPR54 is unmethylated in normal endometrium and in AEH. These results indicate metastin may function in decidualized endometrium to prepare for adequate placentation but this autocrine secretion of metastin is deregulated during oncogenesis to enable tumor cells to spread.

  19. Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Endometrium in Women with or without Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Xu; Hai-Teng Deng; Chong-Dong Liu; Yu-Ling Chen; Zhen-Yu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The molecular mechanisms underlying the endometriosis are still not completely understood.In order to test the hypothesis that the approaches in phosphoproteomics might contribute to the identification of key biomarkers to assess disease pathogenesis and drug targets,we carried out a phosphoproteomics analysis of human endometrium.Methods:A large-scale differential phosphoproteome analysis,using peptide enrichment of titanium dioxide purify and sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography with linear trap quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry,was performed in endometrium tissues from 8 women with or without endometriosis.Results:The phosphorylation profiling of endometrium from endometriosis patients had been obtained,and found that identified 516 proteins were modified at phosphorylation level during endometriosis.Gene ontology annotation analysis showed that these proteins were enriched in cellular processes of binding and catalytic activity.Further pathway analysis showed that ribosome pathway and focal adhesion pathway were the top two pathways,which might be deregulated during the development of endometriosis.Conclusions:That large-scale phosphoproteome quantification has been successfully identified in endometrium tissues of women with or without endometriosis will provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanisms of the development of endometriosis.

  20. Expression of osteopontin in human endometrium throughout menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Cai-hong; Chen Gui-an; Han Jin-song; Qi Yong-fen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To analyze mRNA and protein expression of osteopontin(OPN) in human endometrium throughout menstrual cycle.Methods:Immunohistochemical method was used to determine the level and the location of OPN in normal cycling endometrium of 50 women. Western Blot analysis was also used to detect the existence of OPN at proliferative and secretory phases in six samples. The levels of OPN mRNA in 18 samples were measured by RT-PCR. Results:The OPN mainly expressed in human endometrial glandular epithelium but not in stromal cells. The expression was highest at mid and late secretory phases and menstruous phase as well. No expression was found in early and mid proliferative endometria. Two subtypes of OPN proteins (40 kDa-75 kDa) were detected by Western blot analysis in homogenized endometria at secretory phase.The level of OPN mRNA in secretory phase endometrium was significantly higher than that in proliferative phase. Conclusions:OPN was only found in endometrial glandular epithelial cells, and the OPN and its mRNA showed a pronounced cycle-dependent expression in human endometrium, higher expression at mid and late secretory phases and menstruous phase. It's probably involved in embryonic implantation and endometrial shedding.

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Porcine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In pigs, successful embryo implantation is an important guarantee for producing litter size, and early embryonic loss occurring on day 12–30 of gestation critically affects the potential litter size. The implantation process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, so comprehensive analysis of the endometrium is necessary. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology is used to analyze endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. We investigated the changes of gene expression between three stages (day 12, 18, and 25 by multiple comparisons. There were 1557, 8951, and 2345 differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed between the different periods of implantation. We selected several genes for validation by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endometrium revealed a number of biological processes and pathways potentially involved in embryo implantation in the pig, most noticeably cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, interaction of cytokine-cytokine receptors, and cell adhesion. These results showed that specific gene expression patterns reflect the different functions of the endometrium in three stages (maternal recognition, conceptus attachment, and embryo implantation. This study identified comprehensive transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium and thus could be a foundation for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in abnormal endometrial receptivity and embryo loss in early pregnancy.

  2. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoe Misa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. Conclusion EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14

  3. Granulated metrial gland cells in the virgin and early pregnant mouse uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, I.; Peel, S

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the distribution of granulated metrial gland cells in the non-pregnant uterus, in the pre-implantation uterus and in the post-implantation interconceptual uterus of pregnant albino mice. Granulated cells were only rarely seen in the non-pregnant uterus. In the pre-implantation uterus, they were regularly seen after day 2 1/2 of pregnancy and were randomly distributed within the endometrium although there was considerable variation in numbers between animals. In interc...

  4. Problems concerning ovine milk clotting aptitude

    OpenAIRE

    M. Martini; R. Fortina; Di Stasio, L.; L. Chiofalo; A. Caroli; BOLLA, P.; Duranti, E; Piccolo, V.; Zullo, A

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds), the kind of milk (whole or skimmed), and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml) was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstitu...

  5. Influence of reproductive status on tissue composition and biomechanical properties of ovine vagina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ulrich

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. METHODS: Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n = 3, parous (n = 6 and pregnant sheep (n = 6; mean gestation; 132 d; term = 145 d. Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. RESULTS: Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. CONCLUSION: Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties.

  6. Molecular identification of ovine Babesia spp. in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mousa Motavalli Haghi

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed ovine Babesiosis was common in the Iranian Northern provinces .Moreover, Babesia ovis is the main causative agent of ovine Babesiosis in this areas. The relatively high prevalence of Babesia infection in livestock indicates the epizootic stability status of babesiosis in the northern part of Iran.

  7. Identification of stathmin 1 during peri-implantation period in mouse endometrium by a proteomics-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jinhai; Jia, Jia; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Tao; Li, Zhengyu

    2015-05-29

    In this work we aimed to identify the differentially expressed proteins and their potential roles during peri-implantation period through proteomics-based approach. Adult healthy female mice were mated naturally with fertile males to produce pregnancy. The models of pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation, and artificial decidualization were established. The protein profile between pre-implantation (D1) and implantation (D5) period was compared by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). 2-DE yielded comparative images presenting over 500 protein spots in D1 and D5 mouse endometrium. 15 proteins were identified, of which stathmin 1, Apo-A1, hnRNP H3, transgelin 2 and arginase 1 were validated by western blotting. Stathmin 1 expression did not change in pseudopregnancy, but activation of implantation, or induction of decidualization increased it dramatically. Under non-pregnant status, progesterone alone or in combination with17β-estradiol increased it dramatically. Our results clarified the protein profile in mouse endometrium during implantation. The specific expression profile of stathmin 1 suggested that it should be involved in implantation and serve as a potential regulator of this process. These findings may contribute to the better understanding of the molecules events during embryo implantation, and subsequently improve the ability to treat infertility.

  8. [Morphologic characteristics of the endometrium in women with endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopichev, V G; Savitkiĭ, G A; Gorbushin, S M

    1998-01-01

    It was established that in accordance with certain phases of sexual cycle (menstrual cycle in women and estral cycle in rats) on the background of hormone action at follicular and luteal phase the surface of epitheliocytes acquires specific relief (formation and degradation of microvilli appropriately in first and second halves of the cycle, accordingly). Disturbance of cyclic change of the relief of apical surface of epitheliocytes of the endometrium, persistence of high binding activity of the cationic dye and formation of intercellular clefts were demonstrated in developing endometriosis, which significantly interferes with the reproductive function. This was suggested to be an unfavourable result of cytotoxic effect of autoimmune processes that develop due to implantation of cells of endometrium in abdominal cavity and initiation of cooperative cellular response, which seems to be morphologically demonstrated by significant increase in number of macrophages in tissues of the uterus and in menstrual discharge.

  9. Role of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway in the endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of calcium concentration triggers physiological events in all cell types. Unregulated elevation in calcium concentrations is often cytotoxic.In fact, uncontrolled calcium levels alter proteins’ function, apoptosis regulation, as well as proliferation, secretion and contraction.Calcium levels are tightly regulated.A great interest was paid to signal transduction pathways for their role in mammalian reproduction.The role of phosphoinositide(PI) signal transduction pathway and related phosphoinositide-specific phospholipaseC(PI-PLC) enzymes in the regulation of calcium levels was actively studied and characterized.However, the role of PI signaling andPI-PLC enzymes in the endometrium is far to be completely highlighted.In the present review the role ofPI, the expression of selectedPI-PLC enzymes and the crosstalk with further signaling systems in the endometrium will be discussed.

  10. Modulation of ovine SBD-1 expression by 17beta-estradiol in ovine oviduct epithelial cells

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    Wen Shiyong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal epithelia, including those of the oviduct, secrete antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMS. These have bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions against a variety of pathogens. Among the AIIMs, sheep β-defensin-1 (SBD-1 is one of the most potent. Even though the SBD-1 is an important AIIM and it is regulated closely by estrogenic hormone, the regulation mechanism of 17β-estradiol has not been clearly established. We investigated the effects of E2 and agonist or inhibitor on ovine oviduct epithelial cells in regard to SBD-1 expression using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In addition, three different pathways were inhibited separately or simultaneously to confirm the effect of different inhibitors in the regulation mechanism. Results 17beta-estradiol (E2 induced release of SBD-1 in ovine oviduct epithelial cells. SBD-1 expression was mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 and Estrogen Receptors (ERs activation in ovine oviduct epithelial cell. Inhibition of gene expression of protein kinase A (PKA, protein kinase C (PKC, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB led to a decreased SBD-1 expression. Conclusions Taken together, E2-induced up-regulation of SBD-1 expressions were GPR30-dependent during prophase and ERs-dependent during later-stage in ovine oviduct epithelial cells, and we assume that the effect was completed by the PKA, PKC, and NF-κB pathways simultaneous.

  11. Detection of expression level of endogenous jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and its receptor HYAL2 in endometrium of pregnant Mongolian sheep by TaqMan real-time PCR and in situ hybridization%妊娠绵羊子宫内膜组织内源性反转录病毒及其受体HYAL2基因表达水平的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萌杰; 陈大勇; 刘淑英

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess the expression of endogenous jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus(enJSRV) and its receptor HYAL2 mRNAs in the endometrium of Mongolian ewes throughout gestation, by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR,enJSRV and HYAL2 mRNAs were found to be expressed throughout gestation in the endometrium. The mRNA expression level of enJSRV was higher in placenta on day 30 and 50 during pregnancy. The in situ hybridization results showed that enJSRV and HYAL2 mRNAs were specifically expressed in endometrial luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium, endometrial caruncle, trophoblast giant binucleate cells, as well as stroma, and blood vessel endothelial cells endometrial caruncle, placental cotyledon,stroma and trophectoderm. Collectively, little was known about the molecular mechanisms that trophoblast differentiation and multinucleated syncytia formation regulated by enJSRV, however the temporal and spatial reconstitutions of enJSRV expression in the endometrium of Mongolian ewes indicated that enJSRV and its receptor HYAL2 were beneficial to the host and were involved in protection of the uterus from viral infection and regulators of placental morphogenesis and function.%为了探究内源性反转录病毒(enJSRV)及其受体HYAL2在妊娠蒙古绵羊子宫内膜形成和发育过程中的作用,运用TagMan实时荧光定量PCR和组织原位杂交技术对其在不同妊娠时期(30、50、70、90、110和130 d)蒙古绵羊子宫内膜中的表达规律和分布定位进行了研究.实时荧光定量PCR结果显示,enJSRV及其受体HYAL2在蒙古绵羊子宫内膜的不同妊娠时期均有表达,通过SPSS统计学软件分析可以看出,妊娠蒙古绵羊子宫内膜组织中enJSRV mRNA的表达于妊娠第30和50天相对较高,70~130 d均低于对照组(30 d),且差异都极显著,enJSRV与其受体HYAL2 mRNA之间亦无线性相关性.原位杂交结果显示,enJSRV及其受体HYAL2 mRNA在妊娠第30、50和130天蒙古绵羊子宫内膜的腔上皮细

  12. Persistent sucrose stimulation of ovine fetal ingestion: lack of adaptation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, Mostafa A; Jia, Yousheng; Ross, Michael G

    2005-08-01

    Sweet taste responsiveness is reduced in adult rats and humans following continued oral sucrose. We have previously demonstrated that sublingual sucrose stimulates near term ovine fetal swallowing, suggesting intact taste responsiveness. We sought to determine if prolonged oral sucrose infusion to the near term ovine fetus will evoke adaptation, as manifested by reduced swallowing stimulation. Time-dated pregnant ewes and fetuses (n = 4) were chronically prepared with fetal vascular and sublingual catheters, and electrocorticogram and esophageal electromyogram electrodes and studied at 129 +/- 1 d gestation. Following an initial 2 h basal period, sucrose (2.5%) was infused sublingually (0.25 ml/min) to the fetus for 8 h. Fetal swallowing activity, blood pressure and heart rate were continuously recorded while maternal and fetal arterial blood samples were taken at timed intervals. During the basal period, fetal swallowing averaged 0.9 +/- 0.1 swallows/min. Fetal swallowing increased significantly following sublingual 2.5% sucrose infusion and remained significantly elevated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after initiation of sucrose infusion (1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1, 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.3 +/- 0.1 swallows/min; p fetal cardiovascular or arterial blood parameters. Although oral sucrose significantly stimulates near term ovine fetal ingestive behavior, sweet taste adaptation or habituation does not occur, in contrast to that observed in adult animals and human. The lack of taste adaptation in the fetus/newborn may facilitate increased neonatal food intake and accelerated growth.

  13. [Type-I and -II estradiol binding sites in the endometrium during blastocyst implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, A; Calzada, L; Hicks, J J; Velázquez, A

    1989-04-01

    The properties of type I and occupied and unoccupied type II cytosolic estrogen binding sites in the rat endometrium were analyzed on day five of pregnancy; the samples studied correspond to blastocyst receptive endometrium (implantation sites), nonreceptive endometrium and ovariectomized uterine horn endometrium, from the same pregnancy rats. The occupied binding site type II was analyzed by exchange assays. Dissociation constant obtained from experiments carried out at 4 or 25 degrees C are similar for each one of the binding site at the three different endometrium samples; the binding capacity (femtomoles/mg protein) from the sites type I and type II and the ratio between occupied (by endogenous estradiol) and unoccupied site type II, seems to be characteristic for each one of the three analyzed endometrium.

  14. Passive mechanical properties of ovine rumen tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Stephen J.; Cater, John E.; Walker, Cameron G.; Amirapu, Satya; Waghorn, Garry C.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and structural properties of ovine rumen tissue have been determined using uniaxial tensile testing of tissue from four animals at five rumen locations and two orientations. Animal and orientation did not have a significant effect on the stress-strain response, but there was a significant difference between rumen locations. Histological studies showed two orthogonal muscle layers in all regions except the reticulum, which has a more isotropic structure. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model was fitted to the relaxation stage for each region. Model predictions of the ramp stage had RMS errors of 13-24% and were within the range of the experimental data.

  15. Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C S; Ladinig, Andrea; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; MacPhee, Daniel J; Detmer, Susan E

    2016-08-05

    Several routes of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus PRRSV transmission across the porcine diffuse epitheliochorial placentation have been proposed, but none have been proven. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal-fetal interface in order to examine important factors related to transplacental infection. On gestation day 85 ± 1, naïve pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or were sham inoculated (n = 19). At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied. Samples of the maternal-fetal interface (uterus with fully attached placenta) and fetal thymus were collected for analysis by RT-qPCR to quantify PRRSV RNA concentration. The corresponding paraffin-embedded uterine tissue sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry for PRRSV nucleocapsid N protein, CD163, CD169, and cathepsin. Our findings confirm significant increases in the numbers of PRRSV, CD163 and CD169 positive cells at the maternal-fetal interface during type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts. PRRSV load in fetal thymus was positively related to CD163(+) cell count in endometrium and negatively related to CD163(+) cell count in placenta, but unrelated to CD169 counts or cathepsin positive areolae. The endometrium:placenta ratio of CD163 cells, and to a lesser extent CD169 cells, was significantly associated with an increase fetal viral load in thymus. These findings suggest a more important role for CD163(+) cells following trans-placental PRRSV infection, but dichotomous responses in endometrium and placenta for both CD163 and CD169 cells.

  16. Reconstruction of endometrium from human endometrial side population cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cervelló

    Full Text Available Endometrial regeneration is mediated, at least in part, by the existence of a specialized somatic stem cell (SSC population recently identified by several groups using the side population (SP technique. We previously demonstrated that endometrial SP displays genotypic, phenotypic and the functional capability to develop human endometrium after subcutaneous injection in NOD-SCID mice. We have now established seven human endometrial SP (hESP cell lines (ICE 1-7: four from the epithelial and three from the stromal fraction, respectively. SP cell lines were generated under hypoxic conditions based on their cloning efficiency ability, cultured for 12-15 passages (20 weeks and cryopreserved. Cell lines displayed normal 46XX karyotype, intermediate telomerase activity pattern and expressed mRNAs encoding proteins that are considered characteristic of undifferentiated cells (Oct-4, GDF3, DNMT3B, Nanog, GABR3 and those of mesodermal origin (WT1, Cardiac Actin, Enolase, Globin, REN. Phenotype analysis corroborated their epithelial (CD9+ or stromal (vimentin+ cell origin and mesenchymal (CD90+, CD73+ and CD45⁻ attributes. Markers considered characteristic of ectoderm or endoderm were not detected. Cells did not express either estrogen receptor alpha (ERα or progesterone receptor (PR. The hESP cell lines were able to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes and osteocytes, which confirmed their mesenchymal origin. Finally, we demonstrated their ability to generate human endometrium when transplanted beneath the renal capsule of NOD-SCID mice. These findings confirm that SP cells exhibit key features of human endometrial SSC and open up new possibilities for the understanding of gynecological disorders such as endometriosis or Asherman syndrome. Our cell lines can be a valuable model to investigate new targets for endometrium proliferation in endometriosis.

  17. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Scumaci

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome.

  18. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Susan A; Smith, Bradford B; Timm, Karen I; Menino, Alfred R

    2007-08-01

    Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0 = day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ERalpha and beta was similar (P > 0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ERalpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P Uterus expressed less ERalpha and beta compared to endometrium (P = 0.07 and P 0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ERbeta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo.

  19. Expression of TWEAK on the Ectopic and Eutopic Endometrium from Women with Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian PENG; Jin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis(TWEAK) and endometriosis. Methods TWEAK mRNA and protein concentrations in paired samples of eutopic endometrial tissue from women with and without endometriosis,and also of ectopic endometrial tissue from women with endometriosis were measured by Real time PCR,immunohistochemistry and Western blotting,respectively. Results Compared with control endometrium from women without endometriosis and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis.TWEAK expressions were reduced on the ectopic endometrium f P<0.05).Moreover,the expressions of TWEAK mRNA on eutopic endometrium and control endometrium in proliferative phase were much lower than those in secretory phase.TWEAK protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and stromal cells of endometrium. Conclusion TWEAK is expressed on the endometrium of reproductive women,and its concentration rises in secretory phase,compared with that in proliferative phase.Patients with endometriosis had a lower expression of TWEAK on ectopic endometrium,which may lead to a decreased level of apoptosis on endometrial cells.Consequently,endometrial cells were able to survive outside uterus helping the development of endometriosis.

  20. A growth factor phenotype map for ovine preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A J; Watson, P H; Arcellana-Panlilio, M; Warnes, D; Walker, S K; Schultz, G A; Armstrong, D T; Seamark, R F

    1994-04-01

    The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the patterns of expression for several growth factor ligand and receptor genes during ovine preimplantation development. Transcripts for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and the receptors for insulin and IGF-I were detected throughout ovine preimplantation development from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stage. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) transcripts were also detected throughout ovine preimplantation development. The mRNAs encoding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected in all stages of the ovine preimplantation embryo, although the relative abundance of this transcript consistently decreased from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stage, suggesting that it may represent a maternal transcript in early sheep embryos. Transcripts encoding ovine trophoblast protein (oTP) were detected only within blastocyst-stage embryos. Primary ovine oviduct cell cultures express the transcripts for IGF-II, IGF-I, TGF alpha, bFGF, TGF beta 1, and the receptors for insulin and IGF-I, suggesting that paracrine growth factor circuits may exist between the oviduct epithelium and the early ovine embryo. Transcripts for insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were not detected in any stage of the ovine preimplantation embryo or within the oviduct cell preparations. The expression of growth factor transcripts very early in mammalian development would predict that these molecules fulfil a necessary role(s) in supporting the progression of early embryos through the preimplantation interval. Our future efforts will be directed to understanding the nature of these putative regulatory pathways.

  1. Molecular and Biomorphometrical Identification of Ovine Babesiosis in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    F Noorollahi; Ghasemi, F.; Bahonar, A.; S Nabian; Zakeri, S.; Z Sadeghi Dehkordi; S Ra­hbari

    2010-01-01

    Background Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran. Methods One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears sta...

  2. Long-term, hormone-responsive organoid cultures of human endometrium in a chemically defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Margherita Y; Gardner, Lucy; Hughes, Jasmine; Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Gomez, Maria J; Farrell, Lydia; Hollinshead, Michael; Marsh, Steven G E; Brosens, Jan J; Critchley, Hilary O; Simons, Benjamin D; Hemberger, Myriam; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Moffett, Ashley; Burton, Graham J

    2017-05-01

    In humans, the endometrium, the uterine mucosal lining, undergoes dynamic changes throughout the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Despite the importance of the endometrium as the site of implantation and nutritional support for the conceptus, there are no long-term culture systems that recapitulate endometrial function in vitro. We adapted conditions used to establish human adult stem-cell-derived organoid cultures to generate three-dimensional cultures of normal and decidualized human endometrium. These organoids expand long-term, are genetically stable and differentiate following treatment with reproductive hormones. Single cells from both endometrium and decidua can generate a fully functional organoid. Transcript analysis confirmed great similarity between organoids and the primary tissue of origin. On exposure to pregnancy signals, endometrial organoids develop characteristics of early pregnancy. We also derived organoids from malignant endometrium, and so provide a foundation to study common diseases, such as endometriosis and endometrial cancer, as well as the physiology of early gestation.

  3. Effect of oxytocin on expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 mRNA and protein in ovine endometrial tissue in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P D; Graf, G A; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    2000-11-01

    The induction of endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis by oxytocin is dependent upon activation of phospholipase (PL) A2 and mobilization of arachidonic acid. The objective of this study was to determine if oxytocin stimulates PGF2alpha synthesis by inducing synthesis of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). In Experiment 1, 15 ovariectomized ewes were given progesterone and estradiol to simulate an estrous cycle. Ewes were then given an injection of oxytocin on Day 14 of the simulated estrous cycle. Jugular blood samples were collected and assayed for 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2alpha (PGFM). Uteri were collected at 0, 7.5, 25, 90, or 240 min postinjection (n = 3 ewes/time point). Total RNA was isolated from caruncular endometrium and subjected to dot-blot analysis. Oxytocin induced a rapid and transient increase in serum PGFM (P 0.10). In Experiment 2, 11 ovary-intact ewes were given oxytocin (n = 5) or saline (n = 6) on Day 15 after estrus. Jugular blood samples were collected and assayed for serum concentrations of PGFM. Uteri were collected at 15 min postinjection. Homogenates were prepared from caruncular endometrium and subjected to Western blot analysis. Concentrations of PGFM were higher in oxytocin treated ewes compared to saline treated ewes at 15 min postinjection (P 0.10). In conclusion, oxytocin did not effect expression of either cPLA2 mRNA or protein in ovine endometrium. Oxytocin may stimulate PGF2alpha synthesis by activating cPLA2 protein that is already present in an inactive form.

  4. Signaling by estrogens and tamoxifen in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Susanne C J P; Santegoets, Lindy A M; Hanifi-Moghaddam, Payman; Burger, Curt W; Blok, Leen J

    2008-04-01

    Tamoxifen is used as adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The mechanism of action of tamoxifen in breast cancer patients is that tamoxifen inhibits growth of cancer cells by competitive antagonism for estrogens at the estrogen receptor (ER). In the endometrium, tamoxifen has an effect that varies with the ambient concentration of estrogen: in premenopausal women (high estrogen levels), tamoxifen displays an estrogen-antagonistic effect, while in postmenopausal women (low estrogen levels), tamoxifen displays an estrogen-agonistic mode of action. Here, using microarray technology we have compared estrogen signaling with tamoxifen signaling in the human endometrium. It was observed that on the one hand tamoxifen-treatment results in modulation of expression of specific genes (370 genes) and on the other hand tamoxifen-treatment results in modulation of a set of genes which are also regulated by estrogen treatment (142 genes). Upon focusing on regulation of proliferation, we found that tamoxifen-induced endometrial proliferation is largely accomplished by using the same set of genes as are regulated by estradiol. So, as far as regulation of proliferation goes, tamoxifen seems to act as estrogen agonist. Furthermore, tamoxifen-specific gene regulation may explain why tamoxifen-induced endometrial tumors behave more aggressively than sporadic endometrial tumors.

  5. Gene expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 in the uterus and oviduct of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshokraei, P; Hassanpour, H; Rahnama, A; Foster, W G

    2013-08-01

    To compare genes expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine and oviductal tissues of ewes, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed. BDNF, TrkB and p75 genes are normally expressed in the ovine uterus and oviduct. The relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were increased in the uterine segments of the pregnant samples with compared to non-pregnant samples. This increasing was only significant (Ppregnant samples. In contrast, the relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were decreased in the oviductal segments of the pregnant samples and were undetectable in the isthmus. Variations of the relative amounts of TrkB and p75 mRNAs between the pregnant and non-pregnant samples were not significant (P>0.05) although TrkB mRNA in the caruncle and cervix and p75 mRNA in the cervix of pregnant samples were too less to be detected by RT-PCR method. It is probably that these changes of BDNF/receptors genes expression are necessary for normal pregnancy, and abnormal variations in the expression of these genes may be involved in the pathophysiological conditions.

  6. Molecular and hormonal regulation of angiogenesis in proliferative endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Rezaei Chianeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a hallmark of wound healing, the menstrual cycle, cancer, and various ischemic and inflammatory diseases. A rich variety of pro and anti-angiogenic molecules have already been identified. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an interesting inducer of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, because it is a highly specific mitogen for endothelial cells. Signal transduction involves binding to tyrosine kinase receptors and results in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and new vessel formation. In this article, the role of VEGF and other growth factors in the pathology of dysfunctional uterine bleeding is reviewed. We also discuss the role of VEGF expression and interaction with extracellular matrix that lead to possible inhibition or stimulation of Angiogenic factor on endometrium of dysfunctional uterine bleeding patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 1-9

  7. Uterine Fibroids: Pathogenesis and Interactions with Endometrium and Endomyometrial Junction

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    Andrea Ciavattini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas are benign tumors of uterus and clinically apparent in a large part of reproductive aged women. Clinically, they present with a variety of symptoms: excessive menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms such as a sensation of bloatedness, increased urinary frequency, and bowel disturbance. In addition, they may compromise reproductive functions, possibly contributing to subfertility, early pregnancy loss, and later pregnancy complications. Despite the prevalence of this condition, myoma research is underfunded compared to other nonmalignant diseases. To date, several pathogenetic factors such as genetics, microRNA, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components have been implicated in the development and growth of leiomyoma. This paper summarizes the available literature regarding the ultimate relative knowledge on pathogenesis of uterine fibroids and their interactions with endometrium and subendometrial myometrium.

  8. Expression of Calbindin-d28k in Human Endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo XU; Wei-jie ZHU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Calbindin-d28k (CaBP-d28k) in human endometrium.Methods Thirty-three samples of human normal endometrial tissues were divided into 6 groups: early proliferative stage (n =6), mid proliferative stage (n =5), late proliferative stage (n=5), early secretory stage (n=7), mid secretory stage (n=5) and late secretory stage (n=5). The expression and change of CaBP-d28k protein and gene were determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction methods.Results In endometrial samples, the expression of CaBP-d28k protein was mainly observed in the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelium. In the menstrual cycle, the level of CaBP-d28k protein in the epithelium was the lowest during the early and mid proliferative stages, and was the highest during the mid secretory stage, then decreased in the late secretory stage (P<0.05). In the stroma, the expressed type of CaBP-d28k protein was the same as in the epithelium, but was lower than that in the epithelium(P<0. 05). The CaBP-d28k mRNA was at the lowest level in the early proliferative stage(P<0. 05), and significantly increased in the late proliferative, and early,mid secretory stages (P<0. 05).Conclusion Both CaBP-d28k protein and gene were expressed in human endometrium,and their expression had cyclic changes.

  9. Endocannabinoid Regulation in Human Endometrium Across the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchie, Jessica G.; Savaris, Ricardo F.; Martin, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    Humans produce endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), a group of molecules that activate the same receptors as tetrahydrocannabinol. Endocannabinoids play important roles in reproduction in multiple species, but data in human endometrium are limited. Because endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) often act within tissues as paracrine factors, their effects can be modulated by changes in expression of locally produced synthetic and degradative/oxidative enzymes. The objective of this study was to localize and quantify expression of these key synthetic and degradative/oxidative enzymes for AEA and 2-AG in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. Key synthetic enzymes include N-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD), diacylglycerol-lipase a (DAGL-α, and DAGL-β. Key degradative enzymes include fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL); cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is an oxidative enzyme. Endometrial samples were collected in 49 regularly cycling, normal women. Protein localization and expression were achieved by immunohistochemistry and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. No significant cycle-dependent mRNA expression was observed except that of COX2 (P = .002), which demonstrated maximum expression in the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase, NAPE-PLD protein had increased expression in luminal (P = .001), stromal (P = .007), and glandular (P = .04) epithelia, while FAAH had increased glandular (P = .009) and luminal (P = .01) expression. Increased expression in glandular epithelia was identified for MAGL (P = .03). The COX2 had increased luminal expression during the early secretory phase (P < .0001). In conclusion, maximal expression of degradatory/oxidative enzymes in the secretory phase may foster decreased endocannabinoid tone during implantation. PMID:24819878

  10. Evaluation of ovine milk clotting aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caroli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds, the kind of milk (whole or skimmed, and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstituted on the basis of established methods from Sardinia, Comisana, and Massese ewes. All the considered variability factors showed a highly significant effect (P<0.001 on the lactodynamographic parameters considered. In particular, Massese ewe milk showed the shortest curd speed (k20 and the best coagulum strength (a30 and a45, although clotting time (CT was the highest one. The same trend was registered for skimmed milk and for the most concentrated one (20g. Repeatability values within laboratories were 96% and 97% for CT and k20, lowering for a30 e a45, (respectively 87% and 85%. Much lower coefficients were found for the among laboratories reproducibility, ranging from a maximum of 58% for CT to a minimum of 18% for k20. The wide variability observed indicates that lactodynamographic parameters are comparable only within the same lab. Further investigation is needed to compare different labs in order to obtain more homogeneous results.

  11. Problems concerning ovine milk clotting aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds, the kind of milk (whole or skimmed, and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstituted on the basis of established methods from Sardinia, Comisana, and Massese ewes. All the considered variability factors showed a highly significant effect (P<0.001 on the lactodynamographic parameters considered. In particular, Massese ewe milk showed the shortest curd speed (k20 and the best coagulum strength (a30 and a45, although clotting time (CT was the highest one. The same trend was registered for skimmed milk and for the most concentrated one (20g. Repeatability values within laboratories were 96% and 97% for CT and k20, lowering for a30 e a45, (respectively 87% and 85%. Much lower coefficients were found for the among laboratories reproducibility, ranging from a maximum of 58% for CT to a minimum of 18% for k20. The wide variability observed indicates that lactodynamographic parameters are comparable only within the same lab. Further investigation is needed to compare different labs in order to obtain more homogeneous results.

  12. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  13. Is aromatase expression in the endometrium the cause of endometriosis and related infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Hugo; Casoy, Julio; Valente Filho, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    Aromatase expression in the endometrium seems to play a pivotal role in the development of endometriotic lesions. Because inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 appear to activate aromatase in the cells of the endometrial stroma, it was hypothesised that the ensuing inflammation caused by the arrival of aromatase-positive cells in the peritoneal cavity would stimulate local estrogen production, which would in turn facilitate the development of endometriotic lesions by suppressing macrophage phagocytosis. Aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium will also hamper ovum nidation, thus causing infertility. Progestins, such as gestodene and danazol, are potent inhibitors of aromatase expression in the endometrium, and the use of vaginal rings with danazol in doses that do not block ovulation is associated with the occurrence of pregnancy in patients with severe endometriosis without the need for surgery. A local effect on the endometrium suppressing aromatase expression has been suggested as a possible mechanism of action for the danazol ring.

  14. Presence and localization of bacteria in the bovine endometrium postpartum using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C. C.; Agerholm, J. S.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial invasiveness of the bovine endometrium during the postpartum period. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to endometrial biopsies using probes for Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes, Escherichia coli...

  15. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward M; Needs, Polly F; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n=153), Africa (n=28), South America (n=14) and Australia (n=1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed the Embryo-Induced Gene Expression Patterns in the Endometrium from Meishan and Yorkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangnan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns in Meishan- and Yorkshire-derived endometrium during early (gestational day 15 and mid-gestation (gestational days 26 and 50 were investigated, respectively. Totally, 689 and 1649 annotated genes were identified to be differentially expressed in Meishan and Yorkshire endometrium during the three gestational stages, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified that, of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 73 DEGs were unique to Meishan endometrium, 536 DEGs were unique to Yorkshire endometrium, and 228 DEGs were common in Meishan and Yorkshire endometriums. Subsequently, DEGs in each of the three types of expression patterns were grouped into four distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns. The expression patterns identified from the microarray analysis were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The functional enrichment analysis revealed that the common DEGs were enriched in pathways of steroid metabolic process and regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling. These unique DEGs in Meishan endometrium were involved in cell cycle and adherens junction. The DEGs unique to Yorkshire endometrium were associated with regulation of Rho protein signal transduction, maternal placenta development and cell proliferation. This study revealed the different gene expression patterns or pathways related to the endometrium remodeling in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs, respectively. These unique DEGs in either Meishan or Yorkshire endometriums may contribute to the divergence of the endometrium environment in the two pig breeds.

  17. A Rare Case of Primary Insitu Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Extensive Icthyosis Uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailoor K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium is exceedingly rare. We report a case of 52 years old postmenopausal woman who presented with pelvic pain of four months duration. Gynecologic examination revealed a normal cervix. A possibility of pyometra was considered through pelvic ultrasound. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium.

  18. Ovine fetal sex determination using circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) and cervical mucous secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Asadpour; MH Asadi; R JafariJoozani; GH Hamidian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To use PCR to investigate the presence of fetal SRY gene in the ovine cervical secretions and maternal blood plasma, and to assess predict fetal sex at different times of gestation in the ewe. Methods: Fetal DNA was isolated from blood plasma and cervical secretions of 32 pregnant ewes during the 6 to 21 week of gestation. Overall, 15 male and 17 female fetuses were included in this study. After DNA extraction, the PCR amplified a 280 bp fragment from the X-chromosome and a 217 bp fragment from the Y-chromosome based on a sex-related polymorphism in the amelogenin locus. Results:The presence of fetal Y-chromosome was confirmed in 11 out of 15 cervical mucus and 12 out of 15 blood plasma samples collected from sheep with male fetuses. The sensitivity and specificity of tests were 70%with false negative results. Conclusion:This is the first report on validating the presence of fetal DNA material in the ovine cervical mucus and its potential usefulness for fetal sexing.

  19. An empirical approach towards the efficient and optimal production of influenza-neutralizing ovine polyclonal antibodies demonstrates that the novel adjuvant CoVaccine HT™ is functionally superior to Freund's adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Natalie E; Fraser, Cara K; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Brown, Michael P; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Hayball, John D

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapies utilising polyclonal antibodies could have a valuable role in preventing and treating infectious diseases such as influenza, particularly in pandemic situations but also in immunocompromised populations such as the elderly, the chronically immunosuppressed, pregnant women, infants and those with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to optimise current methods used to generate ovine polyclonal antibodies. Polyclonal antibodies to baculovirus-expressed recombinant influenza haemagglutinin from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1 (PR8) were elicited in sheep using various immunisation regimens designed to investigate the priming immunisation route, adjuvant formulation, sheep age, and antigen dose, and to empirically ascertain which combination maximised antibody output. The novel adjuvant CoVaccine HT™ was compared to Freund's adjuvant which is currently the adjuvant of choice for commercial production of ovine polyclonal Fab therapies. CoVaccine HT™ induced significantly higher titres of functional ovine anti-haemagglutinin IgG than Freund's adjuvant but with fewer side effects, including reduced site reactions. Polyclonal hyperimmune sheep sera effectively neutralised influenza virus in vitro and, when given before or after influenza virus challenge, prevented the death of infected mice. Neither the age of the sheep nor the route of antigen administration appeared to influence antibody titre. Moreover, reducing the administrated dose of haemagglutinin antigen minimally affected antibody titre. Together, these results suggest a cost effective way of producing high and sustained yields of functional ovine polyclonal antibodies specifically for the prevention and treatment of globally significant diseases.

  20. Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 by insulin in the baboon (Papio anubis endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazleabas Asgerally T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of insulin on expression and synthesis of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in the baboon endometrium in vitro. Methods Baboon endometrial explants collected from cycling, ovariectomized, steroid-treated, simulated-pregnant and pregnant animals were cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of insulin, with or without estradiol, progesterone and hCG. Results Insulin clearly inhibited IGFBP-1 production and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was not significantly affected. The inhibitory effects of insulin on IGFBP-1 were more evident in explants of non-pregnant tissue or tissue away from the implantation site. In the absence of insulin, synthesis of IGFBP-1 was induced in explants with low levels of de novo synthesis whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was inhibited. This effect was potentiated by steroids and hCG in the explant cultures. Conclusion Insulin differentially regulates endometrial IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 secretion in the baboon.

  1. Staging of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Takashi; Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Carcinoma of the uterine cervix and endometrium are common gynecologic malignancies. Both carcinomas are staged and managed by means of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. In uterine cervical cancer, the FIGO staging system is determined preoperatively by limited conventional procedures. Although this system is effective for early stage disease, it has inherent inaccuracies in advanced stage diseases and does not address nodal involvement. CT and MR imaging are widely used as comprehensive imaging modalities to evaluate tumor size and extent, and nodal involvement. MR imaging is an excellent modality for depicting invasive cervical carcinoma and can provide objective measurement of tumor volume, and provides high negative predictive value for parametrial invasion and stage IVA disease. In contrast, endometrial cancer is surgically staged. Beside recognition of the important prognostic factors, including histologic subtype and grade, accurate assessment of the tumor extent on preoperative MR imaging is expected to greatly optimize surgical procedure and therapeutic strategy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can offer ''one stop'' examination for evaluating the depth of myometrial invasion cervical invasion and nodal metastases. Evaluation of myometrial invasion on MR imaging may be an alternative to gross inspection of the uterus during the surgery. (orig.)

  2. Prokaryotic expression of antimicrobial ovine β- defensin-1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... Total RNA of ovine small intestine was isolated using TRIzol reagent ... the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from ... comparisons were made using the BLAST (basic local alignment ... Figure 2. msBD-1 induced and purified products. Lane: 1. purified .... The structure of human beta-.

  3. Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette Johanna Antonia; Byrne, Keren; Vuocolo, Tony

    2011-01-01

    -based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle.Results: The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing...

  4. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, van der R.; Luttikholt, S.J.; Lievaart-Peterson, K.; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T.; Mars, M.H.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Vellema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 Novemb

  5. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, van der R.; Luttikholt, S.J.; Lievaart-Peterson, K.; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T.; Mars, M.H.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Vellema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25

  6. Experimental infection of cattle with ovine Dichelobacter nodosus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Jørgensen, Hannah Joan; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2015-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative agent of ovine footrot, and there are strong indications that the bacterium can be transferred to cattle grazing on the same pasture as sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate if benign and virulent D. nodosus strains isolated from sheep can be ...

  7. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis differs from that in endometrium from healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2008-01-01

    : We previously examined the EGF system in endometrial samples from healthy women (n = 14). Here we examine samples from endometrium (n = 23), endometriomas (n = 10) and peritoneal endometriosis (n = 9) from women with endometriosis (n = 23). mRNA expression of receptors and ligands from the EGF system...

  8. Transforming growth factor beta isoforms regulation of Akt activity and XIAP levels in rat endometrium during estrous cycle, in a model of pseudopregnancy and in cultured decidual cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asselin Eric

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the estrous cycle, the rat uterine endometrium undergoes many changes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. If implantation occurs, stromal cells differentiate into decidual cells and near the end of pregnancy, a second wave of apoptosis occurs. This process called decidual regression, is tightly regulated as is it crucial for successful pregnancy. We have previously shown that TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 are expressed in the endometrium during decidual basalis regression, but although we had demonstrated that TGF- beta1 was involved in the regulation of apoptosis in decidual cells, the ability of TGF- beta2 and TGF-beta3 isoforms to trigger apoptotic mechanisms in these cells remains unknown. Moreover, we hypothesized that the TGF-betas were also present and regulated in the non-pregnant endometrium during the estrous cycle. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the specific effect of each TGF-β isoform in the regulation of apoptosis in sensitized endometrial stromal cells in vitro, and to investigate the regulation of TGF-beta isoforms in the endometrium during the estrous cycle in vivo. Methods Rats with regular estrous cycle (4 days were killed at different days of estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus. Pseudopregnancy was induced with sex steroids in ovariectomized rats and rats were killed at different days (days 1–9. Uteri were collected and either fixed for immunohistochemical staining (IHC or processed for RT-PCR and Western analyses. For the in vitro part of the study, rats were ovariectomized and decidualization was induced using sex steroids. Endometrial stromal decidual cells were purified, cultured and treated with different concentrations of TGF-beta isoforms. Results Our results showed that all three TGF-beta isoforms are present, but are localized differently in the endometrium during the estrous cycle and their expression is regulated differently

  9. Regulation of expression and role of leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6 in the uterus of early pregnant pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitek, A; Morawska, E; Ziecik, A J

    2012-09-15

    Cytokines, which are generally involved in the process of inflammation, may also play a critical role in conceptus implantation. We examined: (1) the expression profiles of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA and their protein content in the endometrium of cyclic and pregnant gilts on Days 10 to 18 after estrus; (2) the effect of conceptus-exposed medium on LIF and IL-6 synthesis in the endometrium; (3) the profiles of IL6R and LIFR mRNA expression in pig conceptuses collected on Days 10 to 18 of pregnancy; and (4) the effect of LIF and IL-6 on the attachment and proliferation of porcine trophoblast cells. The expression of LIF mRNA in the endometrium increased between Days 10 and 12 in both cyclic and pregnant gilts, and tended to be higher in Day 12 pregnant animals compared with nonpregnant ones. The LIF protein content in the uterine lumen peaked on Day 12 of pregnancy, and was higher than on Day 12 of the estrous cycle. Endometrial IL-6 mRNA expression was upregulated on Day 12 in pregnant gilts compared with nonpregnant animals. Moreover, a higher content of IL-6 protein was observed in pregnant than in cyclic gilts. The addition of conceptus-exposed medium resulted in up-regulation of LIF and IL6 mRNA expression, and increased IL-6 content in endometrial slices. In conceptuses, increased mRNA expression was detected on Days 10 to 14 for IL6R and on Day 14 for LIFR, when compared with other days studied. LIF and IL-6 stimulated the attachment and proliferation of trophoblast cells in vitro. In summary, LIF and IL-6 are important components of embryo-uterine interactions during early pregnancy in the pig, and may contribute to successful conceptus implantation.

  10. The Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in Normal,Hyperplastic,and Malignant Endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONGGang; TANLingfang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in normal,hyperplastic,and malignant endometrium.Methods:Endometrial tissues were obtained from 14 proliferative endometrial samples;simple(n=30)and complex hyperplasia without atypia(n=13);complex hyperplasia with atypia(n=20)and endometrial adenocarcinoma(n=17).The expression of Bcl-2and Bax proteins was detected by using immunohistochemical staining with appropriate antibodies.Results:The intensity of Bcl-2 staining was gradually increased from proliferative to simple and complex hyperplasia,but it was gradually decreased from atypia hyperplasia to endometrial adenocarcinoma(P<0.05).The intensity of Bax staining was gradually increased from proliferative endometrium to simple and complex hyperplasia,but in atypia hyperplasia it was obviously lower than simple hyperplasia,the ratio of Bco-2;Bax staining intensity was changed with the endometrium from proliferative,hyperplastic endo-metrium to endometrial adenocarcinoma.The ratio of Bcl-2;Bax staining intensity was obviously decreased in atypia hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma.Conclusion:The survival time of the cells in hyperplasia expressing Bcl-2 might be prolonged.Neoplastic cells in atypia hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma might show a decreased expression of Bcl-2 and Bax,suggesting that Bcl-2 and Bax might be important indexes and prognosis factors and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax might be correlated with carcinogenesis in the uterine endometrium of hu-mans.

  11. S100P Expression in response to sex steroids during the implantation window in human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100P, a protein originally detected in the human placenta, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumors. Interestingly, we have recently discovered using data mining that S100P was considerably up-regulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium, but little further information has been available. Methods Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to examine the expression and location of S100P in the human endometrium and endometrial cells. Estrogen and progesterone were added to the cultured cells to test the response of S100P to sex steroids. Results A dramatic peak, approximately a 100-fold increase in comparison with the proliferative and early- and late-secretory phases, was observed in the endometrium during the mid-secretory phase, which corresponds to the time of embryo implantation. Progesterone regulated the expression of S100P in both primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, but estrogen had no significant effect. Conclusions The results indicate that S100P participates in the periodic change of the endometrium under the regulation of progesterone, may be used as a unique biomarker of the receptive endometrium and play an important role in embryo implantation.

  12. Discrepancy between clinicoradiological and surgicopathological staging in stage 1 carcinoma endometrium: Identification of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chitrathara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma endometrium carries an excellent prognosis when diagnosed early. But controversies exist in the management of Ca endometrium confined to the uterus as to whether a complete surgical staging including lymph node dissection is needed always. This may increase unnecessary surgical morbidity for some. On the other hand, if not done it fails to recognize a subset of patients who require adjuvant treatment, thus affecting the outcome. Hence it is very important to categorize the patients to assess the need of complete surgical staging. AIM: The aim of the following study is to identify the risk factors influencing the upstaging of disease in clinicoradiologically stage 1 carcinoma endometrium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database evaluation of all cases of clinicoradiologically stage 1 carcinoma endometrium from January 2009 to September 2012. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Done using the statistical software SPSS − version 16 for windows (SPSS Inc. 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor Chicago, IL 60606-6412 Independent samples test (t-test for equality of means were done and (two-tailed P < 0.05 − were significant. RESULTS: Carcinoma endometrium patients with grade 1, no or < 50% myometrial involvement, <2 cm size and no isthmus involvement had low risk of upstaging. CONCLUSION: Significant upstaging is seen in the present study with per-operative staging procedures. Until the standardization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques and reporting, or until a more sensitive non-invasive technique is devised, staging lymphadenectomy appears to be invaluable in risk assessment and prognosis.

  13. Similarity between Spatial-temporal Expression Patterning of HOXA11 and Progesterone Receptor in Human Endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-fen WANG; Hong-zhi LUO; Zheng-mei ZHU; Jie-dong WANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study HOXAll expression and its correlation with that of the progesterone receptor(PR) gene in human endometriumMethods In situ hybridization and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were used.Results HOXA l l mRNA was detected in both stromal and glandular cells of normal endometrium bv in situ hybridization. But the expression levels in the glandular cells had a dramatic decline or even disappearance at mid-secretory stage.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, however, demonstrated that the total expression levels of HOXAll mRNA were markedly increased in the mid-secretory endometrium, which suggested that there was an increased expression in stromal cells. Similar results were obtained for PR gene expression in human endometrium by in situ hybridization and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis.Conclusion HOXAll gene spatial and temporal expression patterns were similar to that of PR gene in endometrium across menstrual cycle, and HOXA l l was closely related to the endometrial proltferation and differentiation during menstrual cycle, especially the establishment of receptive status in implantation.

  14. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of a commercial BSE kit for the detection of ovine scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Ushiki-Kaku, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Hattori, Shunji

    2013-06-01

    To examine the sensitivity of a commercially available bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) kit (NippIBL) for the detection of ovine scrapie, 50 scrapie-positive ovine samples from the UK, and 54 scrapie-negative ovine samples from Japan were obtain and tested using this kit. The sensitivity and specificity of NippIBL for ovine samples were 96% and 100%, respectively. The detection limit of the abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) of NippIBL was examined using diluted scrapie-positive samples. The sensitivity of NippIBL to ovine scrapie was 3-10 times superior to that of another commercial BSE diagnosis kit. Thus, the NippIBL kit proved more effective for the detection of ovine scrapie.

  16. Expression of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the effects of LH, FSH and prolactin on oestrone and 17?-oestradiol secretion in the endometrium of pigs during early pregnancy and the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowicz, B; Kotwica, G; Zglejc, K; Waszkiewicz, E; Franczak, A

    2016-03-07

    The endometrium of pregnant and cyclic pigs is a source of oestrone (E1) and 17β-oestradiol (E2). However, the roles of LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL) as regulators of endometrial steroidogenesis, and the presence of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in the porcine endometrium, remain unknown. Therefore, in the present study we examined 17β-HSD expression and the effects of LH, FSH and PRL on E1 and E2 release in vitro in endometrial explants harvested from gravid pigs on Days 10-11 (embryo migration within the uterus), 12-13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy) and 15-16 (beginning of implantation) and compared them with results obtained in non-gravid pigs. The results show that: (1) endometrial 17β-HSD activity was decreased on Days 15-16 in pregnant and cyclic pigs compared with the preceding days; (2) LH, FSH and PRL increased endometrial E1 secretion on Days 10-11 and 15-16 of pregnancy and on Days 12-13 and 15-16 of the oestrous cycle; and (3) LH, FSH and PRL increased endometrial E2 secretion on Days 15-16 of pregnancy and during the days studied in the oestrous cycle. In conclusion, data suggest that LH, FSH and PRL affect endometrial secretion of estrogens in pigs.

  17. Maternal administration of erythromycin fails to eradicate intrauterine ureaplasma infection in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Moss, Timothy J M; Knox, Christine L

    2010-10-01

    Erythromycin is the standard antibiotic used for treatment of infection with Ureaplasma spp. during pregnancy; however, maternally administered erythromycin may be ineffective at eliminating intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections. We examined whether erythromycin would eradicate intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections in pregnant sheep. At Gestational Day (GD) 50 (term, GD 150), pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic injections of erythromycin-sensitive Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (n = 16) or 10B medium (n = 16). At GD 100, amniocentesis was performed; five fetal losses (ureaplasma group, n = 4; 10B group, n = 1) had occurred by this time. Remaining ewes were allocated into treatment subgroups: medium only (n = 7), medium and erythromycin (n = 8), ureaplasma only (Up; n = 6), or ureaplasma and erythromycin (Up/E; n = 6). Erythromycin was administered intramuscularly (500 mg) every 8 h for 4 days (GDs 100-104). Amniotic fluid samples were collected at GD 105. At GD 125, preterm fetuses were surgically delivered, and specimens were collected for culture and histology. Erythromycin was quantified in amniotic fluid by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ureaplasmas were isolated from the amniotic fluid, chorioamnion, and fetal lung of animals from the Up and Up/E groups, however, the numbers of U. parvum recovered were not different between these groups. Inflammation in the chorioamnion, cord, and fetal lung was increased in ureaplasma-exposed animals compared to controls but was not different between the Up and Up/E groups. Erythromycin was detected in amniotic fluid samples, although concentrations were low (<10-76 ng/ml). This study demonstrates that maternally administered erythromycin does not eradicate chronic, intra-amniotic ureaplasma infections or improve fetal outcomes in an ovine model, potentially because of the poor placental passage of erythromycin.

  18. Molsidomine and N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibit implantation and apoptosis in mouse endometrium%吗多明和N-硝基-L-精氨酸甲基酯抑制小鼠胚胎着床以及子宫内膜的细胞调亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏; 苑金香; 金萱; 胡召元; 刘以训

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible effect of nitric oxide on receptivity and apoptosis of mouse endometrium and the possible pathway. METHODS: Female pregnant mice were treated with either molsidomine, a generator of nitric oxide (NO), or N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. The pregnancy rates of each group were calculated; 3'-end-labeling was used to detect DNA fragmention of apoptotic cells; immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and Western blot were applied respectively to estimate expression levels of Fas/FasL proteins and mRNA. RESULTS: The pregnancy rate in the drug treated group was reduced in a dose-dependent manner; apoptosis, Fas protein and mRNA levels in the endometrium of drug treated mice were correlatively decreased during the peri-implantation period. CONCLUSION: The decreased pregnant rate in mice by abnormal levels of nitric oxide may be brought about by inhibiting the normally occurrence of apoptosis in the receptive endometrium.

  19. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its two receptors in normal human endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 陈贵安

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: We try to demonstrate the expression of vascular endothelial growthfactor (VEGF) and its receptors, flt-1 and KDR, in normal human emdometrium duringthe menstrual cycle.Methods: Immunohistochemical method was used to observe the expression ofVEGF and its two receptors in emdometrium throughout the normal menstrual cyclemeanwhile the isoforms of VEGF were also detected by Western blot analysis. The en-dothelial cells of micro-vessels were marked with Ⅷ factor antibody.Results: VEGF and its receptors existed in endometrial glandular, stromal and vas-cular endothelial cells of human endometrium. Their expressions were higher in the mid-secretory phase of menstrual cycle and highest at menstruation. VEGF121 and VEGF165were the predominant isoforms in normal human endometrium.Conclusion: The expression of VEGF and its two receptors showed cycle-dependentin human endometrium, probably involved in embryonic implantation and endometrialproliferation and differentiation.

  20. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/∼pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost.

  1. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to ...

  2. Study of wool characteristics in the aranese ovine breed

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Jordana i Vidal, Jordi; Perezgrovas Garza, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    To date, no ethnological study on the wool characteristics of the Spanish Aranese ovine breed has been published.Fifty three animals belonging to this breed are tested as fleece samples. Each sample is analyzed for fleece type and length, yield by isoalcohol scouring, fiber length for each kind of fiber, variation in fiber diameter, and proportions of non-medullated and medullated or kemp fibers. Fiber length appears shorter than that previously reported for the breed by other authors. Fleece...

  3. Ontogeny of innervation of rat and ovine fetal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, W C; Wotus, C; Rose, J C

    1998-01-01

    The formation of adrenocortical zonation occurs in rats during late gestation. Since adult cortical function is modulated by neural mediators, it is possible that the development of differentiated function is dependent on cortical innervation. The goal of this study was to compare the pattern and timing of rodent and ovine adrenal innervation during late organogenesis by staining with antibodies directed against the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH). Rat adrenals were collected from fetal days 17-21 (term=21 days) and ovine adrenals from fetal days 101-136 (term=145 days). Adrenals were fixed, cryosectioned at 100 microns and immunostained using Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies. In both species, staining of VIP, CGRP, NPY and TOH fibers was observed in the capsule and subcapsular layers of the cortex during gestation. In late gestation, VIP- and NPY-positive ganglions cells were observed near the medulla extending processes toward the outer cortex; in ovine adrenals, fibers from ganglion cells appeared to surround nests of outer cortical (presumably, zona glomerulosa) cells. These data show that phenotypically distinct neural elements appear at different stages of adrenocortical development. The presence of neural elements in contact with adrenal cortical cells supports the possibility for neural control of adrenocortical development.

  4. The effect of interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 on estradiol-17β secretion in the endometrium of pig during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Wojciechowicz, B; Zmijewska, A; Kolakowska, J; Kotwica, G

    2013-07-15

    Estrogens are produced by porcine embryos during early pregnancy. It was found that the uterus of pigs might be a source of steroid hormones, including estrogens. However, the factors involved in the regulation of endometrial steroidogenesis remain unknown. We hypothesize that interleukin (IL) 1β and IL6, which are cytokines produced by porcine embryos and uterine cells, might be involved in the regulation of endometrial estrogen synthesis. Porcine endometrial explants were harvested from gravid (N = 15) and cyclic (N = 15) pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13, and 15 to 16. Samples were analyzed to determine: (1) the expression of CYP19 mRNA and the presence of aromatase cytochrome P450 protein in the tissue; and (2) the release of endometrial estradiol-17β (E2) in response to IL1β and IL6 after 6 and 12 hours of in vitro incubation. The effects observed in pregnant gilts were compared with the effects in nonpregnant gilts on corresponding days of the estrous cycle. On days 15 to 16 of pregnancy the expression of CYP19 in the endometrium was markedly decreased when compared with other periods, and the quantity of endometrial P450 aromatase protein was higher on these days than on days 12 to 13. In nongravid pigs, the expression of CYP19 was lower on days 15 to 16 when compared with days 12 to 13 and the quantity of P450 aromatase protein did not differ during the studied days of the estrous cycle. Basal endometrial E2 release was higher in pregnant gilts when compared with cyclic gilts only on days 15 to 16. In gravid pigs IL1β and IL6 did not affect endometrial E2 release on days 10 to 11 and 12 to 13 of pregnancy (P > 0.05); however, increased E2 release was observed on days 15 to 16 (P 0.05). These results provide evidence that: (1) the endometrium possesses a potential for steroidogenesis and produces E2in vitro in gravid and nongravid pigs between days 10 to 16; and (2) IL1β and IL6 increase in vitro endometrial synthesis of E2 in pregnant pigs on days 15 to

  5. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  6. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12 were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4 one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4 and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4 after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05 and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05. There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01 but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05 but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05 and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05 both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05. In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  7. ANTIBODY POLYCLONAL PRODUCTION ON RABBIT ANTI-OVINE PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN (Rabbit anti-ovPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Setiatin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detectPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT,DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as aplacebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume withcomplete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected atmutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginalear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measuredusing Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immuneresponse among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could beconcluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG atmolecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as amajor protein for producing antibodi.

  8. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  9. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakas, Philip M; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Almeida-Porada, Graca; Porada, Christopher D; Spencer, H Trent; Doering, Christopher B

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII) to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD) ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate the maintenance of

  10. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Zakas

    Full Text Available Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate

  11. Co-existence of Endometriotic Cyst of the Ovary and Arias-Stella Reaction in a Non-Pregnant Woman: Report of a Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Volga; Esaki, Muthuvel; Srinivasan, Chitra; Arockiasamy, Parimala; Ethirajan, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is defined as presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It can occur anywhere in the ovary. In the ovary it is usually presented as cyst, termed as endometriotic cyst or Chocolate cyst. Arias-Stella reaction is usually seen in gestational endometrium or in ectopic gestation site and rarely in non-pregnant uterus with hormonal intake. Co-existence of endometriosis and Arias-Stella reaction is very rare. We present a very rare case of endometriotic cyst of the ovary exhibiting Arias -Stella reaction which was seen in of non pregnant patient without any history of hormonal intake.

  12. Increased expression of stathmin in eutopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-yan; LIU Hai-yuan; LANG Jing-he; WANG Hong-qing; FAN Xiu-ling

    2010-01-01

    Background Stathmin was identified as an endometriosis-related protein by comparative proteomics in our previous study.As a microtubule-destablizing factor, stathmin was shown to participate in the relay and integration of diverse intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and many other cellular activities.To investigate whether stathmin is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we examined the expression of stathmin in eutopic endometrium of women with or without endometriosis.Methods Eutopic endometrium samples were collected from thirty-six patients who were diagnosed as endometriosis and the nineteen age-matched patients who were confirmed to be free of endometriosis surgically and histologically.The expression of stathmin mRNA was detected by real-time PCR, and its protein was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results Stathmin was overexpressed in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis detected by real-time PCR in mRNA levels and by Western blotting in protein levels, without significant difference between proliferative and 0secretory phase.Immunohistochemistry showed that stathmin protein was localized in both endometrial glandular and stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle.Conclusions Stathmin is overexpressed in endometrium of patients with endometriosis and may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  13. Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Endometrium: pathway analysis of agonists and antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.J.P. Gielen (Susanne)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractEndometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in Europe and the USA. In the normal endometrium, growth and differentiation is controlled by the ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. After menopause, the absence of follicle recruitment in the ovary results in a d

  14. Infestation Of Endometrium By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Bacilli-Cause Of Reproductive Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Gon Chowdhury , Suman Kalyan Paine, Basudev Bhattacharjee and Siddhartha Chatterjee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tuberculosis is known to be one of the major diseases, causing infertility in India. The prevalence of tuberculosis causing infertility is different in different countries. Established tubercle infection may cause irreversible infertility, on many occasions as it may affect all the reproductive organs. It also produces lower pregnancy rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology program as well. Tubercular bacillary infestation of the endometrium that is mere presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB bacilli on the endometrial surface has been found to affect fertility as well. In this study, we have detected Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB infestation of endometrium, causing implantation failure or early embryonic rejection. In many cases of unexplained infertility, tubercular bacilli infestation of endometrium, has come out to be the root cause of infertility. Association of tubercular bacillary infestation and endometriosis is another cause of concern. Recurrent abortions and ectopic pregnancy may be precipitated by the same genital pathology as well. The presence of very small number of bacilli, which escapes detection by AFB smear, culture or histology, may be detected by polymerase chain reaction techniques. These bacillary infections bring an inflammatory change in the endometrium and produces harmful cytokines which are responsible for implantation failure of micro abortion.

  15. The efficacy of intrauterine instillation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in infertile women with a thin endometrium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Jo, Jae Dong; Kim, Seul Ki; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intrauterine instillation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the day of ovulation triggering or oocyte retrieval in infertile women with a thin endometrium. Fifty women whose endometrial thickness (EMT) was ≤8 mm at the time of triggering during at least one previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and an index IVF cycle were selected. On the day of triggering (n=12) or oocyte retrieval (n=38), 300 µg of G-CSF was instilled into the uterine cavity. In the 50 index IVF cycles, the mean EMT was 7.2±0.6 mm on the triggering day and increased to 8.5±1.5 mm on the embryo transfer day (p<0.001). The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 22.0%, the implantation rate was 15.9%, and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 20%. The clinical pregnancy rate (41.7% vs. 15.8%), the implantation rate (26.7% vs. 11.7%), and the ongoing pregnancy rate (41.7% vs. 13.2%) were higher when G-CSF was instilled on the triggering day than when it was instilled on the retrieval day, although this tendency was likewise not statistically significant. Aspects of the stimulation process and mean changes in EMT were similar in women who became pregnant and women who did not. Intrauterine instillation of G-CSF enhanced endometrial development and resulted in an acceptable pregnancy rate. Instillation of G-CSF on the triggering day showed better outcomes. G-CSF instillation should be considered as a strategy for inducing endometrial growth and good pregnancy results in infertile women with a thin endometrium.

  16. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  17. Physiologic activation of nuclear factor kappa-B in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle is altered in endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ramos, Reinaldo; Rocco, Jocelyn; Rojas, Candy; Sovino, Hugo; Poch, Andrea; Kohen, Paulina; Alvarado-Díaz, Carlos; Devoto, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activation and NF-κB-p65 subunit activation, immunolocalization, and expression in the endometrium of healthy women and endometriosis patients throughout the menstrual cycle. Prospective observational study. Affiliated hospital and university research laboratory. Twenty-four healthy women and 24 endometriosis patients. Menstrual, proliferative, and secretory endometrial biopsies. Assessment of NF-κB and p65 activation by protein-DNA binding assays and p65 localization and expression by immunohistochemistry. Total NF-κB-DNA binding was constitutive and variable in human endometrium accross the menstrual cycle. Healthy women (physiologic conditions) showed higher p65-DNA binding in proliferative than in menstrual and secretory endometrium. Conversely, in endometriosis patients, p65-DNA binding was higher in proliferative and secretory endometrium than in menstrual endometrium. Endometrial epithelial cells showed higher p65 expression level score than endometrial stromal cells. NF-κB activity is constitutive, physiologic, and variable in human endometrium. The physiologic cyclic p65 activation pattern was altered in endometriosis patients, showing no cyclic variation between the proliferative and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. The absence of decreased p65 activity in secretory endometrium from endometriosis patients is concurrent with progesterone resistance and could participate in endometrial biologic alterations during the implantation window in endometriosis patients. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesional development and parasite distribution in experimental ovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Solís, David; Benavides, Julio; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Fuertes, Miguel; Ferre, Ignacio; Ferreras, Maria Del Carmen; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Hemphill, Andrew; Pérez, Valentín; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2015-03-03

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, yet recent studies have also emphasised its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. In order to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of ovine neosporosis, pregnant ewes were intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at days 40, 90 or 120 of gestation. Infection during the first term resulted in the death of all foetuses between days 19 and 21 post-infection, showing mainly necrotic lesions in foetal liver and the highest parasite DNA detection and burden in both placenta and foetal viscera. After infection at day 90, foetal death was also detected in all ewes, although later (34-48 days post-infection). In this group, lesions were mainly inflammatory. Foetal livers showed the lowest frequency of lesions, as well as the lowest parasite detection and burden. All ewes infected at day 120 delivered viable lambs, although 3 out of 9 showed weakness and recumbency. Neospora DNA was detected in all lambs but one, and parasite burden was similar to that observed in day 90 group. Lesions in this group showed more conspicuous infiltration of inflammatory cells and higher frequency in foetal brain and muscle when compared to both previous groups. These results highlight the crucial role that the stage of gestation plays on the course of ovine neosporosis, similar to that reported in bovine neosporosis, and open the doors to consider sheep as a valid model for exogenous transplacental transmission for ruminant neosporosis.

  19. Cycle modulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 in human endometrium

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    Corleta H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrium is one of the fastest growing human tissues. Sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in interaction with several growth factors, control its growth and differentiation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 interacts with cell surface receptors and also with specific soluble binding proteins. IGF-binding proteins (IGF-BP have been shown to modulate IGF-1 action. Of six known isoforms, IGF-BP-1 has been characterized as a marker produced by endometrial stromal cells in the late secretory phase and in the decidua. In the current study, IGF-1-BP concentration and affinity in the proliferative and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle were measured. Endometrial samples were from patients of reproductive age with regular menstrual cycles and taking no steroid hormones. Cytosolic fractions were prepared and binding of 125I-labeled IGF-1 performed. Cross-linking reaction products were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5% followed by autoradiography. 125I-IGF-1 affinity to cytosolic proteins was not statistically different between the proliferative and secretory endometrium. An approximately 35-kDa binding protein was identified when 125I-IGF-1 was cross-linked to cytosol proteins. Secretory endometrium had significantly more IGF-1-BP when compared to proliferative endometrium. The specificity of the cross-linking process was evaluated by the addition of 100 nM unlabeled IGF-1 or insulin. Unlabeled IGF-1 totally abolished the radioactivity from the band, indicating specific binding. Insulin had no apparent effect on the intensity of the labeled band. These results suggest that IGF-BP could modulate the action of IGF-1 throughout the menstrual cycle. It would be interesting to study this binding protein in other pathologic conditions of the endometrium such as adenocarcinomas and hyperplasia.

  20. Comparison in gene expression of secretory human endometrium using laser microdissection

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    Aida Tadateru

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium prepares for implantation under the control of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that there are complicated interactions between the epithelium and stroma in the endometrium during menstrual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate a difference in gene expression between the epithelial and stromal areas of the secretory human endometrium using microdissection and macroarray technique. Methods The epithelial and stromal areas were microdissected from the human endometrium during the secretory phase. RNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. Macroarray analysis of nearly 1000 human genes was carried out in this study. Some genes identified by macroarray analysis were verified using real-time PCR. Results In this study, changes in expression 5-fold were WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (44.1 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (40.1 fold, homeo box B5 (19.8 fold, msh homeo box homolog (18.8 fold, homeo box B7 (12.7 fold and protein kinase C, theta (6.4 fold. On the other hand, decorin (55.6 fold, discoidin domain receptor member 2 (17.3 fold, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (9 fold, ribosomal protein S3A (6.3 fold, and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains (5.2 fold were strongly expressed in the stromal areas. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (19.4 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (9.7-fold, decorin (16.3-fold and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (7.2-fold were verified by real-time PCR. Conclusions Some of the genes we identified with differential expression are related to the immune system. These results are telling us the new information for understanding the secretory human endometrium.

  1. Correlation between aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium of symptomatic patients and the presence of endometriosis

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    Maia Jr H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1,2, Julio Casoy11CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate whether aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium correlates with the presence and severity of endometriosis in patients with infertility and/or dysmenorrhea undergoing laparoscopy and hysteroscopy.Patients: The study involved 106 patients of reproductive age with symptoms of dysmenorrhea and infertility. Sixteen endometriosis-free asymptomatic patients were used as a control group.Methods: Concomitant laparoscopy and hysteroscopy was carried out in all cases. An endometrial biopsy was taken to determine aromatase p450 expression by immunohistochemistry. Endometriosis was staged according to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification.Results: Endometriosis was diagnosed by laparoscopy in 92/106 symptomatic patients. In this group, aromatase expression was detected in the eutopic endometrium of 66/92 patients with endometriosis (72% and in 13/14 (95% patients in the symptomatic, endometriosis-free group (P = 0.09. Aromatase expression was not detected in any patients from the control group. In the endometriosis group, aromatase expression was detected in the eutopic endometrium of 28/45 patients (62% with American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification stage 1 of the disease, in 11/14 patients (78% with stage II, 14/20 patients (70% with stage III, and in 12/13 patients (92% with stage IV; however, the difference was only statistically significant between stages I and IV (P = 0.04.Conclusion: Aromatase expression in the endometrium was associated with the presence of dysmenorrhea and infertility irrespective of the presence of endometriosis. When endometriosis was present, however, there was a tendency for aromatase expression to be positively correlated with dysmenorrhea severity.Keywords: aromatase, endometrium, endometriosis, Cox-2, dysmenorrhea

  2. Relationship between Hysteroscopic Findings and Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor in Mid-secretary Endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-bao WANG; Lu FANG; Zhong-mei LI; Xiao-yun WU; Zuan-chong FENG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the potencial relationship between hysteroscopic findings,and the concentrationa of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in uterine flushing as well as the expression of LIF in the endometriumMethods Hysteroscopy was carried out among 64 infertile female patients and uterine flushing was collected for LIF assay in the mid-secretory phase. All subjects were classified according to the appearance of the glandular openings and the blood vessels on the endometrium surface into Group I and Group II. An ELISA kit specific for human LIF was used for LIF assay.Results The median LIF concentrations measured in Group I and Group II were 14.375±15.155 pg/mL and 61.696±44.127 pg/mL. The difference of LIF concentration was statistically significant (P<0.05) between Group I and Group II. But no significant difference between Group II and the proliferative endometrium (11.02±11.07 pg/mL) was found. The average expression of LIF mRNA in Group I was 0.93±0.20, and 1.55±0.08 in Group II. The expression of LIF mRNA in the endometrium from Group I was much lower than that from the decidua of early pregnancy (1.65±0.18), while no significant difference was observed between Group II and the decidua of early pregnancy.Conclusion There is a strong relationship between endoscopic findings and the concentration of LIF. Our data suggested that the hysteroscopic appearance of the mid-secretory endometrium and measurement of LIF in uterine flushing are better evaluation factors for the uterine receptivity.

  3. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzymski, Piotr, E-mail: rzymskipiotr@ump.edu.pl [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland); Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Poniedziałek, Barbara [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Opala, Tomasz [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  4. Lack of effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) on the endometrium in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, David J; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Bouchard, Céline; Cusan, Leonello; Girard, Ginette; Ayotte, Normand; Koltun, William; Blouin, François; Young, Douglas; Wade, Anthony; Martel, Céline; Dubé, Robert

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) on the endometrium in postmenopausal women. Intravaginal DHEA (6.5 mg) was administered daily for 52 weeks to 422 women who had endometrial biopsy at baseline and end of study, whereas 15 women were similarly treated for 26 to 52 weeks. Participants in three other studies received 3.25 mg (n = 126), 6.5 mg (n = 129), or 13 mg (n = 30) of DHEA for 12 weeks; women similarly had baseline and end-of-study biopsies. Endometrial biopsy samples were available for 668 women at baseline and end of study, with sufficient material for analysis. Endometrial atrophy or inactive endometrium (668 women) was found in all women treated with intravaginal DHEA. Similar atrophy was observed in 119 of 121 participants with sufficient material for analysis who received placebo. After cessation of estradiol secretion by the ovaries at menopause, the estrogens made by mechanisms of intracrinology are inactivated intracellularly at their site of formation and action, thus maintaining serum estradiol at biologically inactive concentrations to avoid stimulation of the endometrium. The absence of enzymes that are able to transform DHEA into estrogens in the endometrium explains the typical endometrial atrophy in all normal postmenopausal women in the presence of variable concentrations of circulating endogenous DHEA. According to these mechanisms, the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA administered intravaginally acts exclusively in the vagina, whereas all serum sex steroids remain well within the biologically inactive postmenopausal reference range, thus avoiding any stimulation of the already atrophic endometrium.

  5. Expression of glucose transporter 4 in endometrium of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Li Xiao-dong; Hao Gui-min; Xu Su-xin; Cui Na; Cao Jin-feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to detect the expression of glucose transporter 4(GLUT4),insulin(INS)and insulin receptor(INS-R)genes and proteins in endometrium of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome(P-COS)and control group and investigate the relationship between GLUT4 and insulin resistance(IR).Methods:The patients with PCOS were divided into two groups:hypertestosteronemia(h-T)group and hyperin-sulinemia(h-I)group.The expression of GLUT4,INS and INS-R genes and proteins in endometrium of PCOS groups and control group was detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results:There was the expression of GLUT4,INS and INS-R proteins and genes in endometrium of PCOS groups and control group.Compared with the control group,PCOS groups were significantly lower in the expres-sion of GLUT4 protein and gene as well as INS-R protein and gene but much stronger in the expression of INS pro-tein and gene.The GLUT4 gene expression in h-I group was lower than that of h-T group but the expression of INS protein in h-I group was siginificantly higher than that of h-T group.Conclusion:The expression of GLUT4,INS and INS-R in endometrium of PCOS and control groups is con-firmed.Hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogen can cause the expression of GLUT4 to decrease.The decreased ex-pression of GLUT4 in PCOS may be related with the IR of endometrium.

  6. Progestin treatment induces apoptosis and modulates transforming growth factor-beta in the uterine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rimel, B J; Watkin, William; Turbov, Jane M; Barry, Cathy; Du, Hongyan; Maxwell, George L; Cline, J M

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiologic, animal, and human data suggest that progestins are potent endometrial cancer preventive agents. In the ovarian surface epithelium, progestins have been hypothesized to confer a cancer preventive effect via apoptosis and modulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Given that the ovarian epithelium and endometrium share a common embryologic origin and similar reproductive and hormonal risk factors for malignancy, we tested the hypothesis that progestins confer biological effects in the endometrium similar to those in the ovary. Postmenopausal female macaques (n = 78) were randomized into four groups to receive a diet for 36 months containing no hormone versus conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), or CEE + MPA. The endometrium was then examined immunohistochemically for treatment-specific changes using antibodies to activated caspase-3 (for apoptosis), Ki-67 (proliferation), and the TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 isoforms. Percentages of caspase-positive endometrial glandular cells were 3- to 5-fold higher in CEE + MPA-treated animals compared with all others (P < 0.05). Caspase-expressing cells were six times more numerous in the endometrial stroma of animals treated with MPA alone relative to other groups (P < 0.0001). Induction of endometrial glandular cell apoptosis in the CEE + MPA-treated group was associated with a dramatic increase in expression of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 in the stromal compartment of the endometrium (P < 0.0001). Progestin treatment activates chemopreventive biological effects in the endometrium that are similar to those in the ovarian surface epithelium. These data may facilitate identification of a chemopreventive approach that dramatically lessens the risk of both uterine and ovarian cancer.

  7. Distribution patterns of mast cells in the uterus of pregnant Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y X; Yu, M; Wang, C; Peng, K M; Liu, H Z

    2012-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the numerical distribution of mast cells (MCs) in the uteri of pregnant Meishan pigs to explore the functions of MCs in pig pregnancy. The uterine samples from pregnant (on days 15, 26 and 50 of gestation) pigs were obtained respectively and stained with toluidine blue. The results were as follows: MCs were constitutively located in the uterus of the Meishan pig, with the distribution varying with gestational stages. On days 15 and 26 of gestation, MCs were mainly distributed around the blood vessels and uterine glands within the endometrium. On day 50 of gestation, MCs were mostly distributed in the myometrium. These results indicated that uterine MCs possibly have versatile functions in pig pregnancy.

  8. Effects of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (GCSF) on Persistent Thin Endometrium in Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet V; Choudhary, Sumesh; Sharma, Urmila; Aggarwal, Rohina; Agarwal, Ritu; Gandhi, Khushali; Goraniya, Nilesh

    2016-10-01

    To predict the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in the treatment of persistent thin endometrium resistant to other treatments in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. This is a hospital-based prospective study. Thirty-five women with persistent thin endometrium (transfer. Of these, 3 (15.78 %) patients had chemical pregnancy, but there was no clinical pregnancy. In 16 participants, embryo transfer was canceled in view of insufficient endometrial thickness (<7 mm). GCSF caused a small increase in endometrial thickness in women with persistent thin endometrium, but there was no improvement in their pregnancy rates.

  9. ( sup 3 H)idazoxan binding to the ovine myometrium. Binding characteristics and changes due to steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Villar, R.; Lafontan, M.; Toutain, P.L. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Toulouse (France))

    1990-05-01

    (3H)idazoxan binding to myometrial membranes was investigated in four groups of ewes under different steroid hormone status: control, estradiol-treated and progesterone plus estradiol-treated ovariectomized ewes and pregnant ewes. (3H)idazoxan binding to myometrial membrane fractions was saturable, reversible, specific and of high affinity. The affinity did not vary significantly between the four groups of ewes (2.8 less than KD less than 4.7 nM). Maximal binding capacity varied significantly among groups: binding of (3H)idazoxan was lower in control ovariectomized ewes than in either estradiol or progestagen plus estrogen-treated ewes (maximal binding capacity, 73 +/- 11 fmol/mg of protein vs. 108 +/- 16 and 318 +/- 65, respectively). The highest (3H)idazoxan binding was measured in pregnant ewes (maximal binding capacity, 1302 +/- 256 fmol/mg of protein). Based on the saturation studies with accurate nonspecific binding definition (phentolamine vs. epinephrine), and on the relative order of potency for selected adrenergic drugs, it could be stated that the binding sites labeled by (3H)idazoxan in our study exhibited most of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor properties. Nevertheless, these alpha-2 adrenoceptors obviously differed from the standard alpha-2A-subtype based on Ki values obtained with yohimbine and prazosin in competition studies of (3H)idazoxan binding. The increase in the number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors under progesterone domination, and especially during gestation, supported the hypothesis that this adrenoceptor subtype could play a major role in the control of the motility pattern of the ovine pregnant uterus.

  10. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Chryssafidis, Andreas L.; Browne, John A.; O'Sullivan, Jack; McGettigan, Paul A.; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Background Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts’ immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines. Methodology/principal findings This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS), respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18) or activated (e.g. miR155-5p) in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including ‘Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) signaling’, ‘Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages’, ‘Toll-like Receptor (TLRs) Signaling’, ‘Death Receptor Signaling’ and ‘IL17 Signaling’. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed. Significance In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq). This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines. PMID:27661612

  11. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts' immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines.This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS, respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18 or activated (e.g. miR155-5p in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including 'Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ signaling', 'Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages', 'Toll-like Receptor (TLRs Signaling', 'Death Receptor Signaling' and 'IL17 Signaling'. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed.In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq. This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bifidobacteria from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunesova, Vera; Killer, Jiri; Vlkova, Eva; Musilova, Sarka; Tomaska, Martin; Rada, Vojtech; Kmet, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    Animal products are one of the niches of bifidobacteria, a fact probably attributable to secondary contamination. In this study, 2 species of the genus Bifidobacterium were isolated by culture-dependent methods from ovine cheeses that were made from unpasteurized milk without addition of starter cultures. The isolates were identified as Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis and sequencing of phylogenetic markers (16S rRNA, hsp60, and fusA). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective reduction of the disulfide bonds of ovine placental lactogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, J J; Wolfenstein-Todel, C

    1988-01-01

    Reduction and carbamidomethylation of two of the three disulfide bridges of ovine placental lactogen was accomplished by the use of 20-fold molar excess of dithiothreitol over protein disulfide content. The derivative retained its binding capacity to somatogenic as well as lactogenic rat liver receptors, although the latter was somewhat diminished. The two disulfide bonds exposed to the reducing agent are those located near the carboxy- and amino-terminus, while the larger loop remained intact after reduction. This behaviour is similar to that of bovine growth hormone, where the larger loop was also more resistant to reduction.

  14. THE EXPRESSION OF p16 AND CYCLIN D1 IN PROLIFERATIVE ENDOMETRIUM AND ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To studythe role of p16 and cyclin in the genesis and development of endometrial car-cinoma. Methods 12 cases of normal endometrium, 22 cases of proliferative endometrium and 41 cases of endome- trial carcinoma were detected for the expression of p16 and cyclin D1 by means of immunohistochemical S-P. Results In normal endometrium p16 was expressed while cyclm D1was almost negative in the proliferative phase, but both of them were negative in the secretory phase. Among the groups of the simple and compound hyperplasia, the atypical hyperplasia and the endometrial carcinoma,the expression of p16 showed a descending tendency, while the expression of cyclin showed an ascending tendency. In endometrial carcinomas the expression of p16 was significantly lower than that of normal endometrium and proliferative endometrium (P<0. 01 ,P<0.05). However, the expression of cy- clin in proliferate endometrium and endometrial carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal endometri- un (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). The overexpression of cyclin D1 in the atypical hyperplasia group was obviously different from that in the simple and compound hyperplasia group (P<0.01). In endometrial carcinoma,the expression of p16 was decreasing with the descending of cell differentiate degree, on the opposite, the expression of cyclin was in-creased and there existed a negative correlation between them. It was also observed that the overexpression of cyclin was significant different between and ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion p1 6 is a negative regulating factor of cell cycle in endometrial carcinoma, while cyclin is a positive one. Both of them are important in the genesis and devel-opment of endometrial carcinoma. The Iow expression of p1 6 and the overexpression of cyclin are related with the malicious biological behaviors of endometrial carcinoma and maybe play an important role in the judgement of prog- nosis. Overexpression of cyclin may be an earlier molecular event in the genesis of

  15. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  16. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01 and G6PC (P = 0.057 were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01 and testosterone (P<0.001 in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01 and AR (P<0.05 in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  17. Ovine blood: establishment of a list of reference values relevant for blood coagulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Tiede, Andreas; Teebken, Omke E; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ovine animal models are widely used to conduct preclinical studies, e.g., to evaluate cardiovascular prostheses intended to be applied in man. However, although analyzed in many of those studies, information about ovine blood reference values is scanty. The aim of this study is to establish a reference list of ovine blood parameters relevant for blood coagulation. A cohort of 47 mature ewes was evaluated. Parameters comprised the following: cells and cellular components-platelet, red, and white cell counts (including subsets), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MCH concentration (MCHC); global tests of coagulation-prothrombin time (Quick's time) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); and parameters relevant for blood coagulation-fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), and von Willebrand Factor. After explorative data analysis, a list of ovine reference values was established. Interestingly, a comparison with human reference values revealed some interspecies differences between sheep and man, i.e., much higher ovine ranges for some cell counts (neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets) but lower values for some other parameters (Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, AT, and Quick's test). We established a reference list of ovine blood count and blood coagulation parameters. Because of some peculiarities of the ovine blood, this list may have implications for the interpretation of experimental data.

  18. ULTRASTRUCTURAL RESEARCH OF THE ENDOMETRIUM RECEPTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF PRE-CONCEPTIONAL PREPARATION IN REFRACTORY PREGNANCY LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Marinkin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Cyclic hormonotherapy in combination with complex metabolic therapy as a pre-conceptional preparation contributing to pregnancy illustrates much higher effectiveness of pathogenetically proved preconceptional hormonotherapy KEY WORDS: refractory pregnancy loss, endometrium receptivity, hormone therapy, ultrastructure.

  19. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  20. Effect of IUD with Indomethacin on Rabbits Endometrium by Enzyme Histochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆欣; 吴竞梅; 徐胜; 王春年; 刘昌官; 金毓翠; 刘晓瑗

    1996-01-01

    The present paper reported the observation of the effect of IUD with indomethacin on enzyme activities of succinic dehydrogenase ( SDH ),nonspecific esterase (NSE) and ATPase in endomtrium of rabbits, and the comparison with copper intrauterine devices, silicon rubber and IUD with copper and indomethacin. The results indicated= 1. In the group of indomethacin, the enzyme activities of SDH, NSE and ATPase were increased, while they' were obviously decreased in [UD with copper. In the group of IUD with copper and indomethacin the enzyme activities also decreased, but were higher than those observed in the silicon rubber group. 2. The damage to endometrium was obvious in IUD with copper. The damage to epithelium of endometrium in structure and function by IUD with indomethacin was found to be lower.

  1. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  2. Low prevalence of DNA virus in the human endometrium og endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Munk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    biopsies and subjected to highly sensitive PCR tests detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) types, the herpes family viruses HSV-1 and -2, CMV, and EBV, and the polyomaviruses SV40, JCV, BKV, KIV, WUV, and MCV. The prevalence of pathogenic DNA viruses in the human endometrium was generally low (0......The chronic female disease endometriosis causes debilitating pain and lowered fertility. The aetiology is unknown, but indications of an infectious agent are present. This study investigates the possible involvement of a pathogenic virus in endometriosis patients and controls. DNA was purified from......–10%). The virus prevalence was found to vary slightly when comparing the endometrium of healthy women and women with endometriosis. However, these were not significant differences, and no viruses were identified in endometriotic lesions. These results do not point towards any evidence that endometriosis is caused...

  3. Aberrant Methylation of the E-Cadherin Gene Promoter Region in the Endometrium of Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ran, Ran; Guan, Yingxia; Zhu, Xiaoxiong; Kang, Shan

    2016-08-01

    A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma that originates from the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. A variety of endometrial abnormalities are associated with uterine fibroids. This study aims to investigate the methylation status of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter region in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids. The methylation of CDH1 was studied using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in the endometrial tissue of 102 patients with uterine fibroids and 50 control patients. The E-cadherin expression was examined by flow cytometry. The methylation rate of CDH1 promoter region was 33.3% in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids and 8% in the endometrium of women without fibroids. The frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in the endometrium of patients with fibroids was significantly higher than that in the endometrium of women without fibroids (P = .001). Furthermore, the E-cadherin expression level in methylation-positive tissues was significantly lower than that in methylation-negative tissues (P = .017). These results suggest that epigenetic aberration of CDH1 may occur in the endometrium of patients with fibroids, which may be associated with E-cadherin protein expression in endometrial tissue.

  4. Molecular and Biomorphometrical Identification of Ovine Babesiosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Noorollahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran.Methods: One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte have been considered. Extracted DNA from each blood samples were used in PCR and semi nested- PCR in order to confirm the presence of the species.Results: The results of the PCR assays showed nine (5.85%, 81 (53% and 18 (11.7% were distinguished as Babesia, Theileria and mixed infection, respectively. Semi nested- PCR did not confirm the presence of B. motasi.Conclusion: The causative organism of many cases of haemoprotozoal diseases, which recorded in previous studies, could be B. ovis or Theileria lestoquardi. The result confirmed that B. ovis was only species which causes babesiosis in the study areas. It seems that the biometrical polymor­phisms could exist in B. ovis in Iran. This polymorphism could be a main problem in differen­tiation between B. ovis and B. motasi and it could be dissolved by specific PCR analysis.

  5. Conceptus-induced changes in the endometrial transcriptome: how soon does the cow know she is pregnant?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, F; Spencer, T.E.; Bazer, F.W.; Sandra, Olivier; Mansouri-Attia, N.; Okumu, L.A.; McGettigan, P.A.; Mehta, J P; McBride, R; O'Gaora, P.; Roche, J. F.; Lonergan, P

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine the earliest response of the bovine uterine endometrium to the presence of the conceptus at key developmental stages of early pregnancy. There were no detectable differences in gene expression in endometria from pregnant and cyclic heifers on Days 5, 7, and 13 postestrus, but the expression of 764 genes was altered due to the presence of the conceptus at maternal recognition of pregnancy (Day 16). Of these 514 genes, MX2, BST2, RSAD2, ISG15, OAS1, USP18, IFI44, ...

  6. Functioning Endometrium and Endometrioma in a Patient with Mayer-Rokitanski-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yasushi; Hirakawa, Tomoko; Nishida, Masakazu; Yuge, Akitoshi; Yano, Mitsutake; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitanski-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare disease. A 27-year-old woman was admitted for primary amenorrhea and cyclic pelvic pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral Müllerian remnants with functioning endometrium and a pelvic mass considered to be an endometriotic cyst. Bilateral Müllerian remnants were removed, and right ovarian cystectomy was performed at laparoscopic surgery. Accurate evaluation before the operation and informed consent are necessary to treat patients with MRKH syndrome. PMID:25336999

  7. Concerted upregulation of CLP36 and smooth muscle actin protein expression in human endometrium during decidualization

    OpenAIRE

    Miehe, Ulrich; Neumaier-Wagner, Peruka; Kadyrov, Mamed; Goyal, Pankaj; Alfer, Joachim; Rath, Werner; Huppertz, Berthold

    2005-01-01

    The human endometrium prepares for implantation of the blastocyst by reorganization of its whole cellular network. Endometrial stroma cells change their phenotype starting around the 23rd day of the menstrual cycle. These predecidual stroma cells first appear next to spiral arteries, and after implantation these cells further differentiate into decidual stroma cells. The phenotypical changes in these cells during decidualization are characterized by distinct changes in the actin filaments and...

  8. Expression of the repulsive SLIT/ROBO pathway in the human endometrium and Fallopian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, W C; McDonald, S E; Dickinson, R E; Shaw, J L V; Lourenco, P C; Wheelhouse, N; Lee, K-F; Critchley, H O D; Horne, A W

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether the repulsive SLIT/ROBO pathway is expressed in the endometrium and is negatively regulated during implantation. We also examined whether deficient expression in the Fallopian tube (FT) may predispose to ectopic pregnancy (EP). Endometrium (n = 21) and FT (n = 17) were collected across the menstrual cycle from fertile women with regular cycles. Decidualized endometrium (n = 6) was obtained from women undergoing termination, and FT (n = 6) was obtained from women with EP. SLIT/ROBO expression was quantified by reverse transcription-PCR and protein localized by immunohistochemistry. The regulation of SLIT/ROBO expression in vitro, by sex steroids and hCG, was assessed in endometrial (hTERT-EEpC) epithelial cells, and the effects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and smoking were studied in oviductal (OE-E6/E7) epithelial cells. Endometrial SLIT3 was highest in the mid-secretory phase (P = 0.0003) and SLIT1,2 and ROBO1 showed a similar trend. ROBO2 was highest in proliferative phase (P = 0.027) and ROBO3,4 showed a similar trend. SLIT2,3 and ROBO1, 4 were lower in decidua compared with mid-secretory endometrium (P ROBOs, excepting ROBO2, were expressed in FT but there were no differences across the cycle or in EP. SLIT/ROBO proteins were localized to endometrial and FT epithelium. Treatment of hTERT-EEpC with a combination of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate inhibited ROBO1 expression (P ROBO interaction during normal development and pregnancy but that it may not be important in the aetiology of EP.

  9. Mice endometrium receptivity in early pregnancy is impaired by maternal hyperinsulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runqin; Wu, Juan; He, Junlin; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Tong, Chao; Ding, Yubin; Su, Yan; Chen, Wenqi; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Rufei

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocyte and embryo and hyperinsulinemia. The importance of hyperinsulinemia on maternal endometrium receptivity remains to be elucidated. The present study used a hyperinsulinemic mouse model to determine whether hyperinsulinemia may affect endometrial receptivity. An insulin intervention mouse model was first established. The serum levels of insulin, progesterone and estradiol were subsequently detected by ELISA assay analysis. The number of implantation sites was recorded using Trypan blue dye and the morphology of mice uteri was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression levels of molecular markers associated with endometrial receptivity were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Finally, the importance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression following insulin treatment was determined. Mice treated with insulin developed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The number of implantation sites following insulin treatment did not differ between the control and insulin-treated groups. Additionally, no significant morphological alterations in mice uteri between control and insulin-treated groups were observed. However, the expression levels of estrogen receptor (Esr) 1, Esr2, progesterone receptor and homeobox A10 associated with endometrial receptivity, were imbalanced during endometrium receptivity when maternal hyperinsulinemia was induced. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of endometrial phosphorylated (p)-mTOR and p-ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 were significantly greater in the insulin-treated group. These results demonstrated that although an embryo may implant into endometrium, mice endometrium receptivity in early

  10. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...

  11. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in healthy and infected canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotimanukul, S; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2011-10-01

    This study provides the first report into immunohistochemical localization of Toll-like receptor (TLR) in the canine reproductive tract. TLR4 was investigated in endometrium during the estrous cycle and in pyometra. Pyometra is the most important pathological condition of the uterus due to bacterial infection in dogs. To protect against invading pathogens, the female reproductive tract has evolved immune mechanisms. TLRs are the cellular components of the afferent arm of the innate immune system. The expression of TLR4 was significantly higher in the endometrial stroma compared to the endometrial surface epithelium and glandular epithelium in proestrus. The glandular epithelium and stroma at the diestrous stage expressed TLR4 significantly higher than surface epithelium. Furthermore, when compared to other healthy groups, the glandular epithelium at diestrus also higher expressed TLR4 than other stages. The expression of TLR4 in the surface epithelium was higher in dogs with pyometra compared with all other groups. And, the surface epithelium of dogs suffering from pyometra also expressed TLR4 more intensely than the glandular epithelium. The innate immunity of infected canine endometrium response to bacterial infection is intensely extremely increased by the expression of TLR4. Furthermore, the different levels of TLR4 expression seems related to physiological changes in distinct cell types of endometrium, leukocytes populations, cytokines and sex hormones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uropathogenic virulence factor FimH facilitates binding of uteropathogenic Escherichia coli to canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, N; Marenda, M S; Browning, G F; Holden, K M; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-09-01

    Pyometra is a potentially life-threatening condition in bitches and is often caused by Escherichia coli infection. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli strains commonly carry the genes for type 1 fimbriae that mediate bacterial adhesion onto host epithelium. To investigate whether the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, FimH, facilitates the binding of uropathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium, the fimH gene was insertionally inactivated in a pathogenic E. coli strain. The ability of E. coli to bind to canine endometrial epithelial cells was determined in vitro using canine uterine biopsies. Binding of the fimH mutant was only 0.3% of that of the wild type. Complementation of the mutation restored the phenotype to that of the parent. This study has developed an in vitro model that allows quantitative and qualitative assessment of bacterial binding to canine endometrium and has demonstrated that the fimH gene plays a role in adherence of pathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium.

  13. TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmig Rainer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an essential role in the innate immune system by initiating and directing immune response to pathogens. TLRs are expressed in the human endometrium and their regulation might be crucial for the pathogenesis of endometrial diseases. Methods TLR3 and TLR4 expression was investigated during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal endometrium considering peritoneal endometriosis, hyperplasia, and endometrial adenocarcinoma specimens (grade 1 to 3. The expression studies applied quantitative RT-PCR and immunolabelling of both proteins. Results TLR3 and TLR4 proteins were mostly localised to the glandular and luminal epithelium. In addition, TLR4 was present on endometrial dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages. TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA levels did not show significant changes during the menstrual cycle. In patients with peritoneal endometriosis, TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA expression decreased significantly in proliferative diseased endometrium compared to controls. Interestingly, ectopic endometriotic lesions showed a significant increase of TLR3 und TLR4 mRNA expression compared to corresponding eutopic tissues, indicating a local gain of TLR expression. Endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma revealed significantly reduced receptor levels when compared with postmenopausal controls. The lowest TLR expression levels were determined in poor differentiated carcinoma (grade 3. Conclusion Our data suggest an involvement of TLR3 and TLR4 in endometrial diseases as demonstrated by altered expression levels in endometriosis and endometrial cancer.

  14. Analysis of Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in the Uterine Endometrium during Pregnancy in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Ka, Hakhyun

    2015-01-01

    The uterine endometrium plays a critical role in regulating the estrous cycle and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammalian species. Many studies have investigated the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium, but the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among genes differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during gestation in pigs remain unclear. Thus, this study investigated global gene expression profiles using microarray in pigs. Diverse transcriptome analyses including clustering, network, and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses were performed to detect endometrial gene expression changes during the different gestation stages. In total, 6,991 genes were found to be differentially expressed by comparing genes expressed on day (D) 12 of pregnancy with those on D15, D30, D60, D90 and D114 of pregnancy, and clustering analysis of detected DEGs distinguished 8 clusters. Furthermore, several pregnancy-related hub genes such as ALPPL2, RANBP17, NF1B, SPP1, and CST6 were discovered through network analysis. Finally, detected hub genes were technically validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the complex network characteristics involved in uterine endometrial gene expression during pregnancy and indicate that diverse patterns of stage-specific gene expression and network connections may play a critical role in endometrial remodeling and in placental and fetal development to establish and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs.

  15. Analysis of Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in the Uterine Endometrium during Pregnancy in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingoo Kim

    Full Text Available The uterine endometrium plays a critical role in regulating the estrous cycle and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammalian species. Many studies have investigated the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium, but the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among genes differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during gestation in pigs remain unclear. Thus, this study investigated global gene expression profiles using microarray in pigs. Diverse transcriptome analyses including clustering, network, and differentially expressed gene (DEG analyses were performed to detect endometrial gene expression changes during the different gestation stages. In total, 6,991 genes were found to be differentially expressed by comparing genes expressed on day (D 12 of pregnancy with those on D15, D30, D60, D90 and D114 of pregnancy, and clustering analysis of detected DEGs distinguished 8 clusters. Furthermore, several pregnancy-related hub genes such as ALPPL2, RANBP17, NF1B, SPP1, and CST6 were discovered through network analysis. Finally, detected hub genes were technically validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the complex network characteristics involved in uterine endometrial gene expression during pregnancy and indicate that diverse patterns of stage-specific gene expression and network connections may play a critical role in endometrial remodeling and in placental and fetal development to establish and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs.

  16. Influence of experimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the expression of sialoglycans in rat ovary and endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogomonian E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 7 lectins with different carbohydrate affinities (SNA, WGA, RCA, UDA, SBA, HPA and PNA were used forhistochemical investigation of sialoglycans and related oligosaccharidic determinants in rat ovary and endometrium underexperimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Tissue samples were fixed in 4% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Lectin-peroxidase labels were visualized by diaminobenzidine. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism significantly influenced ovarianand endometrial glycopolymers: rearrangement of NeuNAc, DGlcNAc, DGalNAc and DGal determinants in each structuralcomponent demonstrated specific and differential manifestations. It was detected that hyperthyroidism in comparison withhypothyroidism influenced carbohydrates of female reproductive system more strongly; endometrium was more susceptibleto thyroxin-modulated impairments in comparison with ovaria. Treatment of hypothyroidism with thyroxin normalized leucocytecount, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of collagen fibers and expression of sialoglycans, but not SBA, HPAand PNA receptor sites. Selective labeling of zona pellucida and corona radiata, luteocytes, atretic follicles and leucocyteswas detected in ovaria; in endometrium lectin label was attributed to leucocytes and collagen fibers, epithelium and secretorycomponents of uterine glands.

  17. The expression of glucose transporter 4 in endometrium of polycystic ovary syndrome women and its change after metformin treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xian-hua; Ye Bi-lu; Xu Bing-seng; Zhao Jun-zhao; Lin Jin-ju; Yang Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protein and messenger RNA expression of glucose transporter 4 in endometrium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to evaluate its change after three months treatment of metformin.Methods.Twenty-two patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (group A) and six non-PCOS infertile women (group B) were recruited in our hospital.The consent form was obtained from each patient.Endometrium and blood samples were obtained during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle.Reverse transeriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical method were applied to detect the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in endometrium.All PCOS patients received monotherapy of metformin after endometrium biopsy.Seven un-conceived patients (group A1) from group A who completed three months of metformin treatment were selected to perform the second time biopsy during proliferative phase.The expression of GLUT4 were remeasured as well.Results.There were no significant differences of the levels of E2, P and endometrium thickness on the biopsy day between group A and group B.But the basal levels of LH, T, LH/FSH ratio, and the ovarian volume were significantly higher in group A as compared with group B (P<0.001).The expression of GLUT4 in group A was significantly lower than that of group B (1.05±-0.13 vs 1.50±0.21, P<0.001).In group A1,the expression of GLUT4 in endometrium were changed from 1.08±0.08 to 1.27±0.16 before and after treatment (P<0.05).The results of immunohistochemical staining of GLUT4 in endometrium were coincident with the results of RT-PCR.The fast insulin level and the insulin sensitivity index were also improved obviously after three months of metformin therapy (P<0.05).Conclusions: Insulin-resistance status was proved existing in endometrium of PCOS women; A significant improvement of GLUT4 expression was observed in endometrium after metformin treatment, supporting that metformin can relief

  18. Detection of streptomycin residues in local meat of bovine and ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From meat retails in Mosul province, forty-five meat samples of local ovine and bovine (23 bovine samples and 22 ovine samples were collected. The period of collection was during November 2010 to May 2011, by means of multistage random sampling for detection of streptomycin residues. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for detection of streptomycin residues. The results revealed that eleven ovine meat samples (50% were positive to streptomycin residue, with a mean value 35.06 µg kg-1, while 14 bovine meat samples (60.86% were positive to residual streptomycin with a mean value 59.56 µg kg-1. From the results, it is clear that all tested meat samples (ovine and bovine were safe enough for human consumption.

  19. The interactions of porcine and ovine, serum and colostral immunoglobulins with staphylococcal Protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, M A; Watson, D L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the proportion of each immunoglobulin class/subclass in blood and colostrum of the pig and sheep, which would bind to staphylococcal Protein A. The concentrations of porcine IgG, IgM, and IgA were determined for serum and colostral whey from five sows. Similar measurements were made on two fractions produce by elution of the sample through a Protein A-Sepharose column: fraction 1, immunoglobulins which did not bind to Protein A, and fraction 2, immunoglobulins which bound to Protein A. The concentrations of ovine IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA were measured for serum and colostral whey from six ewes, and again similar measurements were made after elution of each ovine sample through Protein A-Sepharose. All classes/subclasses of porcine and ovine serum and colostral immunoglobulins bound to Protein A to some extent. More than 90% of IgG from both porcine colostral whey and serum bound to Protein A. Ovine IgG1 from most ewes possessed a low affinity for Protein A whereas ovine IgG2 generally possessed a high affinity; 100% of the IgG2 in ovine colostral whey samples bound to Protein A. There was remarkable variation between individuals in the binding capacity of porcine IgM and each of the ovine immunoglobulins. For the ovine samples, in particular there were distinct differences between Protein A binding capacity of serum and colostral immunoglobulins of the same class/subclass.

  20. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX, or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  1. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  2. Lateral Surgical Approach to Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in an Ovine Model

    OpenAIRE

    David Oehme; Tony Goldschlager; Jeffrey Rosenfeld; Andrew Danks; Peter Ghosh; Anne Gibbon; Graham Jenkin

    2012-01-01

    The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs,...

  3. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  4. ANTIBODY POLYCLONAL PRODUCTION ON RABBIT ANTI-OVINE PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN (Rabbit anti-ovPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Setiatin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce polyclonal antibody (rabbit anti-ovPAG which could detect PAG in the urine of pregnant ewes. Twelve rabbits were immunized against ovPG DEAE-TrisHCl (DT, DEAE-NaCl 20mM (DN2, DEAE-NaCl 40mM (DN4, DEAE-NaCl 80mM (DN8, DEAE-NaCl 160mM (DN16, DEAE-NaCl 320mM (DN32 and DEAE-NaCl 1M (DN1 and NaCl 0.9 % as a placebo. The 0.5 ml of isolate (purified from ovine cotyledon was emulsified in equal volume with complete and incomplete Freud’s adjuvant. The mixture of each isolate and adjuvant was injected at mutiple sites along the dorsal area of rabbits by subcutaneous route. Blood were collected from marginal ear vein, starting before first injection (baseline and every 14 days. Rabbit anti-ovPAG were measured using Modified ELISA Technique. By using Western Blot Technique, DN32 showed the best immune response among others and also could differenciate ovPAG in the urine of pregnant ewes It could be concluded that ovPAG DN32 is a specific source of rabbit anti-ovPAG production. Protein of ovPAG at molecular weight 31 kDa is a pregnancy protein marker of garut sheep and could be developed as a major protein for producing antibodi.

  5. MOLECULAR CLONING OF OVINE cDNA LEPTIN GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA TEREZIA SOCOL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient bacterial transformation system suitable for cloning the coding sequence of the ovine leptin gene in E. coli DH5α host cells using the pGEMT easy vector it is described in this paper. The necessity of producing leptin is based on the fact that the role of this molecule in the animal and human organism is still unknown, leptin not existing as commercial product on the Romanian market. The results obtained in the bacterial transformation, cloning, recombinant clones selection, control of the insertion experiments and DNA computational analysis represent the first steps in further genetic engineering experiments such as production of DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, protein expression, etc., for a further contribution in elucidating the role of leptin in the animal and human organism.

  6. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  7. Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2012-12-01

    The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control.

  8. Cooling-induced contraction in ovine airways smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, S M; Pilcher, C W; Williams, K I

    1999-02-01

    The mechanism of cold-induced bronchoconstriction is poorly understood. This prompted the present study whose aim was to determine the step-wise direct effect of cooling on smooth muscle of isolated ovine airways and analyse the role of calcium in the mechanisms involved. Isolated tracheal strips and bronchial segments were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses during stepwise cooling from 37 to 5 degrees C were examined. Cooling induced a rapid and reproducible contraction proportional to cooling temperature in ovine tracheal and bronchial preparations which was epithelium-independent. On readjustment to 37 degrees C the tone returned rapidly to basal level. Maximum contraction was achieved at a temperature of 5 degrees C for trachea and 15 degrees C for bronchiole. Cooling-induced contractions (CIC) was resistant to tetrodotoxin (1; 10 micrometer), and not affected by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 micrometer) or the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (1 micrometer), or the histamine H1-antagonist mepyramine (1 micrometer) or indomethacin (1 micrometer). Ca2+ antagonists (nifedipine and verapamil) and Mn2+ raised tracheal but not bronchiolar tone and augmented CIC. Incubation in Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing Krebs' solution for 5 min had no effect on CIC, although it significantly reduced KCl-induced contraction by up to 75%. Cooling inhibited Ca2+ influx measured using 45Ca2+ uptake. Caffeine (100 micrometer) significantly inhibited CIC. The results show that cooling-induced contractions do not appear to involve activation of nerve endings, all surface reception systems or Ca2+ influx. However, CIC is mainly dependent on release of intracellular Ca2+.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations in ovine lymphocytes exposed in vitro to tolylfluanid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiaková, Irena; Kovalkovičová, Natália; Sutiak, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations have been used as important cytogenetic biomarkers to study the mutagenic effects of different chemicals in vivo and in vitro. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in cultures of sheep lymphocytes in vitro exposed to the fungicide tolylfluanid. Lymphocyte cultures from three donors were exposed to four different concentrations of fungicide (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L; 1.10(-6) M(.)L; 1 × 10(-7) M(.)L). Chromosomal analysis showed a significant (P = 0.018 and 0.038 respectively, Anova test, P Tukey test) increase in the frequency of aberrant cells (ABC) in cultures treated with the highest negative experimental concentrations of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L) compared to control. Significantly increased numbers of chromatid breaks (7.67 ± 0.58% against 1.67 ± 2.08%, P = 0.009, Anova test, P Tukey test) and chromatid gaps (7.67 ± 1.15% against 2.67 ± 0.58%, P = 0.003, Anova test, P Tukey test) were observed in ovine cultures treated with the highest experimental concentration of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L). Tolylfluanid induced also chromosomal exchanges (P = 0.038, and 0.016 respectively, Anova test, P Tukey test) in ovine cultures treated with the highest experimental concentrations of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L). The mitotic index has not shown any statistical differences between the various treatments and control groups. Our results suggest a significant genotoxic effect of tolylfluanid only at the highest concentration in sheep peripheral lymphocytes in vitro.

  10. Mu opioid receptor in the human endometrium: dynamics of its expression and localization during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totorikaguena, Lide; Olabarrieta, Estibaliz; Matorras, Roberto; Alonso, Edurne; Agirregoitia, Ekaitz; Agirregoitia, Naiara

    2017-04-01

    To study the dynamics of the expression and localization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. Analysis of human endometrial samples from different menstrual cycle phases (menstrual, early/midproliferative, late proliferative/early secretory, midsecretory, and late secretory) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Academic research laboratory. Women from the Human Reproduction Unit of the Cruces University Hospital, fulfilling the following criteria: normal uterine vaginal ultrasound; absence of endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, implantation failure, or recurrent miscarriage; and no history of opioid drug use. Endometrial samples of 86 women categorized into groups for the menstrual cycle phases: 12 menstrual, 21 early/midproliferative, 16 late proliferative/early secretory, 17 midsecretory, and 20 late secretory. MOR gene and protein expression and localization in the different compartments of the human endometrium at different stages of the menstrual cycle. The expression of MOR mRNA and protein changed throughout the cycle in human endometrium. MOR expression increased during the proliferative phase and decreased during the secretory one. Lower values were found at menstruation, and maximum values around the time of ovulation. Small variations for each endometrial compartment were found. The presence of MOR in human endometrium and the dynamic changes during the menstrual cycle suggest a possible role for opioids in reproduction events related to the human endometrium or endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of miRNAs in Bovine Endometrium through RNAseq and Prediction of Regulated Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Vera, S E; Sharbati, S; Einspanier, R

    2015-10-01

    Detection of miRNAs in reproductive tissues is a key step to understand their role in fertility. We hypothesize that miRNAs must be involved in pathways controlling endometrial physiology and defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to characterize miRNAs present in bovine endometrium and to predict regulated pathways. Cytobrush endometrial samples from four cows were collected at oestrous cycle days 1-5, 6-12, 13-18 and 19-21. RNA was extracted and sequenced using Ion Torrent (®) technology. After mapping of the reads to miRNA stem loops, rRNAs and tRNAs, data were normalized and analysed using DESeq2. Targets and pathways were predicted with miRmap and KEGG, respectively. Validation of miRNAs in tissue was done by RT-qPCR (miR-Q). A total of 221 identities were common among groups, accumulating more than 99% of miRNA expression. MiRNAs were predicted to regulate MAPK signalling pathway, lysosome and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction. Eight miRNAs were validated by miR-Q, showing that let-7a-5p and let-7b were regulated across the oestrous cycle. This study demonstrated a high similarity in miRNA expression profile across the oestrous cycles in bovine endometrium. These miRNAs were predicted to regulate pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, transport and catabolism. The number of pathways shared by different miRNAs indicates the broad range of regulation these molecules exhibit in the endometrium. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Preoperative 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Uterine Myoma and Endometrium Before Myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Sa Ra; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kang, Byung Chul

    2017-02-01

    Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age, and myomectomy is the main surgical option to preserve the uterus and fertility. During myomectomy for women with multiple myomas, it is advisable to identify and remove as many as possible to decrease the risk of future myomectomies. With deficient preoperative imaging, gynecologists are challenged to identify the location and size of myomas and the endometrium, which, in turn, can lead to uterine rupture during future pregnancies. Current conventional 2-dimensional imaging has limitations in identifying precise locations of multiple myomas and the endometrium. In our experience, we preferred to use 3-dimensional imaging to delineate the myomas, endometrium, or blood vessels, which we were able to successfully reconstruct by using the following imaging method. To achieve 3-dimensional imaging, we matched T2 turbo spin echo images to detect uterine myomas and endometria with T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation-post images used to detect blood vessels by using an algorithm based on the 3-dimensional region growing method. Then, we produced images of the uterine myomas, endometria, and blood vessels using a 3-dimensional surface rendering method and successfully reconstructed selective 3-dimensional imaging for uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent blood vessels. A Web-based survey was sent to 66 gynecologists concerning imaging techniques used before myomectomy. Twenty-eight of 36 responding gynecologists answered that the 3-dimensional image produced in the current study is preferred to conventional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in identifying precise locations of uterine myomas and endometria. The proposed 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging method successfully reconstructed uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent vessels. We propose that this will be a helpful adjunct to uterine myomectomy as a preoperative imaging technique in future

  13. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  14. Effects of intravaginal lactic acid bacteria on bovine endometrium: Implications in uterine health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genís, Sandra; Bach, Àlex; Arís, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Infection and inflammation of the endometrium after calving compromise uterine health, contributing to decreased reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Twenty multiparous cows were distributed in two groups and treated intra-vaginally with a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) composed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pedioccocus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri, or with a sterile carrier (CON) twice per week during 3 wk. At the slaughterhouse, vaginal and endometrial swabs were taken for E. coli and Lactobacillus quantification. Endometriums were collected and cut forming explants that were analyzed for the expression of 10 genes related to innate immunity and infection or submitted to an ex vivo inflammation model. In the ex vivo experiment, explants were infected with E. coli or inflammated by treating them with IL-1β and also E. coli. The secretion of IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in the supernatants of the ex vivo cultures. Lactobacillus counts did not differ between endometria of LAB and CON cows, although E. coli vaginal counts tended to be lower in LAB than in CON cows. The expression of B-defensins and MUC1, indicators of infected uterus, was down-regulated in explants of LAB-treated cows. No differences were observed between LAB and CON explants in the ex vivo inflammation experiment. These results indicate that the vaginal application of the LAB combination used herein was unable to reach the endometrium and regulating the innate immunity at uterine level when applied into the vagina; however, it may be capable of modulating the pathogenic environment in the vaginal tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is ubiquitous in humans and plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis, development, proliferation and differentiation. As the endometrium of fertile women is characterized by proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesize a role for the EGF system...... (HER1) showed highest expression during the proliferative phase, HER2 and HER4 during the early and HER3 during the late secretory phase. Amphiregulin (AR) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) expression is highest in proliferative phase. Heparin binding (HB)-EGF and betacellulin (BCL) show...

  16. The endometrium as a source of mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Levent; Hufnagel, Demetra; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-06-01

    Stem cell therapies have opened new frontiers in medicine with the possibility of regenerating lost or damaged cells. Embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have been used to derive mature cell types for tissue regeneration and repair. However, the endometrium has emerged as an attractive, novel source of adult stem cells that are easily accessed and demonstrate remarkable differentiation capacity. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of endometrial stem cells and their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine.

  17. Identification and biological activity of ovine and caprine calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptides 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher J; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Yandle, Timothy G; Minamino, Naoto

    2008-08-01

    We have recently reported the isolation of three new members of the calcitonin (CT) gene-related peptide family of peptides, the CT receptor (CT-R)-stimulating peptides (CRSPs). We now report the sequencing and characterization of ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2. Mature ovine and caprine CRSP-1 are identical and have strong structural homology to CRSP-1s identified to date from other species. As with other CRSP-1s, ovine/caprine CRSP-1 binds to and activates the CT-R but not the CT-like receptor (CL-R) in combination with the receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 does not activate any of these receptor-RAMP complexes. Intravenous infusions of ovine CRSP-1 to normal conscious sheep induced dose-dependent reduction in plasma total Ca levels (P=0.02) and corrected Ca levels (P=0.017) associated with increases in plasma cAMP (P=0.002). CRSP-1 reduced both plasma amino-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide levels (P=0.006) and plasma renin activity (P=0.028). There were no significant effects observed on hemodynamic or renal indices measured. In conclusion, we have sequenced ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2 precursors. This newly identified CRSP-1 has been shown to share the structural and biological features of CRSP-1s known to date. In vivo studies confirm that ovine CRSP-1 reduces plasma Ca levels in sheep, presumably via a cAMP-mediated mechanism. By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 did not stimulate any combination of CT-R, CL-R, and RAMPs. Accession numbers of cDNA determined in this study are caprine CRSP-1, AB364646; caprine CRSP-2, AB364647; and ovine CRSP-1, AB364648.

  18. THE PREGNANT MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet‟ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age”

  19. Study on VEGF, bFGF and TGF-β1 in the Endometrium of Norplant Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁静; 韩学军; 史小林; 许晴; 路欣; 翁梨驹

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between abnormal uterus bleeding and en-dometrium vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) , basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expressions among Nor-plant users.Materials & Methods Thirty-six endometrium samples from Norplant users with nor-mal and abnormal bleeding were studied morphologically and immunohistochemically for VEGF, bFGF and TGF-β1 expression. Six normal samples of proliferate endome-tria were studied as control.Results In the Norplant users, the characteristics of endometrium changed and glands decreased in numbers. The VEGF expression in epithelium and vascular en-dothelium was lower in those with abnormal uterine bleeding. However, no difference was detected on bFGF and TGF-β1 expression.Conclusion The decline of VEGF expression may relate to the abnormal uterine bleed-ing in Norplant users.

  20. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of ovine epididymitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of ovine epididymitis...

  1. Therapy of Thin Endometrium%薄型子宫内膜治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜; 赵静

    2013-01-01

    With the development of assisted reproductive technology (ART),clinician faced another challenge,thin endometrium.The reached agreement is that thin endometrium may affect endometrial receptivity.Thin endometrium is one of the reasons of cycle cancellation and implantation failure in ART,which caused economic and psychologycal pressure on patients.At present,there are many reports on therapy of thin endometrium,but those therapy protocols were mainly based on case reports or small scale study.So,the effectiveness need to be further confirmed.Now,we classified therapy protocols of thin endometrium as:improving cell regeneration,improving blood flow of endometrium,enhancing expression of growth factors,and discussed potential mechanisms,so as to explore a better therapy in future.%随着辅助生殖技术(ART)的发展,薄型子宫内膜是临床医生面临的又一挑战.目前已基本达成共识,认为过薄的子宫内膜可影响子宫内膜容受性,其是ART中周期取消和胚胎种植失败的原因之一,造成了患者经济上和心理上的压力.目前关于薄型子宫内膜治疗的报道很多,但这些方案多为个案报道或小规模研究,疗效有待进一步证实.从促进内膜细胞再生、改善内膜血流、促进生长因子表达等方面进行分类总结,探讨其可能的作用机制,为今后临床治疗和探索新的方案提供思路.

  2. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  3. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  4. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  5. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  6. A complete DNA sequence map of the ovine Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jianfeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC harbors clusters of genes involved in overall resistance/susceptibility of an animal to infectious pathogens. However, only a limited number of ovine MHC genes have been identified and no adequate sequence information is available, as compared to those of swine and bovine. We previously constructed a BAC clone-based physical map that covers entire class I, class II and class III region of ovine MHC. Here we describe the assembling of a complete DNA sequence map for the ovine MHC by shotgun sequencing of 26 overlapping BAC clones. Results DNA shotgun sequencing generated approximately 8-fold genome equivalent data that were successfully assembled into a finished sequence map of the ovine MHC. The sequence map spans approximately 2,434,000 nucleotides in length, covering almost all of the MHC loci currently known in the sheep and cattle. Gene annotation resulted in the identification of 177 protein-coding genes/ORFs, among which 145 were not previously reported in the sheep, and 10 were ovine species specific, absent in cattle or other mammals. A comparative sequence analyses among human, sheep and cattle revealed a high conservation in the MHC structure and loci order except for the class II, which were divided into IIa and IIb subregions in the sheep and cattle, separated by a large piece of non-MHC autosome of approximately 18.5 Mb. In addition, a total of 18 non-protein-coding microRNAs were predicted in the ovine MHC region for the first time. Conclusion An ovine MHC DNA sequence map was successfully assembled by shotgun sequencing of 26 overlapping BAC clone. This makes the sheep the second ruminant species for which the complete MHC sequence information is available for evolution and functional studies, following that of the bovine. The results of the comparative analysis support a hypothesis that an inversion of the ancestral chromosome containing the MHC has shaped the

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of PTEN in normal, hyperplastic and endometrial carcinoma of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IzadiMood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Different molecular alterations have been described in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma that, the most frequently altered gene is mutations of PTEN. Up to 50-83% of endometrioid carcinoma reveal altered PTEN characterized by loss of expression. In endometrial hyperplasia, which are precursors of endometrioid carcinoma, loss of PTEN expression is 30-63%."n"nMethods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 90 cases of endometrial curettage including: 30 proliferative endometrium, 30 hyperplastic endometrium and 30 endometroid carcinoma."n"nImmunohistochemical specimens were graded semiquatitatively by considering the percentage of staining with two cut-point 10% & 50% on the whole section for each specimen."n"nResults: loss of PTEN expression was observed 0%, 0%, 30% of 51.7% in proliferative, simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma respectively with cut-point 10% and 0%, 5.3%, 30%, 52.2% in endometrioid carcinoma respectively with cut-point 50%. Also there was no difference in PTEN expression between atypical complex hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma but there was significant difference between simple hyperplasia and proliferative with endometrioid carcinoma & atypical complex hyperplasia."n"nConclusion: These results show loss of PTEN expression in endmetrioid carcinoma and no differences between endometrioid carcinoma and atypical complex hyperplasia. Therefore, assessment of PTEN expression by negative immunostaining and matched with routine hematoxylin and eosin stained can be a new tool for diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma.

  8. Changes of β3 Integrins and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in the Endometrium of Unexplained Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化丽; 曲陆荣; 何丽霞; 张颐

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of β3 integrins and extracellular matrix proteins including fibronectin (FN) , laminin (LN) and collagen type Ⅳ (CL type Ⅳ) on the endometrium of secretory phase from 31 fertile women (fertility group)and 34 women with unexplained infertility (infertility group) by a histochemical method. The results were as follows : In glandular epithelium, β3 integrin appeared in the mid secretory phase and continued to late secretory phase in the fertility group, but was not expressed during the secretory phase in the infertility group.Extracellular matrix proteins from the fertility group were expressed more strongly in mid secretory phase than that in the early secretory phase, and were weakest in the late secretory phase. Compared with the fertility group, the levels of extracellular matrix proteins in the infertility group were elevated in the secretory phase. In conclusion: our current study demonstrate that fie integrin and extracellular matrix proteins are expressed at different levels in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle. They are involved in endometrial changes during the menstrual cycle and during the implantation of the blastocyst. Their unusual expression result in the failure of implantation.

  9. Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi; Tateoka, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Because primary pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium is very rare and its frequency is unknown, the author reviewed 142 archival hysterectomy specimens of endometrial cancers. As the results, one case of primary pure SCC was found. Thus, the frequency of SCC of the endometrium was 0.7% of all endometrial malignancies in our institution. The patient was a 72-year-old woman presenting with uterine bleeding. Uterine curettage biopsy and uterine discharge cytology revealed SCC. No malignancy was seen in cervical biopsy. Radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy and lymph node dissection were performed. The endometrial carcinoma was an infiltrative polypoid tumor composed of non-keratinizing SCC with stratification and intercellular bridges. No adenocarcinoma element was recognized. The SCC cells were immunohistochemically positive for p53 protein and showed high Ki-67 antigen (labeling, 70%). The SCC was found to invade into the deeper third of the myometrium. No tumor cells were seen in other sites including the cervix, ovaries, omentum, and lymph nodes. The patients was FIGO stage IC (pT1C, N0, M0), and was treated with radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient is now alive without recurrence and metastasis 15 months after the operation.

  10. Human Adenomyosis Endometrium Stromal Cells Secreting More Nerve Growth Factor: Impact and Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian; Zhang, Shaofen

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) was found in adenomyosis (AM). We collected AM foci from patients and eutopic endometrium from non-AM controls. Endometrium stromal cells (ESCs) were cultured. Different levels of 17β-estradiol, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), CoCl2, and H2O2 were added to the culture system separately, then the expression level of NGF in ESCs was detected. After adding different levels of NGF, the proliferation and apoptosis of ESCs and aromatase expression were detected. We found that 17β-estradiol promoted NGF production in AM ESCs but not in control ESCs; TNF promoted NGF production in both AM and control ESCs; and CoCl2 inhibited NGF production in control ESCs, but had no effect in AM ESCs. Nerve growth factor promoted the proliferation and synthesis of aromatase in AM ESCs. In conclusion, locally increased estrogen levels and inflammation may cause increased NGF production in the uterus of patients with AM. Nerve growth factor stimulated the proliferation and increased aromatase expression of ESCs from AM foci, suggesting NGF might contribute to the pathology and etiology of AM.

  11. Chylaskos as a presentation of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Sequeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old female was presented to the emergency department with intense anorexia, weight loss despite progressive abdominal distension, and dyspnea. Abdomen imagiology workup reveled moderate-volume ascites and a hepatic occupying lesion. Diagnostic paracentesis allowed the drainage of a chylous effusion and cytology analysis identified adenocarcinoma cells. Hepatic metastasis of papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium was confirmed after tomography-guided biopsy. Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant gynecological neoplasm in developed countries and is often classified in types I with endometrioid histology (estrogen-dependent and non endometrioid types II (non-estrogen-dependent. Chylous ascites or chylaskos is a rare presentation on hospital admission. Several etiologies have been described. In adults, solid malignancy is expected to be identified in less than 20% of the cases. A systematic review has found only one case of endometrial carcinoma presenting with chylous ascite. As far as we know, this is the first case report of a serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium presenting with chylaskos.

  12. Covariate selection in multivariate spatial analysis of ovine parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, V; Catelan, D; Rinaldi, L; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G; Biggeri, A

    2011-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle and fluke infections remain one of the main constraints on health and productivity in sheep dairy production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004-2005 on ovine farms in the Campania region of southern Italy in order to evaluate the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus, Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Calicophoron daubneyi from among other parasitic infections. In the present work, we focused on the role of the ecological characteristics of the pasture environment while accounting for the underlying long range geographical risk pattern. Bayesian multivariate spatial statistical analysis was used. A systematic grid (10 km×10 km) sampling approach was used. Laboratory procedures were based on the FLOTAC technique to detect and count eggs of helminths. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was constructed by using environmental data layers. Data on each of these layers were then extracted for pasturing areas that were previously digitalized aerial images of the ovine farms. Bayesian multivariate statistical analyses, including improper multivariate conditional autoregressive models, were used to select covariates on a multivariate spatially structured risk surface. Out of the 121 tested farms, 109 were positive for H. contortus, 81 for D. dendriticum, 17 for C. daubneyi and 15 for F. hepatica. The statistical analysis highlighted a north-south long range spatially structured pattern. This geographical pattern is treated here as a confounder, because the main interest was in the causal role of ecological covariates at the level of each pasturing area. A high percentage of pasture and impermeable soil were strong predictors of F. hepatica risk and a high percentage of wood was a strong predictor of C. daubneyi. A high percentage of wood, rocks and arable soil with sparse trees explained the spatial distribution of D. dendriticum. Sparse vegetation, river, mixed soil and permeable soil explained the spatial

  13. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; Luttikholt, S J M; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Peperkamp, N H M T; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Vellema, P

    2012-02-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight

  14. Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogelman Lisette JA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny-based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle. Results The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing and expressed as an Estimated Breeding Value by comparison with contemporary sires. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for longissimus lumborum samples taken from forty progeny of the six sires (4-8 progeny/sire. Initial unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed strong genetic architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value weighted gene co-expression network analysis and a differential gene co-expression network analysis. The modules of genes revealed by these analyses were enriched for a number of functional terms summarised as muscle sarcomere organisation and development, protein catabolism (proteosome, RNA processing, mitochondrial function and transcriptional regulation. Conclusions This study has revealed strong genetic structure in the gene expression program within

  15. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies.

  16. NKp46 defines ovine cells that have characteristics corresponding to NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connelley Timothy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural killer (NK cells are well recognized as playing a key role in innate immune defence through cytokine production and cytotoxic activity; additionally recent studies have identified several novel NK cell functions. The ability to study NK cells in the sheep has been restricted due to a lack of specific reagents. We report the generation of a monoclonal antibody specific for ovine NKp46, a receptor which in a number of mammals is expressed exclusively in NK cells. Ovine NKp46+ cells represent a population that is distinct from CD4+ and γδ+ T-cells, B-cells and cells of the monocytic lineage. The NKp46+ cells are heterogenous with respect to expression of CD2 and CD8 and most, but not all, express CD16 - characteristics consistent with NK cell populations in other species. We demonstrate that in addition to populations in peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid organs, ovine NKp46+ populations are also situated at the mucosal surfaces of the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and non-gravid uterus. Furthermore, we show that purified ovine NKp46+ populations cultured in IL-2 and IL-15 have cytotoxic activity that could be enhanced by ligation of NKp46 in re-directed lysis assays. Therefore we conclude that ovine NKp46+ cells represent a population that by phenotype, tissue distribution and function correspond to NK cells and that NKp46 is an activating receptor in sheep as in other species.

  17. Expressions of ER, PR, and HOXA-11 in human endometrium during window period%种植窗口期人子宫内膜组织中 ER、PR及 HOXA-11的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子霞; 赵华; 王兴玲; 徐玲

    2014-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the expressions of ER , PR and HOXA-11 in human endometrium during window peri-od.Methods:Using immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR the expressions of ER , PR and HOXA-11 in human endo-metrium during the window period were detected .According to pregnancy or not after IVF-ET, 78 cases of infertility pa-tients with tubal factors were divided into pregnant group ( n=86 ) and non-pregnant group ( n=67 ) .Results: The ex-pressions of PR and HOXA-11 in the glandular epithelium of the pregnant group were significantly lower than those of the non-pregnant group(P<0.001), while in the stromal cells were significantly higher than those of the non-pregnant group (P<0.001).The expressions of ER,PR and HOXA-11 mRNA of the pregnant group were higher than those of the non-pregnant group(P<0.05).There was correlation between level of P and PR,HOXA-11 in glandular epithelial(P<0.05). Conclusion:The down-regulated expressions of PR and HOXA-11 in glandular epithelial cells and the up-regulated expres-sions of PR and HOXA-11 in mesenchymal cells may be the reasons which lead to the decrease of endometrial receptivity .%目的:探讨雌孕激素受体(ER、PR)及同源框基因-11(HOXA-11)在人子宫内膜种植窗口期的表达。方法:采用免疫组化和RT-PCR方法检测ER、PR及HOXA-11在拟行IVF-ET患者排卵后子宫内膜种植窗口期的表达。按IVF-ET后是否妊娠将153例因输卵管因素不孕的患者分为未妊娠组(n=86)和妊娠组(n=67)。结果:免疫组化结果显示PR和HOXA-11在妊娠组腺上皮细胞中的表达均低于未妊娠组( P均<0.001),在间质细胞中的表达均高于未妊娠组(P均<0.001)。 RT-PCR 结果显示妊娠组子宫内膜 ER、PR 及 HOXA-11 mRNA 的相对表达量均高于未妊娠组(P均<0.05)。 P水平与腺上皮、间质PR及腺上皮HOXA-11蛋白表达有关(P均<0.05)。结论:种植窗口期内膜腺上皮PR、HOXA-11表

  18. Transcription of pattern recognition receptors and abortive agents induced chemokines in the bovine pregnant uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Patrícia Carvalho; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Martins, Telma da Mata; Borges, Alan Maia; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2012-01-15

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are important components of the innate immune system whose ligands are specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Considering the scarcity of studies on transcription of PRRs in the pregnant uterus of cows, and its response to PAMPs and microorganisms that cause abortion in cattle, this study aimed to characterize the transcription of TLR1-10, NOD1, NOD2 and MD2 in bovine uterus throughout gestation and to investigate the sensitivity of different uterine tissues at third trimester of pregnancy to purified TLR ligands or heat-killed Brucella abortus, Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin), Listeria monocytogenes, and Aspergillus fumigatus, by assessing chemokine transcription. RNA extracted from endometrium, placentome and intercotiledonary region of cows at the first (n=6), second (n=6), and third (n=6) trimesters of pregnancy were subjected to real time RT-PCR. After stimulation of endometrium and intercotiledonary regions with purified TLR ligands or heat-killed microorganisms, gene transcription was assessed by real time RT-PCR. In the placentome, there was no significant variation in TLRs transcription throughout the three trimesters of pregnancy. In the endometrium, there was significant variation in TLR4 and TLR5 transcription during the three stages of gestation; i.e. TLR4 transcription was higher during the third trimester, whereas TLR5 transcription was higher during the last two trimesters. In the intercotiledonary region, there was significant variation in transcription of TLR1/6, TLR7, and TLR8, which were more strongly expressed during the first trimester of pregnancy. At the third trimester of gestation, significant transcription of CXCL6 and CXCL8 was detected mostly in endometrial tissues in response to purified TLR4 and TLR2 ligands. Transcription of these chemokines was induced in the endometrium and intercotiledonary region at the third trimester of pregnancy when stimulated with heat

  19. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.

  20. hTERT-immortalized ovine microglia propagate natural scrapie isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Schneider, David A; Baszler, Timothy V; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Stanton, James B

    2015-02-16

    Ex vivo propagation of natural prion isolates (i.e., propagated solely in the natural host) is crucial for the characterization and study of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several well-established, prion-permissive cell culture systems are available; however, only a few cell lines are permissive to natural prion isolates and these cells are not pathophysiologically relevant (e.g., renal epithelium and fibroblast-like cells). Therefore, a pathophysiologically relevant cell line derived from a natural TSE host could be used for propagation of natural prion isolates. In this study, ovine brain macrophages (microglia) were immortalized by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene to identify cell lines (hTERT-microglia) permissive to natural scrapie prion isolates. Following transfection, hTERT-microglia were passaged up to 100 times and their lifespan was significantly longer compared to parental cells (Fisher's exact test, Pscrapie isolates (i.e., derived from brain homogenates of sheep infected with scrapie). Prion infectivity and partial protease resistance of the prion protein were maintained in hTERT-microglia. Comparisons between scrapie-permissive and non-permissive hTERT-microglia sublines revealed that overall quantity of the normal cellular prion protein was not associated with prion permissiveness. The use of hTERT-microglia in future TSE studies may be more germane to the characterization of the cellular and subcellular pathophysiology of natural scrapie prion isolates and to investigate host-specific factors involved in prion replication.

  1. Incidence of ovine abortion by Coxiella burnetii in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, B; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; Aduriz, G; Moreno, B; Garcia-Perez, A L

    2006-10-01

    The infectious causes of ovine abortion occurring in 148 farms in northern Spain between 1999 and 2003 were investigated. Laboratory analysis included microbiological, serological, pathological and molecular techniques. Border disease was diagnosed in 16% of the flocks, toxoplasmosis in 15%, chlamydiosis in 12%, salmonellosis in 10%, Q fever in 3%, miscellaneous infections in 7% (Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Brucella spp.), and inflammatory lesions compatible with an infectious cause were seen in 7% of the flock. In an additional 1% of the flocks non-infectious causes were identified, and a diagnosis was not reached in 38% of the flocks. When a PCR retrospective study was carried out to investigate the possible implication of Coxiella burnetii in the cases without diagnosis, including those with inflammatory lesions, the prevalence of this pathogen increased from 3% up to 9% of the flocks, revealing the importance of this zoonotic pathogen as a small-ruminant abortifacient agent. Placenta was the most commonly positive sample, but other fetal tissues were also of value for C. burnetii DNA detection. The present results update information about the situation of abortion in sheep farms in northern Spain, and highlight the relevance of molecular diagnostic tools in routine laboratory analysis of abortions by C. burnetii.

  2. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ

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    Qing-Ming An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5 of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2 were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3 and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5 and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg. In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  4. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Ki67 in endometrium of ovulatory menstrual cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, HJMM; Heineman, MJ; Evers, JLH

    2002-01-01

    Background. During the menstrual cycle, a rapid sequence of proliferation, differentiation and cell death occurs in the human endometrium. Mechanisms involved in cell proliferation have been studied extensively. Apoptosis has recently been recognized to be a physiologic phenomenon. The aim of this s

  5. Dysplastic Ichthyosis Uteri-like changes of the entire endometrium associated with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadare Oluwole

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ichthyosis uteri is an exceedingly rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium. We describe herein a heretofore undescribed example of a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with extensive ichthyosis uteri-like changes of the entire adjacent endometrium. Additionally, the squamous epithelium of the latter also showed multifocal changes diagnostic of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The potential genesis of this composite of findings is discussed, as is the neoplastic potential of ichthyosis uteri. It is concluded that a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix extended proximally into the endometrium, and that there was a colonization of a pre-existing ichthyosis uteri by associated human papillomavirus. The possibility of significant cervical pathology should be considered when plaques of squamous epithelium with low grade dysplastic changes are identified in an endometrial biopsy or curettage.

  6. Pathophysiology of Endometriosis: Role of High Mobility Group Box-1 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Developing Inflammation in Endometrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential factor associated with the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Although a few studies have shown possible mechanisms which may play roles in development, progression of endometriosis, few are known in regards of initiation of the disease, especially in the relationship with endometrium. The aim of our study was to investigate whether normal endometrium may be changed by Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which may contribute developing pathologic endometrium to induce endometriosis. Endometrial tissues were obtained from 10 patients with fibroids undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1), which is a representative DAMP, has been chosen that may induce alteration in endometrium. In preceding immunohistochemistry experiments using paraffin-block sections from endometriosis (N = 33) and control (N = 27) group, retrospectively, HMGB-1 expression was shown in both epithelial and stromal cell. HMGB-1 expression was significantly increased in secretory phase of endometriosis group, comparing to the controls. To examine the alteration of endometrial stromal cell (HESC) by oxidative stress in terms of HMGB-1, cell proliferation and expression of its receptor, TLR4 was measured according to recombinant HMGB-1 use. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay; real-time PCR and western blotting were used to quantify Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein expression respectively. A TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS) and an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway (TPCA-1, an IKK-2 inhibitor) were used to confirm the relationships between HMGB-1, TLR4, and the NF-κB pathway. Passive release of HMGB-1 was significantly proportional to the increase in cell death (P<0.05). HESCs showed significant proliferation following treatment with rHMGB-1 (P<0.05), and increased TLR4 expression was observed following rHMGB-1 treatment (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner

  7. Rab coupling protein (RCP): a novel target of progesterone action in primate endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, V S; Sachdeva, G; Modi, D N; Katkam, R R; Manjramkar, D D; Hinduja, I; Puri, C P

    2005-10-01

    Acquisition of functional receptivity by the endometrium is assumed to be effected by progesterone-dependent expression and repression of several genes during the implantation window in a menstrual cycle. In the present study, we employed differential display (DD) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify progesterone-dependent gene/gene fragments that are differentially expressed during the peri-implantation phase in receptive and nonreceptive endometria, obtained from fertile and infertile bonnet monkeys respectively. Receptive endometria were obtained from regularly cycling (n=5) fertile female bonnet monkeys. Endometrial nonreceptivity was induced by treating bonnet monkeys with either 2.5 mg (n=5) or 5.0 mg (n=5) onapristone (ZK 98.299), an antiprogestin, on every third day for one cycle. Ovulation, levels of circulatory hormones (estradiol and progesterone) and menstrual cycle length did not change in treated animals; however, endometrial growth was retarded. DD2, one of the differentially expressed cDNA fragments, showed higher representation in nonreceptive endometria than in receptive endometria. The DD2 sequence was found to be homologous to the sequence of the carboxyl terminal region of Rab coupling protein (RCP), a recently discovered protein involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking. To confirm the identity of DD2 as RCP, RT-PCR studies were carried out with a forward primer deduced from the RCP sequence and a reverse primer from the DD2 sequence. The product (DDRCP) obtained, when sequenced, revealed 95% homology with the nucleotide number 1196-1757 of human RCP cDNA. Furthermore, the pattern of DDRCP expression at transcript level was found to be similar to that shown by DD2; that is, it was higher in nonreceptive endometrium. Northern analysis using labeled DD2 or DDRCP cDNA fragments identified two transcripts of 6.0 and 4.0 kb in human endometrium. In situ hybridization studies using digoxigenin-labeled DD2

  8. Expression level of nuclear steroid hormone receptors in endometrium influence on female reproductive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, rate of hyperplastic processes of reproductive system that relate to the common genital pathology in women of all age groups increased and ranges from 17 to 59% of all gynecological pathology. Recent studies have shown that the functional state of the endometrium is determined by the number of endometrial tissue receptors to corresponding steroid hormones. Objective. To explore the state of steroid hormones receptors in endometrial hyperplasia in compare with ultrasound, hysteroscopy and histological and hormonal background data research to improve diagnosis and recovery endometrium state. Methods: medical history analysis, clinical laboratory analysis, ultrasound diagnostics, hysteroscopy, histological methods. Hormones levels (FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, free testosterone, and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the stroma and glands was evaluated by Histochemical score. Results. 50 women of 23–52 years with hyperplasia of endometrim, were divided into 3 randomized groups: I – 20 women with primary infertility, II – 13 women with secondary infertility, III – 17 women without infertility. Early sexual activity was almost twice as often observed in the first two groups of women (respectively 61.54%, 60.00% against 29.41% in the third group. Gynecological history was weighed almost all three groups of women with chronic bilateral salpingoophoritis, obesity (I gr. – 85%, II in December. – 76.92%, III gr. – 76.47%. Uterine leiomyoma found in every second woman III gr. – 9 (52.94%, p <0.05, 3 women (15%. At primary infertility there was US endometrial hyperplasia in every from four women, endometrial thickness less than the corresponding day of the cycle, which may indicate a lack of estrogen effect on the endometrium. In secondary infertility hyperplasia was detected in 14.29% of cases, in the third group – 7.14%. Estrogen (more and progesterone (less receptors level inhibition on

  9. Lateral Surgical Approach to Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in an Ovine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oehme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs, and minimal abdominal retraction and is well tolerated by animals with minimal morbidity.

  10. Lateral surgical approach to lumbar intervertebral discs in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Danks, Andrew; Ghosh, Peter; Gibbon, Anne; Jenkin, Graham

    2012-01-01

    The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs, and minimal abdominal retraction and is well tolerated by animals with minimal morbidity.

  11. Pregnant Woman's Custom in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Foods are one of the important things in order to keep the life of pregnant women in good condition, because they must bring up a new life in their bodies In early Showa Age, the life of Japanese common people was in difficult circumstances. At that time the food life of pregnant women were restricted by various food taboos. For instance, if the pregnant women ate Tororo, brayed yam, she was considered to deliver a baby who had no tooth. They kept many taboos and prayed to their guardian deit...

  12. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  13. Expression and function of galectins in the endometrium and at the human feto-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, U; Hutter, S; Heublein, S; Vrekoussis, T; Andergassen, U; Unverdorben, L; Papadakis, G; Makrigiannakis, A

    2013-10-01

    Galectins are classified as lectins that share structural similarities and bind β-galactosides via a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. So far 16 out of 19 identified galectins were shown to be present in humans and numerous studies revealed galectins as pivotal modulators of cell death, differentiation and growth. Galectins were highlighted to interact with both the adaptive and innate immune response. In the field of reproductive medicine and placenta research different roles for galectins have been proposed. Several galectins, being abundantly present at the human feto-maternal interphase and endometrium, were hypothesized to significantly contribute to endometrial receptivity and pregnancy physiology. Hence, this review outlines selected aspects of galectin action within endometrial function and at the feto-maternal interphase. Further current knowledge on galectins in reproductive and pregnancy disorders like endometriosis, abortion or preeclampsia is summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasticity of human menstrual blood stem cells derived from the endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIN; Dennis XIANG; Jin-long ZHANG; Julie ALLICKSON; Charlie XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells can be obtained from women's menstrual blood derived from the endometrium. The cells display stem cell markers such as Oct-4, SSEA-4, Nanog, and c-kit (CD117), and have the potent ability to differentiate into various cell types, including the heart, nerve, bone, cartilage, and fat. There has been no evidence of teratoma,ectopic formation, or any immune response after transplantation into an animal model. These cells quickly regenerate after menstruation and secrete many growth factors to display recurrent angiogenesis. The plasticity and safety of the acquired cells have been demonstrated in many studies. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) provide an alternative source of adult stem cells for research and application in regenerative medicine. Here we summarize the multipotent properties and the plasticities of MenSCs and other endometrial stem cells from recent studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. [ The radioimmunoassay of prostaglandins F in human plasma and endometrium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, J A; Oriol Bosch, A

    1974-01-01

    A double antibody radioimmunoassay in estudied for the determination of PGF2alpha. Its sensitivity allows to detect 0.4 ng. The reproductibility in this assays is of 7.8 % while between assays is of 10.7 %. No detectable levels (less than 0.8 ng/ml) could be found on blood obtained from the right heart chambers during the menstrual cycle, but they were measured in peripheral blood during normal deliveries. Changes on PGF2alpha concentrations occur in the endometrium along the menstrual cycle. Tis is a relatively simple method useful either for farmocodinamical studies when administering PGF2alpha or for physiological work with tissure showing relatively high concentrations of this compound.

  16. The role of Histopathology, Endometrium Thickness and Obstetric History in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical manifestations of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB, ultrasonography findings and compare with histopathological results.Material and Method: A total of 404 women with AUB were classified as; Group I: 18-39 years, Group II: 40-50 years, Group III: >50 years old. Age, parity, bleeding pattern, menstrual history, laboratory results, ultrasonography and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results: Almost half presented with AUB were in the premenopausal group [196 (48.51%], followed by 150(37.13% postmenopausal group and 58(14.36% reproductive age group. The most common bleeding pattern was menometrorrhagia followed by metrorrhagia. Endometrial pathologies were observed in 306 (75.74% and normal menstrual pattern in 98 (24.26% participants of AUB. Endometrium cancer was seen in 7 (1.7% women. In the reproductive period most common pathology was hormonal imbalance pattern. Endometrial polyp was the dominant pathology in premenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. All malignancy cases were in the postmenopausal age group. Malignancy was in 4(19.04% women who gave birth < 3 and in 1(4.76% who had %u22653 children. Four women with vaginal delivery had malignancy whereas no malignancy was seen in women with only cesarean history. Among 109 women who had endometrial thickness 4mm, 30 (10.17% had endometrial hyperplasia, 6(2.03% had endometrium cancer. Discussion: Transvaginal ultrasonography can be used as diagnostic method to evaluate endometrial thickness and differentiate uterine pathologies. However in the case of recurrent uterine bleeding, endometrial sampling should be performed disregarding ultrasonography findings.

  17. SALINE INFUSION SONOGRAPHY IN ASSESSMENT OF ENDOMETRIAL PATHOLOGIES IN PATIENTS WITH THICKENED ENDOMETRIUM PRESENTING WITH AUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB is one of the commonest complaint of adult females presenting into the gynaecologic departments. In most of the patients the bleeding is due to the functional endometrial lesion, while the cause is hormonal in rest of the patients. These patients usually need invasive procedures like hysteroscopy or HSG for evaluation of intracavitary lesion. The aim of this study is to assess the role of Saline Infusion Sonography (SIS in detecting the intracavitary (endometrial lesions of uterus in patient with abnormal uterine bleeding and thickened endometrium on Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVS and establishing its diagnostic accuracy. METHOD This prospective hospital-based study includes SIS examination of 80 adult female patients who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and demonstrated thickened endometrium on transvaginal ultrasound at Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Gandhi Medical College and Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh, for the period of six months. Written informed consent from all the patients taken. All patients were evaluated on the same day and findings were recorded. RESULT 60 patients out of 80 showed presence of functional endometrial lesion. Most common endometrial pathology was submucosal myoma followed by endometrial polyps. Most rare cases were of Uterine Synechiae {2 in number}. SIS yielded high sensitivity and specificity for intracavitary lesions and diagnostic accuracy for submucosal myoma and endometrial polyp was 100%. CONCLUSION SIS proved to be highly sensitive and specific method to diagnose intracavitary lesion of uterus. The method is minimally invasive, well tolerated and easy to carry out under hospital settings with very less incidence of post-procedural complications (No major complication in this study. It can be used to replace hysteroscopy to diagnose various intracavitary (endometrial lesion of uterus.

  18. Low Doses of Celecoxib Stimulate Human Endometrium Growth in A Three-Dimensional Culture Model

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    Mohammad Rasool Khazaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endometrium plays a pivotal role in implantation and pregnancy. CyclooxygenaseII (COX-2 has an important function in biological processes such as cellproliferation and inflammation. Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 with numerouspharmacologic functions. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects ofcelecoxib on the human endometrium in a three-dimensional (3D culture model.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, normal human endometria (n=10obtained from reproductive age women were cut into 1×1 mm sections. Endometrialexplants were placed between two layers of fibrin gel. To create the fibrin gel, we poureda thin layer of fibrinogen solution [3 mg/ml in medium 199 (M199] into each well of a24-well culture dish and added thrombin enzyme. Endometrial fragments were placed inthe center of each well and covered with a second layer of fibrinogen solution. M199 supplementedwith L-glutamine, fetal bovine serum (FBS, 5% and antibiotics were addedto each well. The media in each experimental well contained either1, 10 or 50 μM ofcelecoxib. At the end of the study, we calculated endometrial tissue growth changes byscoring methods and determined the percentage of angiogenesis. Data were analyzed bythe Kruskal-Wallis method. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The growth scores were as follows: control (1.37 ± 0.16, 1 μM (1.96 ± 0.28,10 μM (2.01 ± 0.25, and 50 μM (1.17 ± 0.14 celecoxib, all of which were significantlydifferent. The angiogenesis percentages were: 25.56 ± 6.72% (control, 31.98 ± 6.18% (1μM, 42.67 ± 7.27% (10 μM and 23.44 ± 4.03% (50 μM, which were not significantlydifferent from each other.

  19. Steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 expression and localization in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Carmen J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, which mediates surface display of diverse proteins, is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation, and is uniquely correlated with poor survival from endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Because EMP2 is differentially expressed in the various stages of the murine and human estrous cycle, we tested the hypothesis that the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen influence EMP2 expression and localization. Methods Frozen human proliferative and secretory endometrium were collected and analyzed for EMP2 expression using SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. The response of EMP2 to progesterone and estradiol was determined using a combination of real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and confocal immunofluorescence in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. To confirm the in vitro results, ovariectomized mice were treated with progesterone or estradiol, and EMP2 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Within normal human endometrium, EMP2 expression is upregulated in the secretory phase relative to the proliferative phase. To understand the role of steroid hormones on EMP2 expression, we utilized RL95-2 cells, which express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. In RL95-2 cells, both estradiol and progesterone induced EMP2 mRNA expression, but only progesterone induced EMP2 protein expression. To compare steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 between humans and mice, we analyzed EMP2 expression in ovarectomized mice. Similar to results observed in humans, progesterone upregulated endometrial EMP2 expression and induced EMP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Estradiol did not promote translocation to the cell surface, but moderately induced EMP2 expression in cytoplasmic compartments in vivo. Conclusion These findings suggest that targeting of EMP2 to specific locations under the influence of these steroid hormones may

  20. Transgenic cloned sheep overexpressing ovine toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shoulong; Li, Guiguan; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Cui, Maosheng; Guo, Yong; Liu, Guoshi; Li, Guangpeng; Feng, Jianzhong; Lian, Zhengxing

    2013-07-01

    An ovine fetal fibroblast cell line highly expressing TLR4 was established by inserting TLR4 into a reconstructive p3S-LoxP plasmid. Transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 were produced by transferring TLR4-transfected fetal fibroblasts into metaphase (M)II-stage enucleated oocytes (using SCNT). Because reconstructed embryos derived from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vivo using a delayed-activated method had a higher pregnancy rate (18.52%) than that from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, the former procedure was used. Nine TLR4-transgenic live births were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Increased expression of TLR4 at mRNA and protein levels in ear tissues of transgenic lambs were verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. More toll-like receptor 4 protein was expressed by peripheral blood monocytes and/or macrophages collected from 3-month-old TLR4-transgenic than nontransgenic lambs at 0, 1, and 4 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor α secreted by monocytes and/or macrophages of TLR4-transgenic lambs were significantly higher at 1 hour. Therefore, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses from monocytes and/or macrophages occurred sooner in TLR4-transgenic lambs, consistent with an enhanced host immune response. In conclusion, transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 are a primary model to investigate the role of transgenic animals in disease resistance and have potential for breeding sheep with disease resistance.

  1. Transcriptomic Determinants of Scrapie Prion Propagation in Cultured Ovine Microglia.

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    Juan F Muñoz-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to infection by prions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence and host expression of the cellular prion protein (PrPC; however, cellular expression of a genetically susceptible PrPC is insufficient. As an example, it has been shown in cultured cells that permissive and resistant sublines derived from the same parental population often have similar expression levels of PrPC. Thus, additional cellular factors must influence susceptibility to prion infection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with relative permissiveness and resistance to scrapie prions in cultured cells derived from a naturally affected species. Two closely related ovine microglia clones with different prion susceptibility, but no detectable differences in PrPC expression levels, were inoculated with either scrapie-positive or scrapie-negative sheep brainstem homogenates. Five passages post-inoculation, the transcriptional profiles of mock and infected clones were sequenced using Illumina technology. Comparative transcriptional analyses identified twenty-two differentially transcribed genes, most of which were upregulated in poorly permissive microglia. This included genes encoding for selenoprotein P, endolysosomal proteases, and proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, in highly permissive microglia, transforming growth factor β-induced, retinoic acid receptor response 1, and phosphoserine aminotranspherase 1 gene transcripts were upregulated. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified proteolysis, translation, and mitosis as the most affected pathways and supported the upregulation trend of several genes encoding for intracellular proteases and ribosomal proteins in poorly permissive microglia. This study identifies new genes potentially involved in scrapie prion propagation, corroborates results from other studies, and extends those results into another cell culture model.

  2. Transcriptomic Determinants of Scrapie Prion Propagation in Cultured Ovine Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Schneider, David A; Baszler, Timothy V; Stanton, James B

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by prions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence and host expression of the cellular prion protein (PrPC); however, cellular expression of a genetically susceptible PrPC is insufficient. As an example, it has been shown in cultured cells that permissive and resistant sublines derived from the same parental population often have similar expression levels of PrPC. Thus, additional cellular factors must influence susceptibility to prion infection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with relative permissiveness and resistance to scrapie prions in cultured cells derived from a naturally affected species. Two closely related ovine microglia clones with different prion susceptibility, but no detectable differences in PrPC expression levels, were inoculated with either scrapie-positive or scrapie-negative sheep brainstem homogenates. Five passages post-inoculation, the transcriptional profiles of mock and infected clones were sequenced using Illumina technology. Comparative transcriptional analyses identified twenty-two differentially transcribed genes, most of which were upregulated in poorly permissive microglia. This included genes encoding for selenoprotein P, endolysosomal proteases, and proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, in highly permissive microglia, transforming growth factor β-induced, retinoic acid receptor response 1, and phosphoserine aminotranspherase 1 gene transcripts were upregulated. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified proteolysis, translation, and mitosis as the most affected pathways and supported the upregulation trend of several genes encoding for intracellular proteases and ribosomal proteins in poorly permissive microglia. This study identifies new genes potentially involved in scrapie prion propagation, corroborates results from other studies, and extends those results into another cell culture model.

  3. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  4. Prerigor and postrigor changes in tenderness of ovine longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    A novel approach was used to measure the tenderness of prerigor ovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum by avoiding the confounding effects of heat-induced shortening resulting from cooking prerigor meat. The objective was to determine the tenderness of the muscle at the time of slaughter and to monitor changes in tenderness during rigor development and postmortem aging. Nine Romanov and 12 Finnsheep rams were slaughtered at 49.3 kg live weight. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum were removed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 72, or 336 h after exsanguination. Five of the eight sample times were represented in each carcass and all carcasses were sampled at 0, 12, and 24 h. Prerigor muscle samples (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h) were clamped between two metal plates before excision to prevent shortening. The samples were frozen at -30 degrees C then stored at -5 degrees C for 10 d to allow glycolysis to proceed to completion, and thus ultimate pH and complete rigor mortis were attained. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum was then cut into chops and cooked and shear force was determined. Sarcomere length decreased through 24 h postmortem, then increased slightly through 336 h postmortem. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were 5.1 kg at 0 and 3 h, increased to 8.3 kg from 3 to 9 h, and then declined to 3.1 kg from 24 to 336 h postmortem. These data imply that longissimus thoracis et lumborum at slaughter is intermediate in tenderness, rigor shortening toughens the meat, and proteolysis tenderizes the meat, resulting in more tender meat after 14 d of aging than at slaughter.

  5. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  6. Pregnant? Don't Smoke!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer, heart disease, and stroke. But women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their developing babies ...

  7. Collagen fibril orientation in ovine and bovine leather affects strength: a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Edmonds, Richard L; Cooper, Sue M; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2011-09-28

    There is a large difference in strength between ovine and bovine leather. The structure and arrangement of fibrous collagen in leather and the relationship between collagen structure and leather strength has until now been poorly understood. Synchrotron based SAXS is used to characterize the fibrous collagen structure in a series of ovine and bovine leathers and to relate it to tear strength. SAXS gives quantitative information on the amount of fibrous collagen, the orientation (direction and spread) of the collagen microfibrils, and the d-spacing of the collagen. The amount of collagen varies through the thickness of the leather from the grain to the corium, with a greater concentration of crystalline collagen measured toward the corium side. The orientation index (OI) is correlated strongly with strength in ovine leather and between ovine and bovine leathers. Stronger leather has the fibrils arranged mostly parallel to the plane of the leather surface (high OI), while weaker leather has more out-of-plane fibrils (low OI). With the measurement taken parallel to the animal's backbone, weak (19.9 N/mm) ovine leather has an OI of 0.422 (0.033), stronger (39.5 N/mm) ovine leather has an OI of 0.452 (0.033), and bovine leather with a strength of (61.5 N/mm) has an OI of 0.493 (0.016). The d-spacing profile through leather thickness also varies according to leather strength, with little variation being detected in weak ovine leather (average=64.3 (0.5) nm), but with strong ovine leather and bovine leather (which is even stronger) exhibiting a dip in d-spacing (from 64.5 nm at the edges dropping to 62 nm in the center). This work provides a clear understanding of a nanostructural characteristic of ovine and bovine leather that leads to differences in strength.

  8. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  9. Determination of rafoxanide and closantel in ovine plasma by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaoui, H A; McKellar, Q A

    1993-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of rafoxanide and closantel in ovine plasma. Acetonitrile and chloroform were used for the extraction. The mean recoveries were 78.69% and 80.59% for rafoxanide and closantel, respectively. This method was applied to the characterization of rafoxanide plasma kinetics following oral administration of therapeutic doses to sheep.

  10. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  11. Comparison of virulence of ovine respiratory mycoplasmas in the mouse mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, B M; Herceg, M; Davies, D H

    1984-08-01

    The virulence of isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini from pneumonic and unaffected ovine lungs was compared in a mouse mammary gland model. The isolates varied in their ability to induce a neutrophilic response in the mammary gland. A moderate to severe form of mastitis was induced by 3 M. ovipneumoniae isolates recovered from pneumonic lungs, while the remaining M. ovipneumoniae isolates from pneumonic lungs and those from unaffected lungs induced a very mild histopathological response. The severity of the mastitis could not be increased by the simultaneous inoculation of a mixture of 5 mycoplasma isolates. Mycoplasma arginini isolates induced only a very mild histopathological response despite having been isolated from pneumonic lungs. The finding that the 3 most virulent M. ovipneumoniae isolates were initially recovered from pneumonic ovine lungs suggested that these virulent isolates may contribute to ovine pneumonia. However, the isolation of M. ovipneumoniae from pneumonic ovine lungs does not necessarily imply that these organisms are the causal agents, since M. ovipneumoniae isolates may vary in virulence.

  12. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  13. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

  14. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Vaughan, Owen R; Bernstein, Brett S; Davies, Katie L; Plein, Alice; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Blache, Dominique; Wooding, F B Peter; Giussani, Dino A; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age) and 144 days (0.99) of gestation, and by 2-4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth.

  15. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment.

  16. Dietary supplementation of yucca (Yucca schidigera) affects ovine ovarian functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Valocký, Igor; Kádasi, Attila; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Petrilla, Vladimír; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-01-15

    alteration of ovarian IGF-I output and ovarian response to gonadotropin. Thus, yucca can directly affect P4 and IGF-I release by ovine ovarian cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Localization of the angiotensin II and its receptor subtype expression in human endometrium and identification of a novel high-affinity angiotensin II binding site.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A.; Li, X F; M Shams; Gregory, J; Rollason, T.; Barnes, N. M.; Newton, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Angiotensin (ANG) II is not only a potent vasoconstrictor but may also be involved in the regeneration of new blood vessels. In proliferative endometrium, ANG II-like immunoreactivity was detected in glandular epithelium and stroma with negligible staining around the vascular endothelium. In contrast, in secretory endometrium intense immunostaining was seen in the perivascular stromal cells around the endometrial spiral arterioles with negligible staining of the other cell types. Quantitative...

  18. Messenger RNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors in the cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sow uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjumlong, S; Persson, E; Dalin, A-M; Janson, V; Sahlin, L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus at different stages of the estrous cycle as well as in inseminated sows at estrus and during early pregnancy by use of solution hybridization and in relation to plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Uterine samples were collected at different stages of the estrous cycle and after insemination/early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was similar for cyclic and early pregnant groups. Both were highest at early diestrus/70 h after ovulation and ERalpha mRNA was lowest at late diestrus/d 19 while PR mRNA was lowest at diestrus and late diestrus/d 11 and d 19. The expression of endometrial ERbeta was constantly low during the estrous cycle but higher expression was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows at estrus and 70 h after ovulation. In the myometrium, high expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was observed at proestrus and estrus in cyclic sows and at estrus in newly inseminated sows. Higher expression of myometrial ERbeta mRNA was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows compared with cyclic sows, although significant only at estrus. In conclusion, the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus differed between endometrium and myometrium as well as with stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. In addition to plasma steroid levels, the differences between cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sows suggest that other factors, e.g. insemination and/or the presence of embryos, influence the expression of these steroid receptor mRNAs in the sow uterus.

  19. A Seroprevalence Survey of Maedi-Visna Among Twenty-Four Ovine Floks from Twelve Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-shan; HE Ji-jun; LIU Yong-jie; SHANG You-jun; LIU Xiang-tao

    2013-01-01

    Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is an ovine lentivirus that is widespread in many countries worldwide. Both clinical and subclinical MVV infections cause substantial economic losses. MVV infection in live sheep is usually diagnosed serologically, with antibody-positive sheep being regarded as infected. There have been few reports of maedi-visna in China, with no detailed epidemic analysis of MVV infection in ovine herds. In order to investigate the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of maedi-visna among ovine lfocks in China, a total of 672 serum samples were collected from different ovine lfocks in 12 regions (provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities) of China in 2011, and serum antibody levels were determined using a commercial ELISA Kit. This study represents the ifrst investigation of the seroepidemiology of maedi-visna in China, indicating a circulation of MMV among sheep.

  20. [Systematization of diseases and lesions of the endometrium by etiological and pathogenetical mechanisms of development to choose an optimal treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroda, A M

    2004-03-01

    Current clinical gynecology considers pathological states of endometrium (PSE) as one of the most challenging issue of the day. Many questions of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and treatment of PSE are still under discussion. Nowadays there isn't a whole agreed classification of PSE. Morphological classification remains the most widely used one, but morphological changes occurring in the endometrium don't show a wide variety of disorders related to these pathological states. A new clinicopathogenetic classification of PSE was proposed, which is based on choosing the optimal treatment with functional state of the disease taken into account. This classification helps us to perceive the problem as a whole with choosing functionally based treatment for each patient.

  1. Two protocols to treat thin endometrium with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Qiong; Hao, Jie; Xu, Dabao; Li, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) protocols for thin endometrium were investigated. Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with thin endometrium (transfers received intrauterine G-CSF in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Patients were divided into the G-CSF only and G-CSF with endometrial scratch subgroups. Compared with previous cycles, endometrial thickness increased from 5.7 ± 0.7 mm to 8.1 ± 2.1 mm after G-CSF treatment (P transfer cancellation and G-CSF treatment in subsequent FET cycles is beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some aspects of oxidative metabolism in human endometrium after long time of applying the intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausic, V; Ionescu, N

    1996-01-01

    The paper intends to study the variation of oxidative metabolism of human endometrium (all the components) after applying the intrauterine contraceptive device for a long period of time. The results of the study show that modifications "in situ" of the oxidative enzymes vary according to the: type of the enzymes (NADH2-cytochrome-c-reductase, Lactatdehydrogenase), the hormonal cyclic stage (proliferative phase, or luteal phase), epithelial or connective tissue structures, time of resting the intrauterine contraceptive device (DIU) in uterus.

  3. Activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in glandular cells of uterine endometrium of puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Valocky I.; Krajničakova Maria; Legath J.; Lenhardt L.; Ostro A.; Danko J.; Tkačikova L`udmila; Mojžišova Jana; Fialkovičova Maria; Mardzinova Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The study is focused on the observation of alkaline and acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of uterine endometrium in puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ewes of Slovak merino breed (n=25) divided into 2 groups were included in the experiment. The animals in the experimental group (n=14) and control group (n=11) were euthanised on day 17, 25 and 34 postpartum. The ewes in the experimental group were given per os capsules of the chemical preparation Delor...

  4. Identification of genes induced by the conceptus in the bovine endometrium during the pre-implantation period

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    An intact embryo-maternal communication in the pre-implantation period is particularly critical for establishment of pregnancy and early embryonic losses have been identified as the major cause of reproductive failure in cattle. Thus, to gain deeper insight into this complex embryo-maternal crosstalk, a combination of subtracted cDNA libraries and cDNA array hybridization was applied to identify mRNAs differentially regulated genes in the bovine endometrium by the presence of a conceptus. One...

  5. SERPINE2, an inhibitor of plasminogen activators, is highly expressed in the human endometrium during the secretory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwu Yuh-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SERPINE2, also known as protease nexin-1, belongs to the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN superfamily. It is one of the potent SERPINs that modulates the activity of plasminogen activators (PAs. PAs and their SERPIN inhibitors, such as SERPINB2 and SERPINE1, were expressed in the human endometrium and were implicated in implantation. However, expression data about SERPINE2 in the human endometrium is still unknown. Thus, we conducted an investigation to reveal the spatiotemporal and cellular expression of SERPINE2 in the human uterus during the menstrual cycle. Methods Seven patients who underwent a hysterectomy and samples of 120 archived patients' endometrial curettage or parts of the uterus that were formalin-fixed and embedded in paraffin. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the antibody. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to localize the SERPINE2 expression site. Quantitative analysis was conducted to evaluate expression levels of SERPINE2 in various sub-phases of the menstrual cycle. Results The SERPINE2 protein was primarily detected in the uterine fluid during the mid- and late-secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. It was predominantly expressed in the luminal and glandular epithelium, less in the myometrium, and only dispersedly in certain stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle. A quantitative analysis of expression levels of SERPINE2 in the glandular epithelium revealed that it was highly expressed in the endometrium during the secretory phase compared to the proliferative phase. Conclusions The SERPINE2 protein is highly expressed in the endometrium during the secretory phase, indicating that it may participate in tissue remodeling involved in implantation.

  6. Changes in receptivity epithelial cell markers of endometrium after ovarian stimulation treatments: its role during implantation window

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez-Morales, Francisco J.; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Vital-Reyes, Victor S.; Cruz, Juan C. Hinojosa; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús; Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Cerbón, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the expression of receptivity markers in epithelial and stromal cells in the endometrium of ovulatory women and infertile with hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction (HPD), untreated or treated with clomiphene citrate (CC), or with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH). Methods Twelve control ovulatory and 32 anovulatory women, 22 of whom received ovulation induction with CC (n = 12) or rFSH (n = 10). Endometrial biopsies were obtained during the mid-secretory phas...

  7. The involvement of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) in prostaglandin F2α production by porcine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, I; Bogacki, M; Kurzyńska, A; Chojnowska, K

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effects of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on PGF2α secretion and mRNA expression of prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) in porcine endometrial explants collected on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The explants were incubated for 6h with: PPARα ligands - WY-14643 (agonist) and MK 886 (antagonist); PPARβ ligands - l-165,041 (agonist) and GW 9662 (antagonist); PPARγ ligands - 15d-prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2, agonist), rosiglitazone (agonist) and T0070907 (antagonist). The expression of PGFS mRNA in the endometrium and the concentration of PGF2α in culture media were determined by real time RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. During the estrous cycle (days 10-12 and 14-16), the agonists - WY-14643 (PPARα), l-165,041 (PPARβ), PGJ2 and rosiglitazone (PPARγ) - increased PGF2α secretion but did not affect PGFS mRNA abundance. During pregnancy (days 10-12 and 14-16), PPARα and PPARγ ligands did not change PGF2α release, whereas PPARβ agonist augmented PGF2α release on days 14-16 of pregnancy. In addition, WY-14643 and l-165,041 increased PGFS mRNA level in both examined periods of pregnancy. PPARγ agonist (PGJ2) and antagonist (T0070907) enhanced PGFS mRNA abundance in the endometrium on days 10-12 and 14-16 of pregnancy, respectively. The results indicate that PPARs are involved in the production of PGF2α by porcine endometrium, and that the sensitivity of the endometrium to PPAR ligands depends on reproductive status of animals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Miao Liu; Yuan-Zheng Zhou; Han-Bi Wang; Zheng-Yi Sun; Jing-Ran Zhen; Keng Shen; Cheng-Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thin endometrium is associated with poor reproductive outcomes;estrogen treatment can increase endometrial thickness (EMT).The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the factors influencing the effectiveness of estrogen treatment and reproductive outcomes after the treatment in patients with thin endometrium.Methods: Relevant clinical data of 101 patients with thin endometrium who had undergone estrogen treatment were collected.Possible factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment were analyzed retrospectively by logistic regression analysis.Eighty-seven infertile women without thin endometrium who had undergone assisted reproduction served as controls.The cases and controls were matched for age, assisted reproduction method, and number of embryos transferred.Reproductive outcomes of study and control groups were compared using Student's t-test and the Chi-square test.Results: At the end of estrogen treatment, EMT was ≥8 mm in 93/101 patients (92.1%).Effectiveness of treatment was significantly associated with maximal pretreatment EMT (P =0.017) and treatment duration (P =0.004).The outcomes of assisted reproduction were similar in patients whose treatment was successful in increasing EMT to ≥8 mm and the control group.The rate of clinical pregnancy in patients was associated with the number of good-quality embryos transferred in both fresh (P =0.005) and frozen-thawed (P =0.000) embryo transfer cycles.Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes.The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration.Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm) are similar to those of controls.The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  9. Novel group A rotavirus G8 P[1] as primary cause of an ovine diarrheic syndrome outbreak in weaned lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo-Cardiel, I.; Fernández-Jiménez, M.; Luján, L.; Buesa, J.; Espada, J.; Fantova, E.; Blanco, J; Segalés, J.; Badiola, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Rotavirus is a worldwide major cause of diarrhea outbreaks in neonatal ruminants. An outbreak of ovine diarrheic syndrome (ODS) in 50-75 days-old lambs (weaned lambs) is described. Fecal immunochromatography and intestinal immunohistochemistry for rotavirus group A were performed. In addition, semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR for G and P rotavirus genotyping in combination with sequencing were performed, to support the diagnosis and identify the viral strain. A novel ovine rot...

  10. Phytoestrogens modulate prostaglandin production in bovine endometrium: cell type specificity and intracellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Acosta, Tomas J; Korzekwa, Anna; Bah, Mamadou M; Shibaya, Masami; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Skarzynski, Dariusz J

    2005-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are known to modulate the proper cyclicity of bovine reproductive organs. The main luteolytic agent in ruminants is PGF2alpha, whereas PGE2 has luteotropic actions. Estradiol 17beta (E2) regulates uterus function by influencing PG synthesis. Phytoestrogens structurally resemble E2 and possess estrogenic activity; therefore, they may mimic the effects of E2 on PG synthesis and influence the reproductive system. Using a cell-culture system of bovine epithelial and stromal cells, we determined cell-specific effects of phytoestrogens (i.e., daidzein, genistein), their metabolites (i.e., equol and para-ethyl-phenol, respectively), and E2 on PGF2alpha and PGE2 synthesis and examined the intracellular mechanisms of their actions. Both PGs produced by stromal and epithelial cells were significantly stimulated by phytoestrogens and their metabolites. However, PGF2alpha synthesis by both kinds of cells was greater stimulated than PGE2 synthesis. Moreover, epithelial cells treated with phytoestrogens synthesized more PGF2alpha than stromal cells, increasing the PGF2alpha to PGE2 ratio. The epithelial and stromal cells were preincubated with an estrogen-receptor (ER) antagonist (i.e., ICI), a translation inhibitor (i.e., actinomycin D), a protein kinase A inhibitor (i.e., staurosporin), and a phospholipase C inhibitor (i.e., U73122) for 0.5 hrs and then stimulated with equol, para-ethyl-phenol, or E2. Although the action of E2 on PGF2alpha synthesis was blocked by all reagents, the stimulatory effect of phytoestrogens was blocked only by ICI and actinomycin D in both cell types. Moreover, in contrast to E2 action, phytoestrogens did not cause intracellular calcium mobilization in either epithelial or stromal cells. Phytoestrogens stimulate both PGF2alpha and PGE2 in both cell types of bovine endometrium via an ER-dependent genomic pathway. However, because phytoestrogens preferentially stimulated PGF2alpha synthesis in epithelial cells of bovine

  11. Biological behavior of preneoplastic conditions of the endometrium: A retrospective 16-year study in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological behavior of endometrial carcinoma differs in epidemiology, presentation, and prognosis, suggesting that there are two fundamentally different pathogenic types of disease: type I (estrogen related, endometrioid type and type II (non-estrogen related, non-endometrioid type. Untreated hyperplasia can develop into an endometrioid type of adenocarcinoma, hence, it is important to recognize the former type. In contrast to cervical cancers, there are limited studies with respect to the biology of hyperplastic lesions documented from India. This was a 16-year retrospective study, carried out to determine the nature and outcome of proliferative lesions of the endometrium in a referral center from south India. Materials and Methods: A histopathological diagnosis of the endometrial hyperplasia, polyp, and carcinoma, on endometrial biopsy and hysterectomy specimens, over a 16 year period (1983 to 1999, were recorded in a computer and the case slides were reviewed. Using the computer software Foxpro, the patients who had come more than once for a subsequent or previous biopsy were identified. An attempt was made to look for progression, regression or a static nature of the lesion in the follow-up cases. Results: A total of 1778 cases were studied, and only 74 patients with endometrial hyperplasia and five cases of benign endometrial polyp had follow-up endometrial histopathology. Hyperplasia cases included 59 cases of simple hyperplasia, 10 cases of complex hyperplasia without atypia, and five cases with atypia. The predominant age for patients with all types of hyperplasias was 41 - 50 years. Progression to a higher grade was seen in 8.10%, regression to a lower grade was seen in 9.45%, lesions reverted to a normal pattern in 10.81% cases, and lesions persisted in 70.27% of the cases. A mixed pattern was seen in 54 cases, with predominant coexistent lesion being simple and complex hyperplasia without atypia. Conclusion: The fate

  12. The role of Type 1, P and S fimbriae in binding of Escherichia coli to the canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, N; Marenda, M S; Browning, G F; Holden, K M; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2013-06-28

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most commonly isolated infectious agent causing pyometra in bitches. Many E. coli strains isolated from the uteri of infected dogs carry several adhesin genes (fimH, papGIII and sfa). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of each adhesin gene product, acting alone or expressed in combination, in the bacterial binding to canine endometrium. E. coli strain P3, which was isolated from a uterus of a bitch naturally affected with pyometra, was shown by PCR to carry all three known fimbrial adhesin genes fimH, papGIII and sfa. Knockout (KO) mutants of this wildtype (P3-wt) strain were generated using insertional inactivation. Adhesion assays on anoestrous uteri of three post-pubertal bitches were undertaken. Overall, the number of bacteria adhering to canine endometrial biopsies was comparable between strains and no significant difference in the number of bound bacteria was found between the P3-wt strain and the single or double KO-strains. However, the triple knockout strain displayed less binding to the canine endometrium compared with the P3-wt strain. This study shows that a pathogenic E. coli strain (P3) isolated from the uterus of a bitch with pyometra was able to fully compensate for the loss of two of its three known adhesin genes. It was necessary to inactivate all three known adhesin genes in order to see a significant decrease in binding to canine endometrium.

  13. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Yang, Dongzi

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program. Among 59 infertile patients with thin endometrium (≤7 mm), 34 patients received uterine infusion of recombinant human G-CSF (100 μg/0.6 mL) on the day of ovulation or administration of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin, with 40 cycles defined as G-CSF group and 49 previous cycles as self-controlled group, and 25 patients refused, with 80 cycles defined as the control group. Higher proportion of induced cycles and lower proportion of natural cycles were observed in the G-CSF group, when compared to the self-controlled group or control group (P transfer were similar in all the groups (P > .05). Our study fails to demonstrate that G-CSF has the potential to improve embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rate of the infertile women with thin endometrium.

  14. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.

  15. Identification of attenuation markers of a Theileria lestoquardi cell line to be used for the development of live vaccine against malignant ovine theileriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, Awadia Mohamed Ali Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Theileria lestoquardi is a tick-borne protozoan parasite and highly pathogenic for sheep. The disease caused by the pathogen is known as malignant ovine theileriosis (MOT) and is transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. Control of the disease can be achieved by immunization of sheep with attenuated T. lestoquardi schizont-infected ovine cells that provides the animal with solid immunity. The approach of using the attenuated vaccine against malignant ovine theileriosis has been carried out successfully ...

  16. Maternal undernutrition does not alter Sertoli cell numbers or the expression of key developmental markers in the mid-gestation ovine fetal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luis P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal undernutrition on ovine fetal testis morphology and expression of relevant histological indicators. Maternal undernutrition, in sheep, has been reported, previously, to alter fetal ovary development, as indicated by delayed folliculogenesis and the altered expression of ovarian apoptosis-regulating gene products, at day 110 of gestation. It is not known whether or not maternal undernutrition alters the same gene products in the day 110 fetal testis. Design and methods Mature Scottish Blackface ewes were fed either 100% (Control; C or 50% (low; L of estimated metabolisable energy requirements of a pregnant ewe, from mating to day 110 of gestation. All pregnant ewes were euthanized at day 110 and a sub-set of male fetuses was randomly selected (6 C and 9 L for histology studies designed to address the effect of nutritional state on several indices of testis development. Sertoli cell numbers were measured using a stereological method and Ki67 (cell proliferation index, Bax (pro-apoptosis, Mcl-1 (anti-apoptosis, SCF and c-kit ligand (development and apoptosis gene expression was measured in Bouins-fixed fetal testis using immunohistochemistry. Results No significant differences were observed in numbers of Sertoli cells or testicular Ki67 positive cells. The latter were localised to the testicular cords and interstitium. Bax and Mcl-1 were localised specifically to the germ cells whereas c-kit was localised to both the cords and interstitium. SCF staining was very sparse. No treatment effects were observed for any of the markers examined. Conclusions These data suggest that, unlike in the fetal ovary, maternal undernutrition for the first 110 days of gestation affects neither the morphology of the fetal testis nor the expression of gene products which regulate apoptosis. It is postulated that the effects of fetal undernutrition on testis function may be expressed

  17. Folate receptor α expression and significance in endometrioid endometrium carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Serkan; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar; Aydin, Abdullah; Zemheri, Ebru; Ozkanli, Seyma; Kösemetin, Duygu; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EEC) developing on the ground of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is amongst the most commonly observed type of cancer in the world. Folate receptor α (FRα) is a vitamin molecule that has a role in cell proliferation. The fact that FRα, which is known to be needed extremely by the cells of malignancies that proliferate rapidly, is present in limited amounts in normal tissues while it is overexpressed in malignant cells of the same tissues makes folate a candidate for target molecular therapy. In our study, FRα expression in 214 cases, with 95 diagnosed within EEC and 119 with EH, was studied immunohistochemically. FRα expression in EEC was found significantly high compared to EH and normal endometrium (Phyperplasia subgroups (Phyperplasia stage to EEC as a molecular therapy targeting receptors labeled with antibody-based props containing FRα. Finally, we suggest that FRα may be used, based on the expression intensity, as a supplemental option to determine the patients that shall be directed to radical therapy amongst patients with complex atypical EH.

  18. Assessment of permeability barriers to macromolecules in the rodent endometrium at the onset of implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bany, Brent M; Hamilton, G Scot

    2011-01-01

    In rodents, embryo implantation is an invasive process, which begins with its attachment to the uterine wall and culminates in the formation of the definitive placenta several days later. It is critical that the endometrium provide a supportive environment for the implanting embryo during this process, as the placenta is not yet established. The concept of changing permeability barriers to macromolecules between different extracellular compartments in the rodent uterus at the onset of implantation has been established. This chapter provides protocols that can be used to assess this changing permeability barrier and the associated redistribution of macromolecules during the early phases of implantation in rodents. An increased permeability of the endometrial vasculature to plasma proteins occurs in areas adjacent to the implanting blastocyst. In addition, alterations in the extracellular matrix enhance the accumulation of fluid and extravasated macromolecules. We describe several protocols proven to be effective in studying and quantifying early vascular and extravascular responses to natural and artificial "implantation stimuli." The first three protocols represent qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the early endometrial "vascular permeability" response. On the contrary, the fourth protocol addresses the onset of decidualization and the arising permeability barrier, which restricts the movement of macromolecules through the extracellular space. This barrier is believed to provide transient protection for the implanting embryo against potentially harmful maternal serum proteins. This protocol describes assessment of resistance of the primary decidual zone to the movement of macromolecules across the compartments of the extracellular space.

  19. Exosomal transfer of functional small RNAs mediates cancer-stroma communication in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Yoshiko; Takakura, Masahiro; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Yoshimoto, Tanihiro; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from a variety of cell types. Recent evidence indicates that human cells communicate with each other by exchanging exosomes. Cancer cells closely interact with neighboring stromal cells, and together they cooperatively promote disease via bidirectional communication. Here, we investigated whether exosomes can play roles in intercellular communication between cancer cells and neighboring fibroblasts. Endometrial fibroblasts were isolated from normal endometrial tissues and from endometrial cancer tissues, and cell-to-cell transfer of endometrial cancer cell line Ishikawa-derived exosomes was examined. The isolated fibroblasts were cultured in conditioned media from CD63-GFP-expressing Ishikawa cells, and we found that GFP-positive exosomes were transferred from Ishikawa cells to the fibroblasts. Next, we introduced a shRNA for a luciferase gene into Ishikawa cells. This shRNA was encapsulated into exosomes, was transferred to the fibroblasts, and then downregulated luciferase expression in the fibroblasts. The mature microRNAs naturally expressed in Ishikawa-derived exosomes were also transported into the endometrial fibroblasts, and they altered the microRNA expression profiles of the fibroblasts. These results indicated that endometrial cancer cells could transmit small regulatory RNAs to endometrial fibroblasts via exosomes. Our findings document a previously unknown mode of intercellular communication between cancer cells and related fibroblasts in human endometrium.

  20. Quantitative characterization of prostaglandins in the uterus of early pregnant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, S E; Schulke, K; Groebner, A E; Reichenbach, H D; Angioni, C; Geisslinger, G; Meyer, H H D

    2009-08-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important regulators of reproductive processes including early embryonic development. We analyzed the most relevant PG in bovine uteri at different preimplantation pregnancy stages when compared with non-pregnant controls. Additionally, endometrium and trophoblast tissues were examined regarding specific enzymes and receptors involved in PG generation and function. Simmental heifers were artificially inseminated or received seminal plasma only. At days 12, 15, or 18, post-estrus uteri were flushed for PG determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Endometrium and trophoblast tissues were sampled for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. At all days and points of time examined, the concentration of 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (stable metabolite of PGI(2)) was predominant followed by PGF(2alpha)>PGE(2)>PGD(2) approximately TXB(2) (stable metabolite of TXA(2)). At days 15 and 18, PG increased from overall low levels at day 12, with a much more pronounced increase during pregnancy. The PGF(2alpha)/PGE(2) ratio was not influenced by status. The highest PG concentration was measured at day 15 with 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (6.4 ng/ml) followed by PGF(2alpha) (1.1 ng/ml) and PGE(2) (0.3 ng/ml). Minor changes in endometrial PG biosynthesis enzymes occurred due to pregnancy. Trophoblasts revealed high transcript abundance of general and specific PG synthases contributing to uterine PG. As PGI(2) and PGF(2alpha) receptors were abundantly expressed by the trophoblast, abundant amounts of PGI(2) and PGF(2alpha) in the uterine lumen point towards an essential role of PG for the developing embryo. High amounts of PG other than PGE(2) in the preimplantation uterus may be essential rather than detrimental for successful reproduction.

  1. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  2. A C-terminal protease-resistant prion fragment distinguishes ovine "CH1641-like" scrapie from bovine classical and L-Type BSE in ovine transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Baron

    Full Text Available The protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res of a few natural scrapie isolates identified in sheep, reminiscent of the experimental isolate CH1641 derived from a British natural scrapie case, showed partial molecular similarities to ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Recent discovery of an atypical form of BSE in cattle, L-type BSE or BASE, suggests that also this form of BSE might have been transmitted to sheep. We studied by Western blot the molecular features of PrP(res in four "CH1641-like" natural scrapie isolates after transmission in an ovine transgenic model (TgOvPrP4, to see if "CH1641-like" isolates might be linked to L-type BSE. We found less diglycosylated PrP(res than in classical BSE, but similar glycoform proportions and apparent molecular masses of the usual PrP(res form (PrP(res #1 to L-type BSE. However, the "CH1641-like" isolates differed from both L-type and classical BSE by an abundant, C-terminally cleaved PrP(res product (PrP(res #2 specifically recognised by a C-terminal antibody (SAF84. Differential immunoprecipitation of PrP(res #1 and PrP(res #2 resulted in enrichment in PrP(res #2, and demonstrated the presence of mono- and diglycosylated PrP(res products. PrP(res #2 could not be obtained from several experimental scrapie sources (SSBP1, 79A, Chandler, C506M3 in TgOvPrP4 mice, but was identified in the 87V scrapie strain and, in lower and variable proportions, in 5 of 5 natural scrapie isolates with different molecular features to CH1641. PrP(res #2 identification provides an additional method for the molecular discrimination of prion strains, and demonstrates differences between "CH1641-like" ovine scrapie and bovine L-type BSE transmitted in an ovine transgenic mouse model.

  3. A C-terminal protease-resistant prion fragment distinguishes ovine "CH1641-like" scrapie from bovine classical and L-Type BSE in ovine transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Vulin, Johann; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Verchere, Jérémy; Betemps, Dominique

    2008-08-29

    The protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) of a few natural scrapie isolates identified in sheep, reminiscent of the experimental isolate CH1641 derived from a British natural scrapie case, showed partial molecular similarities to ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Recent discovery of an atypical form of BSE in cattle, L-type BSE or BASE, suggests that also this form of BSE might have been transmitted to sheep. We studied by Western blot the molecular features of PrP(res) in four "CH1641-like" natural scrapie isolates after transmission in an ovine transgenic model (TgOvPrP4), to see if "CH1641-like" isolates might be linked to L-type BSE. We found less diglycosylated PrP(res) than in classical BSE, but similar glycoform proportions and apparent molecular masses of the usual PrP(res) form (PrP(res) #1) to L-type BSE. However, the "CH1641-like" isolates differed from both L-type and classical BSE by an abundant, C-terminally cleaved PrP(res) product (PrP(res) #2) specifically recognised by a C-terminal antibody (SAF84). Differential immunoprecipitation of PrP(res) #1 and PrP(res) #2 resulted in enrichment in PrP(res) #2, and demonstrated the presence of mono- and diglycosylated PrP(res) products. PrP(res) #2 could not be obtained from several experimental scrapie sources (SSBP1, 79A, Chandler, C506M3) in TgOvPrP4 mice, but was identified in the 87V scrapie strain and, in lower and variable proportions, in 5 of 5 natural scrapie isolates with different molecular features to CH1641. PrP(res) #2 identification provides an additional method for the molecular discrimination of prion strains, and demonstrates differences between "CH1641-like" ovine scrapie and bovine L-type BSE transmitted in an ovine transgenic mouse model.

  4. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) in the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Slonina, Dominika; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Progesterone (P4) is involved in the regulation of essential reproductive functions affecting the target cells through both nuclear progesterone receptors (PGRs) and membrane progesterone receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the mRNA and protein expression for PGRMC1, PGRMC2, SERBP1 and PGR within the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. There were no changes in PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA and protein expression during the estrous cycle, however, mRNA levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 were increased (P<0.001) in pregnant animals. SERBP1 mRNA expression was increased (P<0.05), while the level of this protein was decreased (P<0.05) on days 11-16 of the estrous cycle. The expression of PGR mRNA was higher (P<0.01) on days 17-20 compared to days 6-10 and 11-16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PGR-A and PGR-B protein levels were elevated on days 1-5 and 17-20 of the estrous cycle as compared to other stages of the cycle and during pregnancy. In conclusion, our results indicate that P4 may influence endometrial cells through both genomic and nongenomic way. This mechanism may contribute to the regulation of the estrous cycle and provide protection during pregnancy.

  5. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  7. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  8. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  9. Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

    1986-05-01

    The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system.

  10. Anatomical surgical arterial segments of the kidneys of Santa Inês ovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was describe the distribution of the renal arteries of the renal parenchyma and the proportional area of the arterial vascular system. The renal arterial vascularization in Santa Ines ovines was analyzed in fifteen pairs of organs of male adult animal, after attainment of vascular models through the techniques of corrosion and arteriography. The renal artery always appeared single, and before reaching the renal hilus, it bifurcated into sectorial dorsal and ventral arteries, giving rise to the segmentary arteries which varied from 6 to 10 in number in the right kidney and 7 to 11 in the left kidney. These vessels vascularized independent areas in each renal sector, the renal arterial segments, separated by non-vascularized planes. Bilateral symmetry of the arterial segmentation was found in 13.33% of cases. In accordance with the arterial characterization, the realization of setoriectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of Santa Ines ovines is therefore deemed possible.

  11. Analysis of the Pathogenetic Basis for Shedding and Transmission of Ovine Gamma Herpesvirus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hüssy, Daniela; Janett, Fredi; Albini, Sarah; Stäuber, Norbert; Thun, Rico; Ackermann, Mathias

    2002-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the viral subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, shares numerous similarities with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Both viruses are apathogenic in their healthy original host, may cause lymphoprolipherative diseases, cannot routinely be propagated in cell culture, and may be sexually transmitted. However, the pathways of sexual transmission of these viruses, as well as the underlying pathogenetic dynamics, are not well understood. Organs from naturally OvHV-2-inf...

  12. Action of cardosin A from Cynara humilis on ovine and caprine caseinates

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sofia V.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2000-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, the proteinases present in the flowers of members of the Cynara genus, C. cardunculus, C. humilis and C. scolymus, have for many years been successfully used in the manufacture of traditional cheeses from ovine and/or caprine milk on individual farms (Vieira de Sá & Barbosa, 1972; Trujillo et al. 1994). In Portugal, C. cardunculus is the species most frequently employed. Although commercial thistle was tentatively assumed to be pure in taxonomic terms, accurate analy...

  13. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles J De Blasio

    Full Text Available The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age and 144 days (0.99 of gestation, and by 2-4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3 at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth.

  14. Expression of ovine gamma interferon in Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    OpenAIRE

    Billman-Jacobe, H; Hodgson, A L; Lightowlers, M; Wood, P R; Radford, A J

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria of two species, Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum, were used as hosts to express recombinant ovine gamma interferon as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. The recombinant gamma interferon produced by both bacteria was biologically active in vitro and was recognized by anti-gamma interferon monoclonal antibodies. E. coli produced large amounts of soluble recombinant protein which could be purified by a simple affinity chromatography method. Only a small frac...

  15. Conformational changes of ovine α-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    α-1-Proteinase inhibitor (α-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human α-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine α-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this α-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( Kα) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine α-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human α-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that α-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in α-helical content and a concomitant increase in β-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the α-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  16. Identification of the ovine mannose receptor and its possible role in Visna/Maedi virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Helena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM, suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM cells, but not in OSF. Viral infection of BMDM and especially GSM cells was inhibited by mannan, strongly suggesting that in these cells the MR is an important route of infection involving VMV Env mannosylated residues. Thus, at least three patterns of viral entry into SRLV-target cells can be proposed, involving mainly MR in GSM cells (target in SRLV-induced arthritis, MR in addition to an alternative route in BMDM (target in SRLV infections, and an alternative route excluding MR in OSF (target in cell culture. Different routes of SRLV infection may thus coexist related to the involvement of MR differential expression.

  17. Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar

    2014-07-01

    Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported.

  18. Characterization of human mucin (MUC15) and identification of ovine and caprine orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk;

    2008-01-01

    The glycoprotein MUC15 (mucin 15) was initially isolated from the bovine milk fat globule membrane. The present work demonstrates the existence of immunologically similar proteins ( approximately 130 kDa) in ovine, caprine, porcine, and buffalo milk samples. Purification and N-terminal amino acid...... (epidermal growth factor receptor and Src homology 2 domains) are identified in the intracellular region. Implication of the mucin in signal transduction and the potential physiological function of MUC15 are discussed....

  19. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  20. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Kishan Andre; Steward, Christopher; Moffat, Bradford Armstrong; Opie, Nicholas Lachlan; Rind, Gil Simon; John, Sam Emmanuel; Ronayne, Stephen; May, Clive Newton; O'Brien, Terence John; Milne, Marjorie Eileen; Oxley, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution) MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap) to 1 (complete overlap). For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5-0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0-0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access.

  1. Relaxant effect of the essential oil of Croton nepetifolius on ovine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra F. Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the in vitro effect of the essential oil of Croton nepetifolius Baill., Euphorbiaceae (EOCN, on spontaneous or induced contractions of circular and longitudinal muscles from the ovine cervix during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. The relaxant effect of EOCN was expressed as a percentage of the contraction recorded before the addition of the oil and calculated relative to the preparations exposed only to the vehicle. The IC50 (concentration of oil required to produce a 50% maximal reduction in muscle contraction for relaxation of spontaneous contractions in circular and longitudinal muscles was significantly lower than the IC50 for blockade of K+-induced contraction (27.19 µg mL-1 versus 262.72 µg mL-1 and 40.92 µg mL-1 versus 222.47 µg mL-1, respectively. Interestingly, there was a high degree of selectivity in the action of EOCN on cervix layers concerning the inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction in circular (IC50 277.10 µg mL-1 and longitudinal (IC50 52.56 µg mL-1 muscles. In conclusion, EOCN is able to relax ovine cervix during the luteal phase. This work opens the perspective of applying EOCN in ovine embryo transfer.

  2. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  3. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Isachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n=13 and n=23 were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min. It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo.

  4. CT-based geometry analysis and finite element models of the human and ovine bronchial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Hunter, Peter; Tschirren, Juerg; Reinhardt, Joseph; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A

    2004-12-01

    The interpretation of experimental results from functional medical imaging is complicated by intersubject and interspecies differences in airway geometry. The application of computational models in understanding the significance of these differences requires methods for generation of subject-specific geometric models of the bronchial airway tree. In the current study, curvilinear airway centerline and diameter models have been fitted to human and ovine bronchial trees using detailed data segmented from multidetector row X-ray-computed tomography scans. The trees have been extended to model the entire conducting airway system by using a volume-filling algorithm to generate airway centerline locations within detailed volume descriptions of the lungs or lobes. Analysis of the geometry of the scan-based and model-based airways has verified their consistency with measures from previous anatomic studies and has provided new anatomic data for the ovine bronchial tree. With the use of an identical parameter set, the volume-filling algorithm has produced airway trees with branching asymmetry appropriate for the human and ovine lung, demonstrating the dependence of the method on the shape of the lung or lobe volume. The modeling approach that has been developed can be applied to any level of detail of the airway tree and into any volume shape for the lung; hence it can be used directly for different individuals or animals and for any number of scan-based airways. The resulting models are subject-specific computational meshes with anatomically consistent geometry, suitable for application in simulation studies.

  5. Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo.

  6. Effect of leptin on in vitro development of ovine preantral ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalamma, P; Kona, S S R; Praveen Chakravarthi, V; Siva Kumar, A V N; Punyakumari, B; Rao, V H

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human or ovine leptin on in vitro culture of preantral follicles (PFs) isolated from sheep ovaries was investigated. Among the 12 different concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) of human leptin tested, proportion of PFs exhibiting growth, mean increase in diameter, antrum formation, and maturation of the oocytes to MII stage were the best in 10 ng/mL. Culture of sheep ovarian PFs in TCM 199 supplemented with 10 ng/mL of human or ovine leptin FSH (2.5 μg/mL), thyroxine (1 μg/mL), insulinlike growth factor I (10 ng/mL), and GH (1 mIU/mL) resulted in significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater average increase in diameter (11 and 9 vs. 6 μm), better proportions of PFs exhibiting growth (66% and 58% vs. 48%), antrum formation (51% and 51% vs. 34%), and maturation of oocytes to MII stage (24% and 22% vs. 7%) than the control medium. It is concluded that (1) the optimum dose of leptin for the growth of sheep PFs in vitro was 10 ng/mL, (2) human or ovine leptin supported similar development in vitro of PFs in sheep, (3) inclusion of leptin along with FSH, thyroxine, insulinlike growth factor I, and GH resulted in only a marginal further improvements in in vitro development of sheep PFs'.

  7. Ovine trophoblast is a primary source of TNFalpha during Chlamydophila abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean; Stanton, James; Maley, Stephen; Watson, Donna; Jepson, Catherine; Deane, David; Buxton, David; Longbottom, David; Baszler, Tim; Entrican, Gary

    2009-06-01

    Chlamydophila abortus is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes infectious abortion in sheep (ovine enzootic abortion, OEA) and humans. Infected placentas recovered from sheep that experience OEA have thickened membranes, contain dense inflammatory cellular infiltrates and show evidence of intravascular thrombosis. Despite widespread inflammation, chlamydial multiplication is restricted to the chorionic trophoblast cells. To investigate the potential role of trophoblast in the initiation and propagation of placental inflammation during OEA, the AH-1 ovine trophoblast cell line was experimentally infected with C. abortus and analysed for the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. C. abortus was found to induce the release of both tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and CXCL8 (interleukin-8) from AH-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ultra-violet (UV)-killed organisms did not elicit this profile, indicating that intracellular multiplication of C. abortus was required for release of these pro-inflammatory mediators. Exposure of AH-1 cells to recombinant ovine TNFalpha alone resulted in the release of CXCL8, suggestive of a self-propagating inflammatory cytokine and chemokine cascade. These data indicate a primary role for trophoblast in the initiation and propagation of placental inflammation during chlamydial abortion.

  8. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  9. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in endometrium of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajović Snežana B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we explored the lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in women diagnosed with different forms of gynecological diseases in order to evaluate the antioxidant status in endometrium of such patients. Methods Endometrial tissues of gynecological patients with different diagnoses were collected and subjected to assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid hydroperoxides. Results Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased (50% in average in hyperplastic and adenocarcinoma patients. Activities of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased 60% and 100% on average, in hyperplastic patients, while in adenocarcinoma patients only glutathione reductase activity was elevated 100%. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma patients (47%. Lipid hydroperoxides level was negatively correlated to superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and positively correlated to glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Conclusions This study provided the first comparison of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissues of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that patients with premalignant (hyperplastic and malignant (adenocarcinoma lesions had enhanced lipid peroxidation and altered uterine antioxidant enzyme activities than patients with benign uterine diseases, polyps and myoma, although the extent of disturbance varied with the diagnosis. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations and whether lipid hydroperoxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in uterus of gynecological patients

  10. Sonographic patterns of the endometrium in assessment of medical abortion outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Hwang, Jiann-Loung; Au, Heng-Kien; Chien, Li-Wei

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to define endometrial pattern and endometrial thickness in predicting the outcome of early medical abortion. While blinded to outcomes of abortion, we retrospectively reviewed the ultrasound scan performed 14-21 days after medical abortion. We assessed the endometrial pattern and endometrial thickness. A total of 943 women at or before 56 days of gestation who underwent medical abortions were included. Abortion was induced with mifepristone (600 mg) orally followed 48 h later with oral misoprostol (600 mcg). A successful medical abortion was defined as complete abortion without surgical intervention. Three sonographic patterns (homogenous, heterogeneous and multilayered) were devised to correlate with the outcome. Of the 940 women, 92 (9.8%) had failed medical abortions. Eighty-seven (94.6%) patients with failed treatment outcomes had a heterogeneous pattern, while no patients with failed treatments had a multilayered pattern. Based on multivariable logistic regression, women who had an endometrial thickness in the range of 10-15 or >15 mm were more likely to have failed outcomes than those with a thickness 10 mm in combination with a heterogeneous pattern had the highest balanced accuracy in the prediction of failed outcome (81.9%; 95% CI, 77.6-86.3). Women with a multilayered pattern could be reassured that they have successful medical abortion, while those with a heterogeneous pattern and/or endometrium >10 mm may need follow-up. Sonographic endometrial pattern and endometrial thickness may serve as objective criteria in the management of early medical abortions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of functional genomics to primate endometrium: insights into biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Linda C

    2006-01-01

    Endometrium is a dynamic tissue that responds on a cyclic basis to circulating levels of the ovarian-derived steroid hormones, estradiol and progesterone. Functional genomics has enabled a global approach to understanding gene regulation in whole endometrial tissue in the setting of a changing hormonal milieu. The proliferative phase of the cycle, under the influence of estradiol, has a preponderance of genes involved in DNA synthesis and cell cycle regulation. Interestingly, genes encoding ion channels and cell adhesion, as well as angiogenic factors, are also highly regulated in this phase of the cycle. After the LH surge, different gene expression profiles are uniquely observed in the early secretory, mid-secretory (window of implantation), and late secretory phases. The early secretory phase is notable for up-regulation of multiple genes and gene families involved in cellular metabolism, steroid hormone metabolism, as well as some secreted glycoproteins. The mid-secretory phase is characterized by multiple biological processes, including up-regulation of genes encoding secreted glycoproteins, immune response genes with a focus on innate immunity, and genes involved in detoxification mechanisms. In the late secretory phase, as the tissue prepares for desquamation, there is a marked up-regulation of an inflammatory response, along with matrix degrading enzymes, and genes involved in hemostasis, among others. This monograph reviews hormonal regulation of gene expression in this tissue and the molecular events occurring therein throughout the cycle derived from functional genomics analysis. It also highlights challenges encountered in using human endometrial tissue in translational research in this context.

  12. Bovine pretransfer endometrium and embryo transcriptome fingerprints as predictors of pregnancy success after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Hölker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Ghanem, Nasser; Ulas-Cinar, Mehmet; Peippo, Jaana; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2010-07-07

    Aberrant gene expression in the uterine endometrium and embryo has been the major causes of pregnancy failure in cattle. However, selecting cows having adequate endometrial receptivity and embryos of better developmental competence based on the gene expression pattern has been a greater challenge. To investigate whether pretransfer endometrial and embryo gene expression pattern has a direct relation with upcoming pregnancy success, we performed a global endometrial and embryo transcriptome analysis using endometrial and embryo biopsy technology and the pregnancy outcome information. For this, endometrial samples were collected from Simmental heifers at day 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle, one cycle prior to embryo transfer. In the next cycle, blastocyst stage embryos were transferred to recipients at day 7 of the estrous cycle after taking 30-40% of the blastocyst as a biopsy for transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that at day 7 of the estrous cycle, the endometrial gene expression pattern of heifers whose pregnancy resulting in calf delivery was significantly different compared with those resulting in no pregnancy. These differences were accompanied by qualitative and quantitative alteration of major biological process and molecular pathways. However, the transcriptome difference was minimal between the two groups of animals at day 14 of the estrous cycle. Similarly, the transcriptome analysis between embryos biopsies that resulted in calf delivery and those resulted in no pregnancy revealed a total of 70 differentially expressed genes. Among these, the transcript levels of 32 genes including SPAG17, PF6, UBE2D3P, DFNB31, AMD1, DTNBP1, and ARL8B were higher in embryo biopsies resulting in calf delivery. Therefore, the present study highlights the potential of pretransfer endometrial and embryo gene expression patterns as predictors of pregnancy success in cattle.

  13. A combination of lactic acid bacteria regulates Escherichia coli infection and inflammation of the bovine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genís, Sandra; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Bach, Àlex; Fàbregas, Francesc; Arís, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Uterine function in cattle is compromised by bacterial contamination and inflammation after calving. The objective of this study was to select a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to decrease endometrium inflammation and Escherichia coli infection. Primary endometrial epithelial cells were cultured in vitro to select the most favorable LAB combination modulating basal tissue inflammation and E. coli infection. Supernatants were obtained to determine expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and E. coli infection was evaluated after harvesting the tissue and plate counting. The selected LAB combination was tested in uterus explants to assess its capacity to modulate basal and acute inflammation (associated with E. coli infection). The combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri at a ratio of 25:25:2, respectively, reduced E. coli infection in vitro with (89.77%) or without basal tissue inflammation (95.10%) compared with single LAB strains. Lactic acid bacteria treatment reduced CXCL8 and IL1B expression 4.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, under acute inflammation. Ex vivo, the tested LAB combination reduced acute inflammation under E. coli infection, decreasing IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 up to 2.2-, 2.5-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. In the total inflammation model, the LAB combination decreased IL-8 1.6-fold and IL-6 1.2-fold. Ultrastructural evaluation of the tissue suggested no direct interaction between the LAB and E. coli, although pathological effects of E. coli in endometrial cells were greatly diminished or even reversed by the LAB combination. This study shows the promising potential of LAB probiotics for therapeutic use against endometrial inflammation and infection. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inducible overexpression of porcine homeobox A10 in the endometrium of transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Rui-yi; WU Di; ZHAO Chang-zhi; CHEN Shang-shang; XIAO Qian; LI Xin-yun; ZHAO Shu-hong

    2016-01-01

    Homeobox A10 (HOXA10) is a wel-known transcription factor that plays an important role in directing endometrial differ-entiation and establishing the conditions required for implantation. Interestingly, the expression level ofHOXA10 may be associated with litter size. To study the effects of the porcineHOXA10 promoter fragment on the expression ofHOXA10 genein vivo, we generated a transgenic mouse model using pronuclear microinjection, and measured the expression of HOXA10 in the endometrium. There was no difference in the expression level ofHOXA10 between transgenic and wild-type mice in the absence of hormone stimulation. However, folowing treatment with progesterone and estradiol benzoate, the expression level ofHOXA10 was signiifcantly increased in transgenic mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Fur-thermore, the litter size of transgenic females was larger than that of wild-type females (7.02±1.73vs. 6.48±1.85;P=0.14). Moreover, the difference of litter size was greater in the later parities (7.33±1.62vs. 6.37±2.02; P=0.08) compared with the ifrst parity (6.76±1.81vs. 6.61±1.67;P=0.77) between transgenic and wild-type mice. Therefore, our transgenic mouse model provides exciting insights regarding the actions ofHOXA10 and its hormone-inducible promoterin vivo. The present study offers valuable proof of principle to develop transgenic pigs with a hormone-inducible promoter regulatingHOXA10 to alter litter size.

  15. Biological Effects of bFGF on Murine Endometrium in the Process of Blastocyst Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赤晶; 高英茂; 刘凯; 李少玲; 张保华; 邴鲁军

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the biological effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the process of embryo implantation in mouse Materials & Methods The transcription and translocation of bFGF and its receptor (Flg) in endometrium of 60 Kunming mice were detected with the methods of im munohistochemistry and hybridization in situ. Endometrial tissue was obtained on the day 4 from pregnancy mice. The cells were cultured and attached in 1 : 1 F12/DMEM (vol/vol) supplemented with 10% FBS for 24 h The medium supplemented with 1% FBS and bFGF (50 ng/mL), anti-bFGF antibody (250 ng/mL) or anti-Flg antibody (250 ng/mL) was added in different culture wells. At different culture stages, the biological effect of bFGF on cell survival and expression of LN, FN and c-myc was detected by using MTT analysis, immunohistochemistry and hybridization in situ.Results bFGF and Flg was located in luminal and glandual cells on day 4 and 5 of pregnancy. Embryonic implantation was accompanied by increased bFGF and its recep tor in decidual cell around implantation site, in which low level of bFGF and its recep tor was apparent on day 7 and 8 of pregnancy. In vitro, the OD value in culture wells containing bFGF was significantly higher than that in control group. Exogenous bFGF promoted the expression of LN, FN and c-myc.Conclusion Changes in the cell-specific distribution of bFGF and the effects of bFGF on cultured endometrial cells imply a multifunctional role of the growth factor in uterine cell proliferation, differentiation and embryonic implantation.

  16. Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep (Ovine aries)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xingbo

    2001-01-01

    fertilization of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) eggs, Curr. Genet., 1993, 24(6): 539-543.[13]Sutherland, B., Stewart, D., Kenchington, E. R. et al., The fate of paternal mitochondrial DNA in developing female mus-sels, Mytilus edulis: implications for the mechanism of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA, Genetics, 1998, 148(1): 341-347.[14]Hiendleder, S., Lewalski, H., Wassmuth, R. et al., The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and comparison with the other major ovine haplotype, J. Mol. Evol., 1998, 47(4): 441-448.[15]Zardoya, R., Villalta, M., Lopez-Perez, M.J. et al., Nucleotide sequence of the sheep mitochondrial DNA D-loop and its flanking tRNA genes, Curr. Genet., 1995, 28(1): 94-96.[16]Caetano-Anolles, G., Gresshoff, P. M., Staining nucleic acids with silver, Promega Notes, 1994, 45, 15-18.[17]Cummins, J. M., Wakayama, T., Yanagimachi, R. et al., Fate of microinjected spermatid mitochondria in the mouse oocyte and embryo, Zygote, 1998, 6(3): 213-222.[18]Lopez, J. V., Yuhki, N., Masuda, R. et al., Numt, a recent transfer and tandem amplification of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome of the domestic cat, J. Mol. Evol., 1994, 39: 174-190.[19]Wallace, D. C., Stugard, C., Murdock, D. et al., Ancient mtDNA sequences in the human nuclear genome: A potential source of errors in identifying pathogenic mutations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, 94: 14900-14905.[20]Eyre-Walker, A., Smith, N. H., Smith, J. M., How clonal are human mitochondria? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 1999, 266(1418): 477-483.[21]Hagelberg, E., Goldman, N., Lin, P. et al., Evidence for mitochondrial DNA recombination in a human population of is-land Melanesia, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 1999, 266(1418): 485-492.[22]Awadalla, P., Eyre-Walker, A., Smith, J. M., Linkage disequilibrium and recombination in Hominid mitochondrial DNA, Science, 1999, 286(5449): 2524-2525.

  17. Prevalence of ovine fasciolosis and its economic significance in basona worana district, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zeleke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional andretrospective study was conducted from February-May, 2012 to determine theprevalence of ovine fasciolosis. A total of 1528 sheep were selected andsampled by using systematic simple random sampling, Sedimentation technique,haematocrite centrifugation and postmortem examination were employed during thestudy period. Overall prevalence of ovine fasciolosis based on farm, abattoirand retrospective clinical study was 62.7%, 52.6% and 59.1%, respectively.There was no statistically significant variations (p>0.05 by sex and age ofsheep in both farm and abattoir study. The association of ovine faciolosis withdifferent breeds of sheep was statistically significant variation (p<0.05was observed in farm, abattoir and retrospective veterinary clinical dataanalysis. The prevalence of fasciolosis was different among FAMACHA eye-colourscores, body condition, mean PCV value, liver pathology, types of Fasciolaspecies and worm burden (p<0.05. The prevalence of ovine fasciolosis basedon FAMACHA eye-colour scores was highest (100% in pink white and lowest in red(51.9%. The mean PCV value of Fasciola species in infected and uninfectedsheep were 24.04 ± .381 and 25.87 ± .516, respectively. The mean worm burden oflightly, moderately and severely affected livers was 21.00 ± 1.889, 34.30 ±2.662 and 105.09 ± 9.741, respectively. The average mean worm burden per affectedliver was 56.79 ± 4.635. The predominant species identified in the study areawas Fasciola hepatica (68.8%. The mean fluke burden of each Fasciola speciescounted was 47.17 ± 4.737, 25.50 ± 4.912 and 93.02 ± 12.139 for Fasciolahepatica, Fasciola gigantica and mixed Fasciola species infection,respectively. The prevalence of ovine fasciolosis in the study area should bereduced by sustainable and integrated control programmes which includestrategic application of anthelmintics, efficient farm and grazing managementby Veterinarians and sheep owners in the study area.

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  19. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  20. Expression of calbindin-D28k and its regulation by estrogen in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Peter CK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human endometrium resists embryo implantation except during the 'window of receptivity'. A change in endometrial gene expression is required for the development of receptivity. Uterine calbindin-D28k (CaBP-28k is involved in the regulation of endometrial receptivity by intracellular Ca2+. Currently, this protein is known to be mainly expressed in brain, kidneys, and pancreas, but potential role(s of CaBP-28k in the human uterus during the menstrual cycle remain to be clarified. Thus, in this study we demonstrated the expression of CaBP-28k in the human endometrium in distinct menstrual phases. During the human menstrual cycle, uterine expression levels of CaBP-28k mRNA and protein increased in the proliferative phase and fluctuated in these tissues, compared with that observed in other phases. We assessed the effects of two sex-steroid hormones, 17beta-estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4, on the expression of CaBP-28k in Ishikawa cells. A significant increase in the expression of CaBP-28k mRNA was observed at the concentrations of E2 (10(-9 to -7 M. In addition, spatial expression of CaBP-28k protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. CaBP-28k was abundantly localized in the cytoplasm of the luminal and glandular epithelial cells during the proliferative phases (early-, mid-, late- and early-secretory phase of menstrual cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that CaBP-28k, a uterine calcium binding protein, is abundantly expressed in the human endometrium, suggesting that uterine expression of CaBP-28k may be involved in reproductive function during the human menstrual cycle.

  1. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor treatment of resistant thin endometrium in women with frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicki, Michał; Łukaszuk, Krzysztof; Liss, Joanna; Skowrońska, Patrycja; Szczyptańska, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) effect on unresponsive thin (transfer at the blastocyst stage. A total of 62 women with thin unresponsive endometrium were included in the study, of which, 29 received a G-CSF infusion and 33 who opted out of the study served as controls. Patients in both groups had similar endometrial thickness at the time of the initial evaluation: 6.50 mm (5.50-6.80) in the G-CSF and 6.40 mm (5.50-7.0) in the control group. However, after the infusion endometrial thickness increased significantly in the G-CSF group in comparison with the controls (p=0.01), (Δ) 0.5 (0.02-1.2) (p=0.005). In the G-CSF group endometrium expanded to 7.90 mm (6.58-8.70) while in the control group to 6.90 mm (6.0-7.75). Five women in each group conceived. The clinical pregnancy rate was 5/29 (17.24%) in the G-CSF treated group and 5/33 (15.15%) in the control group (p>0.05). The live birth rate was 2/29 (6.89%) in the G-CSF group and 2/33 (6.06%) in the control group (p>0.05). We concluded that G-CSF infusion leads to an improvement in endometrium thickness but not to any improvement in the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Until more data is available G-CSF treatment should be considered to be of limited value in increasing pregnancy rate. G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; M-CSF: macrophagecolony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; FET: frozen embryo transfer; IVF: in vitro fertilization.

  2. Expression of N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase in the endometrium of implantation window stage from infertile patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Hui-hua; Zhang Hong-mei; Liu Jia-yin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression of N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (GN-6-ST)in the endometrium during the window stage of implantation from infertile women before IVF-ET treatment, we compared the GN-6-ST gene expression level between the women with succeeded and failed implantation, and investigated the roles of selectin and its ligands in the embryo implantation.Methods: The hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsies were performed in patients prior to undergoing IVF-ET treatment in the IVF Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from July 2004 to March 2005.Fourteen patients who succeeded in implantation were taken as study group, while the 28 infertile patients with failed implantation served as control group.The RT-PCR method was used to detect the mRNA levels of N-ac-etyl-glucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase in the endometrium during the window stage of imp-lantation of the women from both groups.Results: For these infertile patients with succeeded implantation, the average mRNA expression level of acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase in the endometrium during the window stage of implantation was (0.65±0.33),while for those with failed implantation cycle, the average mRNA expression level was (0.41±0.36), which was significantly lower than that of study group, P<0.05.Conclusions: The combination of the selectin and ligands may play a role in the embryo implantation capacibility.

  3. Physical and mechanical properties of cross-linked type I collagen scaffolds derived from bovine, porcine, and ovine tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodbane, Salim A; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Collagen scaffolds are often utilized in tissue engineering applications where their performance depends on physical and mechanical properties. This study investigated the effects of collagen source (bovine, porcine, and ovine tendon) on properties of collagen sponge scaffolds cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Scaffolds were tested for tensile and compressive properties, stability (resistance to enzymatic degradation), pore size, and swelling ratio. No significant differences in tensile modulus were observed, but ovine scaffolds had significantly greater ultimate strain, stress, and toughness relative to bovine and porcine scaffolds. No significant differences in compressive properties, pore size, or swelling ratio were observed as a function of collagen source. Ovine scaffolds were more resistant to collagenase degradation compared to bovine samples, which were more resistant than porcine scaffolds. In comparison to bovine scaffolds, ovine scaffolds performed equivalently or superiorly in all evaluations, and porcine scaffolds were equivalent in all properties except enzymatic stability. These results suggest that collagen sponges derived from bovine, porcine, and ovine tendon have similar physical and mechanical properties, and are all potentially suitable materials for various tissue engineering applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2685-2692, 2016.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  5. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

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    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  10. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  11. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in the ectopic and eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Han-bi; Lang Jing-he; Leng Jin-hua; Zhu Lan; Liu Zhu-feng; Sun Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to detect and localize the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (Fins-like tyrosine kinase, Flt-1 and Kinase insert domain-containing receptor, KDR) in human ectopic and eutopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis.Methods:Endometrial biopsies from thirty three healthy and thirty seven endometriosis, thirty four ovarian chocolate cyst, fifteen red peritoneal lesions, and four endometriosis lesions form abdominal wall were used for immunohistochemistry, western blot and reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assessments to examine Flt-1 and KDR mRNA and protein expression for their relative level in the above tissues.Results:Flt-1 and KDR were expressed in the endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma cells besides the endometrial blood vessels.Among endometriotic lesions, the ectopic endometrium expressed higher level of Flt-1 (94.3%) and KDR(91.4%) than ovarian endometrioma(74.3%, 77.1%, P<0.05), and the same as eutopic endometriosis (93.8%, 90.6%, P>0.05).Flt-1(mRNA level:2.41±1.21, protein level: 31.1±17.4) and KDR (mRNA: 3.02±1.42, protein levels 35.6±23.6) in the eutopic endometrium expressed higher level than those in the ovarian endometrioma (mRNA level: 1.51±0.92,1.83±1.03 ; protein level: 16.8±6.1,19.7±10.5, P <0.05), and the same as those in the eutopic endometrium (mRNA level: 1.91±0.83,2.26±1.27 ; protein level:24.2±17.8,25.0±16.5, P>0.05).Conclusions: VEGF may have some effects on the development of endometriosis by VEGFR(Flt-1 and KDR).The expressions of Flt-1 and KDR in endometriotic tissue appear to be associated with its neovascularization.

  12. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  13. Coexpression of fractalkine and its receptor in normal human endometrium and in endometrium from users of progestin-only contraception supports a role for fractalkine in leukocyte recruitment and endometrial remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Natalie J; Jones, Rebecca L; Critchley, Hilary O D; Kovacs, Gabor J; Rogers, Peter A W; Affandi, Biran; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2004-12-01

    Leukocytes are critical mediators of endometrial remodeling, but the mechanisms by which leukocyte subpopulations enter the uterus are currently unknown. Endometrial leukocytes have no genomic progesterone receptors; thus, we hypothesized that leukocyte migration is induced indirectly by progesterone-regulated chemokines. Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a chemotactic membrane-bound adhesion factor, and its receptor (CX3CR1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in endometrial samples across the menstrual cycle, in early pregnancy, and in women using progestin-only contraceptives. Fractalkine was localized predominantly to glandular epithelial and decidualized stromal cells, with the highest staining intensity in the secretory phase and early pregnancy. It was also detected in subpopulations of endometrial leukocytes (macrophages and uterine NK cells), with maximal numbers during the proliferative phase and early pregnancy. CX3CR1 was similarly colocalized to the glandular epithelium and decidualized stromal cells, with the highest expression in the secretory phase. CX3CR1-positive leukocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) were in greatest abundance during the menstrual phase. In the endometrium of women using progestin-only contraceptives, immunoreactive fractalkine was markedly reduced in the glandular epithelium, but was increased in decidualized stroma and infiltrating leukocytes. These findings support a number of roles for fractalkine in the endometrium, in the secretory phase, in early pregnancy, and when influenced by progestin-only contraceptives.

  14. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  15. Physiological Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in Uterine Endometrium and Myometrium: Correlation with Uterine Motility Evaluated by Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, A.; Nishizawa, S.; Okada, H. (Hamamatsu Medical Imaging Center, Hamamatsu Medical Photonics Foundation, Hamakita City, Shizuoka (Japan)); Nakamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Togashi, K. Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto Univ. Hospital, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan))

    2009-05-15

    Background: Accumulation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the uterine endometrium and uterine motility are dependent on menstrual cycle. However, the relationship between them remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between radiometabolic activity of 18F-FDG in the uterus and uterine motility observed by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 healthy, fertile women, selected from 229 women who underwent positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and MRI for cancer screening at our facility. They were divided into three groups according to their menstrual cycle phases: menstrual, follicular-periovulatory, and luteal. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed over the endometrium and myometrium to calculate the standardized uptake value (SUV). Uterine peristalsis and contraction shown by cine MR imaging were evaluated visually, and the correlation between FDG uptake and uterine movements was assessed. Results: After excluding nine patients due to inadequate images, 56 patients (19 follicular-periovulatory, 27 luteal, and 10 menstrual) were analyzed. FDG uptake of the endometrium, frequency of peristalsis, and the presence of sustained contraction varied according to the menstruation cycle, with a tendency toward greater uptake in the menstrual phase, but there was little relationship between the frequency of uterine peristalsis and FDG accumulation in the uterus. Significantly higher FDG accumulation in the endometrium was observed in patients with sustained contractions (3.32+-1.47) than in those without contractions (2.45+-0.66). Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that FDG accumulation in the endometrium tends to be higher in patients with uterine contraction, although there was no significant correlation between uterine peristalsis and FDG uptake in the uterine myometrium or endometrium

  16. Quantitative analysis of closantel and rafoxanide in bovine and ovine muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Hoi-Sze; Ching, Wing-Hong; Lai, Shirley Sau-Ling; Lee, Wai-On; Wong, Yiu-Tung

    2010-01-01

    An HPLC method with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was described for the quantitative determination of closantel and rafoxanide in bovine and ovine muscles. A structural analog closely related to rafoxanide, viz., N-[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzamide, was synthesized as an internal standard. Bovine and ovine muscles were extracted with acetonitrile-acetone (60 + 40, v/v) followed by cleanup on mixed mode anionic exchange SPE cartridges. After evaporation and reconstitution with the mobile phase, the sample was analyzed by HPLC-FLD using internal standard calibration. The method was validated by using fortified bovine and ovine muscles at 15, 30, and 60 microg/kg. The accuracy and RSD were 70-110% and < or =10%, respectively.

  17. Quantitative analysis of [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma by capillary liquid chromatography-nanospray ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haibao; Umstot, Edward S; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2004-04-15

    The synthetic opioid peptide analog Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA; [Dmt= 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) is a highly potent and selective mu opioid-receptor agonist. A very sensitive and robust capillary liquid chromatography/nanospray ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry method has been developed to quantify [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma, using deuterated [Dmt(1)]DALDA as the internal standard. The standard MS/MS spectra of d(0)- and d(5)-[Dmt(1)]DALDA were obtained, and the collision energy was experimentally optimized to 25%. The product ion [ M + 2H-NH(3)](2+) (m/z 312.2) was used to identify and to quantify the synthetic opioid peptide analog in ovine plasma samples. The MS/MS detection sensitivity for [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 625 amol. A calibration curve was constructed, and quantitative analysis was performed on a series of ovine plasma samples.

  18. NAC1, a potential stem cell pluripotency factor expression in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masako; Nakayama, Kentaro; Yeasmin, Shamima; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of NAC1 in the development of endometrial cancer. NAC1 expression and localization were assessed with immunohistochemistry in the normal cyclic human endometrium, hyperplastic endometrium, and endometrial cancer. Expression of NAC1 in the glandular cells was significantly higher in the early and mid proliferative phases than in the other menstrual phases, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma. NAC1 expression was down-regulated during endometrial carcinogenesis. There were significant correlations between positive NAC1 expression and pathological grade (P=0.037). No significant associations were found between NAC1 expression and the other clinicopathological characteristics including patient age, FIGO staging, depth of myometrial invasion, pelvic lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion, menopause, or body mass index. NAC1 gene knockdown inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in Ishikawa, HHUA, and JHEM2 cell lines, all of which overexpressed NAC1. Ectopic overexpression of the NAC1 gene stimulated cell proliferation in the HEC1B, and JHEM1 endometrial cancer cell lines, which have lower endogenous NAC1 expression. Endometrial carcinomas with NAC1 overexpression are clinically aggressive, high-grade carcinomas. Therefore, detection of NAC1 overexpression in endometrial cancers may identify patients who will benefit from NAC1 targeted therapy.

  19. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs): progesterone receptor action, mode of action on the endometrium and treatment options in gynecological therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenfeld, Andrea; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O.D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The progesterone receptor plays an essential role in uterine physiology and reproduction. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have emerged as a valuable treatment option for hormone dependent conditions like uterine fibroids, which have a major impact on women’s quality of life. SPRMs offer potential for longer term medical treatment and thereby patients may avoid surgical intervention. Areas covered: The authors have reviewed the functional role of the progesterone receptor and its isoforms and their molecular mechanisms of action via genomic and non-genomic pathways. The current knowledge of the interaction of the PR and different SPRMs tested in clinical trials has been reviewed. The authors focused on pharmacological effects of selected SPRMs on the endometrium, their anti-proliferative action, and their suppression of bleeding. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific histological changes in the endometrium induced by SPRMs (PAEC; Progesterone receptor modulator Associated Endometrial Changes) have been discussed. The clinical potential of this compound class including its impact on quality of life has been covered. Expert Opinion: Clinical studies indicate SPRMs hold promise for treatment of benign gynecological complaints (fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding; HMB). There however remains a knowledge gap concerning mechanism of action. PMID:27138351

  20. HPV11 Positive Endometrioid Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Signet-Ring Cells: Diagnostic Criteria and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of signet-ring cells in an endometrial adenocarcinoma is extremely uncommon and it is always necessary to rule out a metastatic neoplasm. We report a FIGO grade 2 endometrial carcinoma with a signet-ring cell component found in the curettage performed to a 53-year-old woman. The neoplastic proliferation was also found in the endometrium of the radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The uterine neoplasm invaded less than one-half of the myometrium (FIGO stage I B. Alcian blue showed the presence of mucin in the signet-ring cells. The patient was alive and without evidence of recurrence 14 months after surgery. Polymerase chain reaction method from paraffin-embedded tissue revealed the presence of human papilloma virus type 11. We have discussed the differential diagnosis of this kind of neoplasm and we have reviewed the literature on signet-ring cell carcinoma of the endometrium.

  1. Effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on the immune microenvironment of the human cervix and endometrium: implications for HIV susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McCune, K K; Hilton, J F; Shanmugasundaram, U; Critchfield, J W; Greenblatt, R M; Seidman, D; Averbach, S; Giudice, L C; Shacklett, B L

    2017-09-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate is a commonly used injectable contraceptive that has been associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition. This study compares effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on immune parameters from several upper reproductive tract compartments relevant to HIV-1 susceptibility in repetitive samples from 15 depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate users and 27 women not on hormonal contraceptives. Compared with samples from unexposed women in the mid-luteal phase, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate use was associated with: increased endocervical concentrations of MCP1 and IFNalpha2; decreased endocervical concentrations of IL1beta and IL6; increased proportions of endometrial CD4+ and CD8+ cells expressing the activation marker HLADR; increased density of endometrial macrophages; and decreased density of endometrial regulatory T cells. Unlike previous reports with samples from the vagina, we did not observe increased expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 on CD4+ T cells in the endocervix or endometrium. Our results indicate important differences in anatomic compartments regarding mechanisms by which depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate could be associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition, including increased recruitment of macrophages to the endometrium, decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the endocervix possibly leading to enhanced susceptibility to viral infection, and activation of endometrial T cells.

  2. Massive dysregulation of genes involved in cell signaling and placental development in cloned cattle conceptus and maternal endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biase, Fernando H; Rabel, Chanaka; Guillomot, Michel; Hue, Isabelle; Andropolis, Kalista; Olmstead, Colleen A; Oliveira, Rosane; Wallace, Richard; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Richard, Christophe; Campion, Evelyne; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Giraud-Delville, Corinne; Taghouti, Géraldine; Jammes, Hélène; Renard, Jean-Paul; Sandra, Olivier; Lewin, Harris A

    2016-12-20

    A major unresolved issue in the cloning of mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the mechanism by which the process fails after embryos are transferred to the uterus of recipients before or during the implantation window. We investigated this problem by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare the transcriptomes in cattle conceptuses produced by SCNT and artificial insemination (AI) at day (d) 18 (preimplantation) and d 34 (postimplantation) of gestation. In addition, endometrium was profiled to identify the communication pathways that might be affected by the presence of a cloned conceptus, ultimately leading to mortality before or during the implantation window. At d 18, the effects on the transcriptome associated with SCNT were massive, involving more than 5,000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them are 121 genes that have embryonic lethal phenotypes in mice, cause defects in trophoblast and placental development, and/or affect conceptus survival in mice. In endometria at d 18, genes were affected by the presence of a cloned conceptus, whereas at d 34, ∼36% and genes were differentially expressed in intercaruncular and caruncular tissues, respectively. Functional analysis of DEGs in placental and endometrial tissues suggests a major disruption of signaling between the cloned conceptus and the endometrium, particularly the intercaruncular tissue. Our results support a "bottleneck" model for cloned conceptus survival during the periimplantation period determined by gene expression levels in extraembryonic tissues and the endometrial response to altered signaling from clones.

  3. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  4. Characterization of the ovine ribosomal protein SA gene and its pseudogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ribosomal protein SA (RPSA, previously named 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR is a multifunctional protein that plays a role in a number of pathological processes, such as cancer and prion diseases. In all investigated species, RPSA is a member of a multicopy gene family consisting of one full length functional gene and several pseudogenes. Therefore, for studies on RPSA related pathways/pathologies, it is important to characterize the whole family and to address the possible function of the other RPSA family members. The present work aims at deciphering the RPSA family in sheep. Results In addition to the full length functional ovine RPSA gene, 11 other members of this multicopy gene family, all processed pseudogenes, were identified. Comparison between the RPSA transcript and these pseudogenes shows a large variety in sequence identities ranging from 99% to 74%. Only one of the 11 pseudogenes, i.e. RPSAP7, shares the same open reading frame (ORF of 295 amino acids with the RPSA gene, differing in only one amino acid. All members of the RPSA family were annotated by comparative mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH localization. Transcription was investigated in the cerebrum, cerebellum, spleen, muscle, lymph node, duodenum and blood, and transcripts were detected for 6 of the 11 pseudogenes in some of these tissues. Conclusions In the present work we have characterized the ovine RPSA family. Our results have revealed the existence of 11 ovine RPSA pseudogenes and provide new data on their structure and sequence. Such information will facilitate molecular studies of the functional RPSA gene taking into account the existence of these pseudogenes in the design of experiments. It remains to be investigated if the transcribed members are functional as regulatory non-coding RNA or as functional proteins.

  5. In vivo implant fixation of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Bandoh, Shunichi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William R; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) is theoretically suitable as a material for use in hip prostheses, offering excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and the absence of metal ions. To evaluate in vivo fixation methods of CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in bone, we examined radiographic and histological results for cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model with implantation up to 52 weeks. CFR/PEEK cups and stems with rough-textured surfaces plus hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings for cementless fixation and CFR/PEEK cups and stems without HA coating for cement fixation were manufactured based on ovine computed tomography (CT) data. Unilateral total hip arthroplasty was performed using cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses. Five cementless cups and stems and six cemented cups and stems were evaluated. On the femoral side, all cementless stems demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation and all cemented stems demonstrated stable fixation without any gaps at both the bone-cement and cement-stem interfaces. All cementless cases and four of the six cemented cases showed minimal stress shielding. On the acetabular side, two of the five cementless cups demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation. Our results suggest that both cementless and cemented CFR/PEEK stems work well for fixation. Cup fixation may be difficult for both cementless and cemented types in this ovine model, but bone ongrowth fixation on the cup was first seen in two cementless cases. Cementless fixation can be achieved using HA-coated CFR/PEEK implants, even under load-bearing conditions.

  6. Evidence for co-infection of ovine prion strains in classical scrapie isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, A M; Lockey, R; Beck, K E; Spiropoulos, J; Bujdoso, R

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of strains of ovine prions within classical scrapie isolates was investigated by transmission studies in wild type mice. To determine the maximum diversity of prion strains present in each ovine scrapie isolate examined, isolates from mice having the shortest and longest incubation times for terminal disease after primary inoculation were passaged serially. Serial passage of ARQ/ARQ scrapie isolates in RIII mice revealed the ME7 prion strain in mice with short incubation times for terminal prion disease and the 87A strain in those mice with long incubation times. Serial passage of VRQ/VRQ scrapie isolates in RIII mice led to emergence of the 221C prion strain in mice with short incubation times and a variant of the 221C strain in those mice with long incubation times. RIII mice with short incubation times had higher levels of total and proteinase K-resistant PrP(Sc) compared with those RIII mice with long incubation times, while mice with long incubation times had large aggregates and plaques of PrP(Sc). ME7 PrP(Sc) differed in stability compared with the 87A prion strain, while PrP(Sc) associated with 221C had similar stability to that of the 221C variant. Serial passage in VM mice led to identification of ME7 and 87V in the same scrapie isolate. The data show that different prion strains can emerge from the same ovine scrapie isolate following serial passage in wild type mice and that the transmission properties of these strains correlate with distinct patterns of PrP(Sc) deposition.

  7. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  8. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-06

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation.

  9. Dental considerations in pregnant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khedmat S.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available During the human gestation period, various systemic alterations occur in the mother"nsecondary to endocrine changes. These changes, combined with the presence of the gravid uterus, result"nin conditions affecting the various systems of the mother which must be considered by the dentist."nFetal development is divided into three stages:"n1 The fertilization and implantation period"n2 The embryonic period and"n3 The fetal period."nThe second period characterized by organogenesis which taratogens may result in functional and"nmorphogenic malformations."nThe ideal dental treatment schedule for the pregnant patient is twice during first trimester, at least once"nduring second trimester and once during third trimester."nThe second trimester is an ideal time for performing dental treatment."nEmergency problem should be alleviated immediately during pregnancy."nIndicated medications should not be with held because of pregnancy but patients must be informed of"nbenefits and risks."nWith careful attention to the special needs of the pregnant patient, the dentist can provide high quality"ndental care while minimizing potential risks to mother and fetus."nEmphasis should be on preventive strategies and meticulous oral hygiene to manage common oral"nproblems associated with pregnancy.

  10. Weekly intra-amniotic IGF-1 treatment increases growth of growth-restricted ovine fetuses and up-regulates placental amino acid transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibran A Wali

    Full Text Available Frequent treatment of the growth-restricted (IUGR ovine fetus with intra-amniotic IGF-1 increases fetal growth. We aimed to determine whether increased growth was maintained with an extended dosing interval and to examine possible mechanisms. Pregnant ewes were allocated to three groups: Control, and two IUGR groups (induced by placental embolization treated with weekly intra-amniotic injections of either saline (IUGR or 360 µg IGF-1 (IGF1. IUGR fetuses were hypoxic, hyperuremic, hypoglycemic, and grew more slowly than controls. Placental glucose uptake and SLC2A1 (GLUT2 mRNA levels decreased in IUGR fetuses, but SLC2A3 (GLUT3 and SLC2A4 (GLUT4 levels were unaffected. IGF-1 treatment increased fetal growth rate, did not alter uterine blood flow or placental glucose uptake, and increased placental SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 (but not SLC2A3 mRNA levels compared with saline-treated IUGR animals. Following IGF-1 treatment, placental mRNA levels of isoforms of the system A, y(+, and L amino acid transporters increased 1.3 to 5.0 fold, while the ratio of phosphorylated-mTOR to total mTOR also tended to increase. Weekly intra-amniotic IGF-1 treatment provides a promising avenue for intra-uterine treatment of IUGR babies, and may act via increased fetal substrate supply, up-regulating placental transporters for neutral, cationic, and branched-chain amino acids, possibly via increased activation of the mTOR pathway.

  11. Daily ethanol exposure during late ovine pregnancy: physiological effects in the mother and fetus in the apparent absence of overt fetal cerebral dysmorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Kelly; De Matteo, Robert; Hanita, Takushi; Rees, Sandra; Sozo, Foula; Stokes, Victoria; Walker, David; Bocking, Alan; Brien, James; Harding, Richard

    2011-10-01

    High levels of ethanol (EtOH) consumption during pregnancy adversely affect fetal development; however, the effects of lower levels of exposure are less clear. Our objectives were to assess the effects of daily EtOH exposure (3.8 USA standard drinks) on fetal-maternal physiological variables and the fetal brain, particularly white matter. Pregnant ewes received daily intravenous infusions of EtOH (0.75 g/kg maternal body wt over 1 h, 8 fetuses) or saline (8 fetuses) from 95 to 133 days of gestational age (DGA; term ∼145 DGA). Maternal and fetal arterial blood was sampled at 131-133 DGA. At necropsy (134 DGA) fetal brains were collected for analysis. Maternal and fetal plasma EtOH concentrations reached similar maximal concentration (∼0.11 g/dl) and declined at the same rate. EtOH infusions produced mild reductions in fetal arterial oxygenation but there were no changes in maternal oxygenation, maternal and fetal Pa(CO(2)), or in fetal mean arterial pressure or heart rate. Following EtOH infusions, plasma lactate levels were elevated in ewes and fetuses, but arterial pH fell only in ewes. Fetal body and brain weights were similar between groups. In three of eight EtOH-exposed fetuses there were small subarachnoid hemorrhages in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with focal cortical neuronal death and gliosis. Overall, there was no evidence of cystic lesions, inflammation, increased apoptosis, or white matter injury. We conclude that daily EtOH exposure during the third trimester-equivalent of ovine pregnancy has modest physiological effects on the fetus and no gross effects on fetal white matter development.

  12. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and biofeedback therapy may improve endometrial growth for patients with thin endometrium during frozen-thawed embryo transfer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaoqing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of pelvic floor Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES Therapy in improving endometrial thickness in women with thin endometrium. Methods 41 patients undergoing assisted reproduction with a thin endometrium (less than or equal to7 mm were recruited and advised to go for a pelvic floor NMES in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycle. PHENIX Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy System was used according to the manufacturer's recommended protocol for 20 to 30 minutes of intermittent vaginal electrical stimulation on the treatment days. Results A total of 20 and 21 were included in the NMES and non-NMES groups respectively. 12 out of 20 (60% patients developed endometrial thickness equal to or more than 8 mm after the NMES therapy, which was the primary outcome. The mean thickness of endometrium before and after was respectively 5.60 mm (0.82 mm and 7.93 mm (1.42 mm in the therapy group versus 5.50 mm (1.00 and 6.78 mm (0.47 in the control group; the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002. There was higher pregnancy rate in the NMES group (42% versus 35% but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Neuromuscular Electrical stimulation therapy may be effective for the patients with a thin endometrium. Further studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness.

  13. Advance of endometrium receptivity evaluated in human%人类子宫内膜容受性评估的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少元; 刘倍余; 李洁

    2013-01-01

    The endometrium is one of the most fascinating tissues in the human body. Embryo implantation is a process that requires both temporal and spatial synchronization of the uterine endometrium and the embryo, and endometrium becomes receptive to the embryo during the window of implantation. Morphofunctional changes including sonography phenotype; pinopode, estrogen receptor(ER)and progesto-gen receptor(PR)expression in endometrial biopsy during this period may prevent or hinder the implantation. The expression patterns of many implantation-related molecules (such as integrin αvβ3, LIF, EGF, VEGF,ICAM-1,NO et al) change dynamically during this process. It becomes clear that overcoming the current bottleneck in improvements to assisted reproductive techniques will require a closer look at biomar-ker in the interface between uterus and embryo. Indeed, embryo implantation requires a cross talk with a receptive endometrium. We can learn more molecular markers related anatomical and functional of endometrial receptivity from the genomics and proteomics. This article reviews the potential marker which might be reflecting of endometrial receptivity.

  14. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and safety of Brucella melitensis B115 vaccination in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Adone, Rosanna; García-Seco, Teresa; Tarantino, Michaela; Diez-Guerrier, Alberto; Drumo, Rosanna; Francia, Massimiliano; Domínguez, Lucas; Pasquali, Paolo; Álvarez, Julio

    2014-04-01

    In spite of its limitations, Rev.1 is currently recognized as the most suitable vaccine against Brucella melitensis (the causative agent of ovine and caprine brucellosis). However, its use is limited to young animals when test-and-slaughter programs are in place because of the occurrence of false positive-reactions due to Rev.1 vaccination. The B. melitensis B115 rough strain has demonstrated its efficacy against B. melitensis virulent strains in the mouse model, but there is a lack of information regarding its potential use in small ruminants for brucellosis control. Here, the safety and immune response elicited by B115 strain inoculation were evaluated in pregnant ewes vaccinated at their midpregnancy. Vaccinated (n=8) and non-vaccinated (n=3) sheep were periodically sampled and analyzed for the 108 days following inoculations using tests designed for the detection of the response elicited by the B115 strain and routine serological tests for brucellosis [Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and blocking ELISA (ELISAb)]. Five out of the 8 vaccinated animals aborted, indicating a significant abortifacient effect of B115 inoculation at midpregnancy. In addition, a smooth strain was recovered from one vaccinated animal, suggesting the occurrence of an in vivo reversion phenomenon. Only one animal was positive in both RBT and CFT simultaneously (91 days after vaccination) confirming the lack of induction of cross-reacting antibody responses interfering with routine brucellosis diagnostic tests in most B115-vaccinated animals.

  15. Expression patterns of microRNAs in porcine endometrium and their potential roles in embryo implantation and placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lijie; Liu, Ruize; Cheng, Wei; Zhu, Mengjin; Li, Xiaoping; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Implantation and placentation are critical steps for successful pregnancy. The pig has a non-invasive placenta and the uterine luminal epithelium is intact throughout pregnancy. To better understand the regulation mechanisms in functions of endometrium at three certain gestational stages that are critical for embryo/fetal loss in pigs, we characterized microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the endometrium on days 15 (implantation period), 26 (placentation period) and 50 (mid-gestation period) of gestation. The differentially expressed miRNAs across gestational days were detected and of which, 65 miRNAs were grouped into 4 distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns: (1) categories A and B contain majority of miRNAs (51 miRNAs, such as the miR-181 family) that were down- or up-regulated between gestational days 15 and 26, respectively; (2) categories C and D (14 miRNAs) consist miRNAs that were down- or up-regulated between gestational days 26 and 50, respectively. The expression patterns represented by eleven miRNAs were validated by qPCR. The majority of miRNAs were in categories A and B, suggesting that these miRNAs were involved in regulation of embryo implantation and placentation. The pathway analysis revealed that the predicted targets were involved in several pathways, such as focal adhesion, cell proliferation and tissue remolding. Furthermore, we identified that genes well-known to affect embryo implantation in pigs, namely SPP1, ITGB3 and ESR1, contain the miR-181a or miR-181c binding sites using the luciferase reporter system. The present study revealed distinctive miRNA expression patterns in the porcine endometrium during the implantation, placentation or mid-gestation periods. Additionally, our results suggested that miR-181a and miR-181c likely play important roles in the regulation of genes and pathways that are known to be involved in embryo implantation and placentation in pigs.

  16. Expression patterns of microRNAs in porcine endometrium and their potential roles in embryo implantation and placentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Su

    Full Text Available Implantation and placentation are critical steps for successful pregnancy. The pig has a non-invasive placenta and the uterine luminal epithelium is intact throughout pregnancy. To better understand the regulation mechanisms in functions of endometrium at three certain gestational stages that are critical for embryo/fetal loss in pigs, we characterized microRNA (miRNA expression profiles in the endometrium on days 15 (implantation period, 26 (placentation period and 50 (mid-gestation period of gestation. The differentially expressed miRNAs across gestational days were detected and of which, 65 miRNAs were grouped into 4 distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns: (1 categories A and B contain majority of miRNAs (51 miRNAs, such as the miR-181 family that were down- or up-regulated between gestational days 15 and 26, respectively; (2 categories C and D (14 miRNAs consist miRNAs that were down- or up-regulated between gestational days 26 and 50, respectively. The expression patterns represented by eleven miRNAs were validated by qPCR. The majority of miRNAs were in categories A and B, suggesting that these miRNAs were involved in regulation of embryo implantation and placentation. The pathway analysis revealed that the predicted targets were involved in several pathways, such as focal adhesion, cell proliferation and tissue remolding. Furthermore, we identified that genes well-known to affect embryo implantation in pigs, namely SPP1, ITGB3 and ESR1, contain the miR-181a or miR-181c binding sites using the luciferase reporter system. The present study revealed distinctive miRNA expression patterns in the porcine endometrium during the implantation, placentation or mid-gestation periods. Additionally, our results suggested that miR-181a and miR-181c likely play important roles in the regulation of genes and pathways that are known to be involved in embryo implantation and placentation in pigs.

  17. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  18. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  19. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women.

  20. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be based on your overall health and how active you are before you get pregnant. Talk to your doctor or midwife about what kind of exercise, and how much, is good for you. Stress, Rest, and Relaxation While you are trying to get pregnant, try ...

  1. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  2. Inactivation of ovine cyclooxygenase-1 by bromoaspirin and aspirin: a quantum chemistry description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Marques, João Paulo C; da Costa, Roner F; Caetano, Ewerton W S; Cavada, Benildo S; Gottfried, Carmem; Freire, Valder N

    2012-03-15

    The resulting noncovalent bonding of the salicylic acid to ovine COX-1 after bromoaspirin and aspirin acetylation by Ser530 is investigated within the scope of density functional theory considering a 6.5 Å radius binding pocket. We have not only took full advantage of published X-ray structural data for the ovine COX-1 cocrystallized with bromoaspirin, but we also have improved that data through computation, finding good estimates for the hydrogen atom positions at the residues of the binding pocket, and repositioning the Ser530Ac[Br;H] lateral chain and salicylic acid by total energy minimization procedures employing LDA and GGA+D exchange-correlation functionals. Using bromoaspirin as a template, we have simulated the positioning of aspirin in the binding pocket, estimating its interaction energy with each of its neighbor COX-1 residues. We demonstrate that the binding energies of bromoaspirin and aspirin to COX-1 are very close when second-order quantum refinements of the structural data are performed, which points to an explanation on why the IC(50) values for the 126 μM COX-1 activity of both bromoaspirin and aspirin are practically the same. Attracting and repelling residues were identified, being shown that Arg120 is the most effective residue attracting the salicylic acid, followed by Ala527, Leu531, Leu359, and Ser353. On the other hand, Glu524 was found the most effective repulsive residue (strength interaction comparable to Arg120). © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior.

  4. Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Cardiac Perfusion in an Ovine Immunocompetent Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Victor; Sotelo, Veronica; Delfina, Valentina; Delgado, Natalia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Suanes, Carol; Langhain, María; Ferrando, Rodolfo; Keating, Armand; Benech, Alejandro; Touriño, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold considerable promise in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Most preclinical studies of MSCs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been performed either in syngeneic animal models or with human cells in xenogeneic immunodeficient animals. A preferable pre-clinical model, however, would involve human MSCs in an immunocompetent animal. AMI was generated in adult sheep by inducing ischemia reperfusion of the second diagonal branch. Sheep (n = 10) were randomized to receive an intravenous injection of human MSCs (1 × 10(6) cells/kg) or phosphate buffered saline. Cardiac function and remodeling were evaluated with echocardiography. Perfusion scintigraphy was used to identify sustained myocardial ischemia. Interaction between human MSCs and ovine lymphocytes was assessed by a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Sheep receiving human MSCs showed significant improvement in myocardial perfusion at 1 month compared with baseline measurements. There was no change in ventricular dimensions in either group after 1 month of AMI. No adverse events or symptoms were observed in the sheep receiving human MSCs. The MLR was negative. The immunocompetent ovine AMI model demonstrates the clinical safety and efficacy of human MSCs. The human cells do not appear to be immunogenic, further suggesting that immunocompetent sheep may serve as a suitable pre-clinical large animal model for testing human MSCs.

  5. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship.

  6. Field isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae exhibit distinct cytopathic effects in ovine tracheal organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; DeBey, M C; Niyo, Y; Andrews, J J; Kaeberle, M L

    1998-02-01

    Ovine tracheal ring explants were infected with four different Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and one M. arginini field isolate and their ability to induce cytopathic effects was tested by measuring ciliary activity and intracellular calmodulin release. Infected tracheal rings showed significantly decreased ciliary activity as compared to the non-infected control rings. There were, however, marked differences between isolates in the onset and severity of the effects which correlated with their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Infected tracheal rings released more calmodulin than the non-infected controls. The amount of calmodulin released also varied between isolates, and somewhat reflected the degree of loss of ciliary activity in the corresponding rings induced by the different isolates. Light and electron microscopic examinations of infected tracheal rings revealed disorganisation and sloughing of the epithelium, and association of mycoplasmas only with the cilia. Following repeated in vitro passages, the organisms had reduced ability to inhibit ciliary activity which correlated with decreased hydrogen peroxide production. Addition of catalase to the organ cultures delayed loss of ciliary activity. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced ciliostasis in ovine tracheal ring explants which correlated with hydrogen peroxide production. Furthermore, these M. ovipneumoniae-induced injuries to respiratory epithelial cells could contribute to the role that this organism may play in sheep respiratory disease.

  7. A 57-bp deletion in the ovine KAP6-1 gene affects wool fibre diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Gong, H; Li, S; Luo, Y; Hickford, J G H

    2015-08-01

    High glycine-tyrosine keratin-associated proteins (HGT-KAPs) are predominantly present in the orthocortex of wool fibres. They vary in abundance in different wools and have been implicated in regulating wool fibre properties, but little is known about the functional roles of these proteins in the fibre matrix. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction--single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to screen for variation in a gene encoding the ovine HGT-KAP6-1 protein. We identified three gene variants (A, B and C). Variants A and B were similar to each other, with only three nucleotide differences occurring downstream of the coding sequence. However, variant C had a 57-bp deletion that would notionally result in a loss of 19 amino acids in the protein. The presence of C was found to be associated with an increase in mean fibre diameter (MFD), fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD) and prickle factor (percentage of fibres over 30 microns; PF). Sheep of genotype BC produced wool of greater MFD, FDSD and PF than sheep of genotypes AA, AB and BB. The CVFD was greater in the BC sheep than the AB sheep. The results suggest that variation in ovine KRTAP6-1 affects wool fibre diameter-associated traits and that the 57-bp deletion in this gene would lead to coarser wool with greater FDSD, CVFD and PF.

  8. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Condoleo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (P<0.02; the higher within-flock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution.

  9. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  10. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  11. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Adamzyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC. Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF. We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i considerable donor to donor variations, (ii protocol-dependent variations, and (iii variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  12. Effects of various doses of ovine corticotrophin - releasing hormone on plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerkerk, E.P.R.; Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Kolk, van der J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To compare the effects of IV administration of various doses of ovine corticotrophin¿releasing hormone (oCRH) on plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations in healthy horses and determine whether an oCRH challenge test protocol is valid for use in adult horses. Animals¿24 healthy Warmblood horses. Ea

  13. Differential response of ovine placental lactogen levels in maternal and fetal circulations following single umbilical artery ligation in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, J P; Lam, R W; Hobel, C J; Padbury, J F; Polk, D H; Fisher, D A

    1986-01-01

    We investigated circulating maternal and fetal serum concentrations of ovine placental lactogen (oPL) following single umbilical artery ligation (SUAL) at 108 to 114 days' gestation. Ovine placental lactogen was isolated and purified from placental cotyledons, and a radioimmunoassay developed using previously described methods. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was manifest as increasing fetal brain-to-liver weight ratio with increasing duration of survival following SUAL. During the first five to seven days following SUAL, circulating oPL levels in ewes with SUAL fetuses were significantly reduced when compared with levels in ewes with control fetuses. In contrast, oPL levels in SUAL fetuses were significantly increased above levels in control fetuses for the first five to seven days following surgery. Fetal ovine growth hormone levels were elevated in SUAL fetuses, while ovine prolactin levels were similar in the two groups. IUGR was associated with mild fetal acidosis and fetal plasma CAT levels which were similar in SUAL and control fetuses. No correlation was found between fetal pH or CAT and fetal oPL levels. These findings are consistent with the view that circulating levels of oPL in the mother are related to the mass of functioning trophoblast. Elevated fetal oPL levels following SUAL may result from acute placental ischaemia with alterations in placental lactogen secretion at the maternofetal interface.

  14. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLVs, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalenc...

  15. Ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins recognise isologous and third party acid-treated trophoblast microvesicle antigens in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Omwandho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Placental microvesicles were prepared from ovine placentae and immunoglobulins eluted with 0.5 M glycine buffer pH 2.5. The ability of eluate immunoglobulins to re-associate with isologous (self and third party acidified microvesicles was tested by ELISA. Ovine placental immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles suggesting that at least 2 types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the ovine placentae. Type I antigensmaybe present on placentae of all ovines while type II epitopes may be paternally derived, hence unique to each pregnancy. Analysis by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27 kDa, respectively, together giving a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa. Results suggest that immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the trophoblast, possibly defining a mechanism by which the foetus evades maternal immunological rejection.

  16. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  17. Effects of uteroplacental restriction on the relaxin-family receptors, Lgr7 and Lgr8, in the uterus of late pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Wlodek, Mary E; Parry, Laura J

    2007-01-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin stimulates uterine growth and endometrial angiogenesis and inhibits myometrial contractions in a variety of species. The receptor for relaxin is a leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor Lgr7 (RXFP1) that is highly expressed in the myometrium of late pregnant mice, with a significant decrease in receptor density observed at term. The present study first compared the expression of Lgr7 with another relaxin-family receptor Lgr8 (RXFP2) in the uterus and placenta of late pregnant rats. The uterus was separated into endometrial and myometrial components, and the myometrium into fetal and non-fetal sites, for further analysis. We then assessed the response of these receptors to uteroplacental restriction (UPR). Expression of the Lgr7 gene was significantly higher in the uterus compared with the placenta. Within the uterus, on Day 20 of gestation, there was equivalent expression of Lgr7 in fetal and non-fetal sites of the myometrium, as well as in the endometrium v. myometrium. The second receptor investigated, Lgr8, was also expressed in the endometrium and myometrium, but at significantly lower levels than Lgr7. Bilateral ligation of the maternal uterine blood vessels on Day 18 of gestation resulted in uteroplacental restriction, a decrease in fetal weight and litter size, and a significant upregulation in uterine, but not placental, Lgr7 and Lgr8 gene expression in UPR animals compared with controls. These data suggest that both relaxin family receptors are upregulated in response to a reduction in uteroplacental blood flow in rats.

  18. Gonadotrope-specific expression and regulation of ovine follicle stimulating hormone Beta: transgenic and adenoviral approaches using primary murine gonadotropes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Jia

    Full Text Available The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHB is expressed specifically in pituitary gonadotropes in vertebrates. Transgenic mouse studies have shown that enhancers in the proximal promoter between -172/-1 bp of the ovine FSHB gene are required for gonadotrope expression of ovine FSHB. These enhancers are associated with regulation by activins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH. Additional distal promoter sequence between -4741/-750 bp is also required for expression. New transgenic studies presented here focus on this distal region and narrow it to 1116 bp between -1866/-750 bp. In addition, adenoviral constructs were produced to identify these critical distal sequences using purified primary mouse gonadotropes as an in vitro model system. The adenoviral constructs contained -2871 bp, -750 bp or -232 bp of the ovine FSHB promoter. They all showed gonadotrope-specific regulation since they were induced only in purified primary gonadotropes by activin A (50 ng/ml and inhibited by GnRH (100 nM in the presence of activin (except -232FSHBLuc. However, basal expression of all three viral constructs (in the presence of follistatin to block cellular induction by activin was relatively high in pituitary non-gonadotropes as well as gonadotropes. Thus, gonadotrope-specific regulation associated with the proximal promoter was observed as expected, but the model was blind to distal promoter elements between -2871/-750 necessary for gonadotrope-specific expression of ovine FSHB in vivo. The new adenoviral-based in vitro technique did detect, however, a novel GnRH response element between -750 bp and -232 bp of the ovine FSHB promoter. We conclude that adenoviral-based studies in primary gonadotropes can adequately recognize regulatory elements on the ovine FSHB promoter associated with gonadotrope-specific regulation/expression, but that more physiologically based techniques, such as transgenic studies, will be needed to identify sequences

  19. Efeito da tibolona sobre o endométrio de ratas castradas Effect of tibolone on endometrium of castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Soares Pantaleão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso prolongado de alta dose de tibolona na morfologia do endométrio em ratas castradas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 15 ratas Wistar, fêmeas, com idade de oito semanas e peso médio de 250 g. Todas as ratas foram submetidas à ooforectomia bilateral e 30 dias depois foi coletada citologia vaginal, verificando-se o status de menopausa. As ratas foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o tratado (n=9 recebeu via oral 1 mg tibolona/dia; o controle (n=6 recebeu apenas solução do veículo carboximetilcelulose. Após 20 semanas de tratamento, todos os animais foram sedados e sacrificados por deslocamento cervical. Os úteros foram retirados e fixados em formol 10% tamponado. Ambos os cornos uterinos foram clivados em três regiões (proximal, medial, distal e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes histológicos corados com hematoxilina-eosina foram submetidos à análise morfológica e morfométrica. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: espessura do epitélio superficial endometrial, espessura do estroma endometrial, área endometrial, número absoluto de glândulas endometriais e número de glândulas/área endometrial. Os dados obtidos foram comparados mediante o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: no Grupo Tibolona os úteros se apresentaram bem desenvolvidos e houve aumento significativo (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of long-term use of a high dose of tibolone on the morphology of the endometrium of castrated female rats. METHODS: fifteen female Wistar rats, aged eight weeks and weighting about 250 g were used. All the female rats were submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and 30 days afterwards, vaginal cytology was collected, to verify the menopause status. The female rats were randomly divided in two groups. The Treatment Group (n=9 received 1 mg of tibolone/day orally; the Control Group (n=6 received a solution of carboxymethylcellulose vehicle. After 20 weeks of treatment, all the animals were

  20. Role of inflammation and aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium and its relationship with the development of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Hugo; Haddad, Clarice; Coelho, Genevieve; Casoy, Julio

    2012-11-01

    Epigenetic changes favoring the transcription of the aromatase gene in the endometrium allow endometrial cells to survive in ectopic locations by producing estrogens that spare them from destruction through activated macrophages. Local estrogen production hastens prostaglandin synthesis by stimulating COX-2 activity, thus creating a self-perpetuating sequence of augmented estrogen formation and enhanced inflammation. Repetitive retrograde menstruation reintroduces aromatase-positive endometrial cells endowed with the capacity to implant and invade the peritoneum. In order to control endometriosis, an effective medication must inhibit aromatase, block COX-2, decrease fibrosis and induce amenorrhea. Within this framework, progestins, either alone or in the form of oral contraceptives, appear as first-line treatment for endometriosis owing to their capacity to block enzymes such as aromatase and COX-2.

  1. 112 Presence of bacteria in the endometrium and oviduct of cows with pyometra as detected by flourescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C. C.; Knudsen, L.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the location of the present bacteria in the uterus and oviducts of cows with pyometra. Pyometra is one of the postpartum infectious diseases in cattle that can result in infertility and thereby affect reproduction performance. Reproductive tracts (n = 21...... for fluorescence in situ hybridization using a probe targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA of the domain bacteria (i.e. targeting all bacteria regardless of species). Using fluorescence microscopy, the presence of bacteria within or on the surface of the endometrium and in the oviducts were noted. The endometrial...... biopsies from all cows (n = 21) contained bacteria, while 75% (16/21) of the cows had bacteria in one or both oviducts. The bacteria were located on the luminal surface and in the lamina propria in 38.1% (8/21) of the uterine biopsies. In the remaining 62% of the uterine biopsies, the bacteria were only...

  2. Ultrasound characteristics and histological dating of the endometrium in a natural cycle in infertile women compared with fertile controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, A; Ravn, V; Bentin-Ley, U

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endometrial dating and ultrasound texture in a natural cycle before IVF and relate these to outcome and to fertile references. DESIGN: Prospective study with a fertile reference group. SETTING: Four university IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Seventy-five IVF patients and 21 fertile...... in nonpregnant women compared with in women with ongoing pregnancies and with fertile controls. A periovulatory hyperechogenic endometrium resulted in no ongoing pregnancies. CONCLUSION(S): In a natural cycle preceding IVF, a low midluteal P level predicts a low implantation rate. A periovulatory hyperechogenic...... women. INTERVENTION(S): Ultrasound, biopsy, blood sampling. In vitro fertilization-ET in the following cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endometrial evaluation, P, IVF outcome. RESULT(S): At day LH+7, 42% infertile vs. 67% fertile women demonstrated endometria that were in phase (statistically...

  3. The transcription factor SOX17 is involved in the transcriptional control of the uteroglobin gene in rabbit endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos; Calvo, Enrique; Nieto, Antonio

    2007-10-15

    The transcription of the uteroglobin gene (ug) is induced by progesterone in the rabbit endometrium, primarily through the binding of the progesterone receptor to the distal region of the ug promoter. However, other transcription factors participate in the progesterone action. The proximal ug promoter contains several putative consensus sequences for the binding of various progesterone-dependent endometrial nuclear factors (Perez Martinez et al. [1996] Arch Biochem Biophys 333: 12-18), suggesting that several transcription factors might be implicated in the hormonal induction of ug. We report here that one of these progesterone-dependent factors specifically binds to the sequence CACAATG (-183/-177) of the rabbit ug promoter. This sequence (hereafter called element G') is very similar to the consensus sequence for binding of the SOX family of transcription factors. Mutation of the element G' reduced transcription from the ug promoter in transient expression experiments. The endometrial factor was purified and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography and ion trap coupled mass spectrometry yielding two partial amino acid sequences corresponding to a region of SOX17 that is highly conserved inter-species. This identification was confirmed by immunological techniques using a specific anti-SOX17 antibody. In agreement with the above findings, overexpression of SOX17 in transfected endometrial cells increased transcription from the ug promoter. SOX17 gradually accumulated in the nucleus in vivo concomitant with the induction of ug expression by progesterone in the endometrium. Thus, these findings implicate, for the first time, SOX17 in the transcriptional control of rabbit ug.

  4. TGF superfamily and MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 genes expression in the endometrium of women with impaired reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Wirstlein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During the putative "implantation window", a period of maximal endometrial receptivity that spans 7-9 days after ovulation, a series of changes on the structural and molecular level occur that render the endometrium susceptible to implantation for the human embryo. Many members of the TGFbetas are expressed by human endometrium at different stages of menstrual cycle. Also studies regarding the MMP2 gene expression and activity of MMP2 in the implantation window have shown a higher expression and activity of MMP2 in women with impaired fertility. We have examined by RT-PCR the expression of TGFbeta2 and MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 in 28 patients with idiopathic infertility, 16 patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 16 control women were enrolled in this study. Seven to nine days after ovulation endometrial biopsy by Pipelle or hysteroscopy was performed to assess the expression of TGFbeta2 , MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1. We found that in endometria from women with idiopathic infertility TGFbeta2 expression was 2.8 fold higher than in endometria from control group and 2.1 fold higher in endometrial samples from women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage compared to the control group. The MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 expression in endometrial samples revealed no significant differences between the study groups and control group. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between TGFbeta2 and MMP9 expression in endometria from women in control group. The present investigations suggest that dysregulated TGFbeta2, MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 expression are associated with infertility and early pregnancy loss. However the exact mechanism of how overexpression of endometrial TGFbetaand MMPs interferes with implantation may be more complex.

  5. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  6. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Mathias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. Results The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 ± 54, B: 292 ± 33 and C: 561 ± 88. The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR. For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR. We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6 indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5% was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Conclusion Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones

  8. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh)

    OpenAIRE

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-f...

  9. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  10. Maternal And Neonatal Plasma MicroRNA Biomarkers For Fetal Alcohol Exposure In An Ovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Lunde, E. Raine; Sawant, Onkar; Cudd, Timothy A.; Washburn, Shannon E.; Miranda, Rajesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma or circulating miRNAs (cirmiRNAs) have potential diagnostic value as biomarkers for a range of diseases. Based on observations that ethanol altered intracellular miRNAs during development, we tested the hypothesis that plasma miRNAs were biomarkers for maternal alcohol exposure, and for past in utero exposure, in the neonate. Methods Pregnant sheep were exposed to a binge model of ethanol consumption resulting in an average peak blood alcohol content of 243 mg/dl, for a three-trimester equivalent period from gestational day (GD) 4 to GD 132. MiRNA profiles were assessed by quantitative PCR analysis in plasma, erythrocyte and leukocytes obtained from non-pregnant ewes, and plasma from pregnant ewes 24 hours following the last binge ethanol episode, and from newborn lambs, at birth on ~GD 147. Results Pregnant ewe and newborn lamb cirmiRNA profiles were similar to each other and different from non-pregnant female plasma, erythrocyte or leukocyte miRNAs. Significant changes in cirmiRNA profiles were observed in the ethanol-exposed ewe, and at birth, in the in utero, ethanol-exposed lamb. CirmiRNAs including miR-9, -15b, -19b and -20a were sensitive and specific measures of ethanol exposure in both pregnant ewe and newborn lamb. Additionally, ethanol exposure altered guide to passenger strand cirmiRNA ratios in the pregnant ewe, but not in the lamb. Conclusion Shared profiles between pregnant dam and neonate suggest possible maternal-fetal miRNA transfer. CirmiRNAs are biomarkers for alcohol exposure during pregnancy, in both mother and neonate, and may constitute an important shared endocrine biomarker that is vulnerable to the maternal environment. PMID:24588274

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  12. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  13. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  14. Contraception knowledge and practices in pregnant adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villanueva, L A; Campos, R; del Milagro Pérez-Fajardo, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the knowledge and the background in the use of contraceptive methods in 100 pregnant adolescents in the prenatal care of the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González...

  15. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  16. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  17. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  18. The detection of Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum from ovine footrot in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shaheen; Wani, Shakil A; Hassan, Mir Nadeem; Nazir, Nazima; Nyrah, Qazi Javed

    2015-10-01

    In a study conducted, a total of 450 swab samples from footrot lesions of naturally infected sheep were collected in all the ten districts of the Kashmir valley and were examined for the presence of Dichelobacter nodosus (D. nodosus) and Fusobacterium necrophorum (F. necrophorum), in order to determine if F. necrophorum was associated with ovine footrot. The detection of F. necrophorum and D. nodosus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction targeting the leukotoxin (lktA) and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. In this study, only less than 50% of positive samples contained both the bacteria, so it is not possible to conclude with certainty that both bacteria are together required for the disease manifestation.

  19. Immunohistochemical and histopathological findings of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (Jaagsiekte) in Egyptian sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Samah Shehata; Youssef, Sameh Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring retrovirus-induced transmissible lung cancer in sheep. Lungs and associated (bronchial and mediastinal) lymph nodes of seven sheep with OPA were examined. Lungs had few multifocal consolidated slightly elevated gray to white masses ranging from 0.5 to 3 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, these masses appeared as well-differentiated acinar adenocarcinoma with little evidence of anaplasia. The acini composed of well-differentiated cuboidal to low columnar epithelium with clear or vacuolated cytoplasm and low mitotic index. No metastases were observed in the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes of any animal. The presence of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) was demonstrated in the lungs by immunohistochemistry. JSRV protein was detected in all tumor epithelial cells, histologically normal alveolar type II cells, and few bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. This study is the first to confirm the presence of natural OPA in Egypt.

  20. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  1. The binding of closantel to ovine serum albumin, and homogenate fractions of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, J T; Lacey, E; Sangster, N C

    2000-05-01

    Closantel binds to the serum proteins of the host and affects blood sucking parasites when they ingest the blood of treated hosts. Closantel binds specifically to ovine serum albumin (K(a) of 9. 3x10(6)M(-1)) at site I, the warfarin/phenylbutazone binding site of albumin Closantel also binds to invertebrate haemocyanin and haemolymph. The strongest binding of closantel in homogenates of H. contortus is found in fractions containing soluble proteins. This binding is of low affinity and, because the site itself is not fully denaturable, it may not be proteinaceous. There is no detectable difference in binding affinity between homogenate fractions from closantel susceptible and resistant isolates of adult or larval worms suggesting that closantel resistance is not due to changes in the closantel receptor or carrier.

  2. Probiotic in rennet paste can affect lipase activity of rennet and lipolysis in ovine cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambs were subjected to three different feeding regimes (mother suckling MS, artificial rearing AR, and artificial rearing with 7log10 cfu/ml Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation to the milk substitute ARLb and slaughtered at 20d and 40d of age for each feeding treatment. Lambs abomasa were processed to rennet paste and lipases activity was evaluated. Rennet paste was used for Pecorino cheese production. Free fatty acids (FFAs and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs were detected in cheese at 60d of ripening. Lipase activity was found higher in ARLb than in MS and AR rennet from lambs slaughtered at an older age. A reduction of all FFAs was observed in all cheeses when passing from 20 d to 40d of slaughtering. CLAs were more abundant in ARLb cheeses at both 20 and 40d. Milk substitute with Lb. acidophilus improves enzymatic features of rennet, and health and nutritional characteristics of ovine cheese.

  3. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  4. Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1996-03-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions.

  5. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  6. Ovine congenital myotonia associated with a mutation in the muscle chloride channel gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Luis Vicente; Tejedor, María Teresa; Ramos, Juan José; Lacasta, Delia; Ferrer, Luis Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Congenital myotonia (CM) is characterised by a delay in muscular relaxation after sudden contractions. In a recent outbreak of ovine CM affecting 1% of new-born lambs in a Spanish flock of Rasa Aragonesa sheep, a comparative pathology approach was taken: because a mutation in the muscle chloride channel gene (CLCN1) was identified as responsible for CM in goats, the same gene was sequenced in the affected lambs. A non-synonymous single nucleotide variation (SNV) in the second exon of CLCN1 was associated with this pathology. Rams carrying this SNV heterozygously were thereafter identified and replaced by wild-type homozygous young males. No additional CM cases were detected in subsequent lambing seasons.

  7. Cloning and characterizing of the ovine MX1 gene promoter/enhancer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, A M; Ott, T L

    2007-01-01

    Ovine MX1 (MX1) is expressed in the uterus during the estrous cycle and is strongly up-regulated during early pregnancy in the uterus and peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study we cloned the MX1 gene promoter/enhancer, and tested its response to interferon tau (IFN-tau). To address the role of IFN tau in regulating MX1 expression, serial deletion mutants were prepared along with a clone that contained a full-length promoter including the two proximal ISREs but lacking an intronic ISRE site. Promoter deletions showed the two proximal ISRE sites, but not the intronic ISRE site, were required for maximal response to IFN tau. Interestingly, MX1 promoter deletion mutants revealed the presence of distal positive (-920 to -715) and negative (-715 to -437) regulatory regions. Identifying positive and negative regulatory regions in MX1 promoter will help define the complex regulation of MX1 during early pregnancy in ruminants.

  8. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  9. Ovine prolactin and human growth hormone derivatives. Specific modification of their alpha-amino groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, J J; Nowicki, C; Santomé, J A; Wolfenstein-Todel, C

    1988-06-01

    The alpha-amino group of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and human growth hormone (hGH) was selectively modified by transamination with glyoxylic acid. No difference was found in the binding capacity of transaminated oPRL to rat liver lactogenic receptors with respect to its control, although both samples showed a decrease in its binding capacity with reference to the native hormone. This decrease was due to conformational changes caused by the reaction conditions and not by the transamination itself, as shown by the circular dichroism spectra. Transaminated hGH retained the full binding capacity of the hormone. These results suggest that the alpha-amino group is not relevant for the binding to lactogenic liver receptors in both lactogenic hormones.

  10. Ovine paratuberculosis: a seroprevalence study in dairy flocks reared in the marche region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%.

  11. Ovine carotid artery-derived cells as an optimized supportive cell layer in 2-D capillary network assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Weinandy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell co-culture assays are differentiation assays which simulate the formation of capillary-like tubules with the aid of a supportive cell layer. Different cell types have been employed as a supportive cell layer, including human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs and human mammary fibroblasts. However, these sources of human tissue-derived cells are limited, and more readily accessible human or animal tissue-derived cell sources would simplify the endothelial cell co-culture assay. In the present study, we investigated the potential use of alternative, accessible supportive cells for endothelial cell co-culture assay, including human umbilical cord and ovine carotid artery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human umbilical artery SMCs (HUASMCs and ovine carotid artery-derived cells were seeded into 96-well plates, followed by addition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Nine days after co-culture, cells were fixed, immunostained and analysed using an in vitro angiogenesis quantification tool. Capillary-like structures were detected on ovine carotid artery-derived supportive cell layers. The initial cell number, as well as pro- and anti-angiogenic factors (VEGF, PDGF-BB and Bevacizumab, had a positive or negative influence on the number of capillary-like structures. Furthermore, HUVECs from different donors showed distinct levels of VEGF receptor-2, which correlated with the amount of capillary-like structures. In the case of HUASMC supportive cell layers, HUVECs detached almost completely from the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Cells of different origin have a varying applicability regarding the endothelial cell co-culture assay: under the conditions described here, ovine carotid artery-derived cells seem to be more suitable than HUASMCs for an endothelial co-culture assay. Furthermore, the ovine carotid artery-derived cells are easier to obtain and are in more abundant supply than the currently used dermal or breast

  12. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  13. Anesthetic Management of Pregnant Patients with Appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Feyzi; Oguz, Abdullah; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Dogan, Erdal; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker Onguc

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to present our anesthesia procedure of pre-diagnosis and laparotomy on pregnant patients with acute appendicitis. After approval Ethics Committee, 77 pregnant patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were evaluated. Patients were separated into two groups: group G (general anesthesia) and Group S (spinal anesthesia), according to the method of anesthesia applied. The patients' age, gestational age, method of anesthesia applied, duration of hospital stay, duration of a...

  14. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  15. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  16. Inhibitors of c-Jun phosphorylation impede ovine primordial follicle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldo, Michael J; Bernard, Jérémy; Duffard, Nicolas; Tsikis, Guillaume; Alves, Sabine; Calais, Laure; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monniaux, Danielle; Mermillod, Pascal; Locatelli, Yann

    2016-05-01

    Is the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway implicated in primordial follicle activation? Culture of ovine ovarian cortex in the presence of two different c-Jun phosphorylation inhibitors impeded pre-antral follicle activation. Despite its importance for fertility preservation therapies, the mechanisms of primordial follicle activation are poorly understood. Amongst different signalling pathways potentially involved, the JNK pathway has been previously shown to be essential for cell cycle progression and pre-antral follicle development in mice. Ovine ovarian cortex pieces were cultured with varying concentrations of SP600125, JNK inhibitor VIII or anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in the presence of FSH for 9 days. Follicular morphometry and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), apoptosis and follicle activation (Foxo3a) were assessed. Inhibition of primordial follicle activation occurred in the presence of SP600125, JNK inhibitor VIII and AMH when compared with controls (all P primordial follicle development, we did not determine the cellular targets and mechanism of action of the inhibitors. These results are the first to implicate the JNK pathway in primordial follicle activation and could have significant consequences for the successful development of fertility preservation strategies and our understanding of primordial follicle activation. n/a. Dr Michael J. Bertoldo and the laboratories involved in the present study were supported by a grant from 'Région Centre' (CRYOVAIRE, Grant number #320000268). There are no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV.

  18. RNAseq Reveals Complex Response of Campylobacter jejuni to Ovine Bile and In vivo Gallbladder Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuder, Amanda J; Schleining, Jennifer A; Yaeger, Michael; Zhang, Qijing; Plummer, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting that the gallbladder may serve as an important reservoir for infection. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with survival in the host gallbladder, C. jejuni IA3902 was exposed for up to 24 h to both the natural ovine host in vivo gallbladder environment, as well as ovine bile in vitro. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from the bile and high throughput deep sequencing of strand specific rRNA-depleted total RNA was used to characterize the transcriptome of IA3902 under these conditions. Our results demonstrated for the first time the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni IA3902 during exposure to an important host environment, the sheep gallbladder. Exposure to the host environment as compared to in vitro bile alone provided a more robust picture of the complexity of gene regulation required for survival in the host gallbladder. A subset of genes including a large number of protein coding genes as well as seven previously identified non-coding RNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed within our data, suggesting that they may play a key role in adaptation upon exposure to these conditions. This research provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that may be utilized by C. jejuni IA3902 to colonize and survive within the inhospitable gallbladder

  19. Repetitive prenatal glucocorticoids increase lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in ovine fetuses delivered at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, T R; Ackerman, K G; Le Cras, T D; Jobe, A H; Abman, S H

    2000-07-01

    Antenatal administration of glucocorticoids has been shown to improve postnatal lung function after preterm birth in the ovine fetus. Mechanisms of steroid-induced lung maturation include increased surfactant production and altered parenchymal lung structure. Whether steroid treatment also affects lung vascular function is unclear. Because nitric oxide contributes to the fall in pulmonary vascular resistance at birth, we hypothesized that the improvement of postnatal lung function of preterm lambs after treatment with prenatal glucocorticoids may be in part caused by an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. To determine whether glucocorticoid treatment increases lung eNOS expression, we measured eNOS protein content by Western blot analysis of distal lung homogenates and immunostaining of formalin-fixed lungs from ovine fetuses delivered at preterm and term gestation after prenatal administration of glucocorticoids. Treatment protocols were followed in which ewes were treated with intramuscular betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) at single or multiple doses at weekly intervals, and fetuses were delivered at 125, 135, or 145 d gestation. All groups were compared with saline-treated controls. Western blot analysis of whole lung homogenates demonstrated a 4-fold increase in eNOS protein content in lambs treated with repetitive doses of glucocorticoids and delivery at term (145 d; p preterm ages (125 and 135 d). Immunostaining showed eNOS predominantly in the vascular endothelium in all vessel sizes. Pattern of staining was not altered by treatment with antenatal glucocorticoids. We conclude that maternal treatment with glucocorticoids increases lung eNOS content after multiple doses and delivery at term gestation. We speculate that antenatal glucocorticoids may up-regulate eNOS but that the timing and duration of steroid administration appears to be critical to this response.

  20. Determination of sex and scrapie resistance genotype in preimplantation ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignot, Florence; Baril, Gerard; Dupont, Francis; Cognie, Yves; Folch, Jose; Alabart, Jose Luis; Poulin, Naty; Beckers, Jean-Francois; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Babilliot, Jean-Marc; Mermillod, Pascal

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of genotype diagnosis after pre-amplification of DNA extracted from biopsies obtained by microblade cutting of ovine embryos and to evaluate the viability of biopsied embryos after vitrification/warming and transfer to recipients. Sex and PrP genotypes were determined. Sex diagnosis was done by PCR amplification of ZFX/ZFY and SRY sequences after PEP-PCR while PrP genotype determination was performed after specific pre-amplification of specific target including codons 136, 154 and 171. Embryos were collected at Day 7 after oestrus. Blastocysts and expanded blastocysts were biopsied immediately after collection whereas compacted morulae were biopsied after 24 hr of in vitro culture. Eighty-nine biopsied embryos were frozen by vitrification. Fresh and vitrified whole embryos were kept as control. DNA of biopsies was extracted and pre-amplified. Sex diagnosis was efficient for 96.6% of biopsies and PrP genotyping was determined in 95.8% of codons. After embryo transfer, no significant difference was observed in lambing rate between biopsied, vitrified control and fresh embryos (54.5%, 60% and 66.6%, respectively). Embryo survival rate was not different between biopsied and whole vitrified embryos (P = 0.38). At birth, 96.7% of diagnosed sex and 95.4% of predetermined codons were correct. Lamb PrP profiles were in agreement with parental genotype. PEP-PCR coupled with sex diagnosis and nested PCR coupled with PrP genotype predetermination are very accurate techniques to genotype ovine embryo before transfer. These original results allow planning of selection of resistant genotype to scrapie and sex of offspring before transfer of cryopreserved embryo.

  1. BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

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    Heather eEmmerton-Coughlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1, are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in 7 experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term=145d. Lung weight and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total lung weight was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p<0.05, confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p<0.05. Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p<0.06. Conclusions: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and Lgl1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis.

  2. Anaerobic bioremediation of RDX by ovine whole rumen fluid and pure culture isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, H L; Duringer, J M; Murty, L D; Craig, A M

    2013-04-01

    The ability of ruminal microbes to degrade the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ovine whole rumen fluid (WRF) and as 24 bacterial isolates was examined under anaerobic conditions. Compound degradation was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification of metabolites. Organisms in WRF microcosms degraded 180 μM RDX within 4 h. Nitroso-intermediates hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) were present as early as 0.25 h and were detected throughout the 24-h incubation period, representing one reductive pathway of ring cleavage. Following reduction to MNX, peaks consistent with m/z 193 and 174 were also produced, which were unstable and resulted in rapid ring cleavage to a common metabolite consistent with an m/z of 149. These represent two additional reductive pathways for RDX degradation in ovine WRF, which have not been previously reported. The 24 ruminal isolates degraded RDX with varying efficiencies (0-96 %) over 120 h. Of the most efficient degraders identified, Clostridium polysaccharolyticum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans degraded RDX when medium was supplemented with both nitrogen and carbon, while Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Prevotella ruminicola, and Streptococcus bovis IFO utilized RDX as a sole source of nitrogen. This study showed that organisms in whole rumen fluid, as well as several ruminal isolates, have the ability to degrade RDX in vitro and, for the first time, delineated the metabolic pathway for its biodegradation.

  3. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

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    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-08

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.

  4. Evaluation of ovine abortion associated with Toxoplasma gondii in Spain by different diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Bueno, J; Quintanilla-Gozalo, A; Pérez-Pérez, V; Alvarez-García, G; Collantes-Fernández, E; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2004-05-07

    A total of 173 aborted ovine foetuses and seven aborted caprine foetuses, submitted from different points of north and central Spain, were analysed to determine the role of T. gondii in abortion and to compare the utility of the most widely used techniques in diagnosis of the congenital infection (histopathology, serology--IFAT and ELISA--and a nested-PCR). Parasite infection was diagnosed in 40 (23.1%; n = 173) ovine foetuses by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. A higher percentage of foetuses were diagnosed using serological techniques (IFAT and ELISA) (28.3%; n = 106) than by histologic examination (8.7%; n = 173) or PCR (6.9%; n = 173). No significant association between infection and the foetal age categories was found (P > 0.05). In this study, 106 aborted foetuses were analysed by all of the three diagnostic techniques. When we compared serological results, perfect agreement between ELISA and IFAT was obtained. On the contrary, slight to fair agreements were observed when histology results were compared with those obtained by serology and PCR techniques. All the positive foetuses were aborted in the mid (60%) or last (40%) term of pregnancy, but no significant differences were found between ages of the infected and non-infected foetuses (P > 0.05). This report indicates that toxoplasmosis may be a common cause of small ruminant abortion and neonatal death in Spain and points out the necessity of using different and complementary techniques to increase the probability of detecting Toxoplasma infection in an aborted foetus.

  5. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Blake P; Lindley, Emily M; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V

    2010-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies.

  6. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  7. Effects of growth hormone on nuclear maturation of ovine oocytes and subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Shams-Esfandabadi, N; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the presence of recombinant ovine growth hormone either alone or together with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during ovine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation and subsequent embryo development. Moreover, the effect of growth hormine (GH) on embryo development whether influenced by the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS) was assessed. The abattoir-derived oocytes were randomly divided into four treatment groups and cultured in maturation medium supplemented with: (i) 0.05 IU/ml FSH; (ii) 300 ng/ml roGH; (iii) FSH + roGH; and (iv) no FSH and GH (control). The percentages of germinal vesicle-stage oocytes in GH-treated group after 8 h of culture was significantly higher than the FSH and FSH + GH groups and lower than control (22.4%, 8.7%, 9.1%, and 32% respectively). The percentage of MII-stage oocytes was significantly increased in the presence of GH after 16 and 24 h of culture compared to the control (44.7% and 83.1% vs 32.6% and 73.6% respectively). There was no significant synergism between GH and FSH in terms of nuclear maturation. The blastocyst rates in serum-supplemented groups were enhanced by the presence of FSH and GH compared to the control (35.4% and 31.3 vs 11.4% respectively). Compared with either GH or FSH alone, the subsequent embryo development (blastocyst rate), however, was negatively influenced by co-presence of both hormones (22.8%). In contrast, the corresponding values were not affected in the absence of serum. In conclusion, GH had positive effect on nuclear maturation of sheep oocytes. Moreover, the pattern of the effect of GH on embryo development was influenced by the presence of FBS during IVM.

  8. Ovine and Bovine Congenital Abnormalities Associated With Intrauterine Infection With Schmallenberg Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperkamp, N H; Luttikholt, S J; Dijkman, R; Vos, J H; Junker, K; Greijdanus, S; Roumen, M P; van Garderen, E; Meertens, N; van Maanen, C; Lievaart, K; van Wuyckhuise, L; Wouda, W

    2015-11-01

    In December 2011, a previously unknown congenital syndrome of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in sheep and cattle appeared in the Netherlands as an emerging epizootic due to Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Gross lesions in 102 lambs and 204 calves included porencephaly, hydranencephaly, cerebellar dysplasia and dysplasia of the brainstem and spinal cord, a flattened skull with brachygnathia inferior, arthrogryposis, and vertebral column malformations. Microscopic lesions in the central nervous system showed rarefaction and cavitation in the white matter, as well as degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons in the gray matter. Brain and spinal cord lesions were more severe in lambs than in calves. Ovine and bovine cases examined early in the outbreak showed encephalomyelitis. SBV infection was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in brain samples in 46 of 102 lambs (45%) and in 32 of 204 calves (16%). Immunohistochemistry, performed on tissue samples from 18 RT-qPCR-positive lambs, confirmed the presence of bunyaviral antigen in neurons of the brain in 16 cases. SBV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fetal blood in 56 of 61 sampled ovine cases (92%). In a virus neutralization test, all tested dams of affected newborns, 46 ewes and 190 cows, were seropositive. Compared with other teratogenic viral infections, the pathogenesis and lesions of SBV in sheep and cattle fetuses are similar to those of other ruminant orthobunyaviruses. However, the loss of spinal ventral motor neurons and their tracts, resulting in micromyelia, distinguishes SBV infection from other viral central nervous system lesions in newborn ruminants.

  9. Cardiovascular and endocrine responses to cutaneous electrical stimulation after fentanyl in the ovine fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard P; Miller, Suzanne L; Igosheva, Natalia; Peebles, Donald M; Glover, Vivette; Jenkin, Graham; Hanson, Mark A; Fisk, Nicholas M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical stimulation is stressful to the ovine fetus, as judged from physiologic changes that are similar to those reported for other stressors (such as hypoxia); whether any stress response could be blocked by clinically used doses of fentanyl; and whether fentanyl alone had any potentially deleterious physiologic effects in the fetus. We investigated the effect of fentanyl analgesia on the cardiovascular and endocrine response to cutaneous electrical stimulation in the late gestation (>125 days) ovine fetus (n=7 fetuses). Chronically implanted catheters and blood flow probes were used to measure fetal arterial blood pressure, heart rate, carotid and femoral blood flow, pH, Po(2), Pco(2), lactate, cortisol, and beta-endorphin levels before, during, and for 1 hour after 5 minutes of cutaneous electrical stimulation to the lip, forelimb, and abdomen, in a crossover design. Clinically used 30 or 150 microg doses of fentanyl (which approximated 10 or 50 microg/kg estimated fetal weight) or saline solution were given intravenously to the fetus 2 minutes before stimulation. When compared with the control, stimulation caused a significant rise in fetal heart rate (P=.003; mean maximal rise, 48.6+/-14.0 beats/min, 0-10 minutes after the start of stimulation) but caused no change in any other parameters studied. Neither dose of fentanyl attenuated the changes in heart rate that were observed in response to stimulation alone. Fentanyl alone significantly increased fetal heart rate, carotid blood flow, and lactate and cortisol levels and significantly decreased pH and Po(2). Cutaneous electrical stimulation in the fetal sheep causes an increase in heart rate, which fentanyl does not block. Fentanyl itself has significant effects on the cardiovascular and endocrine system, which might adversely affect the fetus.

  10. Diagnostic validation of ovine and caprine brucellosis using serum- and milk-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnakovski, J; Mitrov, D; Naletoski, I

    2010-01-01

    To introduce and validate the new method of diagnosing ovine and caprine brucellosis in a rapid, accurate and inexpensive manner by using i-ELISA (serum/milk) technique. Serum and milk samples from brucella RB and CFT negative (n=881) and positive (n=755) animals were used. Standardization of tests was through the Bommeli ELISA-BESW (Brucella Bang) standard and our Institute's (MKD) working standards (positive serum and milk based on B. melitensis antigen). Validation of serum/milk ELISA for detecting ovine and caprine brucellosis was completed. The specificity obtained for the serum ELISA was 99.0% for the Bommeli system (at cut-off of 30% of positivity--PP) and 99.4% for the MKD system (at cut-off 15% PP). The sensitivities of serum ELISAs at the same cut-off were 98.5% for the Bommeli and 96.6% for the MKD test. Parallel milk samples from the same animals showed a specificity of 99.5% in the Bommeli system (at cut-of 30% PP) and 99.8% in the MKD system (at cut-off 25% PP). The sensitivity of the milk ELISAs were 94.6% for the Bommeli test and 95.6% for the MKD test. The Bommeli ELISA and MKD ELISA were successfully standardized and validated as confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of B. melitensis in sheep and goat samples (milk/sera). Using our Institute's milk standard, we confirmed successful screening of brucellosis in pooled milk samples from 100 sheep and 100 goats.

  11. Difference in expression between AQP1 and AQP5 in porcine endometrium and myometrium in response to steroid hormones, oxytocin, arachidonic acid, forskolin and cAMP during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronska, Agnieszka; Mlotkowska, Patrycja; Nielsen, Soren; Skowronski, Mariusz T

    2015-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in vitro that AQP1 and AQP5 in the porcine uterus are regulated by steroid hormones (P4, E2), arachidonic acid (AA), forskolin (FSK) and cAMP during the estrous cycle. However, the potential of the porcine separated uterine tissues, the endometrium and myometrium, to express these AQPs remains unknown. Thus, in this study, the responses of AQP1 and AQP5 to P4, E2 oxytocin (OT), AA, FSK and cAMP in the porcine endometrium and myometrium were examined during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Progesterone up-regulated the expression of AQP1/AQP5 mRNAs and proteins in the endometrium and myometrium, especially during luteolysis. Similarly, E2 also stimulated the expression of both AQPs, but only in the endometrium. AA led to the upregulation of AQP1/AQP5 in the endometrium during luteolysis. In turn, OT increased the expression of AQP1/AQP5 mRNAs and proteins in the myometrium during mid-luteal phase. Moreover, a stimulatory effect of forskolin and cAMP on the expression of AQP1/AQP5 mRNAs and proteins in the endometrium and myometrium dominated during luteolysis, but during the mid-luteal phase their influence on the expression of these AQPs was differentiated depending on the type of tissue and the incubation duration. These results seem to indicate that uterine tissues; endometrium and myometrium, exhibit their own AQP expression profiles in response to examined factors. Moreover, the responses of AQP1/AQP5 at mRNA and protein levels to the studied factors in the endometrium and myometrium are more pronounced during luteolysis. This suggests that the above effects of the studied factors are connected with morphological and physiological changes taking place in the pig uterus during the estrous cycle.

  12. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

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    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  13. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  15. Study of the Effects of Stachys Lvandulifolia Alcoholic Extract on Histomorphometry of Endometrium in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Rat Model

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    P. Pahlevani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women. Chronic anovulation due to polycystic ovary syndrome predisposes women to endometrial changes. Stachys lavandulifolia is an aromatic plant belonging to the Labiatae family proven to have estrogenic properties. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Stachys lavandulifolia extract on endometrial histological parameters in a rat model of PCOS. Materials & Methods: Thirty-six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 17-200 g were used in this experimental study. PCOS was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg Estradiol Valerate. The rats were divided into six groups; control group with no treatment, the PCOS group receiving solvent, three PCOS groups treated by multiple doses (225, 450, 900 mg/kg of Stachys lvandulifolia extract, and PCOS group receiving clomiphene citrate (1.5 mg/kg. Extracts were injected intraperitoneally for a period of 4 estrous cycles (16 days. The endometrial biopsies were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and then the number of glands, endometrial glandular cell height, internal diameter of glands, height of epithelial cells and height of endometrium and pathological changes were examined. Results: The results showed that the height of surface epithelium and glandular epithelium increased and the endometrial thickness and internal diameter of glands insignificantly decreased in PCOS group compared to control (P>0.05 while the number of glands showed significant decrease (P=0.01. In addition, 40% of the rats in PCOS group showed endometrial hyperplasia. Treatment with clomiphen citrate and different concentrations of the Stachys lvandulifolia led height of glandular epithelium, internal diameter of glands, height of surface epithelium and endometrium and number of glands to become more similar to the control group, although they were not significant(P>0.05. Treatment with clomiphen citrate and

  16. Leather structure determination by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): cross sections of ovine and bovine leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Edmonds, Richard L; Allsop, Timothy F; Cooper, Sue M; Holmes, Geoff; Norris, Gillian E; Cookson, David J; Kirby, Nigel; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2010-05-12

    SAXS has been applied to structural determination in leather. The SAXS beamline at the Australian Synchrotron provides 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range, enabling a rich source of structural information from scattering patterns of leather sections. SAXS patterns were recorded for q from 0.004 to 0.223 A(-1). Collagen d spacing varied across ovine leather sections from 63.8 nm in parts of the corium up to 64.6 nm in parts of the grain. The intensity of the collagen peak at q = 0.06 A(-1) varied by 1 order of magnitude across ovine leather sections with the high-intensity region in the corium and the low intensity in the grain. The degree of fiber orientation and the dispersion of the orientation has been quantified in leather. It is shown how the technique provides a wealth of useful information that may be used to characterize and compare leathers, skin, and connective tissue.

  17. Development of a Cost-effective Ovine Polyclonal Antibody-Based Product, EBOTAb, to Treat Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart David; Callan, Jo; Zeltina, Antra; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Strecker, Thomas; Fehling, Sarah K.; Krähling, Verena; Bosworth, Andrew; Rayner, Emma; Taylor, Irene; Charlton, Sue; Landon, John; Cameron, Ian; Hewson, Roger; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Bowden, Thomas A.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    The highly glycosylated glycoprotein spike of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP1,2) is the primary target of the humoral host response. Recombinant EBOV-GP ectodomain (EBOV-GP1,2ecto) expressed in mammalian cells was used to immunize sheep and elicited a robust immune response and produced high titers of high avidity polyclonal antibodies. Investigation of the neutralizing activity of the ovine antisera in vitro revealed that it neutralized EBOV. A pool of intact ovine immunoglobulin G, herein termed EBOTAb, was prepared from the antisera and used for an in vivo guinea pig study. When EBOTAb was delivered 6 hours after challenge, all animals survived without experiencing fever or other clinical manifestations. In a second series of guinea pig studies, the administration of EBOTAb dosing was delayed for 48 or 72 hours after challenge, resulting in 100% and 75% survival, respectively. These studies illustrate the usefulness of EBOTAb in protecting against EBOV-induced disease. PMID:26715676

  18. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma originating from the uterine endometrium: a report on magnetic resonance features of 2 cases with very rare and aggressive tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Makihara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC of the female genital tract are aggressive and uncommon tumors, which usually involve the uterine cervix and ovary, and are seen very rarely in the endometrium. Only less than 10 cases of large cell NEC (LCNEC of the endometrium have been reported in the literature and their radiological findings are not well described. We report here two cases of pathologically proven LCNEC of the uterine endometrium. In both cases, the uterine body was enlarged and the tumor occupied part of the uterine cavity. Endometrial mass exhibited heterogeneous high intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images, and diffusion-weighted MR images revealed high intensity throughout the tumor, consistent with malignancy. LCNEC is a highly malignant neoplasm without particular findings in terms of diagnostic imaging and pathology, so its preoperative definitive diagnosis is very difficult. However, when laboratory test, pathologic diagnosis and MR imaging suggest a poorly differentiated uterine malignancy, positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan should be performed as a general assessment to help with diagnosis.

  19. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Rebecca L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis.

  20. Clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome: diagnosis of associated malformations, uterine rudiments and intrauterine endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wietek, B.M.; Claussen, C.D.; Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Rall, K.; Brucker, S.Y. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of malformations associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome and identification of uterine endometrium to optimise the clinical management. We retrospectively reviewed 214 consecutive MRKH patients, mean age 19 years, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted neovagina creation. A total of 115 patients (53.7 %) met the inclusion criterion of sufficient preoperative MRI. In 110 of them (95.7 %), MRI findings were correlated with laparoscopy and associated malformations. In 39 cases (35.5 %) uterine rudiments were removed and analysed histopathologically. Ten per cent (11/110) of the patients showed complete uterine agenesis. The others presented with either unilateral (n = 16; 14.5 %) or bilateral (n = 83; 75.5 %) uterine rudiments. MRI detection of uterine rudiments agreed in 78.2 % (86/110) with laparoscopy. In 85.4 % of the removed rudiments, MRI could correctly diagnose the existence of the endometrium. Compared to laparoscopy, MRI could exactly detect ovaries in 97.3 % (107/110). Renal or ureteral malformations were seen in 32 cases (27.8 %). In 83 % of unilateral renal agenesis and unilateral rudiment, the latter was located at the side of the kidney. MRI is useful for preoperative detection of MRKH-associated malformations and assessment of the endometrium to further optimise MRKH patient treatment. (orig.)

  1. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Joseph W.; Clegg, Simon R.; Sullivan, Leigh E.; Duncan, Jennifer S.; Grove‐White, Dai H.; Carter, Stuart D.; Evans, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii‐like, Treponema phagedenis‐like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the t...

  4. A comparison of six methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for PCR-based genotyping applications using ovine milk samples

    OpenAIRE

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Banos, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Isolation of amplifiable genomic DNA is a prerequisite for the genetic assessment of diseases and disease susceptibility in farm animals. Milk somatic cells are a practical, animal friendly and cost-effective source of genomic DNA in milking ruminants. In this study, six different DNA extraction methods were optimized, evaluated and compared for the isolation of DNA from ovine milk samples. Methods I and 2 were direct applications of two commercial kits, Nucleospin (R) Blood and Nucleospin (R...

  5. Dietary CLA combined with palm oil or ovine fat differentially influences fatty acid deposition in tissues of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alves, Susana P; Alfaia, Cristina M; Castro, Matilde F; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in combination with fat from vegetable versus animal origin on the fatty acid deposition, including that of individual 18:1 and 18:2 (conjugated and non-conjugated) isomers, in the liver and muscle of obese rats was investigated. For this purpose, 32 male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing palm oil or ovine fat, supplemented or not with 1% of 1:1 cis(c)9,trans(t)11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers mixture. Total fatty acid content decreased in the liver and muscle of CLA-fed rats. In the liver, CLA increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in 11.9% and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in 6.5%. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) relative proportions were increased in 30.6% by CLA when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. In the muscle, CLA did not affect SFA but decreased MUFA and PUFA percentages. The estimation of Δ9-indices 16 and 18 suggested that CLA inhibited the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in the liver (a decrease of 13-38%), in particular when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. Concerning CLA supplementation, the t10,c12 isomer percentage was 60-80% higher in the muscle than in the liver. It is of relevance that rats fed ovine fat, containing bio-formed CLA, had more c9,t11 CLA isomer deposited in both tissues than rats fed palm oil plus synthetic CLA. These results highlight the importance to further clarify the biological effects of consuming foods naturally enriched in CLA, alternatively to CLA dietary supplementation.

  6. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  7. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  8. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  9. A comparison of six methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for PCR-based genotyping applications using ovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Banos, Georgios

    2010-04-01

    Isolation of amplifiable genomic DNA is a prerequisite for the genetic assessment of diseases and disease susceptibility in farm animals. Milk somatic cells are a practical, animal friendly and cost-effective source of genomic DNA in milking ruminants. In this study, six different DNA extraction methods were optimized, evaluated and compared for the isolation of DNA from ovine milk samples. Methods 1 and 2 were direct applications of two commercial kits, Nucleospin((R)) Blood and Nucleospin((R)) Tissue, respectively. Methods 3 and 4 were based on modified protocols of methods 1 and 2, respectively, aiming at increasing DNA recovery and integrity, and eliminating PCR inhibitors. Method 5 was a standard Phenol-Chloroform protocol application and method 6 was based on an in-house developed protocol using silica as the affinity matrix. Spectrophotometer, gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR measurements were used as criteria for evaluating quantity and quality of the extracted DNA. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results suggested that methods 1-4 were considered suitable for molecular downstream applications and performed better than methods 5 and 6. Modifications of protocols 3 and 4 increased the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA from ovine milk samples. Method 3 was proved to be highly efficient and robust for large scale use as demonstrated by its successful application to 1000 individual ovine milk and 50 bulk milk samples.

  10. Comparison of swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation versus total laryngectomy in a validated ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, N N; Johnson, C M; Siddiqui, M T; Cates, D J; Kuhn, M A; Postma, G N; Belafsky, P C

    2017-04-01

    To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy. Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model. Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001). The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.

  11. A comparison between porcine, ovine, and bovine intervertebral disc anatomy and single lamella annulus fibrosus tensile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Lauren A; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J; Gregory, Diane E

    2016-02-01

    This project aimed to compare gross anatomical measures and biomechanical properties of single lamellae from the annulus fibrosus of ovine and porcine lumbar vertebrae, and bovine tail vertebrae. The morphology of the vertebrae of these species differ significantly both from each other and from human, yet how these differences alter biomechanical properties is unknown. Geometric parameters measured in this study included: 1) absolute and relative intervertebral (IVD) and vertebral body height and 2) absolute and relative intervertebral disc (IVD) anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) widths. Single lamella tensile properties included toe-region stress and stretch ratio, stiffness, and tensile strength. As expected, the bovine tail IVD revealed a more circular shape compared with both the ovine and porcine lumbar IVD. The bovine tail also had the largest IVD to vertebral body height ratio (due to having the highest absolute IVD height). Bovine tail lamellae were also found to be strongest and stiffest (in tension) while ovine lumbar lamellae were weakest and most compliant. Histological analysis revealed the greatest proportion of collagen in the bovine corroborating findings of increased strength and stiffness. The observed differences in anatomical shape, connective tissue composition, and tensile properties need to be considered when choosing an appropriate model for IVD research.

  12. Modification of arginine residues in ovine prolactin by 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Effect on binding capacity to lactogenic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymes, G D; Atlasovich, F M; Caridad, J J; Iglesias, M M; Wolfenstein-Todel, C

    1994-07-01

    The reactivity of arginine residues in ovine prolactin was studied by reaction with 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Kinetic analysis of the data showed a good fit with two simultaneous pseudo-first-order equations with apparent velocity constants of 0.28 and 1.2 x 10(-2) min-1, corresponding to 1.8 'fast' and 8.7 'slow' residues, respectively. Modification led to a decrease in binding capacity to lactogenic rat liver receptors, and apparently the modification of the two 'fast' reacting arginine residues is responsible for the rapid loss of this capacity. The presence of a non-reacting arginine has been described in human and bovine growth hormones, and it is located near the carboxy-terminus. This lack of reactivity is probably due to the formation of a salt bridge, since the arginine residue becomes susceptible to modification once the peptide is separated from the rest of the molecule. This salt bridge is absent in ovine prolactin, since the homologous arginine residue is reactive with cyclohexanedione. This result suggests that there could be a difference between the three-dimensional structure of ovine prolactin and of the growth hormones, at least near the carboxy-terminal region of the molecule.

  13. Prevalence Study of Coxiella burnetii in Aborted Ovine and Caprine Fetuses by Evaluation of Nested and Real-Time PCR Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad S. Dehkordi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Q fever is a ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism that caused abortion and stillbirth in ruminants. Approach: The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Iran is essentially unknown. Its traditional diagnosis is based on culture, serology and conventional PCR. In this present study, for more sensitive and accurate detection and prevalence's determination of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses, the nested and real-time PCR methods are recommended. Results: About 98 (12.53% and 122 (16.39% out of 782 and 744 Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, were positive for presence of Coxiella burnetii by nested PCR, respectively. After LSI Taqvet Coxiella burnetii real-time PCR, it was recognized that 121 (15.47% and 152 (20.43% samples were positive for Coxiella burnetii in Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, respectively. Results indicated that the real-time PCR was 7 times more sensitive than the nested PCR. Statistical analysis showed significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by both nested and real-time PCR assays and PCoxiella burnetii. The Ct values which obtained from real-time PCR had significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii between aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses. Our results indicated that Caprine is more sensitive than Ovine to Coxiella burnetii’s abortion Khozestan and Gilan have the highest and Khorasan and Sistan va Baluchistan provinces have the lowest prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, respectively. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first prevalence report of direct identification of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by evaluation of nested and real-time PCR assays in Iran. This study showed that the nested PCR for detecting Coxiella burnetii are technically time-consuming and labor-intensive.

  14. Hosting the preimplantation embryo: potentials and limitations of different approaches for analysing embryo-endometrium interactions in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Wolf, Eckhard; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing detailed investigations into embryo-maternal communication before implantation reveal that during early embryonic development a plethora of events are taking place. During the sexual cycle, remodelling and differentiation processes in the endometrium are controlled by ovarian hormones, mainly progesterone, to provide a suitable environment for establishment of pregnancy. In addition, embryonic signalling molecules initiate further sequences of events; of these molecules, prostaglandins are discussed herein as specifically important. Inadequate receptivity may impede preimplantation development and implantation, leading to embryonic losses. Because there are multiple factors affecting fertility, receptivity is difficult to comprehend. This review addresses different models and methods that are currently used and discusses their respective potentials and limitations in distinguishing key messages out of molecular twitter. Transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analyses generate comprehensive information and provide starting points for hypotheses, which need to be substantiated using further confirmatory methods. Appropriate in vivo and in vitro models are needed to disentangle the effects of participating factors in the embryo-maternal dialogue and to help distinguish associations from causalities. One interesting model is the study of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in normal recipient heifers. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to properly assess the importance of the uterine milieu for embryonic development and to use the large number of new findings to solve long-standing issues regarding fertility.

  15. Combining Endometrium Sampling Device and SurePath Preparation to Screen for Endometrial Carcinoma: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare specimen adequacy of SAP-1 provided for cytology with that of dilation and curettage (D & C or hysteroscopy for histology, and evaluate the accuracy of combining endometrium sampling by SAP-1 and liquid-based cytology using SurePath preparation for screening endometrial carcinoma and its precursor. Methods: Endometrial specimens from women (n = 1514 with risk factors were obtained using an SAP-1 device for cytological analysis; histological samples were obtained from 375 of these women who underwent D & C or hysteroscopy. Cytological specimens were prepared to liquid-based smear using SurePath technology and stained by Papanicolaou. Histological samples were processed in routine pathology and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Adequate specimens for cytology were obtained from 1458/1541 patients (96.3%, while adequate samples for pathology were obtained from 285/375 patients (76%. However, for postmenopausal women, 1006 of 1045 cytology (86.3% were adequate, 153 of 238 histology (64.3% were adequate, it was easier to collect cytological specimens than histological specimens (P < 0.05. The accuracy of endometrial cytology for detecting endometrial carcinoma and its precursor was 92.4% (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 95.8%; positive predictive value, 75%; and negative predictive value, 95.3%. Conclusions: Endometrial cytology using SAP-1 sampling and SurePath preparation may be a reliable approach for screening patients with endometrial carcinoma and its precursor.

  16. Transcriptional expression of type I interferon response genes and stability of housekeeping genes in the human endometrium and endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna L; Knudsen, Ulla B; Munk, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a painful chronic female disease defined by the presence of endometrial tissue implants in ectopic locations. The pathogenesis is much debated, and type I interferons could be involved. The expression of genes of the type I interferon response were profiled by a specific PCR Array...... was suitable for normalization of qRT-PCR studies of eutopic vs. ectopic endometrium. In the endometrial cell lines HEC1A, HEC1B, Ishikawa, and RL95-2, HMBS and HPRT1 were most stably expressed. The interferon-specific PCR Array indicated significantly different expression of the genes BST2, COL16A1, HOXB2......, and ISG20 between the endometrial tissue types. However, by correctly normalized qRT-PCR, levels of BST2, COL16A1, and the highly type I IFN-stimulated genes ISG12A and 6-16 displayed insignificant variations. Conversely, HOXB2 and ISG20 transcriptions were significantly reduced in endometriosis lesions...

  17. Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 in rhesus monkey endometrium during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Haiyan; WANG Hongmei; LI Qinglei; WANG Juan; ZHANG Xuan; LIU Donglin; LIU Huitu; ZHU Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in the endometrium of rhesus monkey on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the normal menstrual cycle and on Days 12, 18 and 26 of early pregnancy was detected using in situ hybridization. The results showed that Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs were mainly localized in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. The expression of Smad2 mRNA in glandular epithelium was sustained at moderate level on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the menstrual cycle, while the expression of Smad4 gradually increased with the menstrual cycle. Both Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in functionalis glandular epithelium were expressed at the highest levels on Day 12 of early pregnancy, while in basalis glandular epithelium the most abundant expression of both Smads occurred on Days 12 and 18 of pregnancy. On Day 26, both Smads mRNAs were expressed at the lowest levels either in functionalis or in basalis. The data suggest that the epithelium is the major compartment where TGF-βs/activins exert their biological effects via Smads, and that Smad4 may play a role in the maintenance of endometrial gland function during secreting period of the menstrual cycle. During lacunar stage of early pregnancy, Smad2 and Smad4 are implicated in the tissue remodeling of endometrial functionalis and basalis, and during early villous stage both Smads are functional primarily in basalis.

  18. [Copper concentration in women endometrium and in peripheral blood after prolonged use of intrauterine devices (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersztain, C C; Menache, R; Rubinstein, J; Halbrecht, I

    1976-01-01

    66 women were examined to determine the copper concentration in their serum and endometrium after prolonged use of an IUD (Lippes Loop, Hall Ring, Birnberg, Saf-T-Coil, Tatum, and Copper 7). A control of 16 nonusers was included. The level of copper was found by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the control group, the copper concentration in the serum was a mean of 100 gamma/100 cc of serum and in the endometrial tissue, a mean of 251 gamma/100 gm/wet tissue. In women using IUDs with no copper, the concentration in the serum was in the normal range, but in endometrial tissue it was between 457-586 gamma/100 gm. Similar findings came with the examination of women using IUDs containing copper. The high concentration of copper in inflamed endometrial tissue led to the hypothesis that such a condition, ith accompanying hyperenemia and hyperkinesia of the uterus and tubes are the principle factors for the contraceptive action of IUDs.

  19. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  20. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Portes de Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected bythe HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breastfeedingcrossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impedimentfrom the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to theaffectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, theywere interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a PublicHospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy wasnot planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectationsregarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood outthat the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnantreact to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnantsoroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize thespecific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV.

  1. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  2. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  3. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  4. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  5. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  6. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  7. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  8. Pseudomembranous colitis in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, T; Pai, R R; Mathai, A M; Tantry, B V; Adhikari, P

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis in association with pregnancy has not been well described in English literature. Recent studies show a drastic increase in the incidence and severity of Pseudomembranous colitis in pregnant women, who were once thought to be at low risk. We report here a case of Pseudomembranous colitis in a young healthy immunocompetent pregnant lady. An early suspicion of this entity with the characteristic appearance of pseudomembranes on colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis enabling prompt treatment and complete recovery without any serious consequences.

  9. Use of chemiluminescence for the serological diagnosis of bovine and ovine brucellosis with indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tittarelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The official methods specified in the national bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis eradication plan are the Rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. In the current phase of the eradication plan, it is often difficult to interpret the results obtained with the official tests. Consequently, additional tests that offer greater sensitivity and specificity are thus required. For this reason, two methods, the indirect chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA CL and the competitive chemiluminescence ELISA (c-ELISA CL that use a chemiluminescent substrate to determine anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine and ovine serum were validated. The methods are based on the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in serum by catalysis of a chemiluminescent enzyme substrate (luminol/ H2O2/enhancer system by peroxidase conjugated to secondary anti IgG antibodies in i-ELISA CL and to monoclonal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in c-ELISA CL. From the results obtained, a cut-off of 60% for bovine serum and 37.5% for ovine serum, expressed as positivity rate (PR, were established Using these cut-off values, for the i-ELISA CL, 100% sensitivity and specificity was obtained for bovine serum and 100% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity for ovine serum. Cut-off values of 30% for bovine serum and 40% for ovine serum, expressed as inhibition rate, were selected for c-ELISA CL, which ensured 100% sensitivity and specificity in both cases.

  10. Ovine MHC class II DRB1 alleles associated with resistance or susceptibility to development of bovine leukemia virus-induced ovine lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Y; Kabeya, H; Onuma, M; Kasai, N; Okada, K; Aida, Y

    1999-02-15

    For the further characterization of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-induced leukemogenesis, we investigated the association between polymorphism of ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA)-DRB1 gene and tumor development after infection of sheep with BLV. We infected 28 sheep with BLV and cloned exon 2 of the OLA-DRB1 gene from asymptomatic animals and from animals with lymphoma Sequence analysis revealed that, among 12 healthy sheep without any evidence of tumor, ten (83.3%) carried DRB1 alleles encoding Arg-Lys (RK) at positions beta70/71 as compared with only 6 (37.5%) of the 16 sheep with lymphoma, which suggested that alleles encoding the RK motif might protect against development of tumors after infection by BLV. By contrast, alleles encoding Ser-Arg (SR) at positions beta70/71 were present at a significantly elevated frequency in sheep with lymphoma as compared with the healthy carriers, which indicated that OLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the SR motif might be positively related to susceptibility to tumor development. The two amino acids in these motifs line a pocket that accommodates the side chain of a bound peptide according to a model of the crystal structure of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1. To analyze immunoreactions of sheep with alleles that encoded RK or SR at beta70/71, we selected sheep with either the RK/SR genotypes or the SR/SR genotypes and immunized them with a mixture of multiple synthetic antigenic peptides that corresponded to T-helper, T-cytotoxic, and B-cell epitopes of the BLV envelope glycoprotein gp51. Two weeks after the last immunization, all of the sheep were challenged with BLV. Sheep with the RK/SR genotype produced neutralizing antibodies against BLV; they eliminated BLV completely within 28 weeks of the BLV challenge, and they gave strong lymphocyte-proliferative responses to the peptides used for immunization. Moreover, such animals did not develop lymphoma. By contrast, sheep with the SR/SR genotype continued to produce BLV throughout the

  11. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  12. Ovine maternal nutrient restriction from mid to late gestation decreases heptic progesterone inactivating enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we have shown increased concentrations of progesterone and decreased liver weight in mid to late pregnant ewes provided a nutrient restricted vs. adequate diet. This alteration in peripheral progesterone could be due to increased synthesis and/or decreased clearance of progesterone. There...

  13. Protective effects of vitamin C and vitamin E against hysterosalpingography-induced epithelial degeneration and proliferation in rat endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pala Ş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Şehmus Pala,1 Remzi Atilgan,1 Tuncay Kuloğlu,2 Murat Kara,3 Melike Başpinar,1 Behzat Can,1 Gökhan Artaş4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Histology and Embriology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 3Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University School of Medicine, Muğla, 4Department of Pathology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of vitamin C (VC and vitamin E (VE against hysterosalpingography (HSG-induced epithelial degeneration and proliferation in rat endometrium. Materials and methods: A total of 28 female Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: G1 (n=7; abdomen was opened and closed, G2 (n=7; 0.1 mL Lipiodol [ethiodized oil] was administered to each uterine horn in conjunction with X-ray irradiation, G3 (n=7; 50 mg/kg of intraperitoneal (ip VC was administered, followed by the administration of 0.1 mL of ethiodized oil into the uterine horns after 15 minutes, and G4 (n=7; 50 mg/kg of ip VE was administered, followed by the administration of 0.1 mL of ethiodized oil into the uterine horns after 15 minutes. After abdominal closure, rats in G2, G3 and G4 groups were exposed to whole-body X-irradiation three times with 2-minute intervals at a total dose of 15–20 mrad. Three hours after exposure, abdominal cavities of all the rats were reopened and uterine horns were removed. The right uterine horns were embedded into paraffin blocks after fixing in 10% formaldehyde for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Uterine horns on the other side were rapidly excised and stored at -80°C for the examination of expression of microRNAs (miRNAs and oxidant, antioxidant, apoptotic and antiapoptotic gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method. Results: No differences were observed in terms of expression of miRNAs and oxidant

  14. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  15. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  16. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  17. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  18. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza [Post-graduation Program in Abdominal Imaging, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nasser, Felipe [Intervention Radiology Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo [Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Imaging Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings.

  19. Combining Endometrium Sampling Device and SurePath Preparation to Screen for Endometrial Carcinoma: A Validation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Wen; Rui Chen; Jian Zhao; Yin Dong; Xi Yang; Qin-Ping Liao

    2015-01-01

    Background:The aim of this study was to compare specimen adequacy of SAP-I provided for cytology with that of dilation and curettage (D & C) or hysteroscopy for histology,and evaluate the accuracy of combining endometrium sampling by SAP-1 and liquid-based cytology using SurePath preparation for screening endometrial carcinoma and its precursor.Methods:Endometrial specimens from women (n =1514) with risk factors were obtained using an SAP-l device for cytological analysis; histological samples were obtained from 375 of these women who underwent D & C or hysteroscopy.Cytological specimens were prepared to liquid-based smear using SurePath technology and stained by Papanicolaou.Histological samples were processed in routine pathology and stained by hematoxylin and eosin.Results:Adequate specimens for cytology were obtained from 1458/1541 patients (96.3%),while adequate samples for pathology were obtained from 285/375 patients (76%).However,for postmenopausaI women,1006 of 1045 cytology (86.3%) were adequate,153 of 238 histology (64.3%) were adequate,it was easier to collect cytological specimens than histological specimens (P < 0.05).The accuracy of endometrial cytology for detecting endometrial carcinoma and its precursor was 92.4% (sensitivity,73%; specificity,95.8%; positive predictive value,75%; and negative predictive value,95.3%).Conclusions:Endometrial cytology using SAP-1 sampling and SurePath preparation may be a reliable approach for screening patients with endometrial carcinoma and its precursor.

  20. Natural selection of human embryos: impaired decidualization of endometrium disables embryo-maternal interactions and causes recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Salker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL, defined as 3 or more consecutive miscarriages, is widely attributed either to repeated chromosomal instability in the conceptus or to uterine factors that are poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal cyclic differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs into specialized decidual cells predisposes to RPL, based on the observation that this process may not only be indispensable for placenta formation in pregnancy but also for embryo recognition and selection at time of implantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of mid-secretory endometrial biopsies demonstrated that RPL is associated with decreased expression of the decidual marker prolactin (PRL but increased levels of prokineticin-1 (PROK1, a cytokine that promotes implantation. These in vivo findings were entirely recapitulated when ESCs were purified from patients with and without a history of RPL and decidualized in culture. In addition to attenuated PRL production and prolonged and enhanced PROK1 expression, RPL was further associated with a complete dysregulation of both markers upon treatment of ESC cultures with human chorionic gonadotropin, a glycoprotein hormone abundantly expressed by the implanting embryo. We postulated that impaired embryo recognition and selection would clinically be associated with increased fecundity, defined by short time-to-pregnancy (TTP intervals. Woman-based analysis of the mean and mode TTP in a cohort of 560 RPL patients showed that 40% can be considered "superfertile", defined by a mean TTP of 3 months or less. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cyclic decidualization of the endometrium facilitates implantation yet predisposes to subsequent pregnancy failure by disabling natural embryo selection and by disrupting the maternal responses to embryonic signals. These findings suggest a novel pathological pathway that unifies maternal and embryonic causes of RPL.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  2. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  3. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  4. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  5. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  6. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  7. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  8. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Pregnancy amongst secondary school learners is a public health concern ... of high risk pregnancies, which require appropriate care during the antenatal, labour and .... ous sizes. According to the Department of Basic. Education (2012), in ... scribes what he or she has observed in order to as- ... pregnant learner in class;.

  9. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  10. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  11. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  12. Inhibition of nitric oxide enhances ovine lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kevin A; Mason, Gary L; DeMartini, James C

    2002-12-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) also known as maedi-visna virus, infects and replicates primarily in macrophages. This investigation examined the role of nitric oxide in the replication of OvLV in cultured macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from OvLV-free sheep and cultured in Teflon coated flasks at a high concentration of lamb serum. The cells were subsequently infected with OvLV strain 85/34. OvLV replication was assessed under different experimental treatments by comparison of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in culture supernatant. Cultures that were treated with exogenous nitric oxide via S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine did not have altered levels of RT activity compared to cultures treated with the inactive control compound, acetylpenicillamine. However, blockage of nitric oxide production by treatment with aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), led to a significant rise in RT activity. This rise in RT activity was partially reversed in aminoguanidine treated cultures by L-arginine, the normal substrate for iNOS. Finally, the number of viral antigen producing cells was also quantified after aminoguanidine treatment and found to be significantly higher than untreated cultures. Collectively, these results indicate that nitric oxide is a negative regulator of OvLV replication in macrophages.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of bovine, ovine and porcine luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosberg, M.; Tagle, R.; Madej, A.; Molina, J.R.; Carlsson, M.-A.

    1993-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for bovine (bLH), ovine (oLH) and porcine (pLH) luteinizing hormone was developed using a human [sup 125]ILH tracer from a commercial kit and a monoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. Standard curves demonstrated similar binding kinetics when bLH, oLH and pLH were incubated with tracer and antibody for 2 h at room temperature. A 30-min delay in the addition of the tracer gave sufficient sensitivity when analysing pLH. Separation of antibody-bound LH from free hormone was achieved by using second antibody-coated micro Sepharose beads. The assay was validated and the performance compared with that of an RIA currently in use for determination of bLH (coefficient of correlation: 0.99 and 0.98). Regardless of the standards used, intra-assay coefficients of variation were <10% for LH concentrations exceeding 1 [mu]g/L. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were <15%. The assay was used for clinical evaluation demonstrating the pre-ovulatory LH surge in two cyclic cows, LH pulsatility in an oophorectomized ewe and LH response to GnRH injection in a boar. (au) (7 refs.).

  14. Determinants of ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties: effects of architecture, mineralization, and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, C M; Spence, C A; Vance, J L; Christopherson, G T; Patel, B; Turner, A S; Divine, G W; Fyhrie, D P

    2004-09-01

    Significant decreases in ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties (specifically, stress-rate sensitivity, and damping efficiency) are associated with three years of ovariectomy and are particularly evident at higher frequencies [Proc. Orthop. Res. Soc. 27 (2002) 89]. It is unclear what materials or architectural features of bone are responsible for either the viscoelastic properties themselves, or for the changes in those properties that were observed with estrogen depletion. In this study, we examined the relationship between these viscoelastic mechanical properties and features involving bone architecture (BV/TV), materials parameters (ash density, %mineralization), and histologic evidence of remodeling (%remodeled, cement line interface). The extent of mineralization was inversely proportional to the material's efficiency in damping stress oscillations. The damping characteristics of bone material from ovariectomized animals were significantly more sensitive to variation in mineralization than was bone from control animals. At low frequencies (6 Hz or less), increased histologic evidence of remodeling was positively correlated with increased damping efficiency. However, the dramatic decreases in stress-rate sensitivity that accompanied 3-year ovariectomy were seen throughout the bone structure and occurred even in areas with little or no secondary Haversian remodeling as well as in areas of complete remodeling. Taken together, these data suggest that, while the mineral component may modify the viscoelastic behavior of bone, the basic mechanism underlying bone viscoelastic behavior, and of the changes in that behavior with estrogen depletion, reside in a non-mineral component of the bone that can be significantly altered in the absence of secondary remodeling.

  15. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  16. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI.

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OVINE HAEMOGRAM: CELL-DYN 3500 VERSUS MANUAL METHODS

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    Labrini V. Athanasiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual hematology techniques traditionally applied in farm animal medicine are time consuming and labor-intensive, especially when large numbers of samples have to be processed. As a result, several automated hematology instruments have been developed for use in these species. An automated hematology analyzer (Abbott Cell-Dyne 3500 system was used in performing a complete blood cell count and differential counts of white blood cells in sheep blood samples. The system was compared with basic manual hematologic techniques. A linear regression was used to assess correlation between the two methods. Correlation coefficients (R2 were good for the hematocrit, the total white blood cell count, the neutrophils, the lymphocytes and the platelet count, while a poor correlation existed in monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. The automated and the manual technique were also compared in terms of sensitivity using the Sensitivity Ratio (SR. The automated analyzer was slightly more sensitive than the manual technique for all parameters tested except for monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the difference was greater and the automated analyzer was 1.5, 2.5 and 2 times more reliable, respectively. The method bias was also calculated. It seems that the overall performance of the automated analyzer justifies its utilization in sheep blood analysis, although as for any analyzer used in any species, a stained blood film evaluation remains an indispensable technique to confirm the results being reported by the automated analyzer and provide additional information for the ovine haemogram.

  18. Monitoring Conformational Landscape of Ovine Prion Protein Monomer Using Ion Mobility Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Rest, Guillaume; Rezaei, Human; Halgand, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the plasticity of the ovine prion protein (PrP) monomer, wild type (A136, R154, Q171), mutants and deletions of ARQ were studied by traveling wave ion mobility experiments coupled to mass spectrometry. In order to perform the analysis of a large body of data sets, we designed and evaluated the performance of a processing pipeline based on Driftscope peak detection and a homemade script for automated peak assignment, annotation, and quantification on specific multiply charged protein data. Using this approach, we showed that in the gas phase, PrPs are represented by at least three conformer families differing in both charge state distribution and collisional cross-section, in agreement with the work of Hilton et al. (2010). We also showed that this plasticity is borne both by the N- and C-terminal domains. Effect of protein concentration, pH and temperature were also assessed, showing that (1) pH does not affect conformer distributions, (2) protein concentration modifies the conformational landscape of one mutant (I208M) only, and (3) heating leads to other unfolded species and to a modification of the conformer intensity ratios.

  19. The development and characterisation of complex ovine neuron cultures from fresh and frozen foetal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Graham W; Oswald, Manfred J; Palmer, David N

    2006-07-15

    Cultures of ovine cerebral and cerebellar neurons from mid-term sheep foetal brains, 9-15 weeks old, have been established for the first time. These foetal brains are relatively mature, being at similar stages of development as peri and post-natal rodent brains. Cultures were routinely maintained for 3-4 weeks, and longer. Nearly all the cells from the younger foetuses adhered as neurons. The proportion of glial cells increased with age, as did the risk of cultures being overtaken by glial cells. Cultured neurons were bipolar, tripolar and multipolar, similar to the morphologies of neurons in vivo. Older foetuses also yield more complex neurons, notably giant cells. Other properties of the cultured neurons also mimic in vivo observations, including neurite beading, complexity in neurotransmitter class (GABAergic and glutamatergic) and calcium binding protein (calbindin and calretinin) content. Single cell divisions of neurons were observed in younger cultures by time-lapse photography and the occurrence of telophase nuclei. The advantage of the high yield of genetically identical cells obtained from a single sheep foetus, 150 million, was extended by cryopreservation of neurons after snap freezing, and later culture. These cultures showed the same characteristics as cultures from the freshly plated cells.

  20. BMP13 Prevents the Effects of Annular Injury in an Ovine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqun Wei, Lisa A Williams, Divya Bhargav, Bojiang Shen, Thomas Kishen, Neil Duffy, Ashish D Diwan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been intense interest in early intervention in disc degeneration using growth factors or stem cell transplantation, to replenish the diseased tissues. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs have been approved for clinical use in augmenting spinal fusions, and may represent candidate molecules for intervertebral disc regeneration. BMP13 has an important role in embryonic development and recent genetic evidence shows a role in the development of the human spine. This study explores the effect of BMP13 on a damaged intervertebral disc in an ovine model of discal degeneration. We found that, when injected at the time of injury, BMP13 reversed or arrested histological changes that occurred in the control discs such as loss of extracellular matrix proteins. In addition, BMP13 injected discs retained greater hydration after 4months, and possessed more cells in the NP. Taken together, BMP13 may be a potent clinical therapeutic agent when used early in the degeneration cascade to promote healthy disc tissue.

  1. A novel ovine ex vivo arteriovenous shunt model to test vascular implantability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haofan; Schlaich, Evan M; Row, Sindhu; Andreadis, Stelios T; Swartz, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of successful development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts is long-term in vivo patency. Optimization of matrix, cell source, surface modifications, and physical preconditioning are all elements of attaining a compatible, durable, and functional vascular construct. In vitro model systems are inadequate to test elements of thrombogenicity and vascular dynamic functional properties while in vivo implantation is complicated, labor-intensive, and cost-ineffective. We proposed an ex vivo ovine arteriovenous shunt model in which we can test the patency and physical properties of vascular grafts under physiologic conditions. The pressure, flow rate, and vascular diameter were monitored in real-time in order to evaluate the pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and dynamic elastic modulus, all indicators of graft stiffness. Carotid arteries, jugular veins, and small intestinal submucosa-based grafts were tested. SIS grafts demonstrated physical properties between those of carotid arteries and jugular veins. Anticoagulation properties of grafts were assessed via scanning electron microscopy imaging, en face immunostaining, and histology. Luminal seeding with endothelial cells greatly decreased the attachment of thrombotic components. This model is also suture free, allowing for multiple samples to be stably processed within one animal. This tunable (pressure, flow, shear) ex vivo shunt model can be used to optimize the implantability and long-term patency of tissue-engineered vascular constructs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. THE PRIMER EXTENSION TECHNIQUE FOR THE POLYMORPHISM DETECTION AT OVINE PRN-P LOCUS

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    VIORICA COSIER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie is a prionic illness with endemic character in many parts of the glob, and the control measures is difficult to apply because of the long incubation period, the lack of the preclinical manifestation and the existing tests for diagnostic in living animals. The Ppn-p locus is polymorphic with known variability at codon 136, 154, 171, which are associated with different sensibility in experimental and natural spongiform encephalopaties. General the possible combinations of the 5 amino acids encoded by the 3 different codons will determine the existence of 15 possible genotypes. To put in evidence those polymorphisms at the ovine Prn-p locus, several methods are developed but the most accurate assay is the direct sequencing of the gene and the primer extension technique. The purpose of this study was to determine the genotypes at Prp locus in 123 male of Tsurcana breed, Hateg ecotype, using primer extension technique (ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer and to establish the risk groups of the susceptibility at scrapie disease.

  3. Modulation of innate immune responses by influenza-specific ovine polyclonal antibodies used for prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Rinaldi

    Full Text Available In the event of a novel influenza A virus pandemic, prophylaxis mediated by antibodies provides an adjunct control option to vaccines and antivirals. This strategy is particularly pertinent to unvaccinated populations at risk during the lag time to produce and distribute an effective vaccine. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic therapies is of high importance. Although previous approaches have used systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies or convalescent sera, available supply is a serious limitation. Here, we have investigated intranasal delivery of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal IgG antibodies for their efficacy against homologous influenza virus challenge in a mouse model. Both influenza-specific IgG and F(ab'2 reduced clinical scores, body weight loss and lung viral loads in mice treated 1 hour before virus exposure. Full protection from disease was also observed when antibody was delivered up to 3 days prior to virus infection. Furthermore, effective prophylaxis was independent of a strong innate immune response. This strategy presents a further option for prophylactic intervention against influenza A virus using ruminants to generate a bulk supply that could potentially be used in a pandemic setting, to slow virus transmission and reduce morbidity associated with a high cytokine phenotype.

  4. Identification of Moraxella-like bacteria isolated from caprine and ovine nasal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, A; Moussa, A; Borges, E; Richard, Y

    1993-03-01

    Twenty four Moraxella related bacterias were isolated from healthy caprine and ovine nasal swabs and were investigated by classic biochemical tests and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole-cell proteins in comparison with 9 reference strains. Proteolytic and haemolytic strains were investigated by electron microscopy. The biochemical results clustered field isolates in four groups corresponding to Branhamella and Moraxella species. Proteolytic, haemolytic and fimbriated field isolates showed the same morphological structure and biochemical features as Moraxella bovis. SDS-PAGE results indicated that DICE coefficient between a field isolate and the corresponding reference strain can be as 62.5%; 41.7% and 36% respectively for the groups 1, 3 and 4. The group 2 showed a similarity percentage over 75% with the reference strain Moraxella nonliquefaciens. This results indicated that a non proteolytic but haemolytic bacteria, closely related to Moraxella nonliquefaciens was commonly isolated from small ruminants nasal flora. These animals can also be hosts of a subspecies of Moraxella bovis.

  5. Effect of metronidazole supplemented with hydroquinone on the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus in ovine vaginal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti Zabala, Tamara L; Zerbatto, María E; Perotti, Elda B R; Smacchia, Ana M; Ombrella, Adriana; Pidello, Alejandro R

    This work demonstrates that the addition of metronidazole together with a ubiquitous quinone compound reduces adherence of Lactobacillus acidophilus to ovine vaginal cells. Spectrophotometric and voltammetric studies have shown that neoformed compounds were observed in these systems; there were also changes in their electroactive composition, and the oxidant status had a significantly higher value compared to the control (p<0.05). Based on reduction potential (E; mV), the distribution of electroactive compound concentrations suggests that the compounds with low reduction potential induce this behavior, which would indicate that the addition of metronidazole with a ubiquitous quinone compound to the vaginal system might increase the reductive capacity of these systems. This work shows that the study of behavior and fluctuations of the redox compounds that compose the vaginal environment, in terms of concentration and species of redox molecules, must be hierarchized in order to better understand the early stages of colonization by microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Localization and steroid regulation of prostaglandin E2 receptor protein expression in ovine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Thomas; Levine, Brian A; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2006-04-01

    Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been identified as a central mediator of the cervical ripening process, the mechanisms responsible for PGE2 ripening are still poorly understood, partly because of the lack of information concerning the precise cellular localization and regulation of PGE2 (EP) receptors in the cervix. To provide new insights into the mechanisms of cervical ripening, we used indirect immunofluorescence to localize cervical EP receptor protein expression in ovariectomized ewes and examined the effect of administration of progesterone or estradiol. EP receptors were widely distributed in cervical blood vessels, epithelium of the cervical canal, circular and longitudinal muscles, and stroma. Estradiol replacement decreased EP1 and EP3 receptor protein in blood vessel media (by 23 and 31% respectively, P EP1 receptor protein expression in the longitudinal muscle layer (by 27%, P EP1 and EP3 receptor protein expression was also reduced by estradiol (by 29 and 20% respectively, P EP receptor protein expression. The arterial changes would favor PGE2-induced vasodilatation, subsequent edema and leukocyte infiltration during the cervical ripening process whereas the muscular alterations would facilitate smooth muscle relaxation and cervical dilatation. Furthermore, estradiol provoked perinuclear localization of EP3 receptor protein in the longitudinal muscle layer. This latter result suggests that cellular EP receptor localization is regulated by estradiol and that PGE2 may also control smooth muscle contraction and regulate ovine cervical dilatation in an intracrine manner via EP3 receptors.

  7. Analysis and PCR detection of antigen compositions of ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁恩雨

    1995-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) was proliferated utilizing sheep foetal lung cells, and the cytopathic effect (CPE) of the virus was investigated. OPPV was purified with a 10%-sucrose cushion and then with 20%-55% discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The structural proteins and antigen compositions of OPPV were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Besides, the OPP proviral cDNAs of the virus-infected cell cultures and the peripheral blood monocytes from sheep infected by the virus were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results show that the CPE of sheep foetal lung cells infected by OPPV is typical of the disease. The purified virions are intact and of high purity when observed with an electron microscope. OPPV proteins consist of 18 polypeptide bands and the molecular weights range from 18 to 120kd. Among these, 3 were glycoproteins (designated by gp120, gp50 and gp47). The appearance and peak time of the p28 antibody from sheep inoculated with OPPV ar

  8. Linkage mapping of the locus for inherited ovine arthrogryposis (IOA) to sheep chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Angela M; MacHugh, David E; Park, Stephen D E; Scraggs, Erik; Haley, Chris S; Lynn, David J; Boland, Maurice P; Doherty, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Arthrogryposis is a congenital malformation affecting the limbs of newborn animals and infants. Previous work has demonstrated that inherited ovine arthrogryposis (IOA) has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two affected homozygous recessive (art/art) Suffolk rams were used as founders for a backcross pedigree of half-sib families segregating the IOA trait. A genome scan was performed using 187 microsatellite genetic markers and all backcross animals were phenotyped at birth for the presence and severity of arthrogryposis. Pairwise LOD scores of 1.86, 1.35, and 1.32 were detected for three microsatellites, BM741, JAZ, and RM006, that are located on sheep Chr 5 (OAR5). Additional markers in the region were identified from the genetic linkage map of BTA7 and by in silico analyses of the draft bovine genome sequence, three of which were informative. Interval mapping of all autosomes produced an F value of 21.97 (p < 0.01) for a causative locus in the region of OAR5 previously flagged by pairwise linkage analysis. Inspection of the orthologous region of HSA5 highlighted a previously fine-mapped locus for human arthrogryposis multiplex congenita neurogenic type (AMCN). A survey of the HSA5 genome sequence identified plausible candidate genes for both IOA and human AMCN.

  9. Assessment of transthoracic ultrasound diagnosis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, C; Scott, P R

    2015-10-10

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), is a disease of increasing concern in the sheep industry. There is no commercial antemortem test for OPA; therefore, an early evaluation phase study was undertaken to examine the accuracy of transthoracic ultrasound examination using a 5-6.5 MHz sector ultrasound machine widely available in veterinary practice in the UK to diagnose OPA. Restraint, preparation and examination time was restricted to five minutes per sheep to represent the cost limitations of commercial sheep farming. One hundred sheep were examined. All 41 cases identified with suspect OPA lesions during transthoracic ultrasound examination had the diagnosis confirmed at postmortem examination, while sheep without ultrasonographic changes characteristic of OPA had no gross lesions of OPA at postmortem examination. This demonstrates the specificity of transthoracic ultrasound for diagnosis of OPA. The authors propose that, in the absence of any other reliable preclinical diagnostic test, the use of transthoracic ultrasound examination should be considered for a second opinion on an initial diagnosis of OPA, for screening purchased adult flock replacements for OPA, or for screening sheep in a known OPA-affected flock. However, the authors emphasise that a negative scan cannot provide a guarantee that the animal is free of JSRV infection nor early OPA.

  10. Regional pulmonary inflammation in an endotoxemic ovine acute lung injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, A; Easley, R B; Fuld, M; Mulreany, D; Chon, D; Lewis, J F; Simon, B A

    2012-08-15

    The regional distribution of inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI) is not well known. In an ovine ALI model we studied regional alveolar inflammation, surfactant composition, and CT-derived regional specific volume change (sVol) and specific compliance (sC). 18 ventilated adult sheep received IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS) until severe ALI was achieved. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from apical and basal lung regions were obtained at baseline and injury time points, for analysis of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), BAL protein and surfactant composition. Whole lung CT images were obtained in 4 additional sheep. BAL protein and IL-1β were significantly higher in injured apical vs. basal regions. No significant regional surfactant composition changes were observed. Baseline sVol and sC were lower in apex vs. base; ALI enhanced this cranio-caudal difference, reaching statistical significance only for sC. This study suggests that apical lung regions show greater inflammation than basal ones during IV LPS-induced ALI which may relate to differences in regional mechanical events.

  11. The ovine nasal mucosa: an alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgmen, Bradley J; Lofthouse, Shari A; Meeusen, Els N T

    2006-02-01

    The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by aerosol spray with KLH with and without cholera toxin (CT). Sheep immunized by injection with KLH/alum and aerosol spray with KLH/CT induced strong anti-KLH IgG and IgA serum antibody responses as well as specific T cell memory. Anti-KLH IgG1 responses were significantly higher following immunization by injection and no significant differences in anti-KLH IgG2 responses were detected between groups. Sheep immunized with KLH by aerosol spray without CT did not produce serum antibody and T cell memory responses. Antibody-secreting cells were present in the parotid lymph nodes (draining lymph nodes) of sheep immunized with KLH/alum and KLH/CT, but secreted only Ag-specific IgG1, and not IgG2 or IgA. These results suggest that aerosolization of soluble antigen formulations with CT may provide an alternative method of delivering nasal vaccines to sheep and other large animal species, and that further improvements in antigen penetration of nasal tissues may dramatically improve the strength of the immune response.

  12. Characteristics of airflow in a CT-based ovine lung: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A

    2007-04-01

    The transient airflow in a rigid, asymmetric monopodial sheep (ovine) tracheobronchial tree of up to 13 generations was investigated numerically. The lung geometry was segmented and reconstructed from computed-tomographic (CT) images. The flow characteristics in the image-based sheep airway were compared with the flow patterns produced by a Weibel-based model at prime locations. Boundary conditions were prescribed 1) a velocity profile from experimental data at the inlet and 2) zero pressure at the bronchial outlets. A mesh convergence study was carried out to establish confidence in the model predictions, and gross left-right ventilation was validated against experimental xenon wash-in-washout data. Detailed flow characteristics were investigated at three points in the breathing cycle: 1) peak inhalation, 2) peak exhalation, and 3) transition. Simulation results revealed fundamental differences between airflow in monopodial and bipodial branching airways. Compared with idealized bipodial flow, the flow in the sheep airway was asymmetric and highly vortical, especially during exhalation and transition. The streak lines during the inhalation phase suggest that the left and right upper lobes are ventilated by airflow in the peripheral region of the trachea. This work may contribute to understanding the interplay between structure and function in the lung.

  13. Impaction grafting with morsellised allograft and tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite: incorporation within ovine metaphyseal bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J N J; Griffon, D J; Dunlop, D G; Smith, N; Howie, C R

    2002-08-01

    An ovine model was used to investigate the in vivo properties of impacted tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) aggregates, varying in chemical composition (ratio of TCP to HA) and particle size distribution (8 versus 3 particle size ranges). All pellets were impacted to a standard compactive effort. Eight