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Sample records for pregnant np rats

  1. Swimming of pregnant rats at different water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, R A L; Silveira, V L F; Maldjian, S; Morales, A; Christofani, J S; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C

    2003-08-01

    We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups according to water temperature during exercise (P22 and NP22; P35 and NP35; P40 and NP40). The animals were submitted to daily swimming sessions of 10-15 min, for 19 days of pregnancy (P) or experimental conditions (NP). Plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and corticosterone were determined 24 h after the last exercise session. Weight gain and rectal temperature pre- and post-swimming session were also determined. The offspring were examined just after caesarian section on the 20th day of pregnancy to check weight, length and litter size. Pregnant rats showed an increase of triglycerides, reduction of glycemia, total protein and albumin and cholesterol (at 35 degrees C) when compared to non-pregnant animals. Such effects probably lead to an adequate delivery of substrate to the fetus and prepare the mother for lactation. Daily thermal stress did not modify metabolic responses to exercise in pregnant rats. Results also show a deleterious effect on offspring when the mother is exposed daily to extreme temperatures during swimming. These results suggest that water temperature (cold and hot) in swimming have to be considered to avoid damage in fetal development.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  3. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  5. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

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    J. Yu

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry, and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1

  6. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Luo, Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.S.; Zhou, J.; Gao, F.; He, L.T.; Xu, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells

  7. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  8. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  9. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  10. Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin in pregnant rats.

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    Makino, I; Shibata, K; Makino, Y; Kangawa, K; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-12-03

    The hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide, was examined in conscious pregnant (6, 13 and 20 days of pregnancy) and non-pregnant rats. The intravenous administration of adrenomedullin (0.01-3.0 nmol/kg) produced a dose-dependent depressor response in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. At low doses (0.01-0.1 nmol/kg), the maximum decrease in blood pressure was significantly higher in pregnant rats (20 days pregnant) than in non-pregnant rats. At high doses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Furthermore, the administration of adrenomedullin did not significantly affect the basal mean blood pressure (MBP) at any dose when compared to the non-pregnant group at 6 and 13 days of pregnancy. In the ovariectomized rats, the depressor responses in 17beta-estradiol-treated, progesterone-treated and 17beta-estradiol+progesterone-treated rats were not significantly different from that in the control rats, suggesting that the augmented effect on the depressor response to adrenomedullin in pregnant rats may not be due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. The adrenomedullin receptor mRNA level of the descending thoracic aorta was significantly higher in the late-pregnancy rats (20 days of pregnancy). However, the levels did not show any difference between the early-pregnant rats (6 and 13 days of pregnancy) and the non-pregnant rats. These findings suggested that the changes in the depressor response to adrenomedullin which occur at term in pregnant rats may be mediated by changes of adrenomedullin receptor gene expression rather than by sex hormones.

  11. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

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    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  12. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Combined exposure to stressors and chemicals may result in synergistic effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent toluene resemble those observed in offspring of gestationally stressed dams, a possible common mechanism being transfer of stress-/toluene-induced increments...... of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...... being enhanced by maternal stress. A depressant effect of toluene on maternal corticosterone was observed, hence the study does not provide immediate evidence that transfer of elevated levels of corticosterone from the maternal to the foetal compartment mediates the effects of prenatal exposure...

  13. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

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    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  14. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

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    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Disposition of stiripentol in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat.

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    Maurizis, J C; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Gillardin, J M; Lepage, F; Labarre, P; Dupuy, J M; Veyre, A

    1993-12-01

    1. The disposition of stiripentol labelled with 14C and 3H on two positions has been studied in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat after p.o. administration of a 200 mg/kg dose. 2. For both labelled species radioactivity was eliminated mainly in the faeces (69% within 72 h). Urinary excretion was rather low (22% within 72 h). No significant difference was found between the disposition of the two labelled species. 3. For both labelled species concentrations of radioactivity reached a plateau in the plasma and tissues between 1 and 6 h after administration. The liver, fat, mammary gland and adrenal gland were the most extensively-labelled organs. The affinity for the mammary gland was significantly greater in pregnant rats and for the adrenal gland was significantly greater in the non-pregnant rats. The fact that the concentration in the placenta was higher than in the foetus demonstrated that this membrane acts as a barrier for the penetration of the drug in the amniotic fluid. 4. Chromatographic analysis of the faeces and urine showed that an important portion of the dose remained unabsorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. The absorbed fraction undergoes an extensive first-pass metabolism involving mainly the oxidative cleavage of the methylenedioxy ring. Comparison with the results of other work conducted on the non-pregnant rat demonstrated that pregnancy did not affect the disposition and metabolic process.

  16. Histomorphometric changes of small intestine in pregnant rat

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and lo...

  17. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

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    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  18. Effects of silver nanoparticle (Ag NP on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat

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    Akram Ranjbar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanotechnology and nanoparticles are increasingly recognized for their potential applications in aerospace engineering, nanoelectronics, and environmental remediation, medicine and consumer products. More importantly is the potential for the application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in the treatment of diseases that require maintenance of circulating drug concentration or targeting of specific cells or organs the aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of Ag NP antioxidative biomarkers in rats. Ag NPs are used to investigate the potential risks for the environment and health. Materials and Methods: Rats received Ag NP, 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day IP. After two week of treatment, the activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of blood samples were measured. Results: Ag NP in 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced activities of CAT, SOD and increased TAC in plasma. Conclusion: In this study, Ag NP with 500mg/kg induced activities of CAT, SOD and decreased TAC. It is concluded that antioxidative properties of Ag NP is dose dependent.

  19. Dopaminergic modulation of grooming behavior in virgin and pregnant rats

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    A.P. Serafim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptors are involved in the expression of grooming behavior. The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. This study focuses on the role of dopamine receptor subtypes in grooming behavior of virgin and pregnant female rats. General and mammary gland grooming were measured in virgin rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg of the D1-like agonist SKF-81297 and antagonist SKF-83566 and the D2-like agonist lisuride and antagonist sulpiride. The effects of 0.01 and 0.25 mg/kg doses of the same agonists and antagonists were evaluated in pregnant rats as well. In virgin animals both SKF-83566 and sulpiride treatments significantly reduced the time spent in general grooming, while none of the dopamine agonists was able to significantly change any parameter of general grooming. Time spent in grooming directed at the mammary glands was not affected significantly by any of the drug treatments in virgin rats. All drugs tested significantly decreased the frequency of and the time spent with general grooming, while SKF-81297 treatment alone did not significantly reduce the duration of mammary gland grooming in pregnant rats. These data show that in female rats the behavioral effects of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor stimulation and blockade differ according to physiological state. The results suggest that dopamine receptors may play specific roles modulating grooming behavior in pregnant rats. Since grooming of the mammary gland during pregnancy may influence lactation, this aspect is relevant for studies regarding the perinatal use of dopamine-related drugs.

  20. Disposition of intravenously or orally administered silver nanoparticles in pregnant rats and the effect on the biochemical profile in urine.

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    Fennell, Timothy R; Mortensen, Ninell P; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Levine, Keith E; Poitras, Eric; Harrington, James M; Wingard, Christopher J; Holland, Nathan A; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Sumner, Susan C J

    2017-05-01

    Few investigations have been conducted on the disposition and fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in pregnancy. The distribution of a single dose of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNP was investigated in pregnant rats. Two sizes of AgNP, 20 and 110 nm, and silver acetate (AgAc) were used to investigate the role of AgNP diameter and particle dissolution in tissue distribution, internal dose and persistence. Dams were administered AgNP or AgAc intravenously (i.v.) (1 mg kg(-1) ) or by gavage (p.o.) (10 mg kg(-1) ), or vehicle alone, on gestation day 18 and euthanized at 24 or 48 h post-exposure. The silver concentration in tissues was measured using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of silver in dams was influenced by route of administration and AgNP size. The highest concentration of silver (μg Ag g(-1) tissue) at 48 h was found in the spleen for i.v. administered AgNP, and in the lungs for AgAc. At 48 h after p.o. administration of AgNP, the highest concentration was measured in the cecum and large intestine, and for AgAc in the placenta. Silver was detected in placenta and fetuses for all groups. Markers of cardiovascular injury, oxidative stress marker, cytokines and chemokines were not significantly elevated in exposed dams compared to vehicle-dosed control. NMR metabolomics analysis of urine indicated that AgNP and AgAc exposure impact the carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that silver crosses the placenta and is transferred to the fetus regardless of the form of silver. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Phenobarbital (PB)-induced changes in blood coagulationrelated parameters in pregnant rats, lactating rats and pups.

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    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Kidokoro, Yuri; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Kishi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Emi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi

    2009-12-01

    Effects of repeated administration of phenobarbital (PB) on blood coagulation-related parameters were examined in non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats, and also in pups born to PB-treated lactating dams. PB was orally administered at a dose level of 80 mg/kg/day to pregnant (from gestation day (GD) 13), postpartum (from postpartum day (PPD) 7) and non-pregnant rats (from 13 weeks of age) for 7 days. Blood was collected on GD20 or PPD14 to perform blood coagulation examination. Concurrently, the blood coagulation parameters were examined in the pups. Increases in liver weight and/or hepatic cytochrome P450 content were observed in the PB-treated non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was prolonged and anti-thrombin III (ATIII) concentration was increased in the lactating rats, while there were no changes in prothrombin time (PT) or APTT in the non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Moreover, prolongation of PT and APTT and decreases in factors VII and IX activities were observed in their pups. Thus, prolongation of blood coagulation time was confirmed in both dams and their pups following PB-administration to lactating dams. Effects of vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) on PB-induced changes in blood coagulation-related parameters of both dams and their pups were examined by co-administration with PB and VK(2) to lactating dams. PT and APTT were comparable to the control and PB-induced prolongation of blood coagulation time was improved in the pups while APTT was prolonged in dams, suggesting that VK(2) was beneficial to pups but not to dams.

  2. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

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    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  3. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats.

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    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Animal experiment. This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7(th) day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  4. Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age

    OpenAIRE

    CORVINO,SILVANA B.; Damasceno, Débora C; Yuri K Sinzato; NETTO,ALINE O.; MACEDO,NATHÁLIA C.D.; Zambrano, Elena; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA). Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1) consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3...

  5. Neonatally induced diabetes: liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Lovizutto Iessi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this sstudy was to evaluate the liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats presenting neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes and to establish a relation with glycemia and insulin levels. Wistar rats were divided in to two groups: 1 Mild Diabetes (STZ - received streptozotocin (glycemia from 120 to 300 mg/dL, 2 Control - received vehicle (glycemia below 120 mg/dL. At days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy, body weight and glycemia were evaluated. At day 21 of the pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized for blood and liver collection so as to determine insulin and liver glycogen, which showed no changes in the STZ group as compared to the controls. In the STZ group, maternal weight gain were lower as compared to those in the control group. Significantly increased glycemia was observed at days 0 and 14 of the pregnancy in the STZ group. Therefore, neonatally induced diabetes in the rats did not cause metabolic changes that impaired insulin and liver glycogen relation in these rats.

  6. Polyaromatic compounds alter placental protein synthesis in pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiverick, K.T.; Ogilvie, S.; Medrano, T. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The administration of the polyaromatic compounds {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) to pregnant rats during mid-gestation has been shown to produce marked feto-placental growth retardation. This study examined secretory protein synthesis in placental tissue from rats following administration of {beta}NF on gestation days (gd) 11-14 or 3MC on gd 12-14. Explants of placental basal zone tissue were cultured for 24 hours in serum-free medium in the presence of ({sup 3}H)leucine. Secreted proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either fluorography or immunostaining. Total incorporation of ({sup 3}H)leucine into secreted proteins was not altered in BZ explants from {beta}NF or 3MC-treated animals. However a selective decrease was observed in ({sup 3}H)leucine incorporation into a major complex of proteins with apparent molecular weight of 25-30,000 and isoelectric point between 5.3 to 5.7. This group of proteins has been further identified as being related to rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) using N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of individual spots from 2-D SDS-PA gels. This is the first report that synthesis of GH-related proteins by rat placenta is decreased following {beta}NF and 3MC administration, a change which may underlie the feto-placental growth retardation associated with these polyaromatic compounds.

  7. Time-course changes of hematology and clinical chemistry values in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tatsuya; Honda, Katsuya; Kokubun, Chisato; Nishimura, Tomonari; Hasegawa, Mina; Nishida, Atsuyuki; Inui, Toshihide; Kitamura, Kazuyuki

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report how pregnancy alters hematology and clinical chemistry values in rats. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were mated; the day of copulation was designated as Day 0. Hematology and clinical chemistry measurements were conducted on Days 7, 14, 17 and 21 in pregnant rats. Measurements were also conducted in non-pregnant rats. Red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), total protein and albumin decreased on Days 7, 14, 17 and 21; sodium, chloride and glucose decreased on Days 14, 17 and 21; iron decreased on Days 17 and 21; hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr), calcium, inorganic phosphorus and the albumin/globulin ratio decreased on Day 21; and total cholesterol, phospholipid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased on Day 14 in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant rats. Reticulocyte increased on Days 7, 14 and 17; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil count and rate increased on Days 14, 17 and 21; platelets, fibrinogen, triglyceride and free fatty acid increased on Days 17 and 21; and activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged on Days 17 and 21 in pregnant rats compared with non-pregnant rats. The decreased RBC, Hb, Ht, CHr and iron in pregnant rats indicated that they suffered from iron deficiency anemia. These data can be used as background information for effective evaluation in reproductive toxicology studies.

  8. Why does a high-fat diet induce preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats?*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ge; Jun Wang; Dan Xue; Zhengsheng Zhu; Zhenyu Chen; Xiaoqiu Li; Dongfeng Su; Juan Du

    2013-01-01

    Changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain play an important role in epilepsy-like attacks after pregnancy-induced preeclampsia-eclampsia. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 participates in the onset of lipid metabolism disorder-induced preeclampsia. Pregnant rats were fed with a high-fat diet for 20 days. Thus, these pregnant rats experienced preeclampsia-like syndromes such as tension and proteinuria. Simultaneously, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 mRNA and protein ex-pressions were upregulated in the rat hippocampus. These findings indicate that increased sion of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 promotes the occurrence of high-fat diet-induced preec-lampsia in pregnant rats.

  9. Histomorphometric changes of small intestine in pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and longitudinal layers) were measured on transverse sections. During pregnancy increasing villi length and muscular layer thickness was observed in duodenum. Furthermore, along with the progress of gestation greatest histomorphometric change in small intestine was observed in the jejunum. The reduction in the ileum histomorphologic indices was observed during pregnancy. In conclusion, increase in histomorphologic indices of duodenum and jejunum supplies more capacity of duodenum to digest food intake during pregnancy and decrease in these indices in ileum controls the absorption of excess produced amino acids and glucose by hyperphagia.

  10. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine in Pregnant Rat Increased Inflammatory Marker in Newborn Rat

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    Yosouf Mohsenzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate any inflammatory effect of nicotine on rat embryo by exposing their mothers to different dosages of nicotine during pregnancy. During this experimental study, 32 pregnant healthy Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups, including a control and 3 nicotine exposure groups. Injections were performed subcutaneously starting at the first day of pregnancy until parturition. As the dosages of nicotine were increased, the weight gain by pregnant rats and the mean weight of their newborns were significantly reduced. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP was significantly higher among groups exposed to various dosages of nicotine (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg compared to the control group (P<0.0001 and its increasing rate was also dose dependent. Mean ± SD serum level of IL-6 and TNF-α among all groups exposed to nicotine, except for 2 mg/kg nicotine injected group, was increased significantly (P<0.0001. Mean ± SD of serum level of TGF-β and nitrite oxide among exposure groups showed significant differences compared to the control group only at the dosage of 6 mg/kg (P<0.0001. The current study showed that exposing pregnant rats to nicotine causes a dose dependent increase in the rate of all the studied inflammatory serum markers among their newborns.

  12. Cadmium toxicity in the thyroid gland of pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, M.; Mori, N.; Hamasaki, K.; Tanaka, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Hara, K.; Doi, Y.; Umezu, Y.; Araki, H.; Sakamoto, Y. (Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium on the thyroid gland of pregnant rats were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were also analyzed. Deterioration of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum occurred in the thyroid follicular epithelium on the fifth day of cadmium treatment. Large intracellular vacuoles, which arose from dilated cisternae of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, were fused together, and marked swelling of the mitochondria was also noted. Thyroglobulin-secreting granules at the apical cytoplasm were decreased in number. By energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially obtained from swollen mitochondria in the follicular epithelial cells. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were significantly decreased in cadmium-treated rats dams when compared to those of controls. In the present experiment, cycloheximide also caused degenerative changes in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and the disappearance of thyroglobulin-secreting granules. Cycloheximide is a known inhibitor of protein synthesis on cytosolic ribosomes. These results indicated that accumulated cadmium in the mitochondria of thyroid follicular epithelial cells might disturb the oxidative phosphorylation of this organelle and the loss of energy supply possibly caused the inhibition of the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.

  13. Surperoxide-mediated glomerulopathy in the endotoxin-treated pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Valkhof, N; Baller, JWF; Bakker, WW

    1998-01-01

    In the present study the role of superoxide in the glomerular damage in the low-dose endotoxin-infused pregnant rats was investigated. On day 14 of pregnancy, 12 rats were infused for 1 h with 1.0 mu g/kg bw endotoxin via a permanent jugular vein cannula. Of these rats, 6 were treated with SOD both

  14. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OVARY AND UTERUS OF EARLY PREGNANT RATS AND WOMEN TREATED WITH MIFEPRISTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWen-Jian; ZHANGLong-Sheng; YANGXin-Li; SHENGJi-Yun; ZHOUJie-Ling; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, morphological studies of uterus and ovary during terminating early pregnancy with mifcpristonc Were reported. In the experimental studies, 24 hrs after inhering 10 mg / kg mifcpristonc to early pregnant rats, all embryos wcrc dead, with decidual cells

  16. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BETA-ADRENO RECEPTORSINNONPREGNANT AND PREGNANT RAT UTERUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENZhi-Fang; CHENZhi-Chong

    1989-01-01

    The effects of bcta-advenoreceptor agonist isoprenaline on 138 nonpregnant, pregnant and postpartum rat uterus in vitro were observed. The adrenoreceptor response in estrus appeared to be stronger than in diestrus, but not statistically significant, and that in preg-

  17. The effect of Bromelia pinguin extract on the pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matadial, L; West, M E; Gossell-Williams, M; The, T L

    1999-12-01

    A non proteinaceous extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit was examined for activity on the rat uterus in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo experiments involved pregnant rats given the extract intraperitoneally. These rats did not abort nor were any foetal deformities observed. The extract inhibited spontaneous activity of the pregnant rat uterus in vitro. These results do not support the claimed folklore use of the plant as an abortifacient. The extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit may have some utero-active compound which inhibits uterine motility.

  18. Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANA B. CORVINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA. Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1 consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3 days a week before and during pregnancy. Another program (Ex2 was applied during 60 minutes uninterrupted a day, 6 days/week during pregnancy. The pregnant rats presented no interference on body weight and glycemia. The rats submitted to Ex2 model showed decreased insulin and blood glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance test, and reduction in area under curve values. The offspring from dams submitted to both exercise protocols presented an increased rate of newborns SPA. However, the offspring from Ex2 dams showed percentage twice higher of newborns SPA than Ex1 offspring. Our data suggests that continuous exercise of 60 min/day ameliorated the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth-restricted females. However, this protocol employed at pregnancy leads to intrauterine growth restriction.

  19. Comparative analysis of two different models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Silvana B; Damasceno, Débora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Netto, Aline O; Macedo, Nathália C D; Zambrano, Elena; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA). Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1) consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3 days a week before and during pregnancy. Another program (Ex2) was applied during 60 minutes uninterrupted a day, 6 days/week during pregnancy. The pregnant rats presented no interference on body weight and glycemia. The rats submitted to Ex2 model showed decreased insulin and blood glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance test, and reduction in area under curve values. The offspring from dams submitted to both exercise protocols presented an increased rate of newborns SPA. However, the offspring from Ex2 dams showed percentage twice higher of newborns SPA than Ex1 offspring. Our data suggests that continuous exercise of 60 min/day ameliorated the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth-restricted females. However, this protocol employed at pregnancy leads to intrauterine growth restriction.

  20. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine☆

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; YANG, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the fronta...

  1. Mu opioid modulation of oxytocin secretion in late pregnant and parturient rats. Involvement of noradrenergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Selim; Yilmaz, Bayram; Canpolat, Sinan; Sandal, Suleyman; Ozcan, Mete; Kumru, Selahattin; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated effects of micro- and kappa-opioid agonists and antagonists on plasma oxytocin levels and noradrenaline content in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of 20-day pregnant rats. beta-Endorphin, oxytocin, estrogen and progesterone profiles in late pregnant and parturient rats were also sought. Stage of estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal smear, and pro-estrous animals were left overnight with male. In the first set of experiments, pregnant rats were monitored and decapitated on days 20 and 21 and after the delivery of second pup. In the second set, 20-day pregnant rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with morphine (50 microg/10 microl), U50,488H (kappa-agonist; 50 microg/10 microl), clocinnamox (micro-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl). Controls received saline alone. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and plasma oxytocin and beta-endorphin by radioimmunoassay. Noradrenaline and its metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol) were determined in micropunched hypothalamic nuclei by HPLC-ECD. In parturient rats, oxytocin levels were increased (p oxytocin levels (p oxytocin secretion. We suggest that noradrenaline may mediate the inhibitory effects of micro-opioids on oxytocin release. Our findings have also shown that kappa-opioid receptors are not involved in modulation of oxytocin neurons in late pregnant rats. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Corticosterone treatment of pregnant low dose endotoxin-treated rats : Inhibition of the inflammatory response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Slot, K; Koiter, TR; Schuiling, GA

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM: Can the endotoxin-induced inflammatory response, underlying experimental pre-eclampsia, in pregnant rats be inhibited by corticosterone? METHOD OF STUDY: On day 10 of pregnancy, rats were implanted with pellets containing 25% corticosterone and 75% cholesterol (n = 10) or with 100% choleste

  3. Effects of L-NAME on morphometric parameters of stomach parietal cells in pregnant rats

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    Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori Mugahi

    2014-05-01

    Results: Results of this study after analysis showed the significant changes in parietal cells count (mean 61.3±4.32 and its diameters (mean 16.12±1.18 µm in L-NAME group in comparison to control and the sham groups in pregnant rats (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed L-NAME with effects on NO synthesis can reduce the count of parietal cells and increase its diameter in pregnant rats and has destructive effects on structure of stomach parietal cells in pregnancy rats.

  4. Effect of transverse aortic constriction on cardiac structure, function and gene expression in pregnant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of heart failure and pulmonary edema in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. However, in a previous study we found that pregnancy protects against fibrosis and preserves angiogenesis in a rat model of angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy. In this study we test the hypothesis that pregnancy protects against negative effects of increased afterload. METHODS: Pregnant (gestational day 5.5-8.5 and non-pregnant Wistar rats were randomized to transverse aortic constriction (TAC or sham surgery. After 14.2 ± 0.14 days echocardiography was performed. Aortic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV pressure-volume loops were obtained using a conductance catheter. LV collagen content and cardiomyocyte circumference were measured. Myocardial gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Heart weight was increased by TAC (p<0.001 but not by pregnancy. Cardiac myocyte circumference was larger in pregnant compared to non-pregnant rats independent of TAC (p = 0.01, however TAC per se did not affect this parameter. Collagen content in LV myocardium was not affected by pregnancy or TAC. TAC increased stroke work more in pregnant rats (34.1 ± 2.4 vs 17.5 ± 2.4 mmHg/mL, p<0.001 than in non-pregnant (28.2 ± 1.7 vs 20.9 ± 1.5 mmHg/mL, p = 0.06. However, it did not lead to overt heart failure in any group. In pregnant rats, α-MHC gene expression was reduced by TAC. Increased in the expression of β-MHC gene was higher in pregnant (5-fold compared to non-pregnant rats (2-fold after TAC (p = 0.001. Nine out of the 19 genes related to cardiac remodeling were affected by pregnancy independent of TAC. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the hypothesis that pregnancy is cardioprotective against the negative effects of increased afterload. Some differences in cardiac structure, function and gene expression between pregnant and non-pregnant rats following TAC indicated that

  5. Selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin modulates diabetes-induced blood oxidative damage and fetal outcomes in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mehmet; Erdemoglu, Evrim; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of diabetic complications. In the current study, we investigated the effect of selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and scavenging enzyme activity in the blood of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second groups were used as the non-pregnant control and pregnant control groups, respectively. The third group was the pregnant diabetic group. Vitamin E plus selenium and melatonin were administered to the diabetic pregnant rats consisting fourth and fifth groups, respectively. Diabetes was induced on day 0 of the study by STZ. Blood samples were taken from all animals on the 20th day of pregnancy. LPO level was higher in diabetic pregnant rats than in control, although superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in diabetic pregnant animals than in control. LPO levels were lower both in the two treatment groups than in the diabetic pregnant rats, whereas selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes (pmelatonin in diabetic pregnant rats. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic pregnant treated with melatonin group. Vitamin E plus selenium may play a role in preventing diabetes-related diseases of pregnant subjects.

  6. Decreased seizure threshold in an eclampsia-like model induced in pregnant rats with lipopolysaccharide and pentylenetetrazol treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia is a poorly understood but potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. Research to date on this disorder has been hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model. To correct this deficiency, this report describes the generation of a rat eclampsia-like model using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ in a previously established rat preeclampsia model. METHOD: Rats were administered lipopolysaccharide (1.0 µg/kg by tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to establish preeclampsia (PE. PE and control rats (non-pregnant, NP; normal-pregnant, P were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with PTZ (40 mg/kg to induce seizures. In separate experiments, MgSO4 (270 mg/kg IP was injected in advance of PTZ into PE rats to observe its effect on PTZ-induced seizures. RESULTS: PE conditions were verified in rats after LPS administration by significantly higher blood pressure (P<0.01 and urinary albumin excretion (P<0.05, elevated sFlt-1 (P<0.05 and decreased PlGF serum levels (P<0.05, and evidence of hepatic dysfunction compared to control groups. PTZ successfully induced seizure activity in all groups studied. Latency to seizure was significantly (P<0.01 less in the PE-PTZ group (73.2 ± 6.6 sec. than in PTZ-treated controls (107.0 ± 7.4 sec.. Pretreatment with MgSO4 prolonged (P<0.05 latency to seizure, shortened seizure duration and decreased seizure rates. Significant increased (P<0.05 in the serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in PE and PE-PTZ groups, and decreased (P<0.05 in their levels following MgSO4 administration. CONCLUSION: This PTZ-induced eclampsia-like rat model is comparable to the human condition of eclampsia and may serve as a useful research tool for future studies of this disease. The increased inflammatory cytokines in preeclampsia are coincident with a decreased threshold for PTZ-induced seizures, suggesting that an inflammatory mechanism may contribute to the susceptibility to seizure activity and

  7. Strain differences in the neural, behavioral, and molecular correlates of sweet and salty taste in naive, ethanol- and sucrose-exposed P and NP rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jamison; Williams, Ashley; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela; Ren, ZuoJun; Zhou, Huiping; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S.; Katsumata, Tadayoshi; DeSimone, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10% sucrose, CT responses to sweet stimuli, and T1R3 expression were greater in naive P rats than NP rats. The enhancement of the CT response to 0.5 M sucrose in the presence of varying ethanol concentrations (0.5–40%) in naive P rats was higher and shifted to lower ethanol concentrations than NP rats. Chronic ingestion of 5% sucrose or 5% ethanol decreased T1R3 mRNA in NP and P rats. Naive P rats also demonstrated bigger CT responses to NaCl+benzamil and greater TRPV1/TRPV1t expression. TRPV1t agonists produced biphasic effects on NaCl+benzamil CT responses, enhancing the response at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. The concentration of a TRPV1/TRPV1t agonist (Maillard reacted peptides conjugated with galacturonic acid) that produced a maximum enhancement in the NaCl+benzamil CT response induced a decrease in NaCl intake and preference in P rats. In naive P rats and NP rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm, the biphasic TRPV1t agonist vs. NaCl+benzamil CT response profiles were higher and shifted to lower agonist concentrations than in naive NP rats. TRPV1/TRPV1t mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in P rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm. We conclude that P and NP rats differ in T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t expression and neural and behavioral responses to sweet and salty stimuli and to chronic sucrose and ethanol exposure. PMID:21849614

  8. Effect of obesity on the acute inflammatory response in pregnant and cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, J; Luheshi, G N; Woodside, B

    2013-05-01

    Nonpregnant female rats have a lower inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than males and, at late stages of gestation, the fever response to this immunogen is almost completely suppressed. We have shown in males that obesity exacerbates sickness responses to pathogenic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether obesity would have a similar effect in females and reverse some of the suppressive effects of pregnancy on the innate immune response. Lean and diet-induced obese adult Wistar rats were randomly separated into either cycling or mated groups. On day 18 of pregnancy or in the metestrous/dioestrous phase in cycling rats, a single injection of LPS (100 μg/kg) was administered and rats were sacrificed 8h or 24 h later. In pregnant females, LPS induced a higher increase in body temperature in obese rats only at the 24-h time point and lower hypothalamic interleukin (IL)-1β expression and higher circulating levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) than their cycling counterparts. Conversely, there was no suppression of inflammatory signals in the white adipose tissue of pregnant rats. At 24 h post LPS, the cell surface marker CD11c and IL-6 mRNA expression were increased in white adipose tissue from obese rats regardless of reproductive state, whereas IL-1ra was highest in the LPS-treated obese pregnant group. In cycling females, LPS induced a higher fever response in obese rats accompanied by higher circulating levels of IL-6 and IL-1ra, as well as an increase in circulating leptin only in the obese cycling group. In the hypothalamus, obese rats showed significantly higher expression of nuclear factor-IL-6 in at the 8-h time point. Collectively, these results show that diet-induced obesity in females is associated with a similar pattern of response to that previously observed in males. On the other hand, obesity had limited effects in pregnant rats, with the exception of white adipose tissue.

  9. Zinc influences on brain development, pituitary an thyroidfunction iniodine-deficient pregnant and neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Yang; Jianchao Bian; Xin Wang; Haiming Wang; Yongping Liu; Shuzhen Wang; Zhichun Mu; Xinluan Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) has been shown to greatly influence brain development. Zn supplements may reduce injury to cell membranes of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency. OBJECTIVE: To establish an iodine deficiency rat model using low-iodine food, which was supplemented with compound Zn and Zn gluconate, to observe the effects of Zn on brain development, as well as pituitary gland and thyroid gland function in iodine-deficient rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping study of neural development was performed in the central laboratory of Shandong Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease from 1998 to 1999. MATERIALS: A total of 270 Wistar, female rats, one month after weaning, were used in this study, including 150 pregnant and 120 neonatal rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model, iodine, compound Zn, iodine and compound Zn, and zinc gluconate. Each group contained 25 pregnant rats and 20 nenoatal rats. METHODS: The pregnant rats and 20 neonatal rats, and well as the normal group, were fed standard chow and allowed free access to tap water (containing 5 μ g/L iodine and 1 mg/L Zn). The remaining five groups were fed low-iodine chow. However, the model group received distilled water, the iodine group received potassium-iodide distilled water (containing 300 μ g/L iodine), the compound Zn group received distilled water and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day, the iodine and compound Zn group received distilled water with 300 p g/L iodine and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day. All treatments lasted 90 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All pregnant rats were sacrificed on the day 21 of pregnancy. Body mass, number and rate of fetal absorption, as well as fetal death and malformation, were determined. Thyroid and pituitary gland weights were measured, as well as serum levels of thyroid hormone, gonadotropin, and sex hormones. In the

  10. Hypothyroid state reduces calcium channel function in 18-day pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, S C; Mishra, S K; Raviprakash, V

    2006-01-01

    Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the mean amplitude and increased the mean frequency of spontaneous rhythmic contractions in 18 day pregnant rat uterus. Nifedipine (10(-12)-10(-9) M) and diltiazem (10(-10)-10(-6) M) caused concentration related inhibition of the myogenic responses of the uterine strips obtained from both pregnant and hypothyroid state. However, nifedipine was less potent (IC50:2.11 x 10(-11) M) in pregnant hypothyroid state as compared to pregnant control (IC50: 3.1 x 10(-12) M). Similarly, diltiazem was less potent (IC50: 3.72 x 10(-9) M) in inhibiting the uterine spontaneous contractions in hypothyroid than in pregnant rat uterus (IC50:5.37 x 10(-10) M). A similar decrease in the sensitivity to nifedipine and diltiazem for reversal of K+ (100 mM)-induced tonic contraction and K(+)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx was observed with these calcium channel antagonists in uterus obtained from hypothyroid pregnant rats compared to the controls. Nifedipine-sensitive influx of 45Ca(2+)-stimulated either by K+ (100 mM) or by Bay K8644 (1,4-dihydro-2,6-methyl-5-nitro-4-[2'-(trifluromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridine carboxylic acid methyl ester) (10(-9) M) was significantly less in uterine strips from hypothyroid rats compared to controls. The results suggest that the inhibition of uterine rhythmic contractions may be attributable to a reduction in rat myometrial Ca2+ channel function in the hypothyroid state.

  11. Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats: Electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, M.; McCarthy, K.J.; Kaye, G.I.; Fujimoto, S. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats was studied using the electron microscope and x-ray microanalyzer. In in-vivo experiments, severe corneal edema occurred in pregnant dams that received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulphate for 4 days during gestation, but not in nonpregnant rats. Prominent swelling of mitochondria and the occurrence of intra- and intercellular vacuoles in the corneal endothelium were observed only in pregnant dams. In in-vitro experiments, electron-dense deposits consisting of cadmium-oxine complexes were preferentially found in swollen mitochondria of the endothelial cells. Cadmium peaks were obtained from these deposits with x-ray microanalysis. These data suggest that the corneal edema observed after administration of cadmium may imply the disturbance of pump function and barrier function of the corneal endothelium due to the primary toxic effects of this metal on mitochondria.

  12. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  13. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  14. Endotoxin Treatment of Pregnant Rats Affects Sexual Behavior of the Male Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, S.; Valkhof, N.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Schuiling, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The offspring of endotoxin-infused pregnant rats (0.2 µg endotoxin, 53.3 min, day 18 of pregnancy) did not exhibit different behavior in the Hebb-Williams-type maze test, but the males showed aberrations in the sexual behavior test. Because endotoxin did not cross the placental barrier, it was concl

  15. Differential expression of uterine NO in pregnant and nonpregnant rats with intrauterine bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Nowicki, B; Yallampalli, C

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the uterine host defense against bacterial infection. In nonpregnant rats, NO production in the uterus was shown to be lower, and inducible NO synthase (NOS) expression was undetectable. However, studies in pregnant rats show abundant expression of inducible NOS with significant elevation in NO production in the uterus. We have recently reported that intrauterine Escherichia coli infection caused a localized increase in uterine NO production and inducible NOS expression in the nonpregnant rat. In our present study, we examined whether the uterine NO production, NOS expression, and uterine tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein are increased in pregnant rats with intrauterine pathogenic Escherichia coli infection. Unlike the nonpregnant state, the NO production in the infected uterine horn of pregnant rats was not significantly elevated after bacterial inoculation compared with the contralateral uterine horn. The expression of uterine NOS (types II and III) also did not show significant upregulation in the infected horn. This is in contrast to that in nonpregnant animals, in which type II NOS was induced in the uterus on infection. Moreover, intrauterine infection induced an elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein in the infected horn both of nonpregnant and of pregnant rats. These data suggest that the sequential stimulation of NOS expression, especially the inducible isoform, and generation of uterine NO are lacking during pregnancy despite an elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha after infection. In summary, NO synthesis response may be maximal at pregnancy, and infection may not further induce the NO system. Present studies, together with our previous report that intrauterine infection-induced lethality in pregnancy rats was amplified with the inhibition of NO, suggest that pregnancy is a state predisposed for increased complications associated with intrauterine infection and

  16. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  17. Minor pathological changes are induced by naltrexone-poly(DL-lactide) implants in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, W O; McCallum, D; Tait, R J; Dunlop, S A; Hulse, G K

    2009-12-15

    Oral naltrexone is used to treat alcohol and heroin dependence but is associated with poor patient compliance. Sustained-release preparations have been developed to overcome noncompliance. Many sustained-release preparations are composed of polymers combined with naltrexone. Limited data indicate that polymers induce variable levels of tissue reactivity and that naltrexone may increase this effect. A slow-release subcutaneous naltrexone-poly (DL-lactide) implant is currently being trialed to treat heroin dependence in Western Australia. A minority of women fall pregnant and, although tissue reactivity in nonpregnant humans is relatively minor, detailed chronological data during pregnancy are lacking. Histological changes in pregnant rats were assessed; a single active tablet containing poly[trans-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxyane-2,5-dione] (DL-lactide) loaded with 25 mg of naltrexone was implanted subcutaneously, and tissue response was compared with inactive polymer implantation. Rats were timed mated at 13-26 days postimplant. Tissue assessment up to 75 days by a pathologist showed that naltrexone induced chronic inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner, although still at a low level. Furthermore, for inactive implants, minimal foreign body reaction and fibrosis, together with low-level inflammation, suggested good long-term biocompatibility. We conclude that the Australian naltrexone-poly(DL-lactide) implant is tolerated in pregnant rats, reinforcing its potential role for managing alcohol and heroin dependence in pregnant humans.

  18. Attenuated neuroendocrine responses to emotional and physical stressors in pregnant rats involve adenohypophysial changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, I D; Johnstone, H A; Hatzinger, M; Liebsch, G; Shipston, M; Russell, J A; Landgraf, R; Douglas, A J

    1998-01-01

    The responsiveness of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) to emotional (elevated plus-maze) and physical (forced swimming) stressors and to administration of synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) was investigated during pregnancy and lactation. In addition to pregnancy-related adaptations at the adenohypophysial level, behavioural responses accompanying the neuroendocrine changes were studied. Whereas basal (a.m.) plasma corticosterone, but not corticotrophin (adrenocorticotrophic hormone; ACTH), levels were increased on the last day (i.e. on day 22) of pregnancy, the stress-induced rise in both plasma hormone concentrations was increasingly attenuated with the progression of pregnancy beginning on day 15 and reaching a minimum on day 21 compared with virgin control rats. A similar attenuation of responses to both emotional and physical stressors was found in lactating rats. Although the basal plasma oxytocin concentration was elevated in late pregnancy, the stress-induced rise in oxytocin secretion was slightly lower in day 21 pregnant rats. In contrast to vasopressin, oxytocin secretion was increased by forced swimming in virgin and early pregnant rats indicating a differential stress response of these neurohypophysial hormones. The blunted HPA response to stressful stimuli is partly due to alterations at the level of corticotrophs in the adenohypophysis, as ACTH secretion in response to CRH in vivo (40 ng kg−1, i.v.) was reduced with the progression of pregnancy and during lactation. In vitro measurement of cAMP levels in pituitary segments demonstrated reduced basal levels of cAMP and a lower increase after CRH stimulation (10 nm, 10 min) in day 21 pregnant compared with virgin rats, further indicating reduced corticotroph responsiveness to CRH in pregnancy. The reduced pituitary response to CRH in late pregnancy is likely to be a consequence of a reduction in CRH receptor binding as

  19. Barrier Effect of Placenta Membrane of Pregnant Rat on Mixed Rare Earth Changle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉; 陈辉; 黄可欣; 李树蕾; 聂毓秀

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential health risks of mixed rare earths Changle for human embryo, whether it crosses placenta membrane or placenta barrier should be determined. In order to arrive at the aim placenta tissue was observed after contamination with optical and electron microscope to show distribution and destiny of mixed rare earth Changle in placenta tissue. Meanwhile the amount of rare earths in serum of pregnant rat, amniotic fluid and extract of embryo tissue were measured by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The rats were administered to 0.3, 2, 5 and 20 mg*kg-1 mixed rare earths Changle every day, respectively by oral from the 6th to 18th day after pregnancy. The results show that many particles are found in syncytiotrophoblast around capillaries of placental villi in contaminated groups under light microscope, and there are more particles following increased dose. It also was observed that some dense bodies with the envelope in placenta membrane and to difference extent damages the mitochondria crista within syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm in contaminated groups under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results of ICP-MS assay indicate that the level of Ce increases with contamination dose in the serum of pregnant rats, and the level of total rare earth element remarkably rises in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant rats for 20 mg*kg-1 group as compared with the control without change for the other groups.

  20. The glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy : Saline infusion enhances the glomerular filtration rate in the pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Klok, PA; Valkhof, N; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of pregnant rats is generally believed to exceed non-pregnant values. This notion is primarily based upon standard inulin clearances. However, the inulin clearance requires continuous infusion of inulin usually dissolved in saline. Since saline infusion per se in

  1. Effect of a leucine-supplemented diet on body composition changes in pregnant rats bearing Walker 256 tumor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. Ventrucci; M.A.R. Mello; M.C.C. Gomes-Marcondes

    2001-01-01

    .... Since leucine is one of the principal amino acids used by skeletal muscle for energy, we investigated the changes in body composition of pregnant tumor-bearing rats after a leucine-supplemented diet...

  2. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-10-05

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex. Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 diminished in the frontal cortex. In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis, increase nerve excitability, and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats.

  3. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jing Ge; Liu Yang; Haiyan Zhang; Xuli Li; Dan Xue

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia.This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia,in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats.TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia.In addition,immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex.Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2diminished in the frontal cortex.In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis,increase nerve excitability,and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats.

  4. Brain cell apoptosis and enhancement of nervous excitability in pregnant rats with high plasma levels of homocysteine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Jing; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Xuli; Xue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for preeclampsia-eclampsia. This study established a pregnant rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia, in which blood plasma homocysteine concentrations were twice or three times greater than that of normal pregnant rats. TUNEL revealed an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the frontal cortex of pregnant rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. In addition, immunohistochemical staining detected activated nuclear factor-κB-positve cells in the frontal cortex. Reverse transcription-PCR detected that mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 diminished in the frontal cortex. In situ hybridization and western blotting revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia can induce brain cell apoptosis, increase nerve excitability, and promote the occurrence of preeclampsia in pregnant rats. PMID:25538740

  5. C-Psilocin tissue distribution in pregnant rats after intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C.P. Law

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many species of hallucinogenic mushrooms have been found in the genus Psilocybe. The main psychoactive chemicals of Psilocybe mushrooms are psilocin and its phosphoryloxy derivative, psilocybin. In addition to its psychedelic effects, psilocybin is an effective agent to lift the mood of depressed patients with terminal cancers. Objective: To study the dispositional kinetics of 14C-psilocin in pregnant rats after intravenous injection, to calculate tissue dose surrogates i.e., tissue 14C concentration and area under the concentration-time curve using the experimental data, to quantify trans-placental passage of psilocin and/or its metabolites, and to identify new psilocin metabolite(s in rat urine. Methods: A group of 15 pregnant Wistar rats weighing between 0.30-0.36 kg was used in the study. Each rat was given a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg 14C-psilocin i.v. Three rats were randomly selected and sacrificed at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 hr post-dosing. The maternal and fetal tissues were quickly removed and the radioactivity in these tissues determined by liquid scintillation counting. In a separate study, urine samples were collected from 6 male Wistar rats after administering 15 mg/kg of unlabeled psilocin i.p. The urine samples were collected and extracted by chloroform-methanol (9:1 v/v and analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Results: 14C-Psilocin crossed the placental barrier of pregnant rats readily after i.v. administration; maternal tissue 14C concentrations were found to be much higher than those in fetal tissues. The areas under the curve for maternal tissues also were much higher than the fetal tissues. In general, maternal tissues could be divided into the fast eliminating organ group, which included the brain (elimination half-life 13 hr. A new psilocin metabolite tentatively identified as dihydroxyindoleacetic acid was found in the urine. Conclusion: Our study showed that psilocin readily crossed the

  6. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Kazemi; Hedayat Sahraei; Mahnaz Azarnia; Leila Dehghani; Hossein Bahadoran; Elaheh Tekieh1

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap ...

  7. [Main factors determining the functional state of pregnant rat's uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomasuridze, Kh P; Bekaia, T G; Bekaia, G L

    2009-09-01

    In a review article the authors based on the analysis of the literature, conclude that the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibits myometrial contractility at the background of the nonselective Nitric Oxide Synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) action. Along with this, there are evidences that in NOS-deficient rats the process of pregnancy proceeds normally. Thus, literature data indicate that CGRP, independently of Nitric Oxide is included in the myometrium relaxing system, which of course does not exclude its joint action with both Nitric Oxide and other relaxing factors. Moreover, according to our data L-Arginine, causes complete inhibition of spontaneous contractile activity of the rats' myometrial strips, but the administration of L-NAME, eliminates the inhibitory effect - contractile activity was restored.

  8. Adaptive plasticity of vaginal innervation in term pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2011-12-01

    Changes in reproductive status place varied functional demands on the vagina. These include receptivity to male intromission and sperm transport in estrus, barrier functions during early pregnancy, and providing a conduit for fetal passage at parturition. Peripheral innervation regulates vaginal function, which in turn may be influenced by circulating reproductive hormones. We assessed vaginal innervation in diestrus and estrus (before and after the estrous cycle surge in estrogen), and in the early (low estrogen) and late (high estrogen) stages in pregnancy. In vaginal sections from cycling rats, axons immunoreactive for the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) showed a small reduction at estrus relative to diestrus, but this difference did not persist after correcting for changes in target size. No changes were detected in axons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (parasympathetic), or calcitonin gene-related peptide and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV-1; sensory nociceptors). In rats at 10 days of pregnancy, innervation was similar to that observed in cycling rats. However, at 21 days of pregnancy, axons immunoreactive for PGP 9.5 and each of the subpopulation-selective markers were significantly reduced both when expressed as percentage of sectional area or after correcting for changes in target size. Because peripheral nerves regulate vaginal smooth muscle tone, blood flow, and pain sensitivity, reductions in innervation may represent important adaptive mechanisms facilitating parturition.

  9. Prostaglandin F receptor expression in intrauterine tissues of pregnant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Halit; Yar, Atiye Seda; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Menevşe, Sevda; Çalgüner, Engin; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the expression and localization of rat prostaglandin F (FP) receptor in uterine tissues of rats on gestational Days 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 21.5 and postpartal Days 1 and 3 using Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. A high level of immunoreactivity was observed on gestational Days 20, 21, and 21.5 with the most significant signals found on Day 20. FP receptor protein was expressed starting on gestational Day 15, and a fluctuating unsteady increase was observed until delivery. Uterine FP receptor mRNA levels were low between Days 10 and 18 of gestation (p < 0.05). The transcript level increased significantly on Day 20 and peaked on Day 21.5 just before labor (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between FP receptor mRNA expression and serum estradiol levels (rs = 0.78; p < 0.01) along with serum estradiol/progesterone ratios (rs = 0.79; p < 0.01). In summary, we observed an increase FP receptor expression in rat uterus with advancing gestation, a marked elevation of expression at term, and a concominant decrease during the postpartum period. These findings indicate a role for uterine FP receptors in the mediation of uterine contractility at term. PMID:24136214

  10. The effect of potassium channel opener pinacidil on the non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Radmila; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Protic, Dragana; Djokic, Jelena; Heinle, Helmut; Gojkovic-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the K(+) channel opener, pinacidil on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions and contractions provoked by electrical field stimulation (50 Hz) or by oxytocin were investigated in the isolated uterus of the non-pregnant rat in oestrus. Pinacidil produced more potent inhibition of oxytocin-elicited contractions than of spontaneous rhythmic contractions or electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Glibenclamide, a selective blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, antagonized the pinacidil-induced inhibition of contractions elicited by oxytocin in a competitive manner. However, the pinacidil-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation-elicited contractions and spontaneous rhythmic contractions was antagonized non-competitively by glibenclamide. In the uterine strips pre-contracted with 80 mM K(+), the pinacidil-induced maximal relaxation was not affected. The present data show that pinacidil exhibits potent relaxant properties in the rat non-pregnant uterus in oestrus and therefore should be taken into account as a possible agent for treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Based on glibenclamide affinity, it appears that the inhibitory response to pinacidil involves K(ATP )channels. We need further investigations to explain why the interaction between glibenclamide and pinacidil in this experimental model depends on the nature of contractions. The ability of pinacidil to completely relax the rat non-pregnant uterus pre-contracted with K(+)-rich solution suggests that K(+) channel-independent mechanism(s) also play a part in its relaxant effect.

  11. Arsenite in drinking water produces glucose intolerance in pregnant rats and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, María Marta; Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Rodriguez, Diego; Ventura, Clara; Cocca, Claudia; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela

    2017-02-01

    Drinking water is the main source of arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure has been associated with metabolic disorders. Here we studied the effects of arsenic on glucose metabolism, in pregnant and post-partum of dams and their offspring. We administered 5 (A5) or 50 (A50) mg/L of sodium arsenite in drinking water to rats from gestational day 1 (GD1) until two months postpartum (2MPP), and to their offspring from weaning until 8 weeks old. Liver arsenic dose-dependently increased in arsenite-treated rats to levels similar to exposed population. Pregnant A50 rats gained less weight than controls and recovered normal weight at 2MPP. Arsenite-treated pregnant animals showed glucose intolerance on GD16-17, with impaired insulin secretion but normal insulin sensitivity; they showed dose-dependent increased pancreas insulin on GD18. All alterations reverted at 2MPP. Offspring from A50-treated mothers showed lower body weight at birth, 4 and 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in adult females, probably due to insulin secretion and sensitivity alterations. Arsenic alters glucose homeostasis during pregnancy by altering beta-cell function, increasing risk of developing gestational diabetes. In pups, it induces low body weight from birth to 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in females, demonstrating a sex specific response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coenzyme Q in pregnant women and rats with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinefski, Manuela R; Contin, Mario D; Rodriguez, Myrian R; Geréz, Estefanía M; Galleano, Mónica L; Lucangioli, Silvia E; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Tripodi, Valeria P

    2014-08-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a high-risk liver disease given the eventual deleterious consequences that may occur in the foetus. It is accepted that the abnormal accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in maternal serum are responsible for the disease development. Hydrophobic bile acids induce oxidative stress and apoptosis leading to the damage of the hepatic parenchyma and eventually extrahepatic tissues. As coenzyme Q (CoQ) is considered an early marker of oxidative stress in this study, we sought to assess CoQ levels, bile acid profile and oxidative stress status in intrahepatic cholestasis. CoQ, vitamin E and malondialdehyde were measured in plasma and/or tissues by HPLC-UV method whereas serum bile acids by capillary electrophoresis in rats with ethinyl estradiol-induced cholestasis and women with pregnancy cholestasis. CoQ and vitamin E plasma levels were diminished in both rats and women with intrahepatic cholestasis. Furthermore, reduced CoQ was also found in muscle and brain of cholestatic rats but no changes were observed in heart or liver. In addition, a positive correlation between CoQ and ursodeoxycholic/lithocholic acid ratio was found in intrahepatic cholestasis suggesting that increased plasma lithocholic acid may be intimately related to CoQ depletion in blood and tissues. Significant CoQ and vitamin E depletion occur in both animals and humans with intrahepatic cholestasis likely as the result of increased hydrophobic bile acids known to produce significant oxidative stress. Present findings further suggest that antioxidant supplementation complementary to traditional treatment may improve cholestasis outcome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Suppression of erythrocyte production in zinc deficient pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, P.N.; Wehr, C.M.; King, J.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Rat dams fed zinc (Zn) deficient diets during pregnancy accumulate excessive liver iron (Fe) concentrations. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of Zn deficiency on erythropoiesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50 {mu}g (ZnAd) or less than 0.5 {mu}g (Zndef) Zn/g diet from d0 to d19 of gestation; food intake and weight were recorded daily. Dams were killed by CO{sub 2} asphyxiation on d19 of pregnancy. Smears were made from dam femur bone marrow and analyzed for erythrocyte (RBC) number and maturity. Plasma, liver and bone were analyzed for Zn and Fe concentrations by AAS. In the ZnAd and Zndef dams, mean ({plus minus}sem) bone Zn was 140 {plus minus} 3 and 104 {plus minus} 2 {mu}g/g; plasma Zn was 112 {plus minus} 3 and 41 {plus minus} 4 {mu}g/dl; and liver Fe was 104 {plus minus} 10 and 185 {plus minus} 16 {mu}g/g, respectively. During gestation, mean weight gain of ZnAd was 91 {plus minus}4 g, and Zndef dams had no weight gain. Mean number of fetuses/dam of ZnAd were 12 {plus minus} 2 and Zndef were 7 {plus minus} 2. Fetal weight was 2.3 {plus minus} 0.1 g in ZnAd and 1.4 {plus minus} 0.1 g in Zndef. Zndef dams resorbed 44% of their implantation sites and 34% of their fetuses had gross teratology. Compared to ZnAd dams, the newly formed RBCs of Zndef dams show marked reduction, indicating suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis. Thus, severely Zn deficient rat dams were unable to mobilize their excessively high liver Fe stores and could not maintain normal erythropoiesis.

  14. Effect of ether inhalation by adrenalectomized pregnant rats on the adrenal corticosterone concentration in norma, decapitated, and encephalectomized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negellen-Perchellet, E; Cohen, A

    1975-01-01

    The influence of decapitation or encephalectomy (total removal of the brain leaving the pituitary in place) on the adrenal corticosterone concentration of the 20-day-old rat fetus has been studied in normal pregnant rats, in adrenalectomized pregnant rats, and in adrenalectomized pregnant rats subjected to the stress conditions of inhalation of ether for 40 min. Decapitation or encephalectomy of the fetus always results in a drop in adrenal corticosterone concentration within 4 h which is prevented in 15 min by injecting 3.2 mU of hog ACTH into the decapitated fetus. In mothers adrenalectomized in order to avoid a negative feedback reaction of maternal corticosteroids on the fetal pituitary-adrenal system, ether inhalation causes an important rise in adrenal corticosterone concentration in normal fetuses but not in decapitated or encephalectomized ones. Thus ether, which crosses the placental barrier, is a stressor agent for the fetal rat.

  15. Smooth muscle pharmacology in the isolated virgin and pregnant rat uterus and cervix.

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    Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget; Watts, Stephanie W

    2012-06-01

    Uterine smooth muscle function is established, but comparatively little is known about cervical smooth muscle pharmacology. We performed a proof-of-principle experiment that smooth muscle was expressed in the cervix in both virgin and pregnant rats, using the uterus as a comparator. We tested whether all tissues were pharmacologically responsive to contractile and relaxant agonists. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of smooth muscle α-actin in all tissues. The isolated tissue bath was used to measure isometric contractility of uterine strips and whole cervices from virgin and pregnant (day 11 ± 2) female Sprague-Dawley rats. We tested classic activators of uterine smooth muscle contraction and relaxation in both uterus and cervix. All tissues contracted to the depolarizing agent potassium chloride, prostaglandin F2α, muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol [2-[(aminocarbonxyl)oxy]-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride], and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Unlike other tissues, the pregnant cervix did not contract to oxytocin, but the oxytocin receptor was present. Both cervix and uterus (virgin and pregnant) had concentration-dependent, near-complete relaxation to the adrenergic agonist norepinephrine and adenylate cyclase activator forskolin [(3R,4aR,5S,6S,6aS,10S,10aR,10bS)-6,10-10b-trihydroxy-3,4a,7,10a-pentamethyl-1-oxo-3-vinyldodecahydro-1H-benzo[f] chroment-5-yl acetate]. The β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol was less potent in pregnant cervix versus virgin by ∼10-fold. All tissues, particularly the cervix, responded poorly to the nitric-oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, relaxing ∼20% maximally. These findings support the importance of smooth muscle in the cervix, the use of the isolated cervix in pharmacological studies, and a similarity between smooth muscle pharmacology of the nonpregnant uterus and cervix. This work highlights the unappreciated smooth muscle function of the cervix versus uterus and cervical changes in pharmacology during

  16. Iron deficiency without anemia causes maternal hypothyroxinemia in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaona; Teng, Xiaochun; Zheng, Hongzhi; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Jing; Jin, Ting; Xiong, Chuhui; Zhang, Hongmei; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2014-07-01

    Because of increased total red blood cell mass and the demands of the fetus, iron requirements are greater during pregnancy than at most other times. Previous experiments in nonpregnant women have shown that iron deficiency (ID) can reduce circulating thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels; therefore, we hypothesized that ID before pregnancy can reduce thyroid hormone levels in maternal circulation and in the thyroid gland during pregnancy. In the present study, 2 types of rat models with ID were established using diets with different iron concentrations. Levels of thyroid hormone, hemoglobin, serum iron, liver iron, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone as well as thyroid peroxidase activity were measured throughout pregnancy, and thyroid structure was analyzed. Both mild ID with anemia and ID without anemia resulted in maternal hypothyroxinemia from midgestation to the end of the pregnancy. Thyroid peroxidase activity significantly decreased, even before the reduction of liver iron concentrations in ID groups. Iron deficiency reduced the size of follicular cavities but did not destroy the follicular structure. Linear regressions were performed to compare total levels of maternal serum thyroxine to indices of iron status for individual dams. This is the first rat study to report our results stating that ID can cause maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy.

  17. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

  18. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pfat diet group was significantly increased compared with that of normal control rats (6.62 mmol/L vs. 4.96 mmol/L, Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  19. Biochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in the liver of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Zhang, Y; Yin, S; Jia, Z; Shan, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the toxic influence of different doses of zearalenone (ZEN) on the liver, especially oxidative stress induced by ZEN on the liver. A total of 48 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 treatments groups with 12 animals in each. The rats were fed with a normal diet treated with 0 mg/kg (control), 50 mg/kg (treatment 1), 100 mg/kg (treatment 2), or 150 mg/kg (treatment 3) ZEN in feed on gestation days (GDs) 0-7 and then all the rats were fed with a normal diet on GDs 8-20. The experimental period lasted 21 days. The results showed that exposure to ZEN induced increase in aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and decrease in total protein and albumin content in a dose-dependent manner and also induce decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increase in malondialdehyde content in a dose-dependent manner in the serum and the liver. The increased transcription of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was detected in the liver after exposure to ZEN. These results suggested that ZEN not only caused damage in the liver of pregnant rats in a dose-dependent manner but also induced the messenger RNA expression of CYP2E1 in the liver. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: maternal repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I de Mattos Paranhos; Aguilar, R; Rudge, M V Cunha

    2004-02-01

    Bauhinia forficata, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazil folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. The purposes of present study were to determine the repercussions of diabetes on the defense system against oxidative stress in pregnant female rats and to characterize the influence of the treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract on the antioxidant system, glycemic control, hepatic glycogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and lipids. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats in 3 doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. All the females were killed on the day 21 of pregnancy. A maternal blood sample was collected by venous puncture and the maternal liver was removed for biochemical measurement. The diabetic pregnant rats presented hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased determinations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with B. forficata extract did not interfere in the albumin, total protein and lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD determinations. Increased hepatic glycogen, decreased uric acid concentration and increased GSH activity was observed. This last fact suggests that the plant may have some action on antioxidant defense system. However, the demonstration of the active component present in B. forficata responsible for its antioxidant effect and the increase in hepatic glycogen deserve further investigation.

  1. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7(th) and 8(th) rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy.

  2. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. Results: A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7th and 8th rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Conclusion: Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy. PMID:27298495

  3. [Protective Effect of Schisandra Extract on Embryotoxicity and Reproductive Toxicity in Early Pregnant Rats Exposed to Benzo [a] pyrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Hou, Hai-yan; Sun, Yang; Chen, Ya-qiong

    2016-02-01

    To observe protective effects of Schisandra extract (SE) on embryotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of early pregnant rats exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene (Bap). Pregnant rat model was prepared using periodic screening cage method. Totally 50 female pregnant SD rats were divided into five groups by randomized block design according to the weight, i.e., the BaP model group, the low dose SE group, the middle dose SE group, the high dose SE group, the normal control group, 10 rats in each group. Rats in the BaP model group were administered with BaP at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg by gastrogavage. Rats in low, middle, and high dose SE groups were administered by gastrogavage with BaP (at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg) plus SE at a daily dose of 40, 200, and 1 000 mg/kg, respectively. Equal volume of olive oil was administered to rats in the normal control group by gastrogavage. All medication was performed for 8 successive days. Changes of rat body weight in each period were observed. The uterus embryonic total quality and ovary quality were measured, and organ index calculated. The number of corpus luteum, the number of embryo implantation, and the number of absorbed embryo were statistically calculated respectively. The implantation rate and the absorbed embryos rate were calculated. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin β (β-HCG) and progesterone (PROG) were detected by ELISA. Compared with the normal control group, the weight of 9-day pregnant rats, the number of embryo implantation, the uterus embryonic total index, ovary index, serum levels of β-HCG and PROG all decreased in the Bap model group with significant difference (P body weight, the uterus embryonic total index, and the PROG level increased in 3 dose SE groups (P pregnant rats exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene.

  4. Effect of Erythromycin on Albendazole-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Rats

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Albendazole is utilized as an anthelmentic agent. One its side effect is teratogenicity. This effect apparently is related to its metabolites especially albendazole sulfoxid. The aim of present study was evaluation effect of erythromycin (as enzyme inhibitor in biotransformation on albendazole biotransformation and consequently fetal malformation. Materials and Methods: Four groups of female pregnant wistar rats (8 rats each group were used. First group received normal saline (as control group. A single oral dose 30 mg/kg of albendazole was administered to rats on day 10 of gestation in group 2. Rats in group 3 received albendazole similar group 2 and erythromycin at dose 60 mg/kg. Rats in group 4 received only erythromycin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were euthanatized on day 20 of gestation. The skeletal malformation of fetus was studied by stereomicroscope after staining by Alizarin red-Alcian blue.Results: The length and weight of fetuses were significantly decreased by albendazole but erythromycin did not prevent this effect. In group that received only erythromycin, the length and weight of fetuses was similar to control group. Erythromycin decreased albendazole effect on weight of placenta. There was an increase in resorption by erythromycin when co-administrated with albendazole. The incidence of skeletal malformations (mostly of the limbs, vertebrae and palate decreased significantly by erythromycin when co-administrated with albendazole.Conclusion: Thus, erythromycin may inhibit albendazole biotransformation and decrease teratogenicity of it metabolites; but this subject needs more detailed evaluation.

  5. Role of the availability of substrates on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis in the fasted late pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzano, A.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1986-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the role of gluconeogenetic substrate availability on glucose production in the fasted late pregnant rat. Virgin and 21-day pregnant rats were studied after 24 hours' food deprivation. Pregnant animals showed decreased circulating glucose and gluconeogenic amino acid and increased plasma glycerol concentration. Glucose formation was studied in vivo two, five, and ten minutes after the intravenous administration of two concentrations of /sup 14/C-alanine, /sup 14/C-pyruvate, or /sup 14/C-glycerol. Concentrations of 0.2 mmols of /sup 14/C-glycerol or /sup 14/C-pyruvate, but not of /sup 14/C-alanine, enhanced /sup 14/C-glucose production in pregnant rats, whereas 1 mmol of any of the three /sup 14/C-substrates always enhanced /sup 14/C-glucose production in these rats. Both 1 mmol/L and 5 mmol/L /sup 14/C-alanine increased /sup 14/C-glucose formation in 90-minute-incubated liver slices of fasted pregnant rats, in spite of decreased cytosolic activity of alanine aminotransferase. The three substrates enhanced in vitro renal gluconeogenesis in pregnant rats. Under all experimental conditions studied, labeled glycerol was converted more efficiently into glucose than equivalent amounts of any other substrate used, and this difference was greater in pregnant, than in virgin animals. Results indicate that, in spite of enhanced gluconeogenetic activity, maternal glucose production in the fasted state at late gestation is limited by the deficiency of certain substrates, such as amino acids. It is proposed that glycerol derived from enhanced maternal adipose tissue lipolysis constitutes a preferential gluconeogenetic substrate in comparison with others, such as alanine, that are more efficiently transferred through the placenta to the fetus.

  6. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP vascular relaxation pathway during TNF-alpha-induced hypertension in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Justin R; Giardina, Jena B; Green, Gachavis M; Alexander, Barbara T; Granger, Joey P; Khalil, Raouf A

    2002-02-01

    Placental ischemia during pregnancy is thought to release cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. We have reported that a chronic twofold elevation in plasma TNF-alpha increases blood pressure in pregnant but not in virgin rats; however, the vascular mechanisms are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that increasing plasma TNF-alpha during pregnancy impairs endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and enhances vascular reactivity. Active stress was measured in aortic strips of virgin and late-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats untreated or infused with TNF-alpha (200 ng x kg(-1) x day(-1) for 5 days) to increase plasma level twofold. Phenylephrine (Phe) increased active stress to a maximum of 4.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(3) and 9.9 +/- 0.7 x 10(3) N/m2 in control pregnant and TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats, respectively. Removal of the endothelium enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats. In endothelium-intact strips, ACh caused greater relaxation of Phe contraction in control than in TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats. Basal and ACh-induced nitrite/nitrate production was less in TNF-alpha-infused than in control pregnant rats. Pretreatment of vascular strips with 100 microM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthase, or 1 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-]quinoxalin-1-one, to inhibit cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in TNF-alpha-infused pregnant rats. Phe contraction and ACh relaxation were not significantly different between control and TNF-alpha-infused virgin rats. Thus an endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated vascular relaxation pathway is inhibited in late-pregnant rats infused with TNF-alpha. The results support a role for TNF-alpha as one possible mediator of the increased vascular resistance

  7. Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in the Offspring

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    Ming Xiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a general anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures, including those in pregnant women. Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause neuronal injury to the offspring of primates if it is administered during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether those neuronal changes would lead to long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring. In this study, propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min, IV, 2 h, saline, or intralipid solution was administered to pregnant rats on gestational day 18. We detected increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 in fetal brain at 6 h after propofol exposure. The neuronal density of the hippocampus of offspring was reduced significantly on postnatal day 10 (P10 and P28. Synaptophysin levels were also significantly reduced on P28. Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28 were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring.

  8. Renal NCC is unchanged in the midpregnant rat and decreased in the late pregnant rat despite avid renal Na+ retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal A; McDonough, Alicia A; Masilamani, Shyama M E; Verlander, Jill W; Baylis, Chris

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by plasma volume expansion due to Na(+) retention, driven by aldosterone. The aldosterone-responsive epithelial Na(+) channel is activated in the kidney in pregnancy. In the present study, we investigated the aldosterone-responsive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in mid- and late pregnant rats compared with virgin rats. We determined the abundance of total NCC, phosphorylated NCC (pNCC; pT53, pS71 and pS89), phosphorylated STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (pSPAK; pS373), and phosphorylated oxidative stress-related kinase (pOSR1; pS325) in the kidney cortex. We also measured mRNA expression of NCC and members of the SPAK/NCC regulatory kinase network, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1, total with no lysine kinase (WNK)1, WNK3, and WNK4. Additionally, we performed immunohistochemistry for NCC kidneys from virgin and pregnant rats. Total NCC, pNCC, and pSPAK/OSR1 abundance were unchanged in midpregnant versus virgin rats. In late pregnant versus virgin rats, total NCC and pNCC were decreased; however, pSPAK/OSR1 was unchanged. We detected no differences in mRNA expression of NCC, SGK1, total WNK1, WNK3, and WNK4. By immunohistochemistry, NCC was mainly localized to the apical region in virgin rats, and density in the apical region was reduced in late pregnancy. Therefore, despite high circulating aldosterone levels in pregnancy, the aldosterone-responsive transporter NCC is not increased in total or activated (phosphorylated) abundance or in apical localization in midpregnant rats, and all are reduced in late pregnancy. This contrasts to the mineralocorticoid-mediated activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel, which we have previously reported. Why and how NCC escapes aldosterone activation in pregnancy is not clear but may relate to regional differences in aldosterone sensitivity the increased K(+) intake or other undefined mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Progesterone and gravidity differentially regulate expression of extracellular matrix components in the pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Tsampalieros, Anne; Langille, B Lowell; Lye, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    Myometrial growth and remodeling during pregnancy depends on increased synthesis of interstitial matrix proteins. We hypothesize that the presence of mechanical tension in a specific hormonal environment regulates the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the uterus. Myometrial tissue was collected from pregnant rats on Gestational Days 0, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23 (labor), and 1 day postpartum and ECM expression was analyzed by Northern blotting. Expression of fibronectin, laminin beta2, and collagen IV mRNA was low during early gestation but increased dramatically on Day 23 during labor. Expression of fibrillar collagens (type I and III) peaked Day 19 and decreased near term. In contrast, elastin mRNA remained elevated from midgestation onward. Injection of progesterone (P4) on Days 20-23 (to maintain elevated plasma P4 levels) delayed the onset of labor, caused dramatic reductions in the levels of fibronectin and laminin mRNA, and prevented the fall of collagen III mRNA levels on Day 23. Treatment of pregnant rats with the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 on Day 19 induced preterm labor on Day 20 and a premature increase in mRNA levels of collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin. Analysis of the uterine tissue from unilaterally pregnant rats revealed that most of the changes in ECM gene expression occurred specifically in the gravid horn. Our results show a decrease in expression of fibrillar collagens and a coordinated temporal increase in expression of components of the basement membrane near term associated with decreased P4 and increased mechanical tension. These ECM changes contribute to myometrial growth and remodeling during late pregnancy and the preparation for the synchronized contractions of labor.

  10. Reproductive toxicity study with a novel deoxyguanosine analogue (Metacavir) in pregnant SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qihui; Chen, Zhengli; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Tang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Our preliminary studies demonstrated that Metacavir has potential to become a new anti-HBV agent. The main targets of the toxic effects of Metacavir, in rhesus monkeys, were gastrointestinal tracts, liver, blood, and kidneys, which were not related to mitochondrial effects. In this study, the maternal toxicity, embryo-fetal developmental toxicity and teratogenicity were studied in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats after intragastric administration of Metacavir (200, 100, 50, 0 mg/kg body weight) during the first 6-15 days of pregnancy. Slower weight gain was observed in 5 out of 21 rats subjected to a 200 mg/kg dose, as well as 2 out of 20 subjected to a 100 mg/kg dose. Compared with the solvent control group, the calibration weight gain in the 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dosage groups respectively, during first 6-20 pregnant days were significantly different (P changes were observed. The present research indicated that at a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) (i.e., 40 times the effective dose in rats), Metacavir shows some maternal toxicity to SD rats. The embryotoxicity in the 200 mg/kg group encompass decreased fetal body weight, and higher fetal mortality rates, compared with the control group. However, the litter incidence showed no statistical difference. All the treated rats displayed normal bone development, no teratogenicity and without adverse effects on fetal development, thus indicating that below a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) there is no teratogenic side effects.

  11. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed on gestational days (GDs 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr, and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1 in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females.

  12. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Li, Chong; Zhang, Jiacai; Xiao, Zhuohui; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1) in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females. PMID:28067781

  13. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity.

  14. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour (/sup 203/Hg)-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total /sup 203/Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood /sup 203/Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater /sup 203/Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals /sup 203/Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain /sup 203/Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing /sup 203/Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system.

  15. /sup 1/H-NMR of the uterine muscle in pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Eiichi

    1987-09-01

    By using JEOL FX-90Q FT-NMR (observation frequency = 90 MHz) and Bruker pulse NMR minispec pc 20 (observation frequency = 20 MHz), water proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/) and water proton spin-spin relaxation time (T/sub 2/) were measured in pregnant rat uterine muscle and the water content of the subjects were measured, and obtained the following results. 1) The T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ value showed the most increased from 4th in pregnancy to 7th. 2) The changes of the relaxation time in pregnancy were observed much greater for T/sub 2/ than for T/sub 1/. 3) The changes in T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ were more marked at an observation frequency of 20 MHz than at 90 MHz. 4) The water content of pregnant uterine muscle correlated with their T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/. 5) There was correlation between observation frequency of 20 MHz and 90 MHz for T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ value of the pregnant uterine muscle.

  16. Stimulation of fetal hypothalamus induces uterine contractions in pregnant rats at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Hisashi; Fujioka, Takashi; Endo, Hideki; Inazuka, Yukiko; Furukawa, Susumu; Nakamura, Shoji

    2008-10-01

    The fetal brain is thought to have a role in the onset and progression of labor. Evidence also exists for fetal oxytocin release just before and during parturition. The present study examined whether activation of the fetal brain could induce uterine myometrial contractions through oxytocin receptors in the dam. Under urethane anesthesia, electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus of fetal rats that were still connected with the dams by an intact umbilical cord induced uterine contractions in term pregnant rats. Intraperitoneal injections of synthetic oxytocin in fetuses induced uterine contractions in the dams similar to those induced by electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. Maternal intravenous injections of an oxytocin antagonist immediately attenuated uterine contractions induced by fetal oxytocin injections and electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. These findings suggest the possibility that oxytocin released from the fetal hypothalamus is involved in parturition.

  17. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong N. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats.Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND 1, 7, 14 and 21. Total bile acids were determined by the enzymatic method, total RNA was isolated and subjected to real time RT-PCR analysis. Liver protein was extracted for western-blot analysis.Results. Under physiological conditions hepatic bile acids were not elevated during pregnancy but increased during lactation in rats. Bile acid synthesis rate-limiting enzyme Cyp7a1 was unchanged on gestational days, but increased on PND14 and 21 at mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1 and Cyp7b1 was also higher during lactation. The mRNA levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP and protein levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR were increased during pregnancy and lactation. Bile acid transporters Ntcp, Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4 were lower at gestation, but increased during lactation. Hepatic Oatp transporters were decreased during pregnancy and lactation.Conclusion. Hepatic bile acid homeostasis is maintained during normal pregnancy in rats, probably through the FXR-SHP regulation. The expression of bile acid synthesis genes and liver bile acid accumulation were increased during lactation, together with increased expression of bile acid efflux transporter Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4.

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_002124.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002124.1 chr22 Crystal structure of rat heme oxygenase-1 in complex with ferrous... verdoheme p1irmb_ chr22/NP_002124.1/NP_002124.1_apo_11-222.pdb p2zvua_ chr22/NP_002124.1/NP_002124.1_holo_1

  19. Effects of low doses of alcohol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol's effects in pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L.; Subramanian, M.G. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with 50 mg/kg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or with THC plus alcohol to determine if a low dose of alcohol would significantly increase blood levels of THC. On the basis of this study, a second study was conducted in which pregnant rats were intubated with THC plus alcohol from gestation day six to parturition. THC reduced birth weights but did not significantly affect litter size or passive avoidance learning. Alcohol did not have a significant effect on offspring birth weight nor did it interact with THC to affect offspring.

  20. Effect of a leucine-supplemented diet on body composition changes in pregnant rats bearing Walker 256 tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Ventrucci G.; Mello M.A.R; Gomes-Marcondes M.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer patients present high mobilization of host protein, with a decrease in lean body mass and body fat depletion occurring in parallel to neoplastic growth. Since leucine is one of the principal amino acids used by skeletal muscle for energy, we investigated the changes in body composition of pregnant tumor-bearing rats after a leucine-supplemented diet. Sixty pregnant Wistar rats divided into six groups were fed a normal protein diet (18%, N) or a leucine-supplemented diet (3% L-leucine, ...

  1. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, retinoyl {beta}-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates.

  2. Drotaverine interacts with the L-type Ca(2+) channel in pregnant rat uterine membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tömösközi, Zsuzsanna; Finance, Olivier; Arányi, Péter

    2002-08-02

    The effect of the isoquinoline derivative, drotaverine on the specific binding of [(3)H]nitrendipine and [(3)H]diltiazem to pregnant rat uterine membranes was examined. Drotaverine inhibited the specific [(3)H]nitrendipine and [(3)H]diltiazem bindings with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 2.6 microM, respectively. Saturation studies showed that diltiazem caused a significant increase in the maximum binding density without changing the K(D) of [(3)H]nitrendipine while drotaverine increased both the K(D) and the B(max) of [3H]nitrendipine. The dissociation kinetics of both [3H]nitrendipine and [(3)H]diltiazem were accelerated by drotaverine. These results suggest that drotaverine has a negative allosteric interaction with the binding sites for 1,4-dihydropyridines and 1,5-benzothiazepines on the L-type Ca(2+) channel in pregnant rat uterine membranes, which may have implications as to the potential usefulness of this drug in aiding child delivery.

  3. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05. Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.

  4. Reactive oxygen species in pregnant rats: effects of exercise and thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, R A L; Christofani, J S; D'Almeida, V; Russo, A K; Piçarro, I C

    2003-05-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of interaction between physical training or exercise only during pregnancy and thermal stress on oxidative stress, and antioxidant mechanism sedentary pregnant rats (PS), exercised pregnant rats only during pregnancy (PE) and trained rats submitted to also exercise during pregnancy (PT) were compared (N=63). Exercise sessions consisted of swimming at 80% of maximal work load supported into water at 28 degrees C (hypothermia, PS 28, PE28, PT28) or 35 degrees C (thermal neutrality, PS35, PE35, PT35) or 39 degrees C (hyperthermia, PS39, PE39, PT39), for 30 min. The initial body weight in all groups of rats was from 177 to 207 g. On the 20th day of pregnancy, 24 h after the last immersion or swimming session venous blood was collected to determine oxidative stress. Plasma concentrations of means malondialdehyde (MDA) values measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); total glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E were determined. The oxidative stress index was calculated from the ratio TBARS/GSH and TBARS/Vitamin E. TBARS did not change on the group PE at different temperatures of water; TBARS were higher for PS28 than PS35 and PS39; PT35 had higher values than PT28 and PT39. For GSH, PS39 was lower than PS35; PE28 was higher than PE35 and PE39 and PT35 were lower than PT28 and PT39. Plasma concentration of vitamin E did not present any difference for sedentary rats at different water temperatures, but for PE28, the values were lower than for PE35 and PE39, whereas PT39 was lower than PT35 and PT28. In relation to TBARS/GSH, it was verified an increase in oxidative stress for PS28 (in relation to PS35 and PS39), PE35, and PT35 (in relation to PE28 and PE39 or PT28 and PT39); regarding the ratio TBARS/vitamin E, the highest values were obtained at 35 degrees C for PS and PT groups and at 39 for PE group. These results have shown the great complexity of the interaction between physical training, thermal stress and pregnancy

  5. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP-mediated vascular relaxation and hypertension in IL-6-infused pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshal, Julia M; Khalil, Raouf A

    2004-02-01

    Placental ischemia during pregnancy is associated with increased plasma cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may contribute to increased vascular resistance and hypertension of pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in plasma IL-6 during pregnancy is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, enhanced vascular contraction, and hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was measured in virgin and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats non-treated or infused with IL-6 (200 ng/kg per day for 5 days). Isometric contraction was measured in isolated aortic strips, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was measured in aortic homogenate using Western blots. Blood pressure was greater in IL-6-infused (146+/-3) than in control pregnant rats (117+/-2 mm Hg). In endothelium-intact vascular strips, phenylephrine (Phe) caused greater increase in active stress in IL-6-infused (maximum: 10.6+/-0.6) than in control pregnant rats (maximum: 4.1+/-0.3x10(4) N/m2). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of Phe contraction and vascular eNOS protein and nitrite/nitrate production were less in IL-6-infused than in control pregnant rats. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-4) mol/L), inhibitor of NOS, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3]-quinoxalin-1-one (10(-5) mol/L), inhibitor of cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not IL-6-infused pregnant rats. Endothelium removal enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in IL-6-infused pregnant rats. The blood pressure and vascular Phe-induced contraction, ACh relaxation, and eNOS protein were not different between control and IL-6-infused virgin rats. Thus, an endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation pathway is inhibited in systemic vessels of pregnant rats infused with IL-6. The results support a role for IL-6 as a possible mediator of the increased vascular resistance during hypertension of pregnancy.

  6. Suppression by developing ovarian follicles of the low-dose endotoxin-induced glomerular inflammatory reaction in the pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA; Valkhof, N; Faas, MM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the current study the role of developing ovarian follicles in the control of the endotoxin-induced pregnancy-specific inflammatory reaction was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Follicular development was induced in pregnant rats (n = 20) by means of daily intraperitoneal injections of follicle

  7. Moderate Exercise Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Associated Maternal and Fetal Morbidities in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Kasawara

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR and coagulopathies are often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation. Moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase utero-placental blood flow and to enhance fetal nutrition as well as fetal and placental growth. Furthermore, exercise is known to reduce inflammation. To evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on inflammation associated with the development of maternal coagulopathies and FGR, Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise regime before and during pregnancy. To model inflammation-induced FGR, pregnant rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on gestational days (GD 13.5-16.5 and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Control rats were injected with saline. Maternal hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Moderate-intensity exercise prevented LPS-mediated increases in white blood cell counts measured on GD 17.5 and improved maternal hemostasis profiles. Importantly, our data reveal that exercise prevented LPS-induced FGR. Moderate-intensity exercise initiated before and maintained during pregnancy may decrease the severity of maternal and perinatal complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation.

  8. Action of phyllanthus niruri on the hormones of pregnant female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, G.M.L; Bezerra, A.L; Carvalho, E.F.N.B; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia]. E-mail: mariajansem@hotmail.com; Galdino, M.F.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: egmoura@uerj.br

    2002-07-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is used for treatment of renal diseases, among others. This work aims to evaluate the regulation of the thyroid and estrogenic hormones, under the influence of the extract of Phyllanthus niruri in pregnant female rats. Wistar rats, after copulation and verification of pregnancy, were divided into groups of 10 rats each and were administered 0,05-2,5 mg/mL of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri, intraperitoneally. All the animals after 14 days of treatment, were sacrificed under ether anesthesia, blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture for attainment of serum, concentrations of T3, T4, 17 {beta}-estradiol, progesterone hormones were determined and macroscopical visualization of the embryos was evaluated. Those hormones serum levels were evaluated by RIA. The extract altered the serum concentration of T{sub 4} , and {beta}-1,7 estradiol, which presented an increase of 333,3 % and more than 272,8%,respectively,when related to group. It is verified that progesterone is reduced of 82,9%,in related to control group. Probably extract of Phyllanthus niruri provokes alterations on the somatic-gonadal development, that modifies the corpus luteum function on synthesis and secretion of estrogenic hormones, a reduction in the number of embryos and morpho physiological dysfunctions are caused, which leads to miscarriage. Chemical study continues to determinate the structure of the active principles isolated. (author)

  9. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Salarinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa, which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation. Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.  Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.

  10. Hypertension produced by placental ischemia in pregnant rats is associated with increased soluble endoglin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Sara A B; Arany, Marietta; Granger, Joey P

    2009-02-01

    Recent clinical studies indicate that an excess of angiostatic factors, such as soluble endoglin (sEng), is related to the occurrence of preeclampsia. Although recent clinical studies report that sEng is increased in preeclamptic women, the mechanisms underlying its overexpression remain unclear. Evidence suggests that hypoxia and induction of heme oxygenase-1 have opposing effects on sEng expression, the former stimulatory and the latter inhibitory. Hence, we hypothesized that placental ischemia because of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) in the pregnant rat would increase sEng expression and decrease heme oxygenase-1. Mean arterial pressure was obtained via arterial catheter, and serum and placental proteins were measured by Western blot. Mean arterial pressure was increased (132+/-3 mm Hg versus 102+/-2 mm Hg; Papu] versus 0.05+/-0.01 apu; Papu versus 1.45+/-0.42 apu; Papu versus 0.68+/-0.09 apu; Papu versus 2.5+/-0.1 apu; P<0.05) expression decreased in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant dams. The present findings support our hypothesis that placental ischemia because of RUPP increases the expression of sEng and shifts the balance of angiogenic factors in the maternal circulation toward an angiostatic state. The present study provides further evidence that placental ischemia is a strong in vivo stimulus of angiostatic factors during pregnancy.

  11. Effect of physical training on metabolic responses of pregnant rats submitted to swimming under thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alexis Lazo-Osorio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pre-pregnancy physical training on metabolic responses and its effects on offspring.
    • METHODS: Three groups of rats (n = 7 in each group: sedentary pregnant rats (PS, exercised during  regnancy (PE and pregnant rats trained before and during pregnancy (PT were compared. They were separated  nto three subgroups regarding water temperature: 28°C, 35°C or 39°C. Plasma triglycerides and glucose levels,  eight gain during pregnancy and rectal temperature pre and post exercise (swim, as well as the offspring size and weight were analysed.
    • RESULTS: Rectal temperature post exercise was lower than pre exercise at 28°C and 35°C, and higher at 39°C.  eight gain was lower at 39°C for the PT group and at 35°C for the PT and PE groups compared to the PS group. Plasma glucose, at 28°C and 39°C for PS and PE groups, was higher than those obtained at 35°C, while triglycerides  ere lower. For trained rats, plasma glucose and triglycerides were similar at all water temperatures.  rained rats presented lower triglyceride values at 35°C, and higher triglyceride values at 39°C compared to PS  roup. Glucose presented inverse results. None of the groups presented fetal reabsorption. However, in the PS group, the offspring presented lower weight gain at 28

    • T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shinya Sehata

      2008-11-01

      Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

    • Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

      1986-03-01

      When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct.

    • Estradiol inhibits Ca2+ and K+ channels in smooth muscle cells from pregnant rat myometrium.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Okabe, K; Inoue, Y; Soeda, H

      1999-07-02

      The purpose of this study was to investigate the actions of 17beta-estradiol on the electrical activity of pregnant rat myometrium. The longitudinal layer of the myometrium was dissected from pregnant rats (17 to 19 days of gestation), and single cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion. Calcium currents and potassium currents were recorded by the whole-cell voltage-clamp method, and the single calcium-dependent potassium current was recorded by the outside-out patch-clamp method. The effects of 17beta-estradiol on these currents were investigated. When a myometrial cell was held at -50 mV, depolarization to a potential more positive than -30 mV produced an inward current followed by a slowly developing outward current. Application of tetraethylammonium inhibited the outward current while the inward current was completely abolished in a calcium-free solution. Estradiol at high concentrations (> 3 microM) inhibited both inward and outward currents in a voltage-dependent manner. Removal of estradiol restored the amplitude of the outward but not of the inward current. Estradiol (30 microM) also inhibited the activity of single calcium-dependent potassium channels without changing single channel conductance. In conclusion, estradiol at high concentrations inhibited: (1) voltage-dependent calcium, (2) calcium-dependent potassium and (3) voltage-dependent potassium currents. These actions of estradiol would prevent action potential generation and after-hyperpolarizations. Suppression of the after-hyperpolarization might further prevent spike generation due to slowing of the calcium channel's recovery from the inactivated state.

    • Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yixing Feng

      Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and prolactin (PRL were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1, estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR, estrogen receptor (ERα and androgen receptor (AR were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth.

    • Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

      Science.gov (United States)

      Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

      2017-03-01

      Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which was not excessive, so the process of apoptosis did not occur excessively, especially in PE models. In this case, Hsp70 served as as an anti-apoptotic and it’s is suggested to further research to observe the relationship of Hsp70 and apoptotic index.

    • Behavioral and Physiological Analyses of Parturition In Pregnant Rats: Insights Derived from Intrauterine Telemetry

      Science.gov (United States)

      Villareal, J.; Mallery, E.; Lynch, A.; Mills, N.; Baer, L.; Wade, C.; Ronca, A.; Dalton, Donnie (Technical Monitor)

      2002-01-01

      During labor and birth, fetuses are exposed to considerable physical stimulation associated with labor contractions and expulsion from the womb These forces are important for the neonates' adaptation to tile extrauterine environment. To further our understanding of the relationship between labor and postpartum outcome, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats that enables us to make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small (1.25 x 4 cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day (G) 19 of the rats' 22/23 day pregnancy, each dam was anesthetized and a balloon/sensor unit surgically implanted within the uterus following removal of two fetuses. Comparisons were made between sensor-implanted dams (IMPL) and a control conditions: 1) LAP-R, laparotomy with two fetuses removed or 2) LAP-NR, laparotomy with no fetuses removed. IUP signals were sampled at 10s intervals from the IMPL dams during labor and birth. Dams in all three conditions were videorecorded enabling us to analyze the effect of the implant on behavioral expressions of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured from one hour prior to the first pup birth until the birth of the third pup were unaffected by the sensor implant. Intrauterine telemetry of freely-moving dams offers significant advantages over conventional hardwired IUP measurement techniques. These findings establish and validate intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying pressures associated with parturition.

    • Toxicokinetic assessment of methylphenidate (Ritalin) enantiomers in pregnant rats and rabbits.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bakhtiar, Ray; Tse, Francis L S

      2004-06-01

      Ritalin or methylphenidate (MPH) is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. The present report describes the determination of plasma concentrations of D-threo- and L-threo-enantiomers of MPH in toxicokinetic (TK) studies in pregnant Wistar Hannover rats and New Zealand white rabbits following repeated daily oral dosing of D,L-MPH (racemate). A previously reported chiral liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.09 ng/mL was utilized. Oral (gavage) doses of 7, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day of racemic MPH were selected for the rat study. An over-proportional increase in exposure was observed with increasing doses of MPH racemate, the effect being more profound with the D- than the L-enantiomer. In contrast, Cmax values of both enantiomers were approximately proportional to the dose. Oral (gavage) doses of 20, 60 and 200 mg/kg were selected for the rabbit study. In general, for the D-isomer, an over-proportional increase in exposure was observed with increasing doses of MPH racemate. Conversely, for the L-isomer, a slight under-proportionality was detected in exposure with increasing doses of D,L-MPH. For mean Cmax, while L-isomer exhibited dose proportionality with increasing doses of MPH racemate, the D-isomer appeared to be over-proportional. Herein, the experimental design and observed TK parameters in each study are presented.

    • Developmental toxicity following oral administration of a high-boiling coal liquid to pregnant rats

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hackett, P.L.; Rommereim, D.N.; Sikov, M.R.

      1984-01-01

      Heavy distillate (HD), the highest-boiling coal liquid from the solvent-refined coal-II process (SRC-II), was administered by intragastric (IG) intubation to pregnant rats. Five dose levels of HD (0.09, 0.14, 0.18, 0.36 and 0.74 g kg/sup -1/), were given daily from 12 to 16 days of gestation and the rats were killed at 20 days of gestation. Maternal body weights and weights of the liver, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, thymus, ovaries and the gravid uterus were obtained. Gravid uteri were evaluated for prenatal mortality. Live fetuses were examined for malformations and weighed; fetal lungs were excised and weighed. Maternal (extragestational) weight gains and thymic weights diminished in all groups that received the SRC material. Adrenal weights were increased in all treated animals, except for those in the lowest-dose group (0.9 g kg/sup -1/). There was significant maternal mortality at 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ and increased intrauterine mortality at doses of 0.37 and 0.74 g kg/sup -1/. Placental weight was depressed, and the incidence of fetal anomalies was increased at 0.14 g kg/sup -1/ and all higher dose levels. 19 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

    • Raising the Pregnant Rate of Rats and Comparison of Methods for Inspecting Pregnant Rats%两种大鼠受孕方法及两种判断受孕方法比较

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      毕晓洁; 李兴; 杨国珍; 潘卫

      2012-01-01

      Objective; To investigate the method for increasing pregnant rate of rats, and to explore the methods for judging pregnant rats. Methods; Twenty-four female rats were randomly divided into 2 groups; screening sexual cycle for copulating group (screening group) and prolonging time for copulating group ( prolonging time group). Rats in screening group copulated with male rats for two days in proestrus stage and their sexual cycle was detected with vaginal smear. Rats in prolonging time group copulated with male rats for 10 days directly. Whether female rats were pregnant was judged by 2 methods; vaginal sperm examination method and vaginal sperm combined with cuticular epithelium examination method. Delivery served as judging pregnancy standards. Pregnant rates of rats in screening group and in prolonging time group in the 1 st to 5th days and in the 6th to 10th days were observed. Two judgmental methods were compared. Results: There was significant difference in rat pregnant rates(F 0. 05). The false negative rates of vaginal sperm examination method and vaginal sperm combined with cuticular epithelium examination group were 0 and 11. 76% , and the false positive rates of them were 14. 29% and 0. Conclusions; Screening sexual cycle with vaginal smear method in improving pregnant rate is better than prolonging time method. Vaginal smear combined with screening sexual cycle helps to judging pregnant rats accurately.%目的:探讨提高实验大鼠受孕率的方法及准确判断大鼠受孕的检测方法.方法:24只SD雌鼠随机分为性周期筛选合笼组(筛选组)和延长时间合笼组(延长时间组),筛选组雌鼠根据阴道涂片于发情前期与雄鼠合笼2d,延长时间组雌鼠直接与雄鼠合笼10 d,采用阴道精子检查法和阴道精子合并角化上皮检查法判断合笼后雌鼠是否受孕,以分娩作为受孕成功的标准,观察两组受孕率,并比较两种判断受孕的方法.结果:筛选组受孕率(91.67

  1. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  2. Cadmium causes delayed effects on renal function in the offspring of cadmium-contaminated pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Barbier, O; Rubera, I; Tauc, M; Borderie, A; Namorado, M C; Martin, D; Sierra, G; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P; Cougnon, M

    2007-11-01

    In the adult rat, chronic cadmium intoxication induces nephropathy with Fanconi-like features. This result raises the question of whether intoxication of pregnant rats has any deleterious effects on renal function in their offspring. To test this hypothesis, we measured the renal function of 2- to 60-day-old postnatal offspring from female rats administered cadmium chloride by the oral route (0.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) throughout their entire gestation. Investigations of rat offspring from contaminated pregnant rats showed the presence of cadmium in the kidney at gestational day 20. After birth, the cadmium kidney concentration increased from postnatal day 2 to day 60 (PND2 to PND60), presumably because of 1) milk contamination and 2) neonatal liver cadmium content release. Although the renal parameters (glomerular filtration, U/P inulin, and urinary excretion rate) were not significantly affected until PND45, renal failure appeared at PND60, as demonstrated by a dramatic decrease of the glomerular filtration rate associated with increased excretion of the main ions. In parallel, an immunofluorescence study of tight-junction protein expression of PND60 offspring from contaminated rats showed a disorganization of the tight-junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-5, specifically expressed in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively. In contrast, expression of a distal claudin protein, claudin-3, was not affected. In conclusion, in utero exposure of cadmium leads to toxic renal effects in adult offspring. These results suggest that contamination of pregnant rats is a serious and critical hazard for renal function of their offspring.

  3. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    1997-01-01

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant r

  4. Artesunate and artelinic acid: association of embryotoxicity, reticulocytopenia, and delayed stimulation of hematopoiesis in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L; Brannen, Kimberly C; Sanders, James E; Hoberman, Alan M

    2011-02-01

    The artemisinin antimalarials cause embryo death and malformations in animals by killing embryonic erythroblasts. Groups of pregnant rats (N = 4) were administered 35 and 48 µmol/kg artesunate and 17.2, 28.7, 48, 96, and 191 µmol/kg artelinic acid as a single oral dose on gestational day (GD) 12. Litters were examined on GD21. The ED(50) for embryo death with artelinic acid (23.4 µmol/kg) was just slightly lower than that for decreased reticulocyte count at 24 hr postdose (33.5 µmol/kg) and both had similarly steep dose responses (maximal effects of total litter loss and ∼60% decreases in reticulocyte count at 48 µmol/kg). Results with artesunate were similar. The correlation coefficient between embryo death and decreased reticulocyte count was 0.82 (pembryotoxicity and reticulocytopenia is suggestive of a common mechanism-artemisinin-induced mitochondrial damage leading to cell death. At 9 days postdose, treatment with artesunate and artelinic acid also caused increases in counts of reticulocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and monocytes (up to 3.7 ×, 1.7 ×, 4.7 ×, and 1.7 × control, respectively). This stimulation of hematopoiesis may have been mediated by the direct oxidative conversion of artesunate or artelinic acid to the artemisininyl hydroperoxide within the bone marrow cells or by an indirect increase in reactive oxygen species. The high correlation between embryotoxicity and reticulocytopenia further supports the assertion that therapeutic dosage regimens of artemisinins that cause decreases in reticulocyte count in pregnant women during the putative critical period (approximately postconception wk 3 to 9) are at risk of also causing adverse effects on the embryo.

  5. Morphological, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in the Pregnant Rat Placenta and the Liver of their Fetuses Treated with Folic Acid and / or Gamma Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma, L. Ramadan and Seham M. Abu Nour

    2007-01-01

    Backgrounds: The efficacy of antioxidant supplementation and oxidative stress of gamma irradiation for and during pregnancy is poorly established. The present study aimed to detect the toxic effects of high dose of folic acid and / or gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rat and the liver of their fetuses. Material and Methods: Pregnant albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, the second group received oral intake of folic acid (5 mg/kg) from the ...

  6. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienn Csányi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen.

  7. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-08-22

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen.

  8. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  9. Appearance of circulating and tissue /sup 14/C-lipids after oral /sup 14/C-tripalmitate administration in the late pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiles, J.; Herrera, E.

    1989-02-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether and/or how dietary lipids participate in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late gestation in the rat. After oral administration of glycerol-tri(1-14C)-palmitate, total radioactivity in plasma increased more rapidly in 20-day pregnant rats than in either 19-day pregnant rats or virgin controls. At the peak of plasma radioactivity, four hours after the tracer was administered, most of the plasma label corresponded to 14C-lipids in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (d less than 1.006), and when expressed per micromol of triglyceride, values were higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. The difference was less after 24 hours, although at this time the level of 14C-lipids in d less than 1.006 lipoproteins was still higher in 20-day pregnant rats than in virgins. Tissue 14C-lipids, as expressed per gram of fresh weight, were similar in pregnant and virgin rats, but the values in mammary glands were much higher in the former group. Estimated recovery of administered radioactivity four hours after tracer in total white adipose tissue, mammary glands, and plasma lipids was higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. No difference was found between 20-day pregnant and virgin rats either in the label retained in the gastrointestinal tract or in that exhaled as 14C-CO2 during the first four hours following oral administration of 14C-tripalmitate. These findings plus the known maternal hyperphagia, indicate that in the rat at late pregnancy triglyceride intestinal absorption is unchanged or even enhanced and that dietary lipids actively contribute to both maternal hypertriglyceridemia and lipid uptake by the mammary gland.

  10. Functional expression of purinergic P2X7 receptors in pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Kaoru; Urabe, Satoshi; Kodama, Miho; Kudo, Yoshiki

    2010-04-01

    ATP has been reported to enhance the membrane conductance of myometrial cells and uterine contractility. Purinergic P2 receptor expression has been reported in the myometrium, using molecular biology, but the functional identity of the receptor subtype has not been determined. In this study, ATP-induced currents were recorded and characterized in single myometrial cells from pregnant rats using whole cell patch clamping. Extracellular ATP was applied in the range of 10 muM-1 mM and induced currents with an EC(50) of 74 muM, with no desensitization, time dependency, or voltage dependency. The currents induced carried multiple monovalent cations, with conductances ranked as K(+) > Cs(+) > Li(+) > Na(+). They were activated by P2X receptor agonists, with their effectiveness ranked as 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP > ATP > alphabeta-methylene-ATP > 2-methylthio ATP > or = UTP > or = GTP > ADP. These currents were blocked by the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist 3-[5-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1 H-tetrazol-1-yl]methyl pyridine (A-438079). We therefore concluded that ATP-induced currents in rat myometrial cells crossed cell membranes via P2X7 receptors. We further showed that the ATP-induced currents were blocked by extracellular Mg(2+) (IC(50) = 0.26 mM). Clinically, administering extracellular Mg(2+) is known to inhibit uterine contraction. It therefore seems likely that uterine contraction may be induced by raised extracellular ATP and suppressed via Mg(2+) inhibiting P2X7 receptors. Further research is needed into the P2X7 receptor as a therapeutic target in abnormal uterine contraction, as a possible treatment for premature labor.

  11. Fate of orally administered radioactive fatty acids in the late-pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Luna, Pilar; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; López-Soldado, Iliana; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the biodisponibility of placental transfer of fatty acids, rats pregnant for 20 days were given tracer amounts of [(14)C]palmitic (PA), oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), α-linolenic (LNA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) orally and euthanized at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 8.0 h thereafter. Maternal plasma radioactivity in lipids initially increased only to decline at later times. Most of the label appeared first as triacylglycerols (TAG); later, the proportion in phospholipids (PhL) increased. The percentage of label in placental lipids was also always highest shortly after administration and declined later; again, PhL increased with time. Fetal plasma radioactivity increased with time, with its highest value at 8.0 h after DHA or LNA administration. DHA initially appeared primarily in the nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and PA, OA, LA, and LNA as TAG followed by NEFA; in all cases, there was an increase in PhL at later times. Measurement of fatty acid concentrations allowed calculation of specific (radio)activities, and the ratio (fetal/maternal) of these in the plasmas gave an index of placental transfer activity, which was LNA > LA > DHA = OA > PA. It is proposed that a considerable proportion of most fatty acids transferred through the placenta are released into the fetal circulation in the form of TAG.

  12. The disposition of /sup 14/C-trimethyltin in the pregnant rat and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, J.C.; Paule, M.G.; Slikker, W. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant. For unknown reasons, age at exposure to TMT may dramatically influence the severity of TMT-induced neuropathology. We have demonstrated previously that radiolabel derived from (/sup 14/C)-TMT given to pregnant dams on gestational day (GD) 17 is found in fetal brain and blood. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of radiolabel derived from (14C)-TMT to brain and other tissue in fetuses from dams dosed on either GD 12 or 17 with 7.0 mg/kg TMT chloride. Radioactivity in GD 12 and GD 17 maternal whole blood peaked 1 hour after IP treatment. Whole blood elimination half-lives were 12-15 days. Peak radiolabel concentrations in GD 12 maternal and fetal brain were only 11-30% of those from GD 17 animals, however, peak fetal brain concentrations of radiolabel were not different from their respective maternal brain concentrations. Radiolabel concentrations in liver, kidney, and adrenal of GD 17 dams were higher than those in corresponding GD 12 tissues. Combined urinary and fecal elimination of radiolabel for two weeks after dosing accounted for 31 and 22% of the GD 12 and 17 doses, respectively. It appears that gestational age influences the distribution and elimination of TMT in the rat.

  13. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masakazu; Hattori, Akira; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Ma, Xiuyang; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Sigehiko

    2009-09-01

    We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney. We used recombinant human APA, which has been recently shown to work as an antihypertensive agent in SHRs (n=5). Each drug was administered from gestational day 10 to day 20 and each dose was increased daily up to 10 fold until the end of treatment except for MgSO(4) (n=5 per each group). Blood pressure (BP) was monitored and fetal kidneys and heart were histologically examined. The antihypertensive effects of the drugs were in the following order: hydralazine>aminopeptidase A and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), candesartan>MgSO(4) and methyldopa. Microscopic examination showed that fetal exposure to candesartan is associated with poor proximal tubular differentiation in the kidney and that to MgSO(4) is associated with poor blood vessel formation in the heart, respectively. Our present study showed that APA is one of the candidates for antihypertensive agents in hypertension during pregnancy.

  14. Histological changes in kidney structure following a long-term administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucheya, R E; Igweh, J C

    2006-01-01

    Histological changes in kidney structure following paracetamol administration in pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were studied. Ten (10) Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into two groups (A and B). Group A served as a control group, while group B received 7.3 mg x 3/kg/day of paracetamol from 10th day of gestation till the 13th day after parturition. The drug was administered by gavage. They were allowed free access to feed and water ad libitum. The maternal rats were then sacrificed for tissue processing. Three deaths were recorded amongst the maternal rats in the paracetamol treated group during parturition and a prolonged gestation period was also observed in the same animals while two maternal rats had a normal gestation period and a safe parturition. Histopathology results of the maternal control animals showed normal kidney architecture (very minimal capsular spaces and rounded glomeruli intimately surrounded by the Bowman's capsule). Two of the paracetamol treated maternal rats that had a safe parturition at the end of the normal gestation period and showed vascular congestion and glomeruli haemorrhage, while one of the maternal rats that had prolonged gestation period (44 days) with signs of abnormally high bleeding during parturition showed higher degree of kidney derangement which was evidenced by shrunken glomerulus's plus droplets in the tubules, vascular congestion, haemorrhage and tubular necrosis. These findings reflect derangement of kidney architecture. The results suggest that paracetamol though considered safe at a considerable low dose especially in pregnant state, could cause kidney derangement during pregnancy.

  15. GABAergic gene expression in postmortem hippocampus from alcoholics and cocaine addicts; corresponding findings in alcohol-naive P and NP rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Anne Enoch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: By performing identical studies in humans and rats, we attempted to distinguish vulnerability factors for addiction from neurobiological effects of chronic drug exposure. We focused on the GABAergic system within the hippocampus, a brain region that is a constituent of the memory/conditioning neuronal circuitry of addiction that is considered to be important in drug reinforcement behaviors in animals and craving and relapse in humans. METHODOLOGY: Using RNA-Seq we quantified mRNA transcripts in postmortem total hippocampus from alcoholics, cocaine addicts and controls and also from alcohol-naïve, alcohol preferring (P and non-preferring (NP rats selectively bred for extremes of alcohol-seeking behavior that also show a general addictive tendency. A pathway-targeted analysis of 25 GABAergic genes encoding proteins implicated in GABA synthesis, metabolism, synaptic transmission and re-uptake was undertaken. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Directionally consistent and biologically plausible overlapping and specific changes were detected: 14/25 of the human genes and 12/25 of the rat genes showed nominally significant differences in gene expression (global p values: 9×10⁻¹⁴, 7×10⁻¹¹ respectively. Principal FDR-corrected findings were that GABBR1 was down-regulated in alcoholics, cocaine addicts and P rats with congruent findings in NSF, implicated in GABAB signaling efficacy, potentially resulting in increased synaptic GABA. GABRG2, encoding the gamma2 subunit required for postsynaptic clustering of GABAA receptors together with GPHN, encoding the associated scaffolding protein gephryin, were both down-regulated in alcoholics and cocaine addicts but were both up-regulated in P rats. There were also expression changes specific to cocaine addicts (GAD1, GAD2, alcoholics (GABRA2 and P rats (ABAT, GABRG3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the involvement of the GABAergic system in alcoholism but also reveals a hippocampal GABA

  16. Effects of methyl-deficient diets on methionine and homocysteine metabolism in the pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona A; Holtrop, Grietje; Calder, A Graham; Anderson, Susan E; Lobley, Gerald E; Rees, William D

    2012-06-15

    Although the importance of methyl metabolism in fetal development is well recognized, there is limited information on the dynamics of methionine flow through maternal and fetal tissues and on how this is related to circulating total homocysteine concentrations. Rates of homocysteine remethylation in maternal and fetal tissues on days 11, 19, and 21 of gestation were measured in pregnant rats fed diets with limiting or surplus amounts of folic acid and choline at two levels of methionine and then infused with L-[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)-methyl]methionine. The rate of homocysteine remethylation was highest in maternal liver and declined as gestation progressed. Diets deficient in folic acid and choline reduced the production of methionine from homocysteine in maternal liver only in the animals fed a methionine-limited diet. Throughout gestation, the pancreas exported homocysteine for methylation within other tissues. Little or no methionine cycle activity was detected in the placenta at days 19 and 21 of gestation, but, during this period, fetal tissues, especially the liver, synthesized methionine from homocysteine. Greater enrichment of homocysteine in maternal plasma than placenta, even in animals fed the most-deficient diets, shows that the placenta did not contribute homocysteine to maternal plasma. Methionine synthesis from homocysteine in fetal tissues was maintained or increased when the dams were fed folate- and choline-deficient methionine-restricted diets. This study shows that methyl-deficient diets decrease the remethylation of homocysteine within maternal tissues but that these rates are protected to some extent within fetal tissues.

  17. Distribution and Biomarker of Carbon-14 Labeled Fullerene C60 ([14C(U)]C60) in Pregnant and Lactating Rats and their Offspring after Maternal Intravenous Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rodney W.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Wingard, Christopher J.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Holland, Nathan A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Lewin, Anita H.; Sumner, Susan C. J.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive distribution study was conducted in pregnant and lactating rats exposed to a suspension of uniformly carbon-14 labeled C60 ([14C(U)]C60). Rats were administered [14C(U)]C60 (~0.2 mg [14C(U)]C60/kg body weight) or 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-saline vehicle via a single tail vein injection. Pregnant rats were injected on gestation day (GD) 11 (terminated with fetuses after either 24h or 8d), GD15 (terminated after 24h or 4d), or GD18 (terminated after 24h). Lactating rats were injected on postnatal day 8 and terminated after 24h, 3d or 11d. The distribution of radioactivity in pregnant dams was influenced by both the state of pregnancy and time of termination after exposure. The percentage of recovered radioactivity in pregnant and lactating rats was highest in liver and lungs. Radioactivity was quantitated in over 20 tissues. Radioactivity was found in placenta and in fetuses of pregnant dams, and in the milk of lactating rats and in pups. Elimination of radioactivity was <2% in urine and feces at each time point. Radioactivity remained in blood circulation up to 11 days after [14C(U)]C60 exposure. Biomarkers of inflammation, cardiovascular injury and oxidative stress were measured to study the biological impacts of [14C(U)]C60 exposure. Oxidative stress were elevated in female pups of exposed dams. Metabolomics analysis of urine showed that [14C(U)]C60 exposure to pregnant rats impacted the pathways of vitamin B, regulation of lipid and sugar metabolism and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that [14C(U)]C60 crosses the placenta at all stages of pregnancy examined, and is transferred to pups via milk. PMID:26081520

  18. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura; Nelson Sass; Sérgio Botelho Guimarães; Paulo Roberto Leitão de Vasconcelos; Rosiane Mattar; Luis Kulay Jr.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1). Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0). Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1). SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10): Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine...

  19. Interleukin-6 impairs endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation and enhances contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshal, Julia M; Khalil, Raouf A

    2004-06-01

    IL-6 is elevated in plasma of preeclamptic women, and twofold elevation of plasma IL-6 increases vascular resistance and arterial pressure in pregnant rats, suggesting a role of the cytokine in hypertension of pregnancy. However, whether the hemodynamic effects of IL-6 reflect direct effects of the cytokine on the mechanisms of vascular contraction/relaxation is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 directly impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation and enhances vascular contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats. Active stress was measured in aortic strips isolated from virgin and late pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and then nontreated or treated for 1 h with IL-6 (10 pg/ml to 10 ng/ml). In endothelium-intact vascular strips, phenylephrine (Phe, 10(-5) M) caused an increase in active stress that was smaller in pregnant (4.2 +/- 0.3) than virgin rats (5.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) N/m(2)). IL-6 (1,000 pg/ml) caused enhancement of Phe contraction that was greater in pregnant (10.6 +/- 0.7) than virgin rats (7.5 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) N/m(2)). ACh and bradykinin caused relaxation of Phe contraction and increases in vascular nitrite production that were greater in pregnant than virgin rats. IL-6 caused reductions in ACh- and bradykinin-induced vascular relaxation and nitrite production that were more prominent in pregnant than virgin rats. Incubation of endothelium-intact strips in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-4) M) to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthase, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10(-5) M) to inhibit cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in nontreated but to a lesser extent in IL-6-treated vessels, particularly those of pregnant rats. Removal of the endothelium enhanced Phe-induced stress in nontreated but not IL-6-treated vessels, particularly those of pregnant rats. In endothelium-denuded strips, relaxation of Phe contraction with

  20. Phasic oscillations of extracellular potassium (K(o in pregnant rat myometrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger C Young

    Full Text Available K-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure K(+ within the extracellular space (K(o of pregnant rat myometrium. Contractile activity was monitored by measuring either force or bioelectrical signals. Single and double-barreled electrodes were used. Double-barreled electrodes allowed monitoring of electrical activity 15 microns from the site of K(o measurement. From double-barreled electrode experiments, the bioelectrical burst started first, and then K(o began to rise 0.6 ± 0.1 seconds later. This delay indicates that K(+ leaves the cells in response to local electrical activity rather than vice versa. Four control experiments were performed to assess the influence of electrical artifacts caused by tissue motion on K(o values. When observed, artifacts were negative and transient, and hence would result in an underestimation of K(o rises. Artifacts were minimized when tissue motion was minimized by fixing the tissue at both ends. At 37°C, 7 single barreled experiments and 45 contractions were analyzed. Resting K(o was within 1 mM of bath K(+ (5 mM at the beginning and end of the experiments. K(o rose during the contraction, fell after the completion of the contraction, and normalized before the next contraction began. Peak K(o values observed during force production were 18.8 ± 5.9 mM, a value high enough to modulate tissue-level electrical activity. K(o required 15.7 ± 2.8 seconds to normalize halfway (t50. Six experiments expressing 38 contractions were performed at 24°C. The contraction period was longer at 24°C. Values for peak K(o (26.2 ± 9.9 mM and t50 (29.8±16.2 sec were both larger than at 37°C (p<0.0003 for both. The direct relationships between peak K(o, t50 and the contraction period, suggest elevations in K(o may modulate contraction frequency. The myometrial interstitial space appears to be functionally important, and K(o metabolism may participate in cell-cell interactions.

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_008881.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_008881.2 chrX Crystal Structure of Rat Synapsin I C Domain Complexed to Ca.ATP (...Form 1) c1px2b_ chrX/NP_008881.2/NP_008881.2_holo_113-417.pdb blast 188H,225K,267V,269K,273A,274H,275S,276G,

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_000631.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000631.1 chrX CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TERNARY COMPLEX BETWEEN OVINE PLACENTAL L...ACTOGEN AND THE EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF THE RAT PROLACTIN RECEPTOR c1f6fc_ chrX/NP_000631.1/NP_000631.1_apo_135-332.pdb blast 0 ...

  3. Effect of i1 imidazoline receptor agonist, moxonidine, in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairard, Alexis; Lopez-Miranda, Visitacion; Pernot, Fanny; Beck, Jean F; Coumaros, Geneviève; Van Overloop, Bruno; La Roche, Benoît; Koehl, Christian; Christen, Marie O

    2004-05-01

    Decreased nitric oxide production has been reported in preeclampsia, which is also frequently associated with glucose intolerance. It was thus considered of interest to investigate the effects of moxonidine, a centrally acting antihypertensive drug that reduces insulin resistance, in a rat model of preeclampsia. Hypertension was induced in Wistar rats by dietary l-NNA (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, 0.063%, 31 mg/kg/d, days 13-19 of gestation) and, over the same period, moxonidine or vehicle was administered orally (2 mg/kg/d by gavage). On day 20, blood pressure was measured in the pentobarbital anesthetized animals, glucose tolerance was tested (2 g/kg glucose i.p.), and morphologic studies were conducted on the litter to determine the benefits with respect to fetal outcome. Hypertension was reduced with daily moxonidine treatment (P < 0.05). Basal plasma insulin and insulin/glucose index were decreased with moxonidine treatment evidencing improved insulin sensitivity in the control and l-NNA-treated pregnant rats (P < 0.05). After glucose challenge, plasma insulin increased in all the groups as expected and plasma insulin and insulin/glucose index were significantly higher in the l-NNA group than in the control, moxonidine, or l-NNA + moxonidine groups (P < 0.05 for time 60 minutes). Thus, moxonidine improved glucose tolerance in l-NNA-treated pregnant rats. Moreover, moxonidine treatment very effectively decreased the number of necroses (1 necrosis in 71 fetuses in the l-NNA + moxonidine group versus 15 necroses in 79 fetuses in the l-NNA group, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the 7-day treatment with moxonidine suppressed hypertension and reduced glucose intolerance and fetal necrosis, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of moxonidine in the preeclamptic model.

  4. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  5. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-04-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  7. Studies on apoptotic changes in combined toxicity of citrinin and endosulfan in pregnant wistar rats and their fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Dwivedi, P; Telang, A G; Kumar, M; Patil, R D

    2012-05-01

    Citrinin (mycotoxin) and endosulfan (pesticide) both environmental contaminants easily enter the food chain and are caoomon causes of various toxicities. In the present investigation, citrinin (CIT) (10 mg/kg feed) and endosulfan (1 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally alone and in combination to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 to 20 to study their effect to cause apoptosis in the pregnant Wistar rats and their fetuses. Apoptosis was assessed in dams by agarose gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and electron microscopy, while in the fetuses it was assessed by flow cytometry only. Citrinin and endosulfan in the combination group caused apoptosis in an additive manner as there was increased number of apoptotic cells as compared to the individual toxin and control groups. The fetuses also showed increased number of apoptotic cells in the combination groups, which also indicated that both the toxins crossed the placental barrier. So it was concluded that apoptosis played a significant role in the pathogenesis of endosulfan and citrinin toxicity.

  8. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  9. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. I: Dose-dependent effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    Five hundred and eight mature female Wistar rats divided into 35 different groups were stimulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG) (0, 5, 10, 20 & 40 IU) at the late diestrus stage to induce multiple follicular development. No chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) was used for ovulation induction. The quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of fetuses on Day 14 of gestation and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 and 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. However, concurrent with the larger number, higher proportions of abnormal oocytes and embryos were found. High doses of PMSG caused lower in vitro fertilisability of oocytes and greater degrees of embryonic degeneration. Although, the number of oocytes and Day 2-embryos were higher in the 20PMGS dose group, the pregnancy rate was significantly reduced to 27%. In the 40PMSG group no viable pregnancy was noted. Most embryo demise occurred by day 3-5 of pregnancy, probably within the oviducts and before the implantation stage. In rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 and 40 IU of PMSG, the number of morphologically normal looking embryos was greatly reduced by Day 3-5 of pregnancy. In the 40PMSG group, there were no embryos retrieved by Day 4 and 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Differential body weight, blood pressure and placental inflammatory responses to normal versus high-fat diet in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Frank T; Palei, Ana C; Granger, Joey P

    2016-10-01

    Although obesity increases the risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the mechanisms remain unclear. Neural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency causes hyperphagia and obesity. Effects of MC4R deficiency on body weight, blood pressure (BP) and placental inflammatory responses to high-fat diet (HFD) are unknown. We tested two hypotheses: MC4R deficiency results in higher body weight, BP and placental inflammation under normal-fat diet (NFD) conditions and HFD exaggerates these responses in MC4R-deficient pregnant rats. MC4R and MC4R rats were maintained on NFD (13% kcal fat) or HFD (40% kcal fat) for ∼15 weeks, then measurements made on gestational day 19. MC4R pregnant rats had greater body mass and total body fat and visceral adipose tissue weights along with greater circulating total cholesterol (TC) and leptin levels than MC4R rats regardless of diet. On NFD, circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP (conscious with carotid catheter) were higher in these heavier rats. Circulating adiponectin levels were lower and placental TNFα levels and BP were higher in MC4R rats compared with NFD controls. These parameters were not affected by HFD in the already heavier and hypertensive MC4R pregnant rats. Obesity in MC4R deficiency and HFD in MC4R rats result in higher BP and placental inflammation during pregnancy. However, HFD did not exaggerate these responses in already obese MC4R pregnant rats. These data suggest that obesity and HFD are independently related to hypertension and placental inflammation in pregnancy.

  11. Toxic effects of zearalenone on oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, biochemical and pathological changes induced by this toxin in the kidney of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Min; Qu, Zhe; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan

    2014-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEN) on oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, biochemical and pathological changes in the kidney of pregnant rats, and to explore the possible mechanism in ZEN induced kidney damage. The rats were fed a normal diet treated with 0.3, 48.5, 97.6 or 146 mg/kg ZEN in feed on gestation days (GDs) 0 through 7, and then all the rats were fed with a normal diet on GDs 8 through 20. The results showed that ZEN induced kidney dysfunction, oxidative damage, pathological changes and increased mRNA and protein expression of TLR4 and inflammatory cytokines in kidney in dose-dependent manner. The results indicated that ZEN caused kidney damage of pregnant rats and TLR4-mediated inflammatory reactions signal pathway was one of the mechanisms of ZEN mediated toxicity in kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Trapped blood elements within the decidua of the rat pregnant uterus generate a lipoxygenase product(s) which inhibits myometrial prostacyclin synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    El Tahir, K.E.H.; Williams, K I

    1981-01-01

    1 Prostacyclin (PGI2) production by chopped segments of rat pregnant uterus was low compared with synthesis by separated myometrial tissue. Incubation of separated myometrium with decidua (2:1 by weight) led to an inhibition of myometrial PGI2 output.

  13. The increased endotoxin-sensitivity of pregnant rats, as reflected by glomerular Ecto-ADP-ase activity, is not dependent on the presence of decidual cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Baller, JFW; Valkhof, N; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the possible role of decidual cells in the pregnancy-associated increased sensitivity of glomerular ecto-ADP-ase to endotoxin was investigated. Early (day 5) pregnant (E-Pr; n = 10), pseudopregnant (E-PSP; n = 10), (day 5), pseudopregnant rats with a decidualized uterus (E-DEC;

  14. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P≤0.001. This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.

  15. [Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Meliksetian, I B; Akopian, R R; Saakian, A A

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character unlike those in cervical parts of the tubes and in the middle part of the uterine body, so the latter parts can be grouped together owing to peculiarities of their changes. The longest duration of genesis of electric discharges has been shown for the ovarian part of uterine tubes at a concentration of 10 microg/kg of oxytocin. Morphological experiments revealed that among all studies areas the ovarian parts of uterine tubes were characterized by the highest amount of atypical cells that have the maximally pronounced functional activity.

  16. The effects of adjuvant arthritis on the myometrial adrenergic functions in the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csik, G; Spiegl, G; Minorics, R; Falkay, G; Zupko, I

    2010-10-01

    The beneficial effects of pregnancy on the symptoms of inflammatory diseases are well documented. The modulation in the uterine functions in the presence of generalized inflammation, however, is much less characterized. The aim of the present study was to explore the modulatory action of adjuvant arthritis on the adrenergic functions of the uterus in nonpregnant and late pregnant rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by the subplantar injection of M. butyricum. Presynaptic functions were characterized by a superfusion technique and by registration of the contractions of isolated uterine rings elicited by electric field stimulation. The functions of the adrenoceptors were characterized by constructing concentration-response curves with agonists for both α- and β-receptors. Where these curves differed significantly from the control, the expressions of these receptors at the mRNA level were additionally determined. Adjuvant arthritis substantially decreased the uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline in myometrial samples from nonpregnant rats, but caused no change at term. The electrically induced contractions were decreased by inflammation in both gestational states. Arthritis resulted in decreased β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation (in both the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant animals) and an increase in α-mediated contraction at term. It can be concluded that adjuvant arthritis deteriorates the adrenergic innervation of the uterus. The effects of exogenous sympathomimetics are shifted, favoring a state of higher contractility. If similar mechanisms are operative in humans, the present results could imply that β-adrenoceptor agonists are not ideal tocolytics when pregnancy is complicated by generalized inflammation.

  17. The effects of vitamin D3 on lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissue of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Eon; An, Sung-Min; Lee, Jae Ho; Kwon, Hyeog Soong; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Seon Jong; Kim, Joo Man; Hwang, Dae Youn; Jung, Young-Jin; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung Chul; An, Beum-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a worldwide individual and public health issue, and contributes to the development of numerous chronic diseases. In particular, maternal obesity has harmful effects on both the mother and child during and after pregnancy. The digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon and estrogen. These hormonal factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy due to the specialized hormonal environment during this period. In the present study, we examined the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active hormonal form of nutritional vitamin D3, on lipid metabolism in pregnant rats. The body weight of rats treated with VD3 was significantly reduced compared to that of the rats in the control group. In addition, histological analysis demonstrated that the amount of fat stored in adipocytes was reduced by treatment with VD3. To determine the role of VD3 in lipid metabolism, the expression levels of lipid metabolism‑associated genes were measured in the rat adipose tissue and liver. VD3 negatively regulated the expression of various lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), in both the adipose tissue and liver. However, the regulators of lipogenic enzymes such as, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) were differentially regulated by VD3 in a tissue‑specific manner. On the whole, these findings suggest that VD3 regulates lipid metabolism and deposition in the liver and adipose tissue, and thereby reduces fat in pregnant animals, as well as body weight. Our results suggest that the alteration of lipogenesis through the administration of VD3 may help to reduce excessive weight gain during pregnancy and prevent obesity‑related pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes

  18. Selenium and vitamin E modulates radiation-induced liver toxicity in pregnant and nonpregnant rat: effects of colemanite and hematite shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençel, Osman; Naziroglu, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Yalman, Kadir; Bayram, Dilek

    2010-06-01

    The levels of liver lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamins A and E were used to follow the level of oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation in pregnant rats. The possible protective effects of selenium and vitamin E supplemented to rats housed in concrete-protected cages using hematite and colemanite were tested and compared to untreated controls. Ninety-six rats were randomly divided into four main equal groups namely control (A), normal concrete (B), concrete containing colemanite (C), and concrete containing hematite (D). Except group A, all groups exposed to 7 Gy radiation. The four main groups were divided into four subgroups each as follows: subgroups 1 (n = 6): nonpregnant control rats. Subgroups 2 (n = 6): selenium and vitamin E combination was intraperitoneally (i.p.) given to the nonpregnant rats for 20 days. Subgroups 3 (n = 6): pregnant control rats. Subgroups 4 (n = 6): selenium and vitamin E combination was i.p. given to the pregnant rats for concessive 20 days. Lactate dehydrogenate, alkaline phosphates, and lipid peroxidation values were higher in subgroups 1 and 3 than in no radiation group although glutathione peroxidase and vitamin E levels in liver were lower in radiation group than in no radiation group. Lactate dehydrogenate activity and lipid peroxidation levels were found to be decreased in subgroups 2 and 4 protected with concrete containing hematite and colemanite when compared to subgroup 1 and 3 with normal concrete. The radiation doses in rats housed by concrete without colemanite and hematite exposed radiation clearly showed liver degeneration. In conclusion, selenium and vitamin E supplementations and housing by concrete with colemanite was found to offer protection against gamma-irradiation-induced liver damage and oxidative stress in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against liver necrosis via its free radical scavenging and membrane stabilizing. Protective effects of

  19. Identification of Site of Morphine Action in Pregnant Wistar Rat Placenta Tissue: A C14-Morphine Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In previous studies it has been emphasized that the site of morphine action may be either in the embryo or the placenta. In the present study, we attempt to identify the site of morphine action on the fetal section of Wistar rat placenta by using C14-morphine.Materials and Methods: In this study (experimental, female Wistar rats (weights: 170-200 g were mated with male rats and their coupling times recorded. Experimental groups received daily doses of 0.05 mg/ml of C14-morphine in their drinking water. On the 9th and14th embryonic days, the pregnant rats were anesthetized and the placenta and uterus surgically removed. Placentas were fixed in 10% formalin for two weeks, then processed, sectioned in 5 μm and 25 μm thicknesses, and fixed on glass slides for further evaluation. The 25 μm sections were delivered to black and white film for three days. Films were processed and evaluated with a digital inverse microscope for possible radiological impression. The 5 μm sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and evaluated by light microscope and MOTIC software.Results: Our results indicated that the site of action of C14-morphine was possibly located on the blood plexus of the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, oral morphine consumption was shown to inhibit fetal and maternal placental development in the experimental groups.Conclusion: We conclude that morphine’s effectiveness on the reduction of embryo growth and development may be via its effects on the blood plexus of the fetal section of the placenta.

  20. Placental Protein 13 Administration to Pregnant Rats Lowers Blood Pressure and Augments Fetal Growth and Venous Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Sigurdardottir, Elisabet Run; Meiri, Hamutal; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Mandalá, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2016-01-01

    Reduced first-trimester concentrations of placental protein 13 (PP13) are associated with subsequent development of preeclampsia, a major pregnancy disorder. We previously showed that PP13 has a vasodilatory effect, reduces blood pressure and augments expansive remodeling of the uteroplacental vasculature in pregnant rats. In this study, slow-release osmotic pumps were implanted in gravid rats (on day 8) to provide 1 week of PP13 supplementation. Treatment was associated with a reversible blood pressure reduction that returned to normal on day 15. In addition, PP13 caused venous expansion that is larger in the venous branches closer to the placenta. Then, it increased placental and pup weights. Similar administration of a truncated PP13 variant (DelT221) that is unable to bind carbohydrates (a rare spontaneous mutation associated with a high frequency of severe early preeclampsia among Blacks in South Africa) produced a hypotensive effect similar to the full-length molecule, but without venous remodeling and increased placental and pup weights. These results indicate the importance of PP13 carbohydrate binding for inducing vascular remodeling and improving reproductive outcome. Future studies are needed to determine whether beneficial effects would be evident in animal models of preeclampsia or in women predisposed to the development of preeclampsia.

  1. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Different Acupoints on Changes of Uterine Myoelectricity Induced by Oxytocin and Progesterone in Pregnant Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at different acupoints on abnormal changes of uterine myoelectric activities in pregnant rats so as to analyze the specificity of regulative effects of the acupoint. Methods: Forty-eight pregnant (18-20 days) Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10), "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) group (n=9), "Neiguan" (PC 6) group (n=10), "Hegu" (LI 4) group (n=8), and "Sanyinjiao plus Hegu" group (n=11). These rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of a mixture solution of 1.5% chloralose (50mg/kg) and 25% urethane (420mg/kg). Electrohysterogram (EHG) was recorded by using a pair of stainless steel electrodes inserted into the subserous layer of the left mid part of the uterus. The reference electrode was placed in the adjoining subcutaneous tissue of the incision. Oxytocin and progesterone were given to the local uterus nearby the recording electrode to induce excitement and suppression of myoelectric activities of the uterus respectively. EA (2mA, 5/15Hz) was carried out at the above-mentioned acupoints separately for 20min, and the influence of EA on changes (amplitude and frequency) of fast waves and slow waves of the uterine myoelectric activity was analyzed. Results: As compared with control group, EA at SP6 plus LI4 and at SP6 alone had a significantly inhibitory effect on oxytocin-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of both fast and slow waves (P0.05). Compared with control group, EA at SP6 plus LI4 and at SP6 alone could relieve or significantly relieve progesterone-induced suppression of the frequency and amplitude of both fast and slow waves (P0.05). Conclusion: EA at SP6 plus LI4 and at SP6 alone has a dual-directional regulative effect on abnormal EHG, the effect of EA at SP6 plus LI4 is the strongest, EA at SP6 the secondary, EA at LI4 the weakest, and EA at PC6 shows no effect. In short, EA at different acupoints have their own relative specificity in regulating abnormal

  2. Inflammatory processes enhance cAMP-mediated uterus relaxation in the pregnant rat: the role of TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukovits, Anna; Márki, Arpád; Páldy, Eszter; Benyhe, Sándor; Gálik, Márta; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Róbert

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro uterus relaxing potency of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) agonists in pregnant rats after in utero administration of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS). The LPS (100 microg/kg) was injected into the uterine lumen on day 16 of pregnancy. The effects of beta(2)-AR agonist terbutaline was tested in vitro, in isolated uterine rings precontracted by electric field stimulation. Uterine beta(2)-AR densities were detected by radioligand binding assay, the activated G-protein levels were investigated by a radiolabelled GTP binding assay. Uterine cAMP accumulation and the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The endotoxin-evoked preterm delivery occurred on day 21. Higher pD(2) values of terbutaline (p 0.05) in LPS-treated vs. control animals. Serum TNF-alpha level rose threefold after LPS treatment, but this rise was abolished by thalidomide. In LPS + thalidomide-treated rats, the effect of terbutaline became similar to that in sham-operated controls. By the measurement of myometrial cAMP levels, we documented that the concentration-response curve of terbutaline on cAMP accumulation was shifted to the left in the LPS-treated rats, with a significant rise in the pD(2). We concluded that in the case of uterine inflammation, the in vitro uterus-relaxing potency of beta(2)-agonists enhances, which is possibly mediated by TNF-alpha and uterine cAMP levels and that may serve as a rationale for the use of beta(2)-AR agonists in the attenuation of preterm uterine contractions on an inflammatory basis.

  3. The metabolic clearance of progesterone in the pregnant rat: Absence of a physiological role for the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, B.J.; Bruce, N.W. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands)

    1989-06-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of progesterone is among the highest for all steroid hormones studied, yet it is difficult to apportion this high MCR to specific organ contributions. The isolated lung has been shown to metabolize progesterone, and since this tissue receives the entire cardiac output, potentially it could make a major contribution to the overall MCR. This possibility was examined in the present study by measuring lung extraction of (3H)progesterone under steady-state conditions in the intact pregnant rat. Anesthetized rats (n = 6) were infused with (3H)progesterone via a femoral vein for 100 min on Day 16 of pregnancy. After the onset of steady state (40 min), four blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals from the right ventricle and from the aorta, and the concentrations of (3H)progesterone and its metabolites were determined. Throughout the sampling period, mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained stable (two-way analysis of variance), as did the production rate (3.76 +/- 0.35 mg/day; mean +/- SEM) and the MCR (34.8 +/- 3.5 ml/min) of progesterone. Despite this high rate of clearance, there was no difference between the concentration of (3H)progesterone in arterial and right ventricular blood, indicating no net extraction of progesterone during passage through the lung. Furthermore, there was no change in the concentration of either lipid-soluble or aqueous-soluble (3H)progesterone metabolites during trans-lung passage. These observations demonstrate that the lung does not contribute to the MCR of progesterone when measured under physiological and steady-state conditions. Therefore, the relationship, MCR (ml/min) = whole-body extraction (%) x cardiac output (ml/min), is upheld for progesterone in the rat.

  4. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  5. Prior reproductive experience alters prolactin-induced macrophage responses in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Freitas, Maria Isabel Roth; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Palermo-Neto, João; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive experience (i.e., pregnancy and lactation) induces physiological changes in mammals. A previous reproductive experience was recently shown to modulate the activity of dopaminergic hypothalamic systems while decreasing serum prolactin levels and oxidative burst activity in peritoneal macrophages. Dopamine receptor antagonists increase serum prolactin levels, and both prolactin and dopamine receptors may be involved in the modulation of macrophage activity, providing a means of communication between the nervous and immune systems. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of prolactin and a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist on the peritoneal activity of macrophages from primigravid and multigravid female rats during the third trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative bursts and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages were evaluated by flow cytometry. Primigravid and multigravid Wistar rats, during the third trimester of pregnancy (i.e., days 17-21), were used. Peritoneal fluid samples from these rats were first incubated with prolactin (10 and 100 nM) for different periods of time. The same procedure was repeated to evaluate the effects of domperidone (10 and 100 nM) on macrophage activity. Our results showed that macrophages from multigravid rats responded more effectively to in vitro incubation with prolactin, especially with regard to the intensity and percentage of phagocytosis. Additionally, these effects were more pronounced after incubation periods of 30 min or 4 h. These data suggest that macrophages during a second pregnancy become more sensitive to the phagocytotic effects of prolactin.

  6. ARGININE STIMULATED GLUCAGON AND INSULIN-SECRETION BY ISLETS OF LANGERHANS OF PREGNANT AND LACTATING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    Glucagon secretion by isolated pancreatic rat islets was not affected by an increase of the glucose concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mM, but was stimulated by 25 mM arginine. This stimulation was only slightly increased by pregnancy and lactation. Insulin secretion increased, when the glucose

  7. Correlative Analysis of Behavioral and Physiological Concomitants of Labor in Pregnant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During parturition, rats exhibit characteristic behavioral expressions of labor. Lordosis contractions, consisting of an elongation of the dams body, are observed beginning several hours prior to neonate births, whereas vertical contractions, repeated rapid lifts of the abdomen, occur immediately preceding the birth of each neonate. We analyzed underlying changes in intrauterine pressure (IUP) using a telemetric sensor that we modified for use in freely-moving rats. This technique enabled us to correlate behavioral expressions of labor contractions with IUP. A small telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day 19 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, a unit was surgically implanted within the uterus. The dams were simultaneously videotaped, enabling us to directly correlate IUP signals with behavioral expressions of labor contractions. Earlier phases of labor, consisting predominantly of lordosis contractions were characterized by lower pressures relative to later phases during which higher pressures and vertical contractions were frequently observed.

  8. ARGININE STIMULATED GLUCAGON AND INSULIN-SECRETION BY ISLETS OF LANGERHANS OF PREGNANT AND LACTATING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    1993-01-01

    Glucagon secretion by isolated pancreatic rat islets was not affected by an increase of the glucose concentration from 2.5 to 5.0 mM, but was stimulated by 25 mM arginine. This stimulation was only slightly increased by pregnancy and lactation. Insulin secretion increased, when the glucose concentra

  9. Effect of Diabetes on Circulating Pancreatic Hormones in Pregnant Rats and Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iessi, I L; Sinzato, Y K; Gallego, F Q

    2016-01-01

    into: control (C); mildly diabetic (MD); and severely diabetic (SD). The rats were mated and distributed into 2 subgroups: euthanasia at day 21 of pregnancy and at day 10 postpartum. Both MD and SD dams showed impaired oral glucose tolerance. SD dams had lower body weight and insulin levels compared...

  10. REGULATION OF PERIPHERAL GLUCAGON CONCENTRATIONS IN CYCLIC, PREGNANT, AND LACTATING RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOITER, TR; FAAS, MM; VISSCHER, A; KIEVIT, C; STEFFENS, AB; SCHUILING, GA

    1992-01-01

    In the rat, peripheral glucagon concentrations were studied throughout pregnancy and lactation. Basal glucose concentrations were decreased during late pregnancy and during lactation. but basal glucagon concentrations were not affected. Infusion of glucose (7.4 mg/min) caused an elevation of the glu

  11. Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (120 mg/kg was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

  12. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V.; Goin, J.E.; Robinson, R.G.

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  13. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-99m pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, A V; Goin, J E; Robinson, R G

    1983-01-01

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-99m pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-99m pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  14. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout...... gestation and lactation. Total T4 serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T4 in dams, but no significant effects on T4 levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure...... through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3–16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T4 reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing...

  15. Effects of quercetin on predator stress-related hematological and behavioral alterations in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohamed L Toumi; Sameha Merzoug; Abdelkrim Tahraoui

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of a psychogenic stress during gestation on the behaviour and haematological indices in dams as well as on the neonatal haematological status and periadolescent behaviour in their offspring. Moreover, the ability of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, to prevent the stress-induced changes was estimated. Pregnant Wistar rats were pretreated with quercetin before the exposure to a predator stress on gestational day 19. Post-stress maternal anxiety-like behaviour was assessed with a concomitant haematological analysis. In the offspring, haematological analysis and behavioural testing were performed during the postnatal stage. Our results revealed that predator stress causes an anxiety-like behaviour in dams along with a decrease in erythrocytes, a microcytosis, and a thrombocytosis. Prenatally stressed neonates manifested microcytosis and thrombocytosis with a significant polycythemia. Signs of motor hyperactivity, anxiety-like behaviour, and memory dysfunction were detected at periadolescence. Quercetin pretreatment alleviated the stress-induced behavioural and haematological impairments in dams but failed to attenuate the haematological changes in neonates. A sex-dependent effect of quercetin on behaviour was found at periadolescence. Our findings suggest that, besides a beneficial effect on haematological and behavioural anomalies in traumatized dams, quercetin may lastingly modulate the behaviour of their progeny.

  16. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  17. Effect of valproic acid on /sup 65/Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, C.L.; Peters, J.M.; Hurley, L.S.

    1989-04-01

    The effect of valproic acid on the distribution of gavaged /sup 65/Zn in maternal and embryonic tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 h after gavaging of the drug on d 13 of pregnancy. Valproic acid treatment resulted in a significantly higher retention of /sup 65/Zn in maternal liver and lower amounts in uterus, placenta and embryos than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from valproic acid-treated dams showed higher /sup 65/Zn counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight of 6,500, the approximate molecular weight of the Zn-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the teratogenicity of valproic acid is in part due to an induction of embryonic Zn deficiency secondary to a drug-induced sequestering of Zn into maternal liver that results in a decrease in maternal plasma Zn and subsequent reduction in embryonic Zn uptake.

  18. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  19. Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid of pregnant rats with spina bifida aperta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liping; Fan, Yang; Li, Hui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Fenghua; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-02-02

    Congenital spina bifida aperta is a common congenital malformation in children and has an incidence of 1‰ to 5‰ in China. However, we currently lack specific biomarkers for screening or prenatal diagnosis and there is no method to entirely cure or prevent such defects. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize differentially expressed proteins in amniotic-fluid samples (AFSs) of embryonic day (E) 17.5 rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta induced by retinoic acid (RA). We identified five proteins differentially expressed in AFSs of spina bifida aperta, including three upregulated proteins (transferrin, alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor, B subunit [SRPRB] 55 kDa), two downregulated proteins (apolipoprotein A IV [APO A4] and Srprb 77 kDa). Specifically, we found 11 alpha-1 fetoprotein (AFP) fragments that were downregulated and 35 AFP fragments that were upregulated in AFSs from embryos with spina bifida aperta. Of the downregulated AFP fragments, 72.7% (8/11) were confined to the AFP N-terminus (amino acids [aas] 25-440) and 77.1% (27/35) of upregulated AFP fragments were confined to the AFP C-terminus (aas 340-596). We also confirmed APO A4 and AFP by immunoblot analysis. This is the first comparative proteomic study of AFSs from rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta. We demonstrate proteomic alterations in the AFS of spina bifida aperta, which may provide new insights in neural tube defects and contribute to the prenatal screening.

  20. Effects of the Electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 µT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CWSF. Anselmo

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have implicated maternal protein-calorie deficiency as an important public health problem in developing countries. Over the last decades, a remarkable diffusion of electricity and an increased level of the electromagnetic field (EMF in the environment have characterized modern societies. Therefore, researchers are concerned with the biological effects of 50-60 Hz, EMF. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of EMF of 60 Hz, 3 μT, exposure for two hours per day in the regulation of the hormonal and metabolic concentrations in pregnant rats, which were fed by Regional Basic Diet (RBD during their pregnancy as compared with pregnant rats fed a standard diet. Pregnant rats exposed to EMF of 60 Hz, 3 μT, over the pregnancy and fed with RBD presented an increase in glucose release when compared with the Group subjected only to the RBD ration. Rats fed RBD presented a decrease in their insulin and cortisol serum levels when compared with the Group fed with casein. The T3 and T4 concentrations presented the greatest variation among the Groups. The relation T4:T3 was much exaggerated in the Group subjected to RDB and exposed to EMF when compared to the others. In conclusion, the group subjected to the association of EMF and undernutrition suffered a decrease in its serum concentration of T4 and T3 when compared to the well-nourished group and the relationship T4:T3 in the former group was almost eighteen-fold the later one.

  1. Ameliorating effect of vitamin C and selenium against nicotine induced oxidative stress and changes of p53 expression in pregnant albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadiga A. Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of daily intake of vitamin C or selenium against deleterious effects of nicotine toxicity on pregnant albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty albino pregnant rats were equally distributed into four groups. Group A was considered as control. Group B was administered with nicotine dosed at 1 mg/kg body weight (bwt daily for 7 weeks (wks from 1st day of gestation until the postnatal 4 wks. Group C was treated with nicotine and vitamin C dosed at 1 mg/kg bwt orally for 7 wks, group D was treated with nicotine and sodium selenite dosed at 1 ug/100 g bwt concurrently for 7 wks. The levels of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, protein carbonyl (PC and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, were estimated in homogenates of the lung, kidney and liver. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin and eosin as well as immunohistochemical studies using p53 antibody were also done. Results: Nicotine significantly elevated the levels of TBARS and PC as compared to control rats. Groups C and D showed decrease in these levels significantly. CAT and SOD activities of group B were decreased significantly. Significant elevation of CAT and SOD activities was detected in both groups C and D. Vitamin C elevated the antioxidant enzymes activities to normal levels, however selenium administration improved these levels but still lower than those of group A. Expression of p53 was decreased in group B as compared to group A. Vitamin C completely reversed the expression of p53 as group A. However, group D did not showed any significant changes in expressions as compared to group B. Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin C intake was useful than selenium in prevention against nicotine-induced oxidative stress including p53 expression in the lung, kidney and liver of pregnant rats. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 321-331

  2. Metagenomic analysis of antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota in a pregnant rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran eKhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyse the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus and Helicobacter were significantly (p<0.05 more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p<0.05 promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment

  3. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia.

  4. Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats

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    Nworgu Z.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration, was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration, acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 µg/ml: final bath concentration and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 µg/ml: final bath concentration induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration salbutamol and (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01, acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001 and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001 to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05 of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml produced significant ( P < 0.0001 reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.

  5. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-α and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1α were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1α in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals.

  6. Effect of long term exposure of low doses of lambda- cyhalothrin on the level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of the pregnant rats and their offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Tukhtaev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lambda- cyhalothrin (LCT is a pyrethroid insecticide class, which is widely used for pest control in agriculture, public health, home and garden. In the present study we investigated the effect of long term exposure of low doses of the LCT on the state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection of pregnant rats and their offspring. It was revealed, that prolonged exposure of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to the development of oxidative stress in both of pregnant females and their offspring. The highest level of lipid peroxidation detected on 14-21 days of pregnancy, which was accompanied by a reduction in activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the offspring highest level of oxidative stress observed on 7-14 days of lactation. The degree of oxidative stress in offspring decreases as the cessation of receipt of a pesticide or its toxic metabolites in breast milk.

  7. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  8. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  9. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  10. Pregnant growth restricted female rats have bone gains during late gestation which contributes to second generation adolescent and adult offspring having normal bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo

  11. Investigation on the role of Spirulina platensis in ameliorating behavioural changes, thyroid dysfunction and oxidative stress in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pratusha, N Gouri; Annamalai, A R

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing sodium fluoride-induced thyroid, neurodevelopment and oxidative alterations in offspring of pregnant rats. The total antioxidant activity, phycocyanins, and β carotene content were quantified in Spirulina. Thirty female pregnant rats were allocated to six groups and treatment initiated orally from embryonic day (ED) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 15. Treatment groups included control, Spirulina alone, sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) alone, and sodium fluoride along with Spirulina (250 and 500 mg/kg). Serum fluoride levels were determined on ED 20 and PND 11. Offspring were subjected to behavioural testing, estimation of thyroid levels, oxidative measurements in brain mitochondrial fraction and histological evaluation of the cerebellum. Fluoride-induced alterations in thyroid hormones, behaviour and increased oxidative stress. Spirulina augmented the displacement of fluoride, facilitated antioxidant formation, improved behaviour and protected Purkinje cells. Supplementing Spirulina during pregnancy could reduce the risk of fluoride toxicity in offspring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's Wort and Thyroxine on maternal and foetal expression of Abcb1 and organ distribution of talinolol in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljé, Karen; Lederer, Kirstin; Oswald, Stefan; Dazert, Eike; Warzok, Rolf; Siegmund, Werner

    2012-08-01

    It is well accepted that ABCB1 plays a critical role in absorption, distribution and elimination of many xenobiotics and drugs. Only little is known about the regulation and function of ABCB1 during pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate maternal, placental and foetal Abcb1 expression and function in pregnant rats after induction with rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's wort (SJW) or thyroxine. Wistar rats were orally treated with rifampicin (250 mg/kg), SJW (1.0 g/kg), thyroxine (9 μg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or 0.5% methylcellulose suspension (control) for 9 days during late pregnancy (each N = 5). Afterwards, organ mRNA expression and protein content of Abcb1a were determined. Tissue concentrations of the ABCB1 probe drug talinolol were measured after repeated administration of the drug (100 mg/kg, 9 days) and after induction with oral rifampicin (250 mg/kg, 9 days, N = 5). Abcb1 expression was substantially lower in foetal than in maternal organs. Abcb1 was significantly induced by SJW in the maternal jejunum and placenta, by dexamethasone in foetal brain and liver and by thyroxine in the placenta and maternal and foetal brain. Rifampicin induced Abcb1 in all maternal and foetal organs. However, organ distribution of talinolol was not influenced by comedication of rifampicin. In conclusion, maternal and foetal Abcb1 organ expression in pregnant rats is inducible by nuclear receptor agonists. Although rifampicin regulates maternal and foetal Abcb1 expression, organ distribution of talinolol remains unchanged most likely caused by the known inhibitory effect of rifampicin on Abcb1 function.

  13. A New Slow Releasing, H2S Generating Compound, GYY4137 Relaxes Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractions of Human and Rat Pregnant Myometrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hayley; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM–1 mM) and NaHS (1 mM) were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term) gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i) H2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii) that H2S affects L-type calcium channels and KATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii) add to the evidence that H2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv) H2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility. PMID:23029460

  14. A new slow releasing, H₂S generating compound, GYY4137 relaxes spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractions of human and rat pregnant myometrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Robinson

    Full Text Available Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H(2S has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H(2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H(2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H(2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM-1 mM and NaHS (1 mM were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i H(2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii that H(2S affects L-type calcium channels and K(ATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii add to the evidence that H(2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv H(2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility.

  15. Extracellular ATP decreases trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling and immune cells in the mesometrial triangle in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, F.; Melgert, B. N.; Chiang, C.; Borghuis, T.; Klok, P. A.; de Vos, P.; van Goor, H.; Bakker, W.W.; Faas, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is characterized by deficient trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, a process governed by inflammatory cells. High levels of the danger signal extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have been found in women with preeclampsia and infusion of ATP in pregnant

  16. Relaxant effect of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the nonpregnant and pregnant rat uterus. Comparison with vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, A; Schirar, A; Germain, G

    1998-04-01

    To explore the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat pregnancy, we determined the density of myometrial CGRP-encoded nerve fibre terminals and examined, in an organ bath, the relaxant effect of the peptide on uterine strips near parturition. Comparisons were made with the uterus and aorta of nonpregnant rats. In the myometrium, CGRP immunoreactive nerve fibers were abundant in nonpregnant rats and scarce at the parturient stage. In the aorta there was no variation in the density of CGRP fibres with gestation. In nonpregnant rats only, CGRP relaxed spontaneous and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive electrically-evoked uterine contractions (EC50 40 nM, Emax 80%). The effect was antagonized by CGRP[8-37] (pKB 6.47) but was not affected by either blockers of nitricoxid synthase or ATP-sensitive potassium channels. CGRP was also able to relax contractions evoked by direct depolarization of the cells (TTX-insensitive contractions) (EC50, 2 nM, Emax 70%). In aorta contracted with arginine vasopressin, CGRP-induced relaxation was the same in nonpregnant and parturient animals. It was antagonized by CGRP [8-371 (pKB 6.90) and was abolished in presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Amylin neither relaxed the uterus nor the aorta. In pregnant rats, the relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus was limited on day 21 and was totally absent on day 22 of gestation. We conclude that the primary relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus occurs at the level of myometrial smooth muscle cells. In the myometrium, gestation decreases CGRP innervation and impairs the relaxant responses to CGRP. Such changes are not observed in vascular tissues like aorta.

  17. [Comparative study of the distribution of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in the organs of pregnant rats and their fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, L N; Aleksandrov, V A

    1980-03-01

    On the 21st day of pregnancy rats were injected intravenously with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in a dose of 15 mg/kg. After 30, 60 and 180 min the content of the preparation was determined by the fluorescent-spectral method in the organs of females (liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, spleen and placenta) and in their fetuses (liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, intestine, "carcasses" and intact fetus). In the course of all experimental periods the female rats showed the highest concentration of DMBA in the lungs. The concentration of DMBA in all organs of pregnant rats diminished while in the brain it increased with time elapsed after injection. The fetuses showed uneven distribution of the carcinogen in the organs only 60 min after DMBA injection, the highest content being recorded in the liver. The maximum content of the carcinogen was detected in all organs of the fetus by the 60th minute. DMBA accumulation in fetal organs did not correlate with the evidence on predominant occurrence of tumours in the kidneys and the nervous system of the progeny in transplacental effect of DMBA administered in the same dose.

  18. Effects of uteroplacental restriction on the relaxin-family receptors, Lgr7 and Lgr8, in the uterus of late pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Wlodek, Mary E; Parry, Laura J

    2007-01-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin stimulates uterine growth and endometrial angiogenesis and inhibits myometrial contractions in a variety of species. The receptor for relaxin is a leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor Lgr7 (RXFP1) that is highly expressed in the myometrium of late pregnant mice, with a significant decrease in receptor density observed at term. The present study first compared the expression of Lgr7 with another relaxin-family receptor Lgr8 (RXFP2) in the uterus and placenta of late pregnant rats. The uterus was separated into endometrial and myometrial components, and the myometrium into fetal and non-fetal sites, for further analysis. We then assessed the response of these receptors to uteroplacental restriction (UPR). Expression of the Lgr7 gene was significantly higher in the uterus compared with the placenta. Within the uterus, on Day 20 of gestation, there was equivalent expression of Lgr7 in fetal and non-fetal sites of the myometrium, as well as in the endometrium v. myometrium. The second receptor investigated, Lgr8, was also expressed in the endometrium and myometrium, but at significantly lower levels than Lgr7. Bilateral ligation of the maternal uterine blood vessels on Day 18 of gestation resulted in uteroplacental restriction, a decrease in fetal weight and litter size, and a significant upregulation in uterine, but not placental, Lgr7 and Lgr8 gene expression in UPR animals compared with controls. These data suggest that both relaxin family receptors are upregulated in response to a reduction in uteroplacental blood flow in rats.

  19. Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaloids from Senna alata leaves implicated as the active constituents of abortifacient are yet to be investigated for their effects on the normal functioning of the maternal liver and kidney. Therefore, the effects of crude alkaloids on some biochemical indices of kidney and liver damage were investigated in pregnant rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into 4 groups: A (control, B, C, and D and were orally administered 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the alkaloids respectively once daily on days 10-18 post coitum. Results: Thin-layer chromatographic separation gave five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47, and 0.55 that produced creamy precipitate and reddish-brown colour, respectively, with Mayer’s and Wagner’s reagents. Quantitative determination gave 0.30 g which corresponded to a percentage yield of 1.50 % of the alkaloids. The decreases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases in the liver and kidney of the animals by the alkaloids were accompanied by corresponding increases in the serum enzymes. The alkaloids reduced liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum globulin, urea, uric acid, and phosphate ions while the serum concentrations of albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, potassium ions, AST/ALT ratio, blood urea nitrogen: creatinine increased. The levels of sodium, calcium, and chloride ions did not change significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Overall, the alkaloid at doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight produced permeability changes in the plasma membrane of the organs and adversely affected the normal secretory, synthetic, and excretory functions of these organs.

  20. 论"NP+VP+得+NP+VP"结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄会彬; 张培翠

    2006-01-01

    @@ "NP+VP+得+NP+VP"结构在汉语中有很多,它们大致可以分为两类,第一类为"NPi+VP+得+NPj+VP",如"张三打得李四站不起来"、"他吓得小孩哭了"等,第二类为"NPi+VP+得+(NPi's)NPj+VP",如"他兴奋得脸红了"、"他走得脚疼了".

  1. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  2. This Is So NP!

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    Elizaveta Bylinina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction we are discussing is a recent American English construction (though it can be found in a number of other languages as well with an individual-denoting noun phrase (NP in the predicate position modified by a degree modifier that typically occurs with gradable adjectives, as in 'This is so Obama!' We attempt to look deeper into the structure and compositional semantics of this construction, and though we do not provide a complete analysis of it, we believe that the study of this construction can contribute to questions of gradable predicate semantics, multidimensionality, degree constructions and proper name semantics.ReferencesDik, S. 1968. Coordination: Its Implications for the Theory of General Linguistics. NorthHolland, Amsterdam.Doetjes, J. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection. Ph.D. thesis, Leiden University.Gary-Prieur, M.-N. 1991. ‘La modalisation du nom propre’. Langue Francaise 92: 49–62.Gary-Prieur, M.-N. 1994. Grammaire du nom propre. Paris: Le Seuil.Gary-Prieur, M.-N. 2001. L’individu pluriel: Les noms propres et le nombre. Paris: CNRS Editions.Geurts, B. 1997. ‘Good news about the description theory of names’. Journal of Semantics 14: 319–348.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/14.4.319Heim, I. 2000. ‘Degree Operators and Scope’. Proceedings of SALT 10: 40–64.Heim, I. & Kratzer, A. 1998. Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.J. Hay, C. Kennedy & Levin, B. 1999. ‘Scale structure underlies telicity in ‘degree achievements”. Semantics and Linguistic Theory 9: 127–44.Kagan, O. & Alexejenko, S. 2010. ‘The Adjectival Suffix -ovat as a Degree Modifier in Russian’. To appear in proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 15.Kamp, H. & Partee, B. 1995. ‘Prototype theory and compositionality’. Cognition 57:129–191.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(9400659-9Kennedy, C. 1999. Projecting the adjective: The syntax and semantics of gradability and comparison. New York: Garland. (1997 UCSC Ph.D thesis

  3. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

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    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  4. Uterine stretch regulates temporal and spatial expression of fibronectin protein and its alpha 5 integrin receptor in myometrium of unilaterally pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Williams, S Joy; Draper, Haley; White, Bryan G; MacPhee, Daniel J; Lye, Stephen J

    2007-11-01

    The adaptive growth of the uterus during pregnancy is a critical event that involves increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and dynamic remodeling of smooth muscle cell (SMC)-ECM interactions. We have previously found a dramatic increase in the expression of the mRNAs that encode fibronectin (FN) and its alpha5-integrin receptor (ITGA5) in pregnant rat myometrium near to term. Since the myometrium at term is exposed to considerable mechanical stretching of the uterine wall by the growing fetus(es), the objective of the present study was to examine its role in the regulation of FN and ITGA5 expression at late gestation and during labor. Using myometrial tissues from unilaterally pregnant rats, we investigated the temporal changes in Itga5 gene expression in gravid and empty uterine horns by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, in combination with immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses of the temporal/spatial distributions of the FN and ITGA5 proteins. In addition, we studied the effects of early progesterone (P4) withdrawal on Itga5 mRNA levels and ITGA5 protein detection. At all time-points examined, the Itga5 mRNA levels were increased in the gravid uterine horn, compared to the empty horn (P < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis confirmed higher ITGA5 and FN protein levels in the myometrium, associated with gravidity (P < 0.05). Immunodetection of ITGA5 was consistently high in the longitudinal muscle layer, increased with gestational age in the circular muscle layer of the gravid horn, and remained low in the empty horn. ITGA5 and FN immunostaining in the gravid horn exhibited a continuous layer of variable thickness associated directly with the surfaces of individual SMCs. In contrast to the effects of stretch, P4 does not appear to regulate ITGA5 expression. We speculate that the reinforcement of the FN-ITGA5 interaction: 1) contributes to myometrial hypertrophy and remodeling during late pregnancy; and 2) facilitates force transduction

  5. Nonparametric Econometrics: The np Package

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    Tristen Hayfield

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R np package via a series of applications that may be of interest to applied econometricians. The np package implements a variety of nonparametric and semiparametric kernel-based estimators that are popular among econometricians. There are also procedures for nonparametric tests of significance and consistent model specification tests for parametric mean regression models and parametric quantile regression models, among others. The np package focuses on kernel methods appropriate for the mix of continuous, discrete, and categorical data often found in applied settings. Data-driven methods of bandwidth selection are emphasized throughout, though we caution the user that data-driven bandwidth selection methods can be computationally demanding.

  6. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  7. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

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    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  8. The Effect of Pregnant Rat Swimming on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Levels of Neonatal Lung

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    Hajizade A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine environment and fetal period can profoundly affect health of the neonat. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α is a transcription factor that regulates cellular stress responses and its activity is essential in both embryogenesis and postnatal life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal swimming on rat Pups' HIF-1α levels as a key regulator of oxygen in lungs.Methods: Sixteen female Wistar rats weighing 180- 200 grams were acclimated to a new environment consisting of equal light-darkness cycle and ad lib access to chow and adapted to the stress caused by water for two weeks. The rats were divided into two swimming and control groups. Swimming training began on the first day of pregnancy in a pool and continued for 3 weeks (1 h/day, 5 days/wk. Pups' lungs were removed two days after birth and their HIF-1α concentration was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Statistical analysis of the data was done using independent t-test. A p-value smaller than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Swimming lead to a significant (P<0.001 increase in the Pups' lung HIF-1α levels compared with the control group. Although 3-wk period of swimming training, showed no significant increase in weight and also lung weight of newborns. Thus it can be concluded that swimming endurance training in pregnancy, can be considered as appropriate alternative in order to embryos development. Conclusion: Our research suggests that HIF-1α level is an essential element for the development of the lungs of embryos. Moreover, further studies on the lung HIF-1α levels at post-natal period with different modes of exercise will provide more clear insight into the mechanisms of the findings resulting from this study.

  9. Kurodoko is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Kurdoko puzzle,one must colour some squares in a grid black in a way that satisfies non-overlapping, non-adjacency, reachability and numeric constraints specified by the numeric clues in the grid. We show that deciding the solvability of Kurodoko puzzles is NP-complete....

  10. The P versus NP Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Removed by arXiv administration. This article was plagiarized directly from Stephen Cook's description of the problem for the Clay Mathematics Institute. See http://gauss.claymath.org:8888/millennium/P_vs_NP/pvsnp.pdf for the original text.

  11. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

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    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR. METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1. Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0. Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1. SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10: Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine treated with L-arginine 2%; Group Alpha-methyldopa treated with Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg; Group L-Arginine+Alpha-methyldopa treated with L-arginine 2%+Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg. L-arginine 2% solution was offered ad libitum in drinking water and Alpha-methyldopa was administered by gavage twice a day during the length of pregnancy (20 days. Blood pressure was measured by tailcuff plethysmography on days 0 and 20. Body weight was measured on days 0, 10 and 20. Results were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation. One-Way ANOVA/Tukey (or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, as appropriate was used for group comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted as pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensivas (SHR. MÉTODOS: 30 SHR e 10 Wistar-EPM-1 ratas virgens foram utilizadas no estudo. Antes da distribuição, as fêmeas foram acasaladas com machos da mesma linhagem (3:1; a prenhez foi confirmada pela presença de espermatozóides no esfregaço vaginal. As ratas Wistar-EPM-1 foram utilizadas como controles. As ratas SHR foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em 4 grupos (n=10: Grupo Controle-2, não-tratado; Grupo L-Arginina, tratado com L-arginina; Grupo Alfa-metildopa, tratado com alfa-metildopa; Grupo L-Arginina+Alfa-metildopa, tratado com arginina+Alfa-metildopa. L-arginina (2% foi oferecida ad libitum na água de beber e a Alfa-metildopa (33 mg/Kg foi administrada por gavagem, duas vezes ao dia, durante toda a

  12. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  13. Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

    2012-10-01

    The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

  14. A toxicidade do Hypericum perforatum administrado a ratas prenhes Evaluation of Hypericum perforatum toxicity when administered to pregnant rats

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    Luciana Valente Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho foi avaliada a toxicidade do H. perforatum administrado a ratas no período de organogênese (9º ao 15º dia de gestação. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratas Wistar inseminadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente nos grupos controle e tratado, que receberam, respectivamente, 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica e 36 mg/kg de extrato seco de Jarsin diluídos em 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica por gavagem. A toxicidade materna foi avaliada por: consumo de água e ração, peso corporal, piloereção, deambulação, diarréia e ocorrência de mortes. As ratas foram sacrificadas no 21º dia de gestação, quando foram removidos e pesados: rins, fígado e ovários. Foram calculados os índices de implantação e de reabsorção e foi verificado o número médio de fetos por rata. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados sinais clínicos de toxicidade materna e nenhuma das variáveis analisadas apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos experimentais. CONCLUSÃO: Na dose administrada e no modelo experimental utilizado, o Hypericum perforatum não apresenta manifestações tóxicas para ratas prenhas no período de organogênese.BACKGROUND: Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: In the present paper, the toxicity of H. perforatum administered to female rats during organogenesis (9th to 15th day of pregnancy was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty inseminated Wistar rats were randomly distributed into Control and Treated groups, which received by gavage, respectively, 0.5 ml of saline and 36 mg/Kg body weight of Jarsin dried extract diluted into 0.5 ml of saline. Maternal toxicity was evaluated by means of: water and food intake, body weight, piloerection, walking activity, diarrhea and death. Animals were killed on the 21st day of pregnancy, when kidneys, liver and ovaries were weighed. Implantation and reabsorption indices

  15. Ação crônica do napsilato de propoxifeno na prenhez da rata Chronic effects of propoxyphene napsylate on pregnant rats

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    Eliane T. R. Mendes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do napsilato de propoxifeno sobre a prenhez da rata albina. Para tanto utilizamos 50 ratas prenhes divididas ao acaso em cinco grupos iguais. Todas receberam diariamente, por gavagem, o volume de 1 ml, desde os dias 0 (zero até o 20 de prenhez, com as seguintes características: grupo I - somente água destilada (controle; grupo II - solução aquosa de acácia 2% (veículo; grupos III, IV e V - respectivamente, 5, 15 e 45 mg/kg de peso de napsilato de propoxifeno dissolvido em solução de acácia a 2%. Os pesos maternos foram anotados nos dias 0 (zero, 7, 14 e 20 de prenhez; no 20º dia as matrizes foram sacrificadas. Nossos resultados mostraram que os animais tratados com 45 mg/kg do fármaco apresentaram redução dos pesos individuais dos fetos como também dos pesos das ninhadas e das placentas. Quanto às outras variáveis apreciadas: número de reabsorções, de implantações e de placentas não houve diferença significante entre os grupos tratados em relação ao grupo controle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of propoxyphene napsylate on the pregnancy of the rat. We used fifty pregnant rats divided into five groups. All the animals received daily 1 ml of the solution by gavage from day 0 to the 20th day of pregnancy. Group I - only distilled water (control; group II - aqueous solution of acacia 2% (vehicle; groups III, IV and V - respectively, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg of weight of propoxyphene napsylate diluted in 2% acacia solution. The animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy. Our results showed that the animals treated with 45 mg/kg of propoxyphene napsylate presented reduction of the individual weights of the fetuses, as well as of the weights of the newborns and placentas. The difference betewwn number of resorptions, implantations and placentas of the treated groups was shown to be non

  16. The effect of resveratrol on contractility of non-pregnant rat uterus: the contribution of K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R; Ilic, B; Beleslin-Cokic, B; Radunovic, N; Heinle, H; Scepanovic, R; Gojkovic-Bukarica, L

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate resveratrol (1-100 μM) effect on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRC), oxytocin-induced (0.2 nM, POxC) phasic and tonic (20 nM, TOxC) contractions of isolated rat uterus. The SRC and POxC were more sensitive to resveratrol than TOxC (pD2 values: 4.53 and 4.66 versus 4.06). Different blockers of K(+) channels (glibenclamide, tetraethylamonium, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine) antagonized the response to resveratrol on the SRC and phasic contractions, but did not antagonize the effect of resveratrol on the TOxC. In order to compare the relaxant activities of resveratrol on the TOxC with that of potassium channel openers, a separate experiments with NS 1619, a highly specific big Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BKCa) channels opener and pinacidil, a predominant opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels were done. NS 1619 (10-100 μM) and pinacidil (10-100 μM) produced more potent inhibition of TOxC than resveratrol (pD2 values were 6.00 and 5.29). Iberiotoxin, a highly selective BKCa channels blocker, antagonized the response to NS 1619 and glibenclamide, a highly selective KATP channels blocker, antagonized the response to pinacidil on the TOxC. To test K(+)- and extracellular Ca(2+)- independent mechanism(s) of resveratrol on TOxC, a K(+)-rich, Ca(2+)-free solution was used. Under this condition, only high concentrations (≥30 μM) of resveratrol inhibited TOxC. Western blots analysis confirmed expression of Kir6.1, Kir6.2, KCa1.1, Kv2.1 and Kv4.2. channel proteins in myometrium. Thus, the effect of resveratrol is dependent on the types of contractions. The inhibitory response of resveratrol on the SRC and phasic contractions involves different myometrial K(+)- channels. When applied in high concentrations, resveratrol has an additional K(+)- channels independent mechanism(s) of action. As the effects of NS 1619, pinacidil and resveratrol on the TOxC are different, we can conclud that resveratrol does not behave as a classical

  17. Oxytocic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Costus lucanusianus - family Costaceae on isolated non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Omonkhelini J; Omogbai, Eric K I; Falodun, Abiodun

    2010-04-01

    Costus lucanusianus J. Braun (Costaceae) is a climbing herb, found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This plant is locally used in situations of pains, inflammation, dysmenorrhoea and in pyrexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate this claim with view to validating scientifically the ethno-medicinal usage. The aqueous extract was subjected to pharmacological testing in vitro on a piece of isolated rat uterus previously pretreated with 1 mg/kg stilbestrol for 24 h. The dose response curves of oxytocin and that of the extract were first obtained. The effects of antagonists like atropine (1 mg) and salbutamol (2 microg) on the dose response curve of the extract were also investigated. Possible synergy was investigated via co-administration of the extract and oxytocin. Finally the proximate analysis of the extract was investigated. The aqueous extract of C. lucanusianus and oxytocin both produced a dose dependent contraction of the uterus. An effect of 0.63+/-0.06 g force of uterine contraction produced by 12.5 mg of the extract was increased to 1.37+/-0.09 g when 200 mg of the extract was administered. Oxytocin at 0.16 i.u was observed to produce a similar force of contraction with 200 mg of the aqueous extract. Synergy was established as co administration of the extract at 200 mg and oxytocin at 0.08 i.u, produced higher contractile effect, significantly higher (p<0.05) than when either the extract (200mg) or oxytocin (0.08 i.u) was administered alone. Both atropine and salbutamol significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited the contractile effect produced by the extract. The inhibitory effect showed by atropine on the contractile effect of the extract seems to suggest the involvement of muscarinic receptors. The proximate analysis carried out in this study is used to establish the identity of the crude drug sample. A moisture content of 10.047 % was obtained. The total ash is a measure of the non-volatile inorganic constituents remaining after ashing. The

  18. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways.

  19. The nuclear factor-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid-induced immune response in pregnant rats and the behavioral defects of their adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xueqin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have indicated that maternal infection during pregnancy may lead to a higher incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. It is assumed that the maternal infection increases the immune response, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Maternal polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (PolyI:C treatment induces a wide range of characteristics in the offspring mimicking some schizophrenia symptoms in humans. These observations are consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Methods We examined whether suppression of the maternal immune response could prevent neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring. PolyI:C or saline was administered to early pregnant rats to mimic maternal infection, and the maternal immune response represented by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was used to suppress the maternal immune response. Neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring were examined by prepulse inhibition (PPI, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Results PolyI:C administration to early pregnant rats led to elevated serum cytokine levels as shown by massive increases in serum TNF-α and IL-10 levels. The adult offspring showed defects in prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance and active avoidance tests. PDTC intervention in early pregnant rats suppressed cytokine increases and reduced the severity of neurodevelopmental defects in adult offspring. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PDTC can suppress the maternal immune response induced by PolyI:C and partially prevent neurodevelopmental disorders of adult offspring.

  20. 莪术对正常和血瘀证孕大鼠血液流变学的影响%Effect of Curcumae Rhizoma on Hemorheological Parameters in Normal and Blood-stasis Pregnant Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天娇; 赵学梅; 郭丽娜; 洪博; 王晓丽; 李晓明; 李刚; 牛英才

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察莪术对正常和血瘀证孕大鼠血液流变学的影响。方法采用皮下注射盐酸肾上腺素与冷刺激的方法制备血瘀证模型,造模后将正常组随机分为空白对照组和高、中、低剂量莪术组,将血瘀证模型组随机分为模型对照组和高、中、低剂量莪术组。受孕后第6~19 d给予不同剂量的莪术水煎液。检测受孕雌鼠血液流变学指标。结果莪术高、中、低剂量组均能降低正常组与血瘀证模型组在不同切变率下全血黏度。与正常对照组相比较,正常+莪术高剂量组在不同切变率下全血黏度有显著性差异(P<0.05),而在中切变率下,各剂量血瘀+莪术组的全血黏度与正常对照组相比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论莪术+血瘀证模型组能使全血黏度降至正常孕大鼠水平,证明了中医“有故无殒,亦无殒”的中药辨证减毒理论。%Objective This study aims at evaluating the effect of curcumae rhizoma on hemorheological parameters between normal and blood -stasis pregnant rats .Methods A model of blood -stasis in rats was established by injecting adrenalin and being immersed in ice water .Normal Wistar female rats were randomly divided into blank control group and low , medium and large dose curcumae rhizoma groups , blood-stasis model rats were divided into model control group , low, medium and large dose curcumae rhizoma groups .Curcumae Rhizoma was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day ( GD) 6 through 19 at different doses .The hemorheological parameters were used to monitor the pregnant rats .Results Curcumae rhizoma could significantly reduce the hemorheological indexes in whole blood viscosity .Compared with normal group , whole blood viscosity at high , middle and low shear rate were decreased in rats of normal group treated with Curcumae Rhizoma(P<0.05), and We only could find blood viscosity changes at middle shear

  1. Influence of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Embryo Development of Pregnant Rats%高同型半胱氨酸血症对孕鼠胚胎发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 王新; 王海琴

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the influence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHE) on rat pregnancy. [Methods] According to the level of homocysteine ( HCY) , 30 SD pregnant rats were randomly divided into high dose group(group H) , low dose group(group L) and control group(group C) with 10 in each. From d7 to d20 of pregnancy before uterine-incision delivery, group A was intraperitoneally injected with 200mg/(kg. D) , and group L was injected with 100mg/(kg. D) , and group C was injected the equal volume of normal saline. The number of young rats and the dead fetus were counted. The weight and the height of young rats were measured. High performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical method were used to detect plasma HCY levels of pregnant rats before and d20 of pregnancy. [Results]Plasma HCY levels of pregnant rats in group H, L and C at d20 of pregnancy were 30. 47 ± 1. 12, 20. 90 ± 1. 08 and 10. 98 ± 0. 77umol/L respectively, which were higher than those before the pregnancy, and there were significant differences among groups (all P <0. 01). As the dose of HCY increased, the number, weight and height of young rats in group H and L decreased, and the rate of dead and malformation fetus increased. There were significant differences between group H or L and group C(all P <0. 05). There was also significant difference between group H and group L ( P <0. 05). [Conclusion] HHE may exert the toxic effect on embryo development of pregnant rats and there is dose-effect relationship, which mainly shows the decreasing of the number of young rats, growth retardation, malformation and dead fetus.%[目的]探讨高同型半胱氨酸血症(Hhe)对大鼠妊娠的影响.[方法]将30只SD孕鼠按同型半胱氨酸(HCY)浓度高低随机分为 高剂量组(H组)、低剂量组(L组)、对照组(C组),每组10只.从妊娠d7起,H组腹腔内注 HCY 200 mg/(kg·d),L组注射100 mg/(kg·d),C组腹腔内注射同等体积的生理盐水,直至孕d20剖宫取胎.计算各组仔鼠

  2. Inhibition and recovery of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity following a single cutaneous dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 days of gestation) were treated with a single cutaneous subclinical dose(s) of 10 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and 65 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of diazinon (O,O)-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidinyl phosphorothioate, and their combination. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Inhibition of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity has been determined. Methyl parathion significantly inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity within 24 h after dosing. Diazinon and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon caused lesser inhibition compared with methyl parathion alone. Recovery of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity was in the order of diazinon > combination of diazinon and methyl parathion > methyl parathion 96 h after dosing. Although fetal plasma BuChE activity recovered to 100% of control within 96 h of application, maternal BuChE activity remained inhibited to 55% and 32% of control 96 h after application of methyl parathion and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon, respectively. Following a single dermal dose of methyl parathion, the activity of maternal liver BuChE was 63% of control 2 h after dosing, whereas inhibition of placental AChE or BuChE activity occurred 12 and 1 h following a single dose of methyl parathion, corresponding to activities of 63% and 54% of control, respectively. Diazinon, alone or in combination with methyl parathion, did not inhibit significantly the maternal liver BuChE or placental AChE and BuChE activity. The results suggest that dermal application of a single dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone or in combination, has an easy access into maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination of methyl parathion and diazinon

  3. Uso da Ciprofloxacina durante a Prenhez de Ratas: efeitos sobre a Mãe e Fetos Use of Ciprofloxacin in Pregnant Rats: effects on Mother and Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Silva Approbato

    2000-12-01

    , divided into three groups: D50-treated (ciprofloxacin, 50 mg/kg; D100-treated (ciprofloxacin 100 mg/kg and control group which received physiological saline per os, from the 1st to the 7th day after mating. We studied abortion percentage, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, fetal and maternal death, gross fetal malformation, newborn number and weight at 1st, 3rd, 5th and 10th day of life and newborn neurological reflexes at 1st, 3rd, 5th and 10th day of life. Results: there was no difference between groups in the number of rats that became pregnant. The same was found for maternal weight gain and newborn number. There was a difference in newborn mean weight on day 3rd, 5th and 10th (p = 0.006, 0.01 and 0.03, respectively. The D100 newborn group was the one with less weight gain up to the 10th day of life. We found a significant difference (p = 0.002 in the newborn orientation reflex on the 1st day of life, that disappeared afterwards. No abortion or gross malformation was found in this study. Conclusions: ciprofloxacin modified the newborn weight and reflex on the first days of life. In conclusion, we consider that the use of ciprofloxacin should be restricted during the pregnancy.

  4. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  5. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  6. Np(V) and Np(VI) in bicarbonate/carbonate aqueous solutions; Np(V) et Np(VI) en solution aqueuse bicarbonate/carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H

    1998-12-31

    Formation constants for NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub i}{sup l2i} (i = 1, 2 and 3), NaNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3(s)} and Na{sub 3}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2(s)} are deduced from Simakin`s et al. (1977), Maya`s (1983), and Vitorge`s et al. data, who also found evidence for a mixed Np(V)-OH-CO{sub 3} soluble complex. Simakin (1977) found NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup -4}, it was confirmed by Riglet (1989), and by Offerle, Capdevilla and Vittorge (1995). Temperature influence was studied by Ullman and Schreiner (1988), and by Offerle, Capdevila and Vittorge (1995). Grenthe, Riglet and Vitorge (1986 and 1989) proved the existence of the trinuclear species (NpO{sub 2}){sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -6}. Maya (1984) mis-interpreted his data; nevertheless they show evidence of a new polynuclear mixed species, certainly (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 3}CO{sub 3}{sup -1}, as initially proposed by Maya. No other Np(V) or Np(VI) soluble complex could be detected, the proposed ones quantitatively account for all published works. Unpublished data allowed to estimate the stability of intermediary mononuclear complexes and NpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3(s)} solubility product. M{sub 4}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3(s)} (M{sup +} = K{sup +} or NH{sub 4}{sup +}) ones are deduced from Gorbenko-Germanov and Klimov (1966), and Moskvin (1975) data as respectively interpreted and reinterpreted by this review. Thermodynamic data determined in this report are under discussion within OECD-NEA-TDB. (author)

  7. The Magnets Puzzle is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete.......In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete....

  8. Study on ingredients of Scutellaria Radix extract penetrable through placental barrier of pregnant rat%黄芩水提液透过妊娠大鼠胎盘屏障的药物成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽丽; 宋殿荣; 郭锦明; 王跃飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:对不同孕期妊娠大鼠给予黄芩水提液,采用HPLC-MS研究透过胎盘屏障的药物成分.方法:早、中、晚孕期Wistar大鼠灌胃黄芩水提液,连续给药5d,末次给药后1.5,12 h,取母体血浆(母血)及胚胎组织,检测生物样品中所含药物成分.结果:实验剂量下,各孕期孕鼠血浆中均检测到了7个化合物,明确归属的化合物有黄芩苷、汉黄芩苷、黄芩素、汉黄芩素、千层纸素A.各孕期胚胎组织中,早期检测到7个化合物,包括已归属的5个化合物;中期未检测到待测成分;晚期检测到除黄芩素以外的6个化合物.结论:大鼠妊娠不同时期给药黄芩后,除孕中期外,孕早、晚期胚胎组织中均可检测到黄芩中的药物成分,提示在妊娠期应用黄芩可以造成胎儿的宫内暴露,应对其进一步进行胚胎毒性研究.%Objective: To study ingredients penetrable through placental barrier by administering pregnant rats with Scutellaria Radix extract using HPLC-MS. Method: Rats in early, middle and late pregnancy were intragastrically administered with Scutellaria Radix extract for 5 days. Maternal plasma and embryonic tissues were obtained at 1. 5 , 12 h after the final administration of Scutellaria Radix extract to determine ingredients of biological specimens. Result: Under the optimum experimental conditions, seven compounds were detected in all pregnant rat plasma, specifically including baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A. The seven compounds were also discovered in embryonic tissues of rats in early pregnancy, including the five detected compounds. But they were not detected in embryonic tissues of rats in middle pregnancy, and six compounds except baicalein were detected embryonic tissues of rats in late pregnancy. Conclusion: Ingredients contained in Scutellaria Radix are detected in pregnant rats at different stages, except those in middle pregnancy, indicating a potential in utero exposure in case

  9. Placental lactogen administration reverses the effect of low-protein diet on maternal and fetal serum somatomedin levels in the pregnant rat.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Female rats were studied on day 20 of pregnancy after being fed either a 5% lactalbumin (low protein) diet or a 20% lactalbumin (adequate) diet for the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Rats on the lower intake of protein showed decreased serum levels of rat placental lactogen and reduced numbers of lactogenic receptors in the maternal liver. These changes were accompanied by much reduced serum levels of somatomedins IGF I(insulin-like growth factor) and II (multiplication-stimulating activity, MSA)...

  10. 寒冷刺激诱发孕鼠妊娠高血压综合征动物模型研究%Cold-stress stimulates pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞丽丽; 李力; 陈鸣; 吴国萍; 胡春秀; 祝之明

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨寒冷刺激是否能诱发孕鼠妊娠高血压综合征样的改变。方法 将成年Wistar雌鼠随机分为4组:非孕对照组(NN)、非孕寒冷组(NC)、妊娠对照组(PN)、妊娠寒冷组(PC),从妊娠第1天至妊娠第19天每天分别置于(4±2) ℃ 4 h(寒冷组)及25 ℃ (对照组),测定大鼠血压、尿蛋白、体重、红细胞压积,测量胎盘重量、胎鼠重量及身长,观察胎盘、肾脏组织学改变。结果 NC及PC组刺激两周后血压升高、尿蛋白增加,与NN及PN组相比,均有统计学意义。PC组与PN组相比,胎盘重量、胎鼠重量及身长均显著降低,其肾脏及胎盘各层均有明显的缺血、缺氧的组织学表现。结论 反复寒冷刺激可诱发孕鼠妊娠高血压综合征样的改变,为妊娠高血压综合征的动物模型制作提供了一种新的非侵袭性方法。%Objective To determine whether cold-stress stimulation could lead to pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIH) in rats. Methods Female adult Wistar female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: non-pregnant control group (NN), non-pregnant cold-stress group (NC), pregnant control group (PN) and pregnant cold-stress group (PC). The rats were kept in (4±2) ℃ for 4 h (cold-stress groups) every day or remained in 25 ℃ (control groups) from the 1 st day to 19 th day of pregnancy. The blood pressure, urine protein, body weight, haematocrit (HCT), weight of placenta, length and weight of fetus were all measured. The histological change of the placenta and kidneys were also observed. Results After cold-stress stimulation for 2 weeks, the blood pressure, urine protein in NC and PC group increased significantly compared with that in control group, while the weight of placenta and fetus, the length of fetus in PC decreased significantly than that in PN. Obvious ischemic and anoxic histological changes in kidneys and all layers of placenta were

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_689854.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_689854.2 chr12 Determination of the Three-dimensional Structure of the Mrf2-DNA ...Complex Using Paramagnetic Spin Labeling d1ig6a_ chr12/NP_689854.2/NP_689854.2_apo_18-119.pdb c2oeha_ chr12/NP_689854.2/NP_689854.

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_037474.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_037474.1 chr19 Structure of an acetylated Rsc4 tandem bromodomain Histone Chimer...a p2r0sa_ chr19/NP_037474.1/NP_037474.1_apo_34-223.pdb p2r10a_ chr19/NP_037474.1/NP_037474.1_holo_34-223.pdb

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_003151.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003151.2 chr19 STRUCTURE OF AURORA B KINASE IN COMPLEX WITH ZM447439 p2bfxa_ chr19/NP_003151....2/NP_003151.2_apo_2-271.pdb p2vrxb_ chr19/NP_003151.2/NP_003151.2_holo_2-271.pdb blast 15L,16G,

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_079491.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079491.2 chr12 Crystal structure of pseudoudirinde synthase TruA in complex with... leucyl tRNA d1dj0a_ chr12/NP_079491.2/NP_079491.2_apo_81-334.pdb c2nrea_ chr12/NP_079491.2/NP_079491.2_holo

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_037361.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_037361.1 chr12 WDR5 AND UNMODIFIED HISTONE H3 COMPLEX AT 2.25 ANGSTROM p2gnqa_ chr12/NP_037361....1/NP_037361.1_apo_603-900.pdb p2co0c_ chr12/NP_037361.1/NP_037361.1_holo_603-900.pdb blast 60

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_001997.5 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001997.5 chr4 Snow Flea Antifreeze Protein Quasi-racemate p2pnea_ chr4/NP_001997.5/NP_001997.5..._apo_27-110.pdb p3boga_ chr4/NP_001997.5/NP_001997.5_holo_27-110.pdb swppa 33P,34G,36A,60A,61G

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_055061.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055061.1 chr22 THE STRUCTURE OF THE GDNF:CORECEPTOR COMPLEX: INSIGHTS INTO RET S...IGNALLING AND HEPARIN BINDING. p3fubc_ chr22/NP_055061.1/NP_055061.1_apo_1277-1422.pdb p2v5ea_ chr22/NP_055061.1/NP_055061.

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_003521.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003521.2 chr6 Crystal structure of human nucleosome core particle d2arog1 chr6/NP_003521.2/NP_003521....2_apo_38-136.pdb c2cv5e_ chr6/NP_003521.2/NP_003521.2_holo_38-136.pdb blast 38K,40H,41R

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_036421.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_036421.2 chr19 Crystal structure of Keap1 complexed with Prothymosin alpha d1u6dx_ chr19/NP_036421....2/NP_036421.2_apo_324-613.pdb c2z32a_ chr19/NP_036421.2/NP_036421.2_holo_324-613.pdb blas

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_116761.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_116761.2 chr18 EF-hand modules in multidomain proteins d1eg3a1 chr18/NP_116761.2/NP_116761....2_apo_9-142.pdb d1eg4a1 chr18/NP_116761.2/NP_116761.2_holo_9-142.pdb psi-blast 1 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_003791.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003791.3 chr6 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE RNA TRIPHOSPHATASE DOMAIN OF MOUSE MRNA C...APPING ENZYME p2c46d_ chr6/NP_003791.3/NP_003791.3_apo_4-200.pdb p1i9sa_ chr6/NP_003791.3/NP_003791.3_holo_4

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_981961.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_981961.1 chr12 Crystal structure analysis of the monomeric SRCR domain of mouse ...MARCO p2oyaa_ chr12/NP_981961.1/NP_981961.1_apo_479-577.pdb p2oy3a_ chr12/NP_981961.1/NP_981961.1_holo_479-5

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_002211.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002211.1 chr15 Snow Flea Antifreeze Protein Quasi-racemate p2pnea_ chr15/NP_002211.1/NP_002211....1_apo_63-142.pdb p3boga_ chr15/NP_002211.1/NP_002211.1_holo_63-142.pdb swppa 69G,70L,72R,93P,

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_001070991.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001070991.1 chr19 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE ALPHA-ADAPTIN APPENDAGE DOMAIN, FROM ...ANIN P170 c1b9ka_ chr19/NP_001070991.1/NP_001070991.1_apo_861-1109.pdb c2vj0a_ chr19/NP_001070991.1/NP_001070991.

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_002932.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002932.1 chr3 DROSOPHILA ROBO IG1-2 (MONOCLINIC FORM) p2vrad_ chr3/NP_002932.1/NP_002932....1_apo_68-258.pdb p2vrab_ chr3/NP_002932.1/NP_002932.1_holo_68-258.pdb blast 81K,131R,132I,133V,134H

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_001009882.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001009882.1 chr1 Crystal structure of human myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltra...nsferase. d1rxta_ chr1/NP_001009882.1/NP_001009882.1_apo_91-233.pdb c1rxtc_ chr1/NP_001009882.1/NP_001009882.1_holo_91-233.pdb forte 197E CMO 1 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_694962.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_694962.1 chr17 Crystal structure of Skp1-Skp2-Cks1 in complex with a p27 peptide... c1fqva_ chr17/NP_694962.1/NP_694962.1_apo_14-353.pdb c2astb_ chr17/NP_694962.1/NP_694962.1_holo_14-353.pdb

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_002537.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002537.3 chr8 Crystal structure of the human BTLA-HVEM complex c1jmab_ chr8/NP_002537.3/NP_002537....3_apo_32-123.pdb c2aw2b_ chr8/NP_002537.3/NP_002537.3_holo_32-123.pdb blast 95Q,96E NAG 1 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_001035207.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035207.1 chr11 Pleckstrin-homology domain (PH domain) c1u2ba_ chr11/NP_001035207.1/NP_001035207....1_apo_1279-1403.pdb d1fgya_ chr11/NP_001035207.1/NP_001035207.1_holo_1279-1403.pdb psi-bl

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_065857.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065857.1 chr14 Structural basis of dynamic glycine receptor clustering c2fu3a_ chr14/NP_065857....1/NP_065857.1_apo_351-769.pdb c1t3eb_ chr14/NP_065857.1/NP_065857.1_holo_351-769.pdb blast 35

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001018067.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001018067.1 chr11 HUMAN NOTCH-1 EGFS 11-13 c1toza_ chr11/NP_001018067.1/NP_001018067....1_apo_32-142.pdb c2vj3a_ chr11/NP_001018067.1/NP_001018067.1_holo_32-142.pdb psi-blast 212R,213D,214C,2

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_002742.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002742.3 chr22 Protein kinases, catalytic subunit d2onla1 chr22/NP_002742.3/NP_002742....3_apo_4-351.pdb d1leza_ chr22/NP_002742.3/NP_002742.3_holo_4-351.pdb blast 110G,111A,115N,116I,118K,11

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_945352.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_945352.1 chr9 Snow Flea Antifreeze Protein Quasi-racemate p2pnea_ chr9/NP_945352.1/NP_945352....1_apo_14-116.pdb p3boga_ chr9/NP_945352.1/NP_945352.1_holo_14-116.pdb swppa 20A,21H,23R,30L,44P

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_115992.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115992.1 chr2 Crystal structure analysis of the monomeric SRCR domain of mouse M...ARCO p2oyab_ chr2/NP_115992.1/NP_115992.1_apo_306-406.pdb p2oy3a_ chr2/NP_115992.1/NP_115992.1_holo_306-406.

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_001017992.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001017992.1 chr5 Ternary complex of the WH2 domain of WASP with Actin-DNAse I p3byha_ chr5/NP_001017992....1/NP_001017992.1_apo_3-376.pdb p2a3za_ chr5/NP_001017992.1/NP_001017992.1_holo_3-376

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_663723.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_663723.1 chr8 MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE RECOGNITION OF PHOSPHORYLATED AND PHOSPHOA...CETYLATED HISTONE H3 BY 14-3-3 d1ib1a_ chr8/NP_663723.1/NP_663723.1_apo_1-230.pdb c2c1nb_ chr8/NP_663723.1/NP_663723.

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_150643.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_150643.2 chr1 INTEGRIN BINDING CBEGF22-TB4-CBEGF33 FRAGMENT OF HUMAN FIBRILLIN-1..., CA BOUND TO CBEGF23 DOMAIN ONLY c1uzpa_ chr1/NP_150643.2/NP_150643.2_apo_593-752.pdb c1uzka_ chr1/NP_150643.2/NP_150643.

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_060142.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060142.3 chr15 Crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain of TRPV2 p2etcb_ chr15/NP_060142.3.../NP_060142.3_apo_483-742.pdb p2etba_ chr15/NP_060142.3/NP_060142.3_holo_483-742.pdb psi-blas

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_112562.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_112562.3 chr17 Src kinase in complex with a quinazoline inhibitor c1fmka_ chr17/NP_112562.3/NP_112562.3..._apo_71-521.pdb c2h8ha_ chr17/NP_112562.3/NP_112562.3_holo_71-521.pdb psi-blast 244F,

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_001099047.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001099047.1 chr13 Structure of OHCU decarboxylase in complex with guanine d2o70a1 chr13/NP_001099047....1/NP_001099047.1_apo_1-168.pdb c2o74f_ chr13/NP_001099047.1/NP_001099047.1_holo_1-168.p

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_938207.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_938207.2 chr17 Src kinase in complex with a quinazoline inhibitor c1fmka_ chr17/NP_938207.2/NP_938207....2_apo_71-521.pdb c2h8ha_ chr17/NP_938207.2/NP_938207.2_holo_71-521.pdb psi-blast 244F,

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_115597.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115597.3 chr20 Crystal Structure of ALIX/AIP1 in complex with the HIV-1 YPLASL L...ate Domain p2oeva_ chr20/NP_115597.3/NP_115597.3_apo_963-1562.pdb p2r05a_ chr20/NP_115597.3/NP_115597.3_holo

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_001095937.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001095937.1 chr2 Structure of aquaporin-4 S180D mutant at 2.8 A resolution by el...ectron crystallography p2d57a_ chr2/NP_001095937.1/NP_001095937.1_apo_30-256.pdb p2zz9a_ chr2/NP_001095937.1/NP_001095937.

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_000807.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000807.2 chr5 An open-pore structure of a bacterial pentameric ligand-gated ion ...channel p3ei0e_ chr5/NP_000807.2/NP_000807.2_apo_82-378.pdb p3eama_ chr5/NP_000807.2/NP_000807.2_holo_82-378

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_001073591.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073591.1 chr20 Prion-like d1qlza_ chr20/NP_001073591.1/NP_001073591.1_apo_125...-228.pdb d1i4ma_ chr20/NP_001073591.1/NP_001073591.1_holo_125-228.pdb blast 140H,141F,147D,151R,177H,181N 12

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_004001.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004001.1 chrX STRUCTURE OF A DYSTROPHIN WW DOMAIN FRAGMENT IN COMPLEX WITH A BET...A-DYSTROGLYCAN PEPTIDE c1eg3a_ chrX/NP_004001.1/NP_004001.1_apo_2924-3183.pdb c1eg4a_ chrX/NP_004001.1/NP_004001.1

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_851851.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_851851.1 chr22 BCR-homology GTPase activation domain (BH-domain) d1rgpa_ chr22/NP_851851.1/NP_851851.1..._apo_222-417.pdb d1grnb_ chr22/NP_851851.1/NP_851851.1_holo_222-417.pdb blast 268R GDP 1 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_006281.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006281.1 chr6 STRUCTURE OF THE A20 OVARIAN TUMOUR (OTU) DOMAIN p3dkbf_ chr6/NP_006281.1/NP_006281.1..._apo_3-362.pdb p2vfjd_ chr6/NP_006281.1/NP_006281.1_holo_3-362.pdb blast 300E,304K,311E,3

  9. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  10. Criticality of a {sup 237}Np Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.

    2003-07-22

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg {sup 237}Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of {sup 237}Np. To attain criticality, the {sup 237}Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt % {sup 235}U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k{sub eff} of 0.99089 {+-} 0.0003 compared with a k{sub eff} 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of {sup 237}Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties.

  11. The Complexity Of The NP-Class

    CERN Document Server

    Barron-Romero, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and straight formulation, and gives a complete insight towards the understanding of the complexity of the problems of the so called NP-Class. In particular, this paper focuses in the Searching of the Optimal Geometrical Structures and the Travelling Salesman Problems. The main results are the polynomial reduction procedure and the solution to the Noted Conjecture of the NP-Class.

  12. Magnetic sublattices in Np2Co17 and Np2Ni17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, E.; Hen, A.; Sanchez, J.-P.; Griveau, J.-C.; Magnani, N.; Eloirdi, R.; Halevy, I.; Gaczyński, P.; Orion, I.; Shick, A. B.; Caciuffo, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rare-earth-based compounds R2T17 (R=Rare earth; T=Transition metal) have been extensively studied and developed for applications as permanent magnets. The actinide-based analogues, however, are much less documented and we report here about the magnetic properties of Np2Co17 and Np2Ni17, as inferred from 237Np Mössbauer spectroscopy, the best resonance in actinides, and specific heat.

  13. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, K.; Kirchgessner, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden

  14. Effect of mutated defensin NP-1 on sciatic nerve regeneration after transection--A pivot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chungui; Bai, Lili; Chen, Yuhong; Fan, Chengming; Hu, Zanmin; Xu, Hailin; Jiang, Baoguo

    2016-03-23

    Defensins are small cationic peptides that constitute the first line of defense against pathogens and are involved in immune regulation. In this study, their role in peripheral nerve regeneration was investigated. Rat sciatic nerves were transected and the two nerve stumps were bridged by a chitin conduit with a gap of 5mm between the stumps. The animals were injected intramuscularly with mutated rabbit neutrophil peptide 1 (defensin mNP-1), the positive control nerve growth factor (NGF) or the negative control saline, for 7 consecutive days after repair. After 6 weeks, the sciatic functional index (SFI), MNCV (motor nerve conductive velocity) and morphological parameters including myelinated fiber amounts, fiber diameter, axon diameter, myelin thickness and G-ratio were measured. Compared to the SFI of saline group, the NGF and mNP-1 groups had an increase of 18.3% and 18.8%, respectively. The numbers of myelinated fibers in the distal nerve of NGF and mNP-1 groups were 1.45- and 1.32-fold higher than in the saline group. The MNCVs of NGF and mNP-1 groups were 7.3 and 4.4 times of that of saline group. Fiber diameter, axon diameter, myelin thickness and G-ratio in the NGF and mNP-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of saline group. Our results demonstrate that, like NGF, the defensin mNP-1 can promote regeneration after a peripheral nerve cut.

  15. The association between nonylphenols and sexual hormones levels among pregnant women: a cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.

  16. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  17. {sup 237}Np and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer study of NpFeGa{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Y., E-mail: yhomma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research (Japan); Nakada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advance Science Research Center (Japan); Nasu, S.; Aoki, D. [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research (Japan); Sakai, H.; Ikeda, S.; Yamamoto, E.; Haga, Y.; Onuki, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advance Science Research Center (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    {sup 57}Fe and {sup 237}Np Moessbauer Omeasurements have been performed for NpFeGa{sub 5}, which is one of the so-called neptunium 1-1-5 compounds. The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra below T{sub N} = 118 K show the magnetically ordered state. The magnitude of the hyperfine magnetic field at the {sup 57}Fe nucleus is determined to be 1.98 {+-} 0.05 T at 10 K. From the {sup 237}Np Moessbauer spectrum at 10 K, the hyperfine magnetic field at the {sup 237}Np nucleus is 203 T and the hyperfine coupling constant is determined to be 237 T/{mu}{sub B} using the Np atomic magnetic moment of 0.86 {mu}{sub B} determined by the neutron diffraction study.

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_001073593.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073593.1 chr2 Crystal Structure of MC159 Reveals Molecular Mechanism of DISC Assembly and vFLIP Inhibi...tion p2f1sa_ chr2/NP_001073593.1/NP_001073593.1_apo_6-185.pdb p2bbra_ chr2/NP_00107

  19. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_789794.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C-fragment of tetanus neurotoxin c1a8da_ chr4/NP_789794.1/NP_789794.1_apo_1-448.pdb c1yxwa_ chr4/NP_789794....NP_789794.1 chr4 A common binding site for disialyllactose and a tri-peptide in the

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_997461.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_997461.1 chr1 Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Aurora A Kinase by a Novel ...Class of High Affinity Disubstituted Pyrimidine Inhibitors p2np8a_ chr1/NP_997461.1/NP_997461.1_holo_38-195.

  2. NP-MHTGR Fuel Development Program Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, John Thomas; Petti, David Andrew; Hobbins, Richard Redfield; McCardell, Richard K.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Southworth, Finis Hio

    2002-10-01

    In August 1988, the Secretary of Energy announced a strategy to acquire New Production Reactor capacity for producing tritium. The strategy involved construction of a New Production Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) where the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was selected as the Management and Operations contractor for the project. Immediately after the announcement in August 1988, tritium target particle development began with the INEEL selected as the lead laboratory. Fuel particle development was initially not considered to be on a critical path for the project, therefore, the fuel development program was to run concurrently with the design effort of the NP-MHTGR.

  3. Classic Nintendo Games are (NP-)Hard

    CERN Document Server

    Aloupis, Greg; Guo, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We prove NP-hardness results for five of Nintendo's largest video game franchises: Mario, Donkey Kong, Legend of Zelda, Metroid, and Pokemon. Our results apply to Super Mario Bros. 1, 3, Lost Levels, and Super Mario World; Donkey Kong Country 1-3; all Legend of Zelda games except Zelda II: The Adventure of Link; all Metroid games; and all Pokemon role-playing games. For Mario and Donkey Kong, we show NP-completeness. In addition, we observe that several games in the Zelda series are PSPACE-complete.

  4. Lexical NP and VP quantifiers in Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kalpakchieva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lexical NP and VP quantifiers in Bulgarian The paper focuses on uniqueness, existential and universal quantification within the Bulgarian noun and verb phrase. Quantifiers scope is considered with respect to whether the quantifiers are used alone or in a group with other expressions. Another factor that affects the strength of quantifiers is the expression’s containing additional specifying functions or setting some circumstance or condition. Quantifiers within the verb phrase are particularly strongly affected by other conditions, while quantifiers within the subject NP have a broad scope and are not affected by the additional conditions of the situation described.

  5. Knottedness is in NP, modulo GRH

    CERN Document Server

    Kuperberg, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Given a tame knot K presented in the form of a knot diagram, we show that the problem of determining whether K is knotted is in the complexity class NP, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis (GRH). In other words, there exists a polynomial-length certificate that can be verified in polynomial time to prove that K is non-trivial. GRH is not needed to believe the certificate, but only to find a short certificate. This result complements the result of Hass, Lagarias, and Pippenger that unknottedness is in NP. Our proof is a corollary of major results of others in algebraic geometry and geometric topology.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of music given to pregnant rats on the development of brain functions in offspring rats%音乐刺激孕鼠对子代鼠大脑功能影响的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范尧; 潘国强; 雷迅; 高佳; 谭毅

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically evaluate the effect of music given to pregnant rats on the development of brain functions in the offspring rats and to provide scientific evidence for the application of antenatal musical training and the promotion of welfare for laboratory animals.Methods We comprehensively retrieved and collected the research literatures related to the effect of music on brain function development in offsprings of the pregnant rats from Pubmed,Web of Science,Cochrane Library,Wanfang,Weipu,CNKI and CBMdisc.The retrieval time was set from the foundation date of databases to 2 April,2016.We selected literatures according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,evaluated their utilities,then extracted and qualitatively described the data.Results Seven experimental studies were selected in this study including 4 published in Chinese and 3 in English.The object laboratory animals of those studies were Wistar or SD rats.Music materials involved comfort music,classic music,violin concerto(Liangzhu/The butterfly lovers).Intervention were given to the pregnant rats roundly from the gestation until parturition.These results showed that,to some extent,music stimulations during gestation may promote the development of brain function and improve spatial memory of the offspring rats.However,expressions of some functional receptors were not significantly altered.Conclusions Appropriate music provided to the pregnant rats promote the development of brain functions in their offspring.%目的 系统评价音乐刺激孕鼠对子代鼠大脑功能的影响效果,为促进实验动物的福利以及音乐胎教的应用发展提供科学依据.方法 计算机检索Pubmed、Web of Science、Cochrane Library、万方、维普、中国知网和中国生物医学文献数据库,全面收集有关音乐刺激孕鼠对子代鼠大脑功能影响效果的研究文献,检索时限为建库至2016年4月2日.按照纳入与排除标准选择文献、评价文献质量和提取

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_003096.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003096.1 chr11 Haddock model of the complex between double module of LRP, CR56, ...and first domain of receptor associated protein, RAP-d1. p2fyja_ chr11/NP_003096.1/NP_003096.1_apo_1077-1153....pdb p2fylb_ chr11/NP_003096.1/NP_003096.1_holo_1077-1153.pdb blast 1342W,1343K,1344C,1345D,1346G,1347M,1348

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_009116.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_009116.3 chr1 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p2r6qa_ chr1/NP_009116.3/NP_009116.3_apo_238-373.pdb p1wcka_ chr1/NP_009116....3/NP_009116.3_holo_238-373.pdb swppa 294A,369Q,371Q CAC 1 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_001018146.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001018146.1 chr17 Nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NDK d2cwka1 chr17/NP_001018146.1/NP_001018146....1_apo_3-114.pdb d2dyaa1 chr17/NP_001018146.1/NP_001018146.1_holo_3-114.pdb forte 12K,52Y,55L,58R,60F,64L,67Y,92G,94T,105R ADP,_MG 1 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_004136.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004136.2 chr19 Viral proteases d1kxfa_ chr19/NP_004136.2/NP_004136.2_apo_1996-21...55.pdb d1wyka_ chr19/NP_004136.2/NP_004136.2_holo_1996-2155.pdb swppa 2002S,2003A,2004S,2026L,2027P,2029P,2070I,2074P,2141S,2145T DIO,FOR 1 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_115754.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115754.2 chr8 Crystal structure of an 8 repeat consensus TPR superhelix (trigona...l crystal form) p2hyza_ chr8/NP_115754.2/NP_115754.2_apo_4-171.pdb p2fo7a_ chr8/NP_115754.2/NP_115754.2_holo_4-171.pdb psi-blast 381K,382F,383K,431S,432G,443H _CD 1 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_005254.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005254.2 chr1 Viral proteases d1kxfa_ chr1/NP_005254.2/NP_005254.2_apo_106-244.p...db d1wyka_ chr1/NP_005254.2/NP_005254.2_holo_106-244.pdb swppa 112A,113Q,114P,132L,133R,137Q,176G DIO,FOR 1 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_005064.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005064.1 chr13 LacY-like proton/sugar symporter c2cfqa_ chr13/NP_005064.1/NP_005064....1_apo_9-698.pdb d1pv7a_ chr13/NP_005064.1/NP_005064.1_holo_9-698.pdb swppa 24F,30Y,34R,140K,294W,297F,298D,588Y,590L,591L,595E,623L TDG 1 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_003881.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003881.2 chr19 HUMAN NOTCH-1 EGFS 11-13 c1toza_ chr19/NP_003881.2/NP_003881.2_ap...o_1708-1820.pdb c2vj3a_ chr19/NP_003881.2/NP_003881.2_holo_1708-1820.pdb psi-blast 4161V,4162L,4163T,4177A,4

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_710141.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_710141.1 chr20 Forkhead DNA-binding domain d1jxsa_ chr20/NP_710141.1/NP_710141.1..._apo_158-254.pdb d2c6ya1 chr20/NP_710141.1/NP_710141.1_holo_158-254.pdb blast 159K,162Y,163S,164Y,165I,181T,

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_001401.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001401.2 chr19 HUMAN NOTCH-1 EGFS 11-13 c1toza_ chr19/NP_001401.2/NP_001401.2_ap...o_510-623.pdb c2vj3a_ chr19/NP_001401.2/NP_001401.2_holo_510-623.pdb psi-blast 2580D,2581L,2582F,2583V,2599C

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_003881.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003881.2 chr19 HUMAN NOTCH-1 EGFS 11-13 c1toza_ chr19/NP_003881.2/NP_003881.2_apo_4992-5111....pdb c2vj3a_ chr19/NP_003881.2/NP_003881.2_holo_4992-5111.pdb psi-blast 4161V,4162L,4163T,4177A,4

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_001074911.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001074911.1 chr19 EXTRACELLULAR REGION OF THE HUMAN RECEPTOR NKP46 c1p6fa_ chr19/NP_001074911....1/NP_001074911.1_apo_218-419.pdb c1olla_ chr19/NP_001074911.1/NP_001074911.1_holo_218-419.pdb blast 256Y,257K,258E,259G,292Q,293Y,294R,296Y EDO 1 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_004081.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004081.1 chr17 Dual specificity phosphatase-like d1vhrb_ chr17/NP_004081.1/NP_004081....1_apo_8-185.pdb d1j4xa_ chr17/NP_004081.1/NP_004081.1_holo_8-185.pdb blast 13N,23Y,25L,26P,27S,28Q,29P,

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_056141.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056141.2 chr1 Viral proteases d1kxfa_ chr1/NP_056141.2/NP_056141.2_apo_915-1070....pdb d1wyka_ chr1/NP_056141.2/NP_056141.2_holo_915-1070.pdb swppa 920R,921K,922T,923A,941V,942I,944Q,985V,989T,1056V,1060T DIO,FOR 1 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_775901.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_775901.3 chr18 THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-CATENIN ARMADILLO REPEAT COMPLEXED ...WITH A PHOSPHORYLATED APC 20MER REPEAT. d1g3ja_ chr18/NP_775901.3/NP_775901.3_apo_1615-2171.pdb c1v18a_ chr18/NP_775901.3/NP_775901.3_holo_1615-2171.pdb psi-blast 1 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_006831.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006831.1 chr19 I set domains d1b6ua2 chr19/NP_006831.1/NP_006831.1_apo_437-545.p...db d1efxd2 chr19/NP_006831.1/NP_006831.1_holo_437-545.pdb psi-blast 437P,438E,523I,525N LEU 1 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_510961.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_510961.1 chr6 C1 set domains (antibody constant domain-like) d1syva1 chr6/NP_510961.1/NP_510961....1_apo_147-236.pdb d1im9a1 chr6/NP_510961.1/NP_510961.1_holo_147-236.pdb psi-blast 230K,235F,236I ALA,ASP,LYS 1 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_996991.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_996991.1 chr1 HUMAN NOTCH-1 EGFS 11-13 c1toza_ chr1/NP_996991.1/NP_996991.1_apo_...458-590.pdb c2vj3a_ chr1/NP_996991.1/NP_996991.1_holo_458-590.pdb psi-blast 776Q,777C,778L,792T,793G,794M,79

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_065971.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065971.2 chr14 Chromo domain d2b2tb1 chr14/NP_065971.2/NP_065971.2_apo_340-431.p...db d2b2va2 chr14/NP_065971.2/NP_065971.2_holo_340-431.pdb psi-blast 361D,364I,366D,367K,396Y,400H ARG,GLN 1 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_002252.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002252.2 chr12 Structure of NKG2A/CD94 bound to HLA-E p3bdwb_ chr12/NP_002252.2/NP_002252....2_apo_111-225.pdb p3ciij_ chr12/NP_002252.2/NP_002252.2_holo_111-225.pdb blast 112R,113H,114C,115G

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001078937.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001078937.1 chr11 Viral proteases d1kxfa_ chr11/NP_001078937.1/NP_001078937.1_ap...o_114-258.pdb d1wyka_ chr11/NP_001078937.1/NP_001078937.1_holo_114-258.pdb swppa 119G,120Y,121P,122G,140Y,141R,145E,184D,188M,253R DIO,FOR 1 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_001007257.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001007257.1 chr1 Crystal Structure of the Kelch-Neh2 Complex d1u6dx_ chr1/NP_001007257.1/NP_001007257....1_apo_1-111.pdb d2flux_ chr1/NP_001007257.1/NP_001007257.1_holo_1-111.pdb forte 22R,23H,39E,41L,46D,77M,96E,97D,98G GLU,LEU,THR 1 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_000292.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000292.1 chr6 Eukaryotic proteases d1l4da_ chr6/NP_000292.1/NP_000292.1_apo_562-...810.pdb d1buia_ chr6/NP_000292.1/NP_000292.1_holo_562-810.pdb blast 606F,607C,622H,623C,754D,755S,756C,757Q,

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_056532.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056532.2 chr2 C-type lectin domain d1xarb_ chr2/NP_056532.2/NP_056532.2_apo_170-322....pdb d1k9ja_ chr2/NP_056532.2/NP_056532.2_holo_170-322.pdb blast 244K,245T,246A,248G,249L,257K,261E,264W,

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_653302.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_653302.2 chr1 Crystal structure of leukemia inhibitory factor in complex with gp...130 c1bqub_ chr1/NP_653302.2/NP_653302.2_apo_120-308.pdb c1pvha_ chr1/NP_653302.2/NP_653302.2_holo_120-308.pdb blast 302R,303Y,304W IOD 1 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_714542.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_714542.1 chr9 Insights into the Alkyl Peroxide Reduction Activity of Xanthomonas... campestris Bacterioferritin Comigratory Protein from the Trapped Intermediate/Ligand Complex Structures p3gkka_ chr9/NP_714542....1/NP_714542.1_apo_22-214.pdb p3gkma_ chr9/NP_714542.1/NP_714542.1_holo_22-214.pdb psi-bl

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001073003.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073003.1 chr15 Crystal Structure of UP1 Complexed With d(TTAGGGTTAG(6-MI)G); ...A Human Telomeric Repeat Containing 6-methyl-8-(2-deoxy-beta-ribofuranosyl)isoxanthopteridine (6-MI) c1ha1a_ chr15/NP_001073003....1/NP_001073003.1_apo_230-439.pdb c1pgza_ chr15/NP_001073003.1/NP_001073003.1_holo_230-439.pdb psi-blast 1 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_005553.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005553.2 chr1 Crystal Structure of the Neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR Symmetrical Com...plex c1sg1x_ chr1/NP_005553.2/NP_005553.2_apo_2-158.pdb c3bukc_ chr1/NP_005553.2/NP_005553.2_holo_2-158.pdb swppa 21A NAG 1 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_005413.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005413.2 chr11 HUMAN NOTCH-1 EGFS 11-13 c1toza_ chr11/NP_005413.2/NP_005413.2_ap...o_336-440.pdb c2vj3a_ chr11/NP_005413.2/NP_005413.2_holo_336-440.pdb psi-blast 1532D,1533K,1534W,1535S,1536A

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_001833.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001833.1 chr9 Crystal structure of Interleukin-23 c3d85d_ chr9/NP_001833.1/NP_001833....1_apo_39-294.pdb c3d87d_ chr9/NP_001833.1/NP_001833.1_holo_39-294.pdb blast 245R,246Y,247R,248P,249L,250I,275E,276Y,293W MAN,PO4 1 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_056293.4 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056293.4 chr20 Prion-like d1dx0a_ chr20/NP_056293.4/NP_056293.4_apo_101-190.pdb d1i4ma_ chr20/NP_056293....4/NP_056293.4_holo_101-190.pdb swppa 117S,118N,124L,128R,150K,154R _CD 1 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_001993.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001993.2 chr19 C-type lectin domain d1xarb_ chr19/NP_001993.2/NP_001993.2_apo_14...4-288.pdb d1k9ja_ chr19/NP_001993.2/NP_001993.2_holo_144-288.pdb blast 214A,215S,216H,217T,218G,225N,229K,23

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_001262.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001262.3 chr15 Crystal structure analysis of human CHD1 chromodomains 1 and 2 bo...und to histone H3 resi 1-15 MeK4 c2b2yb_ chr15/NP_001262.3/NP_001262.3_apo_261-447.pdb c2b2va_ chr15/NP_001262.3/NP_001262.3

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_066982.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066982.3 chr4 Armadillo repeat d1g3ja_ chr4/NP_066982.3/NP_066982.3_apo_44-605.p...db d1th1b_ chr4/NP_066982.3/NP_066982.3_holo_44-605.pdb psi-blast 78K,83R,112R,116N,119Y,120D,121S,122H,125R

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_055872.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055872.3 chr13 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BTB DOMAIN FROM BTBD6 p2vkpa_ chr13/NP_055872.3/NP_055872.3..._apo_1412-1533.pdb p2vkpb_ chr13/NP_055872.3/NP_055872.3_holo_1412-1533.pdb psi-blast 1490L,1491S,1494L,1502Q EDO 1 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_000482.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000482.3 chr1 TNF-like d1o91a_ chr1/NP_000482.3/NP_000482.3_apo_120-249.pdb d1o91c_ chr1/NP_000482.3.../NP_000482.3_holo_120-249.pdb blast 179N,181C,197F,228D,230N,231S 120Q,121K,122I,123A,12

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_060272.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060272.3 chr7 Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme. p2pf4d_ chr7/NP_060272.3.../NP_060272.3_apo_209-817.pdb p2iaea_ chr7/NP_060272.3/NP_060272.3_holo_209-817.pdb psi-blast 259P,260Q,298V MLL 1 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_061982.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_061982.3 chr16 Structure of the retaining glycosyltransferase MshA:The first ste...p in mycothiol biosynthesis. Organism: Corynebacterium glutamicum : Complex with UDP and 1L-INS-1-P. p3c48b_ chr16/NP_061982.3.../NP_061982.3_apo_33-463.pdb p3c4vb_ chr16/NP_061982.3/NP_061982.3_holo_33-463.pdb psi-blas

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_009127.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_009127.1 chr19 Eukaryotic proteases d1brbe_ chr19/NP_009127.1/NP_009127.1_apo_33...-259.pdb d1co7e_ chr19/NP_009127.1/NP_009127.1_holo_33-259.pdb blast 85D,86H,87S,88L,89Q,90N,91K,92D,95E 73H,120D,210G,211D,212S _CA 1 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_055027.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055027.1 chr12 Homeodomain d2hoaa_ chr12/NP_055027.1/NP_055027.1_apo_233-294.pdb... d1ahdp_ chr12/NP_055027.1/NP_055027.1_holo_233-294.pdb blast 233R,234K,235K,236R,237C,239Y,255V,256Y,257I,2

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_115677.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115677.2 chr19 WD40-repeat d2ovpb2 chr19/NP_115677.2/NP_115677.2_apo_71-410.pdb d2ovrb2 chr19/NP_115677....2/NP_115677.2_holo_71-410.pdb psi-blast 86L,88L,134V,136E,149L,175S,177D,193R,228W,2

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_066951.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066951.1 chr11 Yeast RNAP II containing poly(A)-signal sequence in the active si...te p1nt9j_ chr11/NP_066951.1/NP_066951.1_apo_1-64.pdb p3h3vk_ chr11/NP_066951.1/NP_066951.1_holo_1-64.pdb blast 1 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_958781.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_958781.1 chr8 Crystal structure of a fragment of the plakin domain of plectin, C...ys to Ala mutant. p2odua_ chr8/NP_958781.1/NP_958781.1_apo_254-471.pdb p2odva_ chr8/NP_958781.1/NP_958781.1_holo_254-471.pdb blast 378K,381M,382E,385L PGO 1 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_783641.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_783641.1 chr1 CR2-C3D COMPLEX STRUCTURE c1w2sb_ chr1/NP_783641.1/NP_783641.1_apo..._154-288.pdb c1ghqb_ chr1/NP_783641.1/NP_783641.1_holo_154-288.pdb blast 239I,240L,243D,244N,245R,252E,253V _ZN 1 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_005431.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005431.1 chr17 G proteins c2rgnf_ chr17/NP_005431.1/NP_005431.1_apo_7-193.pdb d1kmqa_ chr17/NP_005431.1.../NP_005431.1_holo_7-193.pdb blast 14G,15D,16A,17E,18C,19G,20K,21T,22A,23L,32Y,33P,36Y

  12. Diffusion Behavior of Np in Simulated Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The diffusion rate of radionuclide in groundwater is one of the most important factors to beconsidered for risk assessment of disposal of high -level radioactive waste in deep geological repository.However the reported data are very scarce. In the present work, the diffusion behavior of Np in simulated

  13. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  14. Study of the Reaction $np \\rightarrow np \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ at Intermediate Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Jerusalimov, A. P.; Troyan, Yu. A.; Troyan, A. Yu.; Belyaev, A. V.; Plekhanov, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction $np \\rightarrow np \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ was studied at the various momenta of incident neutrons. It was shown that the characteristics of the reaction at the momenta above 3 GeV/c could be described by the model of reggeized $\\pi$ exchange (OPER). At the momenta below 3 GeV/c, it was necessary to use additionally the mechanism of one baryon exchange (OBE).

  15. NP-Logic Systems and Model-Equivalence Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuping; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.17

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the existence of model-equivalence reduction between NP-logic systems which are logic systems with model existence problem in NP. It is shown that among all NP-systems with model checking problem in NP, the existentially quantified propositional logic (\\exists PF) is maximal with respect to poly-time model-equivalent reduction. However, \\exists PF seems not a maximal NP-system in general because there exits a NP-system with model checking problem D^P-complete.

  16. Protein deficiency in pregnant rats causes decreased levels of plasma somatomedin and its carrier protein associated with reduced plasma levels of placental lactogen and hepatic lactogenic receptor number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilistine, S J; Munro, H N

    1984-03-01

    Rats were fed either a 20% lactalbumin (control) or a 5% lactalbumin (low protein) diet for the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, rat serum placental lactogen levels, measured by radioreceptor assay, were significantly decreased by the low protein diet, thus confirming our earlier findings. The number of microsomal membrane lactogenic receptors, measured on the maternal livers at the end of pregnancy, was severely reduced in the livers of the low protein group, whereas protein deficiency did not affect binding affinity. Serum concentrations of somatomedin, measured by a competitive binding assay after acid treatment of the serum to remove endogenous carrier protein, were extensively reduced in the low protein group. The amounts of the somatomedin carrier proteins in the serum were assayed by separation on Sephacryl-S300 columns into higher- and lower-molecular-weight fractions peak 2 and peak 3, respectively. For the low protein diet group, both fractions showed a reduction in binding capacity, more marked in the case of peak 2. Since placental lactogen is known to influence output of somatomedin by the liver, we hypothesize that protein deficiency during pregnancy causes a fall in serum somatomedin level by reducing secretion of placental lactogen, which regulates its production by the liver.

  17. Gamma beam system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur, Calin Alexandru, E-mail: calin.ur@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure, IFIN-HH, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce brilliant, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams via Inverse Compton Scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The scattered radiation is Doppler upshifted by more than 1,000,000 times and is forward focused in a narrow, polarized, tunable, laser-like beam. The gamma-ray beam at ELI-NP will be characterized by large spectral density of about 10{sup 4} photons/s/eV, narrow bandwidth (< 0.5%) and tunable energy from 200 keV up to about 20 MeV. The Gamma Beam System is a state-of-the-art equipment employing techniques and technologies at the limits of the present-day's knowledge.

  18. Gestational Day-Dependent Expression of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Porphyromonas gingivaliscan induce placental inflammatory response resulting in fetal growth restriction. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in rat placental tissues to understand whether these events were causally related. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: A higher expression of TNF-α was found in spongiotrophoblast of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (6.30±1.16, and in trophoblastic giant cells of Pg-D group on GD20 (5.50±1.35. Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-10 was found in trophoblastic giant cells of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (4.50±1.51 and in syncytiotrophoblasts of Pg-BD group on GD20 (8.70±2.67. Conclusion: The expression of TNF-α on GD14 and GD20 were accompanied by increased expression of IL-10. The placental pathologic conditions induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis can be inhibited by elevated expression of IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.199

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_000206.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g the Pathogenic K659N Mutation Responsible for an Unclassified Craniosynostosis Syndrome. p1gjoa_ chr19/NP_...NP_000206.2 chr19 Crystal Strucure of FGF Receptor 2 (FGFR2) Kinase Domain Harborin

  20. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  1. Vitamin D supplementation improves pathophysiology in a rat model of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Jessica L; Cornelius, Denise C; Amaral, Lorena M; Harmon, Ashlyn C; Cunningham, Mark W; Darby, Marie M; Ibrahim, Tarek; Thomas, D'Andrea S; Herse, Florian; Wallukat, Gerd; Dechend, Ralf; LaMarca, Babbette

    2016-02-15

    Deficiency of vitamin D (VD) is associated with preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by proinflammatory immune activation. We sought to determine whether VD supplementation would reduce the pathophysiology and hypertension associated with the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of PE. Normal pregnant (NP) and RUPP rats were supplemented with VD2 or VD3 (270 IU and 15 IU/day, respectively) on gestation days 14-18 and mean arterial pressures (MAPs) measured on day 19. MAP increased in RUPP to 123 ± 2 mmHg compared with 102 ± 3 mmHg in NP and decreased to 113 ± 3 mmHg with VD2 and 115 ± 3 mmHg with VD3 in RUPP rats. Circulating CD4+ T cells increased in RUPP to 7.90 ± 1.36% lymphocytes compared with 2.04 ± 0.67% in NP but was lowered to 0.90 ± 0.19% with VD2 and 4.26 ± 1.55% with VD3 in RUPP rats. AT1-AA, measured by chronotropic assay, decreased from 19.5 ± 0.4 bpm in RUPPs to 8.3 ± 0.5 bpm with VD2 and to 15.4 ± 0.7 bpm with VD3. Renal cortex endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression was increased in RUPP rats (11.6 ± 2.1-fold change from NP) and decreased with both VD2 (3.3 ± 1.1-fold) and VD3 (3.1 ± 0.6-fold) supplementation in RUPP rats. Plasma-soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) was also reduced to 74.2 ± 6.6 pg/ml in VD2-treated and 91.0 ± 16.1 pg/ml in VD3-treated RUPP rats compared with 132.7 ± 19.9 pg/ml in RUPP rats. VD treatment reduced CD4+ T cells, AT1-AA, ET-1, sFlt-1, and blood pressure in the RUPP rat model of PE and could be an avenue to improve treatment of hypertension in response to placental ischemia.

  2. 妊娠与非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜促性腺激素释放激素及其受体的免疫组织化学研究%IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF GnRH AND GnRH RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOMETRIUM OF PREGNANT RATS AND UNPREGNANT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏永娟; 黄威权

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)及其受体在妊娠与非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜中的分布及相对含量,为了解促性腺激素释放激素对子宫内膜的可能功能提供依据。方法:免疫组织化学ABC法及图像分析技术。结果:非妊娠大鼠子宫内促性腺激素释放激素及促性腺激素释放激素受体阳性反应发生在内膜上皮、腺上皮及基质细胞。妊娠大鼠子宫内这二者阳性反应主要发生在内膜上皮及基蜕膜的蜕膜细胞,妊娠大鼠子宫上皮细胞中的促性腺激素释放激素及其受体的相对含量明显高于非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜。结论:妊娠与非妊娠大鼠子宫内膜均能表达促性腺激素释放激素及其受体。%Objective: To study the distribution and relative contents of GnRH and GnRH receptor in the endometrium in pregnant rats and unpregnant rat. Methids: Immunohistochemical ABC method and image analysis were used in the experiment. Results: GnRH and GnRH recepter positive immunoreaction occured in the endometrium epithelium and the glandular epithelium of unpregnant rats, and in the endometrium epithelium and deciduate cells of the basal decidua of rpegnant rat.Conclusion: The GnRH may take partin regulating endometrial function through its receptor, its effect on endometrium may be strong in pregnant uterine than in unpregnant.

  3. 单次氯胺酮注射对孕鼠子代认知功能的研究%The effects of ketamine on learning and memory function in the pregnant rat' s offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊芳; 蒋奕红; 岳毅刚; 林高翔; 田小琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pregnant rats exposure to ketamine cause offspring changes in space cognitive abilities and exploration abilities.Methods 3-month Sprague-Dawley female rats ( n =24)were randomly divided into four groups:group N (control group),group K1 (small doses of ketamine group),group K2 ( clinical anesthesia dose of ketamine group),group K3 ( large doses of ketamine group).3-month Sprague-Dawley male rats ( n =4) and female rats were mated at the same cage by the proportion of 2∶ 1.Pregnant mice were treated at tenth day:group N were treated saline with equal-volume to ketamine vein injection; group K1,group K2,group K3 administered vein injection 3,8,20mg/kg of ketamine.Then the 20-day offspring rats'learning and memory were assessed used Open Field Test ( record the time of the offspring in the central case through the number of grid within 2 min ) and Hole Board Test ( Counting the times of offspring stretch into the hole in 5 min) at postnatal days 20.Results In the Open Field Test,the retention time in central check of group N,group K2 and group K3 were (2.45 ± 1.23)s,(6.42 ±2.50)s,(6.41 ±2.19)s.Compared with group N,the retention time in central check of group K2 and group K3 were significantly higher (F=13.42,P<0.01 ),and group K1 were not significant different ( t =1.33,P>0.01 ),and the locomotion of group K1,group K2,group K3 were significantly reduced( ( 15.33 ± 6.81 ),( 13.75 ± 5.93 ),( 16.92 ± 6.54 ),F =4.24,P < 0.05 ).In the Hole Board Test,the times of offspring stretch into the hole were not significant different comparing with the control group(F=2.17,P > 0.05 ).Conclusion The dose of ketamine that equivalented clinical anesthesia can affect offspring rats' space cognitive abilities; but the exploring cognitive ability were not significantly influenced.%目的 探讨单次氯胺酮注射对孕鼠子代在空间认知能力、探索能力方面的行为学改变.方法 3月龄SD同胞雌大鼠12对,

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_066360.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066360.1 chr3 Crystal Structure of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Fac...tor 2A (FHF2A), also referred to as Fibroblast Growth Factor 13A (FGF13A) p3hbwb_ chr3/NP_066360.1/NP_066360.1_apo_68-216.pdb blast 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_002886.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002886.2 chr20 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr20/NP_002886.2/NP_002886.2_apo_18-332.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_005602.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005602.2 chr16 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr16/NP_005602.2/NP_005602.2_apo_49-357.pdb blast 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_000312.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000312.2 chr13 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr13/NP_000312.2/NP_000312.2_apo_52-355.pdb blast 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_899662.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_899662.1 chr20 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr20/NP_899662.1/NP_899662.1_apo_18-332.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_003166.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003166.1 chr1 Viral Chemokine Binding Protein M3 From Murine Gammaherpesvirus68 ...In Complex With The C- Chemokine XCL1 p2nyze_ chr1/NP_003166.1/NP_003166.1_apo_28-93.pdb blast 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_057326.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_057326.2 chr4 Crystal Structure Analysis of Pectate Lyase PelI from Erwinia chry...santhemi p3b4na_ chr4/NP_057326.2/NP_057326.2_holo_15-261.pdb swppa 16C,17S,18S,33V,34T,35T,40I,46E,47S,49Q,

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001001486.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001486.1 chr3 The Structure of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Bound To Cy...clopiazonic and ADP p3fpsa_ chr3/NP_001001486.1/NP_001001486.1_holo_45-901.pdb blast 78Q,79F,81N,83L,84I,87L

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_008816.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_008816.3 chr16 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A DESIGNED ZINC FINGER PROTEIN BOUND TO DNA c1meyf_ chr16/NP_008816....3/NP_008816.3_holo_637-720.pdb psi-blast 2862A,2864E,2865T,2866K,2867S,2868S,2869S,2

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001035906.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035906.1 chr5 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR A...NTIGEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr5/NP_001035906.1/NP_001035906.1_holo_348-483.pdb swppa 348D,403Y,479I CAC 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_006166.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006166.3 chr10 3ANK: A designed ankyrin repeat protein with three identical cons...ensus repeats c1n0qb_ chr10/NP_006166.3/NP_006166.3_holo_1594-1690.pdb psi-blast 1661Y,1665E,1667V,1690K TFA 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_114106.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_114106.1 chr5 Crystal structure of 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid bound 7,8-diami...nopelargonic acid synthase in bacillus subtilis p3du4b_ chr5/NP_114106.1/NP_114106.1_holo_66-505.pdb blast 7

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_001092096.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001092096.1 chr19 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats o...f murine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr19/NP_001092096.1/NP_001092096.1_holo_175-290.pdb blast 3

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_000486.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000486.1 chrX CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF INVASIN: A BACTERIAL INTEGRIN-BINDING PROTEIN c1cwva_ chrX/NP_000486....1/NP_000486.1_holo_16-473.pdb swppa 16A,17L,18S,19L,98P,99G,100F CIT 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_742076.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_742076.1 chr7 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF SU6656-BOUND CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PRO...TEIN KINASE II DELTA IN COMPLEX WITH CALMODULIN p2wela_ chr7/NP_742076.1/NP_742076.1_holo_10-316.pdb blast 1

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_065126.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065126.2 chr1 Crystal structure of human peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP...-S) c1ycka_ chr1/NP_065126.2/NP_065126.2_apo_210-372.pdb blast 234K,235Y,298P,299G,300Y,302D,303I,323L,324E,

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_612356.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_612356.1 chr19 Aart, a six finger zinc finger designed to recognize ANN triplets... c2i13b_ chr19/NP_612356.1/NP_612356.1_holo_373-531.pdb blast 380C,382K,383S,384F,385R,386Q,387I,388F,389N,3

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_775096.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_775096.1 chr20 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM-COUPLED GLYCINE BETAINE SYMPORTER... BETP FROM CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM WITH BOUND SUBSTRATE p2wita_ chr20/NP_775096.1/NP_775096.1_holo_14-337

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_892006.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_892006.2 chr6 Crystal Structure of Repeats 15 and 16 of Chicken Brain Alpha Spec...trin c1u5pa_ chr6/NP_892006.2/NP_892006.2_holo_404-609.pdb psi-blast 469T,470R,471S,472V PO4 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_060236.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060236.3 chr1 DSNR (ZIF268 VARIANT) ZINC FINGER-DNA COMPLEX (GCGT SITE) c1a1ga_ chr1/NP_060236....3/NP_060236.3_holo_966-1056.pdb psi-blast 970S,973N,975K,976A,977E,979E,980G,981S,982P,988P,9

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_671766.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_671766.1 chr2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF INVASIN: A BACTERIAL INTEGRIN-BINDING PROTEIN c1cwva_ chr2/NP_671766....1/NP_671766.1_holo_978-1439.pdb swppa 978A,979T,980P,981P,1039Q,1040P,1041R CIT 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_006476.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006476.2 chr22 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRILLIN-1 DOMAINS CBEGF9HYB2CBEGF10, CALCI...UM SATURATED FORM p2w86a_ chr22/NP_006476.2/NP_006476.2_holo_527-599.pdb swppa 527D,528E,544N,545I,546Q,547G

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_001095876.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001095876.1 chr4 Crystal structure of Heme Binding protein, an autotransporter h...emoglobine protease from pathogenic Escherichia coli p1wxra_ chr4/NP_001095876.1/NP_001095876.1_apo_154-1219.pdb swppa 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001001556.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001556.1 chr15 X-ray structure of human n-acetyl galactosamine kinase complex...ed with Mn-AMPPNP and n-acetyl glactosamine p2a2da_ chr15/NP_001001556.1/NP_001001556.1_holo_5-447.pdb blast

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_085116.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_085116.2 chr5 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr5/NP_085116.2/NP_085116.2_holo_209-322.pdb blast 216C,218E,21

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_060136.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060136.1 chrX CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A DESIGNED ZINC FINGER PROTEIN BOUND TO DNA c1meyf_ chrX/NP_060136....1/NP_060136.1_holo_410-492.pdb psi-blast 665H,669R,671C,672I,673F,674K,676H,679T,680L,

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_940886.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_940886.1 chr3 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr3/NP_940886.1/NP_940886.1_holo_320-436.pdb psi-blast 321C,323

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_751896.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_751896.1 chr1 TROPOMYOSIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MUSCLE REGULATION. APPENDIX. CON...STRUCTION OF AN ATOMIC MODEL FOR TROPOMYOSIN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS WITH ACTIN c2tmab_ chr1/NP_751896.1/NP_751896.1_apo_321-600.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_001017366.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001017366.1 chr1 The Crystal Structure of C2b, a Fragment of Complement Componen...t C2 produced during C3-convertase Formation p3erba_ chr1/NP_001017366.1/NP_001017366.1_apo_22-203.pdb blast 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_000786.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000786.1 chr11 High resolution crystal structure of human B2-adrenergic G protei...n-coupled receptor p2rh1a_ chr11/NP_000786.1/NP_000786.1_holo_30-442.pdb psi-blast 45I,46A,49V,50F,53V,54L,5

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_006376.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006376.2 chr19 Aart, a six finger zinc finger designed to recognize ANN triplets... c2i13b_ chr19/NP_006376.2/NP_006376.2_holo_5-164.pdb psi-blast 417K,418S,419F,420S,421R,422S,423S,424S,426I

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_002796.4 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002796.4 chr17 PROTEASOME-ACTIVATING NUCLEOTIDASE (PAN) N-DOMAIN (57-134) FROM A...RCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS FUSED TO GCN4 p2wg5l_ chr17/NP_002796.4/NP_002796.4_apo_42-128.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_055306.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055306.1 chr7 Structure of the DNA binding domains of NFAT and FOXP2 bound speci...fically to DNA. c2as5g_ chr7/NP_055306.1/NP_055306.1_holo_503-584.pdb blast 503V,504R,507F,508T,509Y,527L,52

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_114406.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_114406.1 chr1 AURORA A KINASE ACTIVATED MUTANT (T287D) IN COMPLEX WITH A 5-AMINO...PYRIMIDINYL QUINAZOLINE INHIBITOR p2c6eb_ chr1/NP_114406.1/NP_114406.1_holo_29-326.pdb blast 41L,42G,49I,51Q

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_000596.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000596.2 chr9 NMR based Docking Model of the Complex between the Human Type I In...terferon Receptor and Human Interferon alpha-2 c2hymb_ chr9/NP_000596.2/NP_000596.2_apo_24-188.pdb blast 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_000436.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000436.2 chr8 TROPOMYOSIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MUSCLE REGULATION. APPENDIX. CON...STRUCTION OF AN ATOMIC MODEL FOR TROPOMYOSIN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS WITH ACTIN c2tmab_ chr8/NP_000436.2/NP_000436.2_apo_1941-2204.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_001020366.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001020366.1 chr16 Crystal structure of human carboxylesterase in complex with Co...enzyme A c2h7cf_ chr16/NP_001020366.1/NP_001020366.1_holo_23-554.pdb blast 35L,80N,82T,83S,91D,93K,94A,95G,9

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_852466.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_852466.1 chr3 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr3/NP_852466.1/NP_852466.1_holo_673-813.pdb blast 926R,928P,92

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_005886.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005886.2 chr12 TROPOMYOSIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MUSCLE REGULATION. APPENDIX. CO...NSTRUCTION OF AN ATOMIC MODEL FOR TROPOMYOSIN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS WITH ACTIN c2tmab_ chr12/NP_005886.2/NP_005886.2_apo_1038-1314.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_004456.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004456.1 chr5 Crystal Structure of Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)8b in complex w...ith FGF Receptor (FGFR) 2c c2fdbn_ chr5/NP_004456.1/NP_004456.1_apo_62-202.pdb blast 72H,73L,74Q,75G,76D,77V

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_694946.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_694946.1 chr2 NMR Study of the Fibrillin-1 cbEGF12-13 Pair of Ca2+ Binding Epide...rmal Growth Factor-like Domains c1lmja_ chr2/NP_694946.1/NP_694946.1_holo_178-268.pdb psi-blast 179A,180P,18

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_001005196.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001005196.1 chr11 TURKEY BETA1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR WITH STABILISING MUTATIONS AN...D BOUND CYANOPINDOLOL p2vt4a_ chr11/NP_001005196.1/NP_001005196.1_holo_23-305.pdb swppa 77F,81M,96C,99Q,100L

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_001036146.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001036146.1 chr1 The structure of collagen type I. Single type I collagen molecu...le: rigid refinment c1ygvb_ chr1/NP_001036146.1/NP_001036146.1_holo_191-1185.pdb psi-blast 192E,193V,194P,19

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_443086.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_443086.1 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A CREB BZIP-CRE COMPLEX REVEALS THE BASIS FO...R CREB FAIMLY SELECTIVE DIMERIZATION AND DNA BINDING c1dh3c_ chr11/NP_443086.1/NP_443086.1_holo_292-360.pdb

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_073738.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_073738.2 chr17 atomic resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the electron transfer cata...lyst DsbD (reduced form at pH7) d2fwga1 chr17/NP_073738.2/NP_073738.2_apo_91-215.pd

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_115814.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dimethyl-lysine and in chimera with histone H3.3(28-34) p1oyxa_ chr6/NP_115814.1/NP_115814.1_apo_231-565.pd...NP_115814.1 chr6 Crystal structure of the 3-MBT repeats from human L3MBTL1 bound to

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_055738.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055738.3 chr13 Solution structure of the 6th fibronectin type III domain from hu...man fibronectin type III domain containing protein 3 c1x4xa_ chr13/NP_055738.3/NP_055738.3_apo_889-989.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_004079.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004079.3 chr10 The solution structure of the BRCT domain from human polymerase r...eveals homology with the TdT BRCT domain p2htfa_ chr10/NP_004079.3/NP_004079.3_apo_25-125.pdb blast 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_001001414.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001414.1 chr19 Structural basis for selection of glycosylated substrate by SC...FFbs1 ubiquitin ligase c2e33a_ chr19/NP_001001414.1/NP_001001414.1_holo_101-272.pdb blast 123T,135N,136F,151

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_000364.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000364.1 chr3 Crystal Structure of Human Orotidine 5'-monophosphate Decarboxylas...e Covalently Modified by 5-fluoro-6-azido-UMP p3g3db_ chr3/NP_000364.1/NP_000364.1_holo_221-479.pdb blast 25

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_001032764.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001032764.1 chr1 TROPOMYOSIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MUSCLE REGULATION. APPENDIX. ...CONSTRUCTION OF AN ATOMIC MODEL FOR TROPOMYOSIN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS WITH ACTIN c2tmab_ chr1/NP_001032764.1/NP_001032764.1_apo_651-919.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_057434.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_057434.3 chr14 TROPOMYOSIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MUSCLE REGULATION. APPENDIX. CO...NSTRUCTION OF AN ATOMIC MODEL FOR TROPOMYOSIN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS WITH ACTIN c2tmab_ chr14/NP_057434.3/NP_057434.3_apo_989-1248.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_113674.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_113674.1 chr9 Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domain... Bound to DNA p2prta_ chr9/NP_113674.1/NP_113674.1_holo_300-406.pdb blast 414C,415T,416E,417C,419K,430H,434H

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_056154.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056154.1 chr20 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr20/NP_056154.1/NP_056154.1_holo_623-739.pdb psi-blast 624C,6

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_003314.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003314.1 chr19 Crystal Structure Analysis of the human Tub protein (isoform a) s...panning residues 289 through 561 p1s31a_ chr19/NP_003314.1/NP_003314.1_holo_270-520.pdb blast 291T,306Y,308Y,316Q,318F,339P PGE 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_066574.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066574.2 chr2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A DESIGNED ZINC FINGER PROTEIN BOUND TO DNA c1meyf_ chr2/NP_066574....2/NP_066574.2_holo_254-335.pdb blast 255K,259C,261E,262C,263G,264K,265A,266F,267F,268D

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_150634.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_150634.1 chr11 Procaspase-1 zymogen domain crystal strucutre p3e4cb_ chr11/NP_150634.1/NP_150634....1_holo_128-404.pdb blast 148K,365D,367E,368E 130E,132N,133V,134K,135L,136C,137S,138L,141A,1

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_852114.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_852114.1 chr17 The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular Domain of the Inhibito...r Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells IREM-1 p2nmsa_ chr17/NP_852114.1/NP_852114.1_apo_14-131.pdb blast 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_115604.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115604.1 chr11 Crystal structure of hypothetical protein PH0414 from Pyrococcus ...horikoshii OT3 p2hunb_ chr11/NP_115604.1/NP_115604.1_holo_12-402.pdb psi-blast 16T,17G,19T,20G,21F,22L,23G,5

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_110414.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_110414.1 chr1 STRUCTURE OF A COMPLEX BETWEEN NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS FACTOR H BIN...DING PROTEIN AND CCPS 6-7 OF HUMAN COMPLEMENT FACTOR H p2w81e_ chr1/NP_110414.1/NP_110414.1_apo_23-140.pdb blast 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_683704.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_683704.1 chr1 Crystal Structure of DDB1 In Complex with Simian Virus 5 V Protein p2b5lc_ chr1/NP_683704....1/NP_683704.1_holo_16-196.pdb forte 168P,171T,190S,192D,193D,194R _ZN 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_065184.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065184.2 chr1 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr1/NP_065184.2/NP_065184.2_holo_267-376.pdb psi-blast 274A,276

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_001013754.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001013754.2 chr6 DRUG EXPORT PATHWAY OF MULTIDRUG EXPORTER ACRB REVEALED BY DARP...IN INHIBITORS p2j8sa_ chr6/NP_001013754.2/NP_001013754.2_holo_17-814.pdb swppa 24H,27F,28F,29L,32P,33A,35L,3

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_058634.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_058634.2 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRILLIN-1 DOMAINS CBEGF9HYB2CBEGF10, CALCI...UM SATURATED FORM p2w86a_ chr11/NP_058634.2/NP_058634.2_holo_14-160.pdb psi-blast 14L,15W,16A,17L,31E,32E,33

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_002244.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002244.1 chr4 cFMS tyrosine kinase (tie2 KID) in complex with a pyrimidinopyrido...ne inhibitor p3beaa_ chr4/NP_002244.1/NP_002244.1_holo_806-1174.pdb blast 840L,841G,848V,866A,868K,899V,916V

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_000164.4 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000164.4 chr17 Crystal Structure Analysis of Pectate Lyase PelI from Erwinia chr...ysanthemi p3b4na_ chr17/NP_000164.4/NP_000164.4_holo_319-627.pdb swppa 320T,321T,322P,337Q,338M,339P,347E,35

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_112494.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_112494.3 chr11 Structural Dynamics of the Microtubule binding and regulatory ele...ments in the Kinesin-like Calmodulin binding protein c3cobc_ chr11/NP_112494.3/NP_112494.3_holo_9-363.pdb bl

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_065944.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065944.1 chr9 TROPOMYOSIN CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MUSCLE REGULATION. APPENDIX. CON...STRUCTION OF AN ATOMIC MODEL FOR TROPOMYOSIN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERACTIONS WITH ACTIN c2tmab_ chr9/NP_065944.1/NP_065944.1_apo_836-1112.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_059984.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_059984.2 chrX CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF INVASIN: A BACTERIAL INTEGRIN-BINDING PROTEIN c1cwva_ chrX/NP_059984....2/NP_059984.2_holo_551-1231.pdb swppa 551V,552T,553S,554P,634V,635F,636Y,637N,667P,668H CIT 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_002594.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002594.1 chr8 Multiple Determinants for Inhibitor Selectivity of Cyclic Nucleoti...de Phosphodiesterases p1zkla_ chr8/NP_002594.1/NP_002594.1_holo_113-429.pdb blast 185Y,186H,190H,194V,226H,2

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_000574.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000574.2 chr4 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF ACTIN WITH VITAMIN D-BINDING P...ROTEIN c1lota_ chr4/NP_000574.2/NP_000574.2_apo_17-473.pdb blast 53P,54S,56T,57F,104V,105H,106P,130P,131Q,13

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_001035514.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035514.1 chr21 Aart, a six finger zinc finger designed to recognize ANN tripl...ets c2i13b_ chr21/NP_001035514.1/NP_001035514.1_holo_434-616.pdb blast 443K,444L,445F,446S,447R,448K,449E,45

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_777594.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_777594.1 chr11 Solution structure of the first ig-like domain of signal-regulato...ry protein beta-1 (SIRP-beta-1) p2d9ca_ chr11/NP_777594.1/NP_777594.1_apo_24-167.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_004984.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004984.2 chr14 De-ubiquitinating function of ataxin-3: insights from the solutio...n structure of the Josephin domain p2agaa_ chr14/NP_004984.2/NP_004984.2_apo_1-185.pdb blast 14C,119H,134N 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_004524.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004524.3 chr19 Solution structure of the third ig-like domain from human Myosin-...binding protein C, fast-type p2edka_ chr19/NP_004524.3/NP_004524.3_apo_345-438.pdb blast 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_113674.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_113674.1 chr9 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A DESIGNED ZINC FINGER PROTEIN BOUND TO DNA c1meyf_ chr9/NP_113674....1/NP_113674.1_holo_94-171.pdb psi-blast 225C,227Q,228C,229G,230K,231P,232L,233H,234H,2

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_055244.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055244.2 chr3 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF AN N-TERMINAL 40KD FRAGMENT OF E. COLI DNA MI...SMATCH REPAIR PROTEIN MUTL c1bknb_ chr3/NP_055244.2/NP_055244.2_apo_25-331.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_997054.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_997054.1 chr1 Aart, a six finger zinc finger designed to recognize ANN triplets c2i13b_ chr1/NP_997054....1/NP_997054.1_holo_592-778.pdb psi-blast 603F,604L,605F,606A,607K,608D,610I,612H,615Q

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_008904.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_008904.1 chr10 QGSR (ZIF268 VARIANT) ZINC FINGER-DNA COMPLEX (GCAC SITE) c1a1ha_ chr10/NP_008904....1/NP_008904.1_holo_131-211.pdb blast 135C,138C,140K,141S,142F,143S,144Q,145R,146G,147S,150V

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_073564.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_073564.3 chr22 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF E. COLI 5-METHYLURIDINE METHYLTRANSFERASE RU...MA IN COMPLEX WITH RIBOSOMAL RNA SUBSTRATE AND S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE. c2bh2b_ chr22/NP_073564.3/NP_073564.3

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_001035845.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s: Role of Inter-Domain Dynamics in Catalysis and Specificity p1yr2a_ chr2/NP_001035845.1/NP_001035845.1_apo_15-650.pdb psi-blast 0 ... ...NP_001035845.1 chr2 Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Two Prolyl Endopeptidase

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_006027.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006027.2 chr2 Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Two Prolyl Endopeptidases: Role of Inter-Domain Dyna...mics in Catalysis and Specificity p1yr2a_ chr2/NP_006027.2/NP_006027.2_apo_44-716.pdb psi-blast 559S,645D,690H 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_689585.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_689585.3 chr1 Solution structure of the fibronectin type-III domain of mouse myo...sin-binding protein C, Fast-type homolog c1x5ya_ chr1/NP_689585.3/NP_689585.3_apo_1004-1106.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_055758.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055758.1 chr8 Solution Structure of the second Homeobox Domain of Human Homeodomain Leucine Zipper-Encodi...ng Gene (Homez) c2ecca_ chr8/NP_055758.1/NP_055758.1_apo_628-698.pdb blast 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_060907.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060907.2 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_060907.2/NP_060907.2_apo_3-479.pdb swppa 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_612429.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_612429.2 chr14 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr14/NP_612429.2/NP_612429.2_apo_1443-1933.pdb swppa 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_689664.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_689664.3 chr15 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr15/NP_689664.3/NP_689664.3_apo_13-437.pdb swppa 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001030611.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001030611.1 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_001030611.1/NP_001030611.1_apo_4-489.pdb swppa 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_001095124.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001095124.1 chr18 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTR...UCTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr18/NP_001095124.1/NP_001095124.1_apo_201-660.pdb swppa 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_079247.5 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079247.5 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_079247.5/NP_079247.5_apo_1045-1500.pdb swppa 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_004018.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004018.1 chr2 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr2/NP_004018.1/NP_004018.1_apo_321-878.pdb swppa 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_061946.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_061946.1 chr1 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr1/NP_061946.1/NP_061946.1_apo_1-484.pdb swppa 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_003741.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003741.1 chr10 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr10/NP_003741.1/NP_003741.1_apo_607-1097.pdb swppa 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_055894.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055894.3 chr15 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr15/NP_055894.3/NP_055894.3_apo_2-482.pdb swppa 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_683707.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_683707.1 chr1 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr1/NP_683707.1/NP_683707.1_apo_108-732.pdb swppa 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_055448.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055448.1 chr11 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr11/NP_055448.1/NP_055448.1_apo_750-1173.pdb swppa 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_055408.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055408.2 chr18 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr18/NP_055408.2/NP_055408.2_apo_200-656.pdb swppa 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_060516.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060516.2 chr5 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr5/NP_060516.2/NP_060516.2_apo_25-702.pdb swppa 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_932095.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_932095.1 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_932095.1/NP_932095.1_apo_3-479.pdb swppa 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_001074012.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001074012.1 chr19 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTR...UCTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr19/NP_001074012.1/NP_001074012.1_apo_300-742.pdb swppa 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_878918.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_878918.2 chr14 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr14/NP_878918.2/NP_878918.2_apo_4449-4939.pdb swppa 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_036247.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_036247.1 chr6 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr6/NP_036247.1/NP_036247.1_apo_297-784.pdb swppa 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_001098677.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001098677.1 chr6 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr6/NP_001098677.1/NP_001098677.1_apo_286-810.pdb swppa 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_839943.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_839943.2 chr1 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr1/NP_839943.2/NP_839943.2_apo_198-699.pdb swppa 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_001982.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001982.2 chr17 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr17/NP_001982.2/NP_001982.2_apo_1-464.pdb swppa 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_006255.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006255.1 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_006255.1/NP_006255.1_apo_124-573.pdb swppa 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_006624.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006624.2 chr5 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr5/NP_006624.2/NP_006624.2_apo_204-654.pdb swppa 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_996830.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_996830.3 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_996830.3/NP_996830.3_apo_1049-1555.pdb swppa 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_663161.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_663161.1 chr7 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr7/NP_663161.1/NP_663161.1_apo_180-839.pdb swppa 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001073278.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073278.1 chr2 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr2/NP_001073278.1/NP_001073278.1_apo_470-937.pdb swppa 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_996897.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_996897.1 chr1 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr1/NP_996897.1/NP_996897.1_apo_14-483.pdb swppa 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_829884.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_829884.1 chr12 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr12/NP_829884.1/NP_829884.1_apo_604-1051.pdb swppa 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_002281.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002281.2 chr6 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr6/NP_002281.2/NP_002281.2_apo_286-810.pdb swppa 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_003857.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003857.2 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_003857.2/NP_003857.2_apo_343-820.pdb swppa 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_001007472.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001007472.2 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_001007472.2/NP_001007472.2_apo_1199-1702.pdb swppa 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_683696.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_683696.2 chr7 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr7/NP_683696.2/NP_683696.2_apo_2-523.pdb swppa 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_542416.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_542416.1 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_542416.1/NP_542416.1_apo_124-573.pdb swppa 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_542414.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_542414.1 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_542414.1/NP_542414.1_apo_124-573.pdb swppa 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_004229.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004229.1 chr2 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr2/NP_004229.1/NP_004229.1_apo_950-1436.pdb swppa 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_001026911.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001026911.1 chr3 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr3/NP_001026911.1/NP_001026911.1_apo_54-470.pdb swppa 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_067054.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_067054.1 chr19 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr19/NP_067054.1/NP_067054.1_apo_300-742.pdb swppa 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_783322.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_783322.1 chr12 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr12/NP_783322.1/NP_783322.1_apo_1-450.pdb swppa 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_055787.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055787.1 chr16 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr16/NP_055787.1/NP_055787.1_apo_5-676.pdb swppa 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_055306.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055306.1 chr7 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr7/NP_055306.1/NP_055306.1_apo_3-498.pdb swppa 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_005914.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005914.1 chr6 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr6/NP_005914.1/NP_005914.1_apo_969-1370.pdb swppa 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_996829.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_996829.3 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_996829.3/NP_996829.3_apo_1071-1574.pdb swppa 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_001095139.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001095139.1 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_001095139.1/NP_001095139.1_apo_343-820.pdb swppa 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_079221.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079221.2 chr9 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr9/NP_079221.2/NP_079221.2_apo_5-623.pdb swppa 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_060275.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060275.2 chr19 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr19/NP_060275.2/NP_060275.2_apo_29-553.pdb swppa 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001012339.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001012339.2 chr5 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRU...CTION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr5/NP_001012339.2/NP_001012339.2_apo_77-530.pdb swppa 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_005843.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005843.2 chr17 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr17/NP_005843.2/NP_005843.2_apo_1257-1751.pdb swppa 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_663160.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_663160.1 chr7 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr7/NP_663160.1/NP_663160.1_apo_236-844.pdb swppa 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_062536.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_062536.2 chr10 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr10/NP_062536.2/NP_062536.2_apo_1-477.pdb swppa 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_115912.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115912.1 chr2 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr2/NP_115912.1/NP_115912.1_apo_241-902.pdb swppa 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_115784.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115784.1 chr7 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr7/NP_115784.1/NP_115784.1_apo_372-875.pdb swppa 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_055757.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055757.2 chr6 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr6/NP_055757.2/NP_055757.2_apo_262-722.pdb swppa 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_114129.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_114129.1 chr10 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr10/NP_114129.1/NP_114129.1_apo_3-482.pdb swppa 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_078862.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_078862.2 chr1 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr1/NP_078862.2/NP_078862.2_apo_116-722.pdb swppa 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_667338.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_667338.3 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_667338.3/NP_667338.3_apo_275-740.pdb swppa 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_006188.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006188.3 chr8 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr8/NP_006188.3/NP_006188.3_apo_282-764.pdb swppa 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_542415.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_542415.1 chr4 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr4/NP_542415.1/NP_542415.1_apo_124-573.pdb swppa 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_077006.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_077006.1 chr2 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCTI...ON OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr2/NP_077006.1/NP_077006.1_apo_148-599.pdb swppa 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_955446.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_955446.1 chr15 THE MODELED STRUCTURE OF FIBRITIN (GPWAC) OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 BASED ON CRYO-EM RECONSTRUCT...ION OF THE EXTENDED TAIL OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4 p2bsga_ chr15/NP_955446.1/NP_955446.1_apo_15-557.pdb swppa 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001073923.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073923.1 chr12 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE MEDIUM-CHAIN FAMILY MEMBER 2A (L64P MUTA...TION) IN COMPLEX WITH IBUPROFEN p2wd9c_ chr12/NP_001073923.1/NP_001073923.1_holo_45

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_003803.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003803.1 chr2 The Three-dimensional Structure of Bothropasin, the Main Hemorrhag...ic Factor from Bothrops jararaca venom. p3dslb_ chr2/NP_003803.1/NP_003803.1_holo_295-726.pdb blast 300Y,302

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_068566.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_068566.2 chr1 The Three-dimensional Structure of Bothropasin, the Main Hemorrhag...ic Factor from Bothrops jararaca venom. p3dslb_ chr1/NP_068566.2/NP_068566.2_holo_199-624.pdb blast 204Y,206

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_945317.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IN (1-34) IN NEAR-PHYSIOLOGICAL SOLUTION, NMR, 30 STRUCTURES c1bzga_ chr12/NP_945317.1/NP_945317.1_apo_37-70.pdb blast 0 ... ...NP_945317.1 chr12 THE SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF HUMAN PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTE

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001087239.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001087239.1 chr10 High resolution crystal structure of an active recombinant fragment of human lung surfa...ctant protein D with maltose c1pwbc_ chr10/NP_001087239.1/NP_001087239.1_holo_102-2

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_005402.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005402.3 chr10 High resolution crystal structure of an active recombinant fragment of human lung surfacta...nt protein D with maltose c1pwbc_ chr10/NP_005402.3/NP_005402.3_holo_102-248.pdb bl

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_008857.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_008857.2 chr10 High resolution crystal structure of an active recombinant fragment of human lung surfacta...nt protein D with maltose c1pwbc_ chr10/NP_008857.2/NP_008857.2_holo_102-248.pdb bl

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_001092138.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001092138.1 chr10 High resolution crystal structure of an active recombinant fragment of human lung surfa...ctant protein D with maltose c1pwbc_ chr10/NP_001092138.1/NP_001092138.1_holo_102-2

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_000233.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000233.1 chr10 High resolution crystal structure of an active recombinant fragment of human lung surfacta...nt protein D with maltose c1pwbc_ chr10/NP_000233.1/NP_000233.1_holo_105-246.pdb bl

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_569057.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_569057.1 chr18 High resolution crystal structure of an active recombinant fragment of human lung surfacta...nt protein D with maltose c1pwbc_ chr18/NP_569057.1/NP_569057.1_holo_584-731.pdb blast 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_009133.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_009133.2 chr17 THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN G-PROTEIN SUBUNIT ALPHA (GNAI3) IN COMPLEX WITH AN ENGI...NEERED REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING TYPE 2 DOMAIN (RGS2) p2v4zb_ chr17/NP_009133.2/NP_009133.2_apo_368-505.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_003794.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003794.3 chr18 Crystal structure of a prolactin receptor antagonist bound to the... extracellular domain of the prolactin receptor c3d48r_ chr18/NP_003794.3/NP_003794.3_holo_933-1136.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_075378.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_075378.1 chr19 CRYO-EM STRUCTURE OF COXSACKIEVIRUS B3(M STRAIN) WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR, COXSACKIEVIRU...S AND ADENOVIRUS RECEPTOR (CAR). p1jewr_ chr19/NP_075378.1/NP_075378.1_apo_46-161.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_036606.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_036606.2 chr1 Rapid structure determination of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2 using a conventional labor...atory X-ray source and a single samarium derivative d1ufqa_ chr1/NP_036606.2/NP_036