WorldWideScience

Sample records for pregnant np rats

  1. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised

  2. The binding of Np to rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramounet, B.; Taylor, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Neptunium has been shown to massively deposit in bone, after intravenous or intramuscular injections. Initially, it was uniformly distributed on periosteal and endosteal bone surfaces. The nature of the binding molecules, for this actinide, in the skeleton, has not yet been identified. The aim of this work was to characterize the ligands of neptunium by selective extractions of bone components. The preliminary results displayed the binding of 237 Np(IV) in the organic phase of bone, after intravenous or intramuscular contamination. Further studies are in progress, to quantify the fraction of Np bound to the organic and mineral compartment of bone, and to determine the affinity constant and the turn-over of the binding proteins. (authors)

  3. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Summary: Genistein ... Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein precipitated hypothyroidism, altered some metabolic hormones with a ... consumption. Exposure to ...

  4. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  5. Low-protein diet does not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters in pregnant Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V. Barros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive, biochemical, and hematological outcomes of pregnant rats exposed to protein restriction. Wistar rat dams were fed a control normal-protein (NP, 17% protein, n=8 or a low-protein (LP, 8% protein, n=14 diet from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy. On the 20th day, the clinical signs of toxicity were evaluated. The pregnant rats were then anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical-hematological analyses, and laparotomy was performed to evaluate reproductive parameters. No sign of toxicity, or differences (P>0.05 in body weight gain and biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, and total protein between NP and LP pregnant dams were observed. Similarly, hematological data, including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell distribution width (coefficient of variation, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, % lymphocytes, absolute lymphocyte count, platelet count, and mean platelet volume were similar (P>0.05 at the end of pregnancy. Reproductive parameters (the dam-offspring relationship, ovary mass, placenta mass, number of corpora lutea, implantation index, resorption index, and the pre- and post-implantation loss rates were also not different (P>0.05 between NP and LP pregnant dams. The present data showed that a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy did not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters and seems not to have any toxic effect on pregnant Wistar rats.

  6. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  7. Disposition of diiosononyl phthalate and its effects on sexual development of the male fetus following repeated dosing in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Rebecca A; Sochaski, Mark; Edwards, Kendra; Creasy, Dianne M; Willson, Gabrielle; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) from GD 12 to 19 via corn oil gavage to study the dose response for effects on fetal male rat sexual development as well as metabolite disposition in the dam and fetus. Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP), mono(hydroxyl-isononyl) phthalate (MHiNP), mono(oxo-isononyl) phthalate (MOiNP), and monoisononyl phthalate glucuronide (MiNP-G) were found in all measured tissues. MCiOP was the major metabolite, followed in decreasing order by MiNP, MHiNP, MOiNP, and MiNP-G. Percentage of dose absorbed decreased at 750 mg/kg/day. Testosterone concentration in the fetal testes was reduced at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. Multinucleated germ cells were increased in the testes of rats at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for this study was 50 mg/kg/day based on increased MNGs and reduced testes testosterone concentration in the fetal rat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  9. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  10. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  11. Peri-OVLT E-series prostaglandins and core temperature do not increase after intravenous IL-1beta in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, James E; Eliason, Heather L; Auer, Roland N

    2002-08-01

    Rats have an attenuated febrile response to endogenous pyrogen near the term of pregnancy. Given the fundamental role of E-series prostaglandins (PGEs) in mediating the febrile response to blood-borne endogenous pyrogen, the present experiments were carried out to determine whether PGEs increase in the area surrounding the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (peri-OVLT) of near-term pregnant (P) rats as in nonpregnant (NP) rats after intravenous (iv) administration of recombinant rat interleukin-1beta (rrIL-1beta). Core temperature was measured by telemetry and peri-OVLT interstitial fluid was sampled in 12 NP and 12 P chronically instrumented, Sprague-Dawley rats by microdialysis for determination of total PGEs by radioimmunoassay. Basal core temperatures were higher in NP compared with P rats (NP 37.9 degrees C +/- 0.5, P 36.9 degrees C +/- 0.4; P endogenous pyrogen near the term of pregnancy, warrants further investigation.

  12. Effects of silver nanoparticle (Ag NP on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ranjbar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanotechnology and nanoparticles are increasingly recognized for their potential applications in aerospace engineering, nanoelectronics, and environmental remediation, medicine and consumer products. More importantly is the potential for the application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in the treatment of diseases that require maintenance of circulating drug concentration or targeting of specific cells or organs the aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of Ag NP antioxidative biomarkers in rats. Ag NPs are used to investigate the potential risks for the environment and health. Materials and Methods: Rats received Ag NP, 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day IP. After two week of treatment, the activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of blood samples were measured. Results: Ag NP in 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced activities of CAT, SOD and increased TAC in plasma. Conclusion: In this study, Ag NP with 500mg/kg induced activities of CAT, SOD and decreased TAC. It is concluded that antioxidative properties of Ag NP is dose dependent.

  13. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  14. Actinides behaviour after inhalation exposure of rats to industrial NpO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramounet, B.; Abram, M.C.; Rateau, G.; Grillon, G.; Fritsch, P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary results on 237 Np biological behaviour after inhalation exposure of rats to industrial NpO 2 have shown a skeletal retention of the actinides corresponding to about 1% of the Initial Lung Deposit (ILD). The powder contained both 237 Np and 238 Pu+ 239 Pu. The retention was measured by total alpha-counting in animals killed from 7 to 100 days post exposure (Lizon C. et al, IRPA 9, Avril 96, Vienne. 2, 451-453). The aim of this study was to provide dissolution parameters, fr and ss, of Np and Pu using a calculation method we have recently developed (Ramounet B. et al, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 76(2), 215-222). A group of 30 male Sprague Dawley rats was exposed to NpO 2 aerosol (AMAD 2.6 μm, σg=2.2). The powder contained 77% of 237 Np, 2% of 239 Pu and 21% of 238 Pu in terms of alpha activity. The mean ILD of all rats, 0.5 kBq (σ=0.1), was measured 7 days post-exposure by in vivo X-ray measurement. Groups of 4 rats were sacrificed at 7, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 365 days post-exposure. Liver, kidneys and femora were removed, heat mineralised and alpha sources were prepared after extractive chromatography. Alpha activities were measured by alpha-spectrometry. Up to 365 days, 80% of the ILD was cleared with a half time of about 60 days and the remaining with a half time of about 200 days. The dissolution parameters were estimated from the evolution of the skeletal and lung retention. f r values were about 1.10 -3 and s s about 1.10 -5 for the two actinides. From these results it appears that industrial NpO 2 look like a type S compound. However, the s s value we measured is about 10 times less than the default value described for type S. Experiments are in progress to confirm these dissolution parameter values in the case of high NpO 2 ILD altering lung clearance. (author)

  15. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  16. Effect of indomethacin on the pregnant rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Damasceno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance, liver morphological study and post mortem characteristics of the pregnant Wistar rats treated with indomethacin, a general COX inhibitor. Indomethacin at doses of 0 (control, 0.32, 1.68 and 8.40 mg/kg/day were orally given once daily to each group (n=10 on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy (day 0 = first day of pregnancy = positive vaginal sperm. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia on day 11 of pregnancy, and were carried out necropsy and microorganism culture study. The results showed that the doses of 0.32 and 1.68 mg/kg body weight (the therapeutic dose for humans of indomethacin caused no embryotoxic or lethal effects. The highest dose (8.40 mg/kg of indomethacin disturbed implantation process and, thus, interrupted major development in some fetuses. The peritonitis was detected in the necropsy and in the bacteriological study of the animals treated with 8.4 mg/kg. It was considered death cause of these animals. Thus, this study analyzed a pharmacological agent on pregnancy in rodents and it provided some evidences that indomethacin presented embryotoxic and lethal effects at a high dose, but it was safe in the therapeutic dose used for humans.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance reprodutiva, estudo morfológico do fígado e características " post mortem" de ratas Wistar prenhes tratadas com indometacina, um inibidor geral de COX. Indometacina foi administrada oralmente, nas doses de 0 (controle, 0,32, 1,68 e 8,40 mg/kg/dia (n=10/grupo, nos dias 3 e 4 de prenhez (dia 0 = primeiro dia de prenhez = esperma positivo. Os animais foram eutanasiados sob anestesia no 11º dia de prenhez, e foram realizadas necropsia e cultura de microorganismos. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de 0,32 e 1,68 mg/kg de peso corpóreo (dose terapêutica para humanos de indometacina não causaram efeitos embriotóxicos ou letais. A maior dose (8,40 mg/kg de indometacina

  17. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Et

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26 were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6 received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05. No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  18. Strontium-85 in the fetuses of pregnant rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyskowova, Z.; Josifko, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant SPF Wistar rats and ICR/Swiss albino mice were injected in the tail vein with 85 SrCl 2 with 0.05mM inactive carrier (SrCl 2 ) given in volumes of 0.1 ml. The activity in the injected volume.was about 14 MBq per kg of rat and 13 MBq per kg of mouse. The animals were injected on day 3 or 13 of gestation. Activity retained by the fetuses was quantitatively determined at three stages of the fetal intrauterine development: in rats on days 14, 16 and 21 of gestation, in mice on days 14, 16 and 20 of gestation. The activity of fetuses and/or placentas with fetal membranes was measured using a TESLA automatic gamma counter. The results indicate that the fetuses of mice retained a significantly (P<0.01) greater proportion of strontium activity than the fetuses of rats. The highest specific activities (the percentage of total activity retained per gram of fetal tissue) were found in the late pregnancy period on (day 21 of gestation in rats and on day 20 of gestation in mice) in animals that were injected with the radionuclide on day 13 of gestation. (author)

  19. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-07-12

    Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period.

  20. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  1. Disposition and metabolism of 14C citrinin in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, R.V.; Hayes, A.W.; Berndt, W.O.

    1982-01-01

    Citrinin is a product of fungal metabolism capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Distribution, excretion and metabolism of ( 14 C) citrinin was studied in pregnant female rats after subcutaneous administration of 35 mg/kg on the 12th day of gestation. Elimination of ( 14 C) citrinin-derived radioactivity from plasma was biphasic. The half-lives of the rapid (α) and slower (β) plases of elimination were 1.95 h and 39.7 h, respectively. Approximately 74% of the radioactivity appeared in the urine in the first 24 h, with only 1.7% and 1.4% in the urine at 48 h 72 h, respectively. Fecal elimination accounted for 9.5%, 4.1% and 7.3% of the total radioactivity at each of these times. At least one metabolite of citrinin was demonstrable with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of plasma extracts. Retention times for the parent compound and metabolite were 270 s and 175 s, respectively. The metabolite was more polar than the parent compound. At least 3 metabolites of citrinin were found in urine of the same rats. Retention times for two metabolites were 140 s and 180 s, with both metabolites more polar than the parent compound. Chromatograms of bile samples suggested at least one metabolite was present with a retention time of 140 s. Chromatograms of uterus extracts indicated the presence of one metabolite with a retention time of 180 s. Chromatograms of fetus extracts indicated that no metabolites of citrinin were present. (author)

  2. Strain differences in the neural, behavioral, and molecular correlates of sweet and salty taste in naive, ethanol- and sucrose-exposed P and NP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jamison; Williams, Ashley; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela; Ren, Zuojun; Zhou, Huiping; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; Katsumata, Tadayoshi; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2011-11-01

    Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10% sucrose, CT responses to sweet stimuli, and T1R3 expression were greater in naive P rats than NP rats. The enhancement of the CT response to 0.5 M sucrose in the presence of varying ethanol concentrations (0.5-40%) in naive P rats was higher and shifted to lower ethanol concentrations than NP rats. Chronic ingestion of 5% sucrose or 5% ethanol decreased T1R3 mRNA in NP and P rats. Naive P rats also demonstrated bigger CT responses to NaCl+benzamil and greater TRPV1/TRPV1t expression. TRPV1t agonists produced biphasic effects on NaCl+benzamil CT responses, enhancing the response at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. The concentration of a TRPV1/TRPV1t agonist (Maillard reacted peptides conjugated with galacturonic acid) that produced a maximum enhancement in the NaCl+benzamil CT response induced a decrease in NaCl intake and preference in P rats. In naive P rats and NP rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm, the biphasic TRPV1t agonist vs. NaCl+benzamil CT response profiles were higher and shifted to lower agonist concentrations than in naive NP rats. TRPV1/TRPV1t mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in P rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm. We conclude that P and NP rats differ in T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t expression and neural and behavioral responses to sweet and salty stimuli and to chronic sucrose and ethanol exposure.

  3. Tritium ingestion as organically bound tritium (OBT) - incorporation in different organs of pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Pollaris, K.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kowalska, M.

    1998-01-01

    For a better understanding of the hazard of tritium, its bound form in the food constituents (organically bound tritium (OBT)) has not been investigated though study on tritiated water are many. Hence an evaluation of the uptake of tritium incorporated in basic constituents of food viz, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids is warranted. Present study cells with the incorporated three organically bound tritium components separated from tritiated milk powder (casein, butter and lactose). This is further compared in the organs of pregnant (after parturition) and non-pregnant rats

  4. Low copulatory activity in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) relative to alcohol-preferring (sP) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that similar neural mechanisms are involved in the reinforcing properties of natural rewards, like food and sex, and drugs of abuse. Rat lines selectively bred for high and low oral alcohol intake and preference have been useful for understanding factors contributing to excessive alcohol intake and may constitute proper animal models for investigating the neurobiological basis of natural rewarding stimuli. Methods The present study evaluated copulatory behavior in alcohol and sexually naïve Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -nonpreferring (sNP) male rats in three consecutive copulatory behavior tests. Results The main finding was that, under the conditions used in this study, sNP rats were sexually inactive relative to sP rats. To gain more information about the sexual behavior in sP rats, Wistar rats were included as an external reference strain. Only minor differences between sP and Wistar rats were revealed. Conclusions The reason behind the low copulatory activity of sNP rats remains to be elucidated, but may in part be mediated by innate differences in brain transmitter systems. The comparison between sP and Wistar rats may also suggest that the inherent proclivity to excessive alcohol drinking in sP rats may mainly be dependent on its anxiolytic properties, as previously proposed, and not changes in the reward system. PMID:25728453

  5. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  6. The acute toxicity and teratogenicity of nickel in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, A.; Holt, D.; Webb, M.

    1985-01-01

    The increased susceptibility of the pregnant rat to intraperitoneally administered nickel (Ni) is apparent at 12 and 19 days of pregnancy and cannot be due, therefore, to the increase in total body weight. Teratogenic malformations occur when Ni is administered during organogenesis and are maximal at dose levels that are toxic for the dam. The yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentas accumulate Ni, but this does not prevent the transport of the metal to the embryo or foetus. The Ni concentrations in the conceptuses decrease more slowly with time than those in the maternal organs. In the foetuses, the decrease in concentration is due to the increase in weight, since the content of Ni increases between 4 h and 24 h. Foetal uptake of ( 14 C)thymidine, ( 3 H)leucine and 65 Zn is unaffected at 3 h after the injection of the dam with 4 mg Ni/kg body wt. Incorporation of ( 3 H)leucine into foetal protein, but not the incorporation of ( 14 C)thymidine into DNA, is decreased at this time. A major effect of treatment with this teratogenic dose is an increase in the maternal plasma glucose concentration which, in turn, alters the supply of the sugar to the foetus. The possible relevance of temporary foetal hyperglycaemia to teratogenesis is discussed. (author)

  7. Disposition of inorganic mercury in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Pereira, Maria E.; Bridges, Christy C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as methylmercury have been shown to negatively impact fetal health. Despite the prevalence of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in the environment and the ability of methylmercury to biotransform into Hg2+, little is known about the ability of Hg2+ to cross the placenta into fetal tissues. Therefore, it is important to understand the handing and disposition of Hg2+ in the reproductive system. The purpose of the current study was to assess the disposition and transport of Hg2+ in placental and fetal tissues, and to test the hypothesis that acute renal injury in dams can alter the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal tissues. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intravenously with 0.5 or 2.5 μmol kg−1 HgCl2 for 6 or 48 h and the disposition of Hg2+ was measured. Accumulation of Hg2+ in the placenta was rapid and dose-dependent. Very little Hg2+ was eliminated during the initial 48 h after exposure. When dams were exposed to the low dose of HgCl2, fetal accumulation of Hg2+ increased between 6 h and 48 h, while at the higher dose, accumulation was similar at each time point. Within fetal organs, the greatest concentration of Hg2+ (nmol/g) was localized in the kidneys, followed by the liver and brain. A dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal organs was observed, suggesting that continued maternal exposure may lead to increased fetal exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that Hg2+ is capable of crossing the placenta and gaining access to fetal organs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26196528

  8. Modulation of Radiation Injury in Pregnant Rats by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.; Abd Rabu, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Work aims to point out the influence of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in protection of irradiated pregnant rats and suppression of oxidative stress. BMT was administered to rats, 1 h post gamma irradiation at the dose level of 2 Gy given at the 7th or 14th day of gestation. Rats were examined after 20 days from gestation to detect the physiological parameters of the mother and number of implantation sites and resorption as well as length of foetuses and tails. Pregnant rats irradiated at the 7th and 14th day of gestation showed reduction in live foetuses and length of foetuses and their tails and significant decrease in erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), and hematocrit percentage (Ht). Irradiation-induced an elevation in aldosterone and a drop in calcium (Ca). Glutathione levels showed significant decreases in blood while the content of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) showed significant increases. Lipid profile exhibited an increase in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) with a significant decrease in high lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) in both groups. BMT to irradiated pregnant rats induced significant amelioration in radiation- induced changes. BMT was shown to be effective in reducing physiological disorders and oxidative stress in pregnant rats reflected on minimizing embryonic injuries

  9. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  10. The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and protective role of folic acid and vitamin E. Ayfer Aktas, Yusuf Nergız, Yusuf Nergız, Murat Akkus, Murat Akkus, Yasemin Nasır, Yasemin Nasır ...

  11. The teratogenic effects of low dose 60Co γ-rays on the early pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chunlin

    1991-01-01

    The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 0.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy 60 Co γ-rays at the 9th day after conception. The results: 60 Co γ-rays at dose of 1.0 Gy could induced many defects: excenphaly, hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, cleft palate and cleft lip, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, shorten tail and absent tail in surviving fetuses. The growth retardation was found from the parameters of fetal weight, height, head circle and development of skeleton. In the group of radiation dose 0.5 Gy, only hydrocephalus, absent tail and growth retardation of skeleton appeared. The results suggest that low-dose exposure in the early pregnant rats can induce fetal defects and growth retardation. The probable mechanism of teratogen and growth retardation was discussed. The cAMP levels of brain and liver of rat fetuses were reported

  12. Biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring exposed to different doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Ineu, Rafael P; Moraes-Silva, Lucélia; Pereira, Maria E

    2012-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of low and high doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water on biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were treated during pregnancy with 0, 0.2, 0.5, 10 or 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL as HgCl(2). Rats were euthanized on day 20 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats presented a decrease in total water intake in all doses of mercury tested. At high doses, a decrease in the total food intake and in body weight gain was observed. Pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in kidney relative weight. Mercury exposure did not change serum urea and creatinine levels in any of the doses tested. Moreover, mercury exposure did not change porphobilinogen synthase activity of kidney, liver and placenta from pregnant rats in any of the doses tested, whereas fetuses of pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in the hepatic porphobilinogen synthase activity. In general, pregnant rats presented alterations due to HgCl(2) exposure in drinking water. However, only the dose 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL appeared to be enough to cross the blood-placenta barrier, since at this dose the fetuses presented change in the porphobilinogen synthase activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of tamsulosin and nifedipine on contractility of pregnant rat ureters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisette; Corriveau, Stéphanie; Rousseau, Eric; Blouin, Simon; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Ponsot, Yves; Roy-Lacroix, Marie-Ève

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effect of tamsulosin and nifedipine on the contractility of pregnant rat ureters and to perform quantitative analysis of the pharmacological effects. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) is commonly used to treat urolithiasis. However, this treatment is seldom used in pregnant women since no studies support this practice. This was an in vitro study on animal tissue derived from pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 124 ureteral segments were mounted in an organ bath system and contractile response to methacholine (MCh) was assessed. Tamsulosin or nifedipine were added at cumulative concentrations (0.001-1 μM). The area under the curve (AUC) from isometric tension measurements was calculated. The effect of pharmacological agents and the respective controls were assessed by calculating the AUC for each 5-min interval. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon nonparametric test. Both drugs displayed statistically significant inhibitory activity at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM for tamsulosin and 1 μM for nifedipine when calculated as the AUC as compared to DMSO controls. Tamsulosin and nifedipine directly inhibit MCh-induced contractility of pregnant rat ureters. Further work is needed to determine the clinical efficacy of these medications for MET in pregnancy.

  14. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  15. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  16. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deux espèces probiotiques, le lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 et le Lactobacillus fermentumRC 14 ont été administé séparément comme supplément dans l\\'eau potable aux rats étudiés pendant 30 jours. La ration et le poids à la naissance des chiots ont été mesuré. Une amélioration significative d\\'appetit des rats dont le ...

  17. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  18. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Conclusion Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy. PMID:28644857

  19. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Alves Freitas Afiune

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes.Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group: non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed.The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI and coronary artery risk index (CRI, and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group.Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  20. Effects of some food pollutants on pregnant rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, E.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of some food pollutants on pregnant rats and their foetuses The present work deals to illustrate asses the possible adverse effect evoked by radiation and/or tartrazine on the pregnant rats and their foetuses and to evaluate their haematological and their histological changes on liver and kidney. The pregnant rats were treated with radiation (1/2 Gy) on the 5th day of gestation and two doses of tartrazine (2.8, 5.6 mg/kg b.wt) from the 5th to 20th day of gestation singly or in combination. On the 20th day of gestation, the results have teveald marked decrease of maternal body weight, increase in the percentage of abortion and decrease in maternal uterine weight. In addition. to wide haematological disorders which are represented by decrease in erythrocytic count, decrease in haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage. In addition to increase in total leukocyte count, changes in blood differential, and marked histological changes in their livers and kidneys. The effect of radiation and/or tartrazine on the development rat foetuses were characterized by growth retardation, high percentage of foetal mortality with gross malformation. In addition to decrease in R.B.Cs count and haemoglobin content and increase in total leucocyte count with marked histological changes in their livers and kidneys. Furthermore, the use of radiation alone or in combination with the two doses of tartrazine were found to cause effects both pregnant rats and their resulting foetuses. These effects increase with the highest dose of tartrazine than with the lower one and it was more pronounced in combination groups than in the groups used radiation or tartrazine alone. 5 tabs., 102 figs., 357 refs

  1. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  2. C-Psilocin tissue distribution in pregnant rats after intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C.P. Law

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many species of hallucinogenic mushrooms have been found in the genus Psilocybe. The main psychoactive chemicals of Psilocybe mushrooms are psilocin and its phosphoryloxy derivative, psilocybin. In addition to its psychedelic effects, psilocybin is an effective agent to lift the mood of depressed patients with terminal cancers. Objective: To study the dispositional kinetics of 14C-psilocin in pregnant rats after intravenous injection, to calculate tissue dose surrogates i.e., tissue 14C concentration and area under the concentration-time curve using the experimental data, to quantify trans-placental passage of psilocin and/or its metabolites, and to identify new psilocin metabolite(s in rat urine. Methods: A group of 15 pregnant Wistar rats weighing between 0.30-0.36 kg was used in the study. Each rat was given a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg 14C-psilocin i.v. Three rats were randomly selected and sacrificed at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 hr post-dosing. The maternal and fetal tissues were quickly removed and the radioactivity in these tissues determined by liquid scintillation counting. In a separate study, urine samples were collected from 6 male Wistar rats after administering 15 mg/kg of unlabeled psilocin i.p. The urine samples were collected and extracted by chloroform-methanol (9:1 v/v and analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Results: 14C-Psilocin crossed the placental barrier of pregnant rats readily after i.v. administration; maternal tissue 14C concentrations were found to be much higher than those in fetal tissues. The areas under the curve for maternal tissues also were much higher than the fetal tissues. In general, maternal tissues could be divided into the fast eliminating organ group, which included the brain (elimination half-life 13 hr. A new psilocin metabolite tentatively identified as dihydroxyindoleacetic acid was found in the urine. Conclusion: Our study showed that psilocin readily crossed the

  3. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Radiation effects on pregnant rats. part 1: Morphological changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.A.; Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were performed to provide a rational systematic understanding of the radiation induced effects on the various stages of embryonic development. The doses delivered were 1, 2, 3, 4 Gy whole body irradiation of the pregnant rats, at specific time periods of gestation. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on 9 th day of gestation corresponding to placentation stage, and sacrificed on days 14, 18, 21, showed disintegration of embryonic and placental formation on the day 14 which appeared more advanced at higher doses. At later stages of gestation period at days 18 and 21 animals irradiated with low doses showed deformed fetal masses, incompatible with life. At high doses, there was total absence of embryonic and placental formations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on day 13 of gestation corresponding to stage of organogenesis, and sacrificed on days 18 and 21 showed major changes in fetal development. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Radiation effects on pregnant rats. part 1: Morphological changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, M A; Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were performed to provide a rational systematic understanding of the radiation induced effects on the various stages of embryonic development. The doses delivered were 1, 2, 3, 4 Gy whole body irradiation of the pregnant rats, at specific time periods of gestation. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on 9{sup th} day of gestation corresponding to placentation stage, and sacrificed on days 14, 18, 21, showed disintegration of embryonic and placental formation on the day 14 which appeared more advanced at higher doses. At later stages of gestation period at days 18 and 21 animals irradiated with low doses showed deformed fetal masses, incompatible with life. At high doses, there was total absence of embryonic and placental formations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on day 13 of gestation corresponding to stage of organogenesis, and sacrificed on days 18 and 21 showed major changes in fetal development. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Effects of [123I]ADAM, a serotonin transporter radiopharmaceutical, on pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.W.; Lin, M.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Chen, H.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Fu, Y.K.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin transport abnormalities are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. [ 123 I]ADAM ([ 123 I]-2-([2-({dimethylamino}methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-iodophenylamine) is a novel radiotracer that targets serotonin transporters. We assessed the toxicity of [ 123 I]ADAM (18.5 MBq) administered in early- and late-phases (8 and 14 day postfertilization, respectively) of pregnancy. The mortality, clinical status, and gross necropsy were measured in pregnant rats, and the fertility index was measured in rat offspring (weight, clinical observations). We found no dosing-related clinical signs. In conclusion, [ 123 I]ADAM was not toxic in an animal pregnancy model.

  7. Sibutramine effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant overweight and non-overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia-Farje, Luis Alberto Domingo; Silva, Denise Salioni; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Fernandes, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves; Carnietto, Nilson; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that sibutramine produces weight loss and is used frequently in women of childbearing age. However, the potential adverse consequences attributed to sibutramine use by women who may become pregnant is not known. It was thus of interest to determine the effects of sibutramine on the reproductive performance of pregnant rats. Overweight as well as non-overweight female Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (6 mg/kg) orally, daily for 15 d and then mated with normal male rats. Pregnancy was confirmed and treatment continued with sibutramine until d 14 of pregnancy. On d 20 of pregnancy all rats were anesthetized for determination of various maternal and fetal parameters. There was a significant maternal weight reduction at the end of pregnancy in the non-overweight drug-treated group compared to the control (non-overweight, no drug). Sibutramine alone and overweight condition alone produced a significant increase in postimplantation loss and placental index. In the overweight with or without sibutramine groups a significant decrease in fetal weight was noted. Data suggest that sibutramine alone or the condition of excess weight in the absence of drugs produced impaired reproductive performance. However, treatment of overweight rats with sibutramine did not further exacerbate fetal loss compared to sibutramine alone or the effects noted with excess weight alone.

  8. Physiological and Histological Alterations in Rats Liver Induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, an Insecticide Used in Dengue Fever Vector Control in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Mohammed O.; Bisher, Ameen S. Bin; Zeid, Isam M. Abu

    2009-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, a new formulated organophosphorous insecticide used in dengue fever vector (Aedes aegypti) control in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), was studied in albino rats. Both levels of GPT, GOT and ALP, and the combined histological alterations were assessed after treatment. Rats were daily injected intraperitoneally for two and four weeks with 80 and 200 mg/kg of body weight (1/10 and 1/4 of the LD50, respectively). Significant increase in GPT, GOT and ALP levels relative to the increase of treatment dose and duration time was observed. The time factor effect was remarkably noticed in ALP level fluctuation. These results indicate a remarkable defect in the liver functions induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC. Also, histological alterations in the treated animal's liver were observed including: blood congestion, fatty degeneration, hepatocytes swelling and necrosis. The liver syndrome's intensity correlated with the increase in dose and duration time. The present results could prove the hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC and its ability to cause severe physiological and histopathological defects in the liver. Therefore, the chemical control of Aedes aegypti must be reduced and other recommended control strategies should be promoted. (author)

  9. The Effect of Endurance Swimming Exercise Training on Structural Remodeling and Apoptotic Index of Adrenal Cortex in Pregnant Rats Exposed to Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dabagh Nikukheslat

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise training in determined intensity increased the structural and morphological complications of cadmium toxicity in the adrenal gland of pregnant rats. So, pregnant mothers are advised to use low-intensity exercises and trainings.

  10. Effect of leptin gene methylation on glucose metabolism in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen LI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the dynamic level of progesterone,insulin,and leptin,as well as the change in the features of leptin gene methylation in the promoter region of pregnant rats during different gestation stages and to analyze the correlation and effect of these conditions on glucose metabolism during gestation.Methods C57BL/6J pregnant rats are divided to four different groups,namely,early,mid-,and late gestation,as well as seven days postpartum(five rats for each group.Five C57BL/6J non-pregnant rats are taken as the control group.The change in glucose metabolism during gestation was determined by measuring the glucose tolerance of rats in different groups and by testing the level of progesterone,insulin,and leptin in the sera and the level of the methylation of leptin gene promoters during different stages of gestation.Results The levels of insulin [(13.70±0.70,14.78±0.91,and 16.07±0.55mU/L],progesterone [(10.10±0.37,11.41±0.50,and 15.34±0.65μg/L],and leptin [(1356.73±100.41,1628.02±53.03,and 1954.12±39.71ng/L] in pregnant rats in the three groups(early,mid-,and late gestation are apparently higher than that of the non-pregnant rats [(12.25±1.62mU/L,(7.14±0.38μg/L,and(934.38±62.29ng/L] and the postpartum group [(12.46±0.93mU/L,(9.74±0.82μg/L,and(1259.19±105.74ng/L].The difference among the different stages of gestation has statistical significance(P < 0.01,but the difference between the non-pregnant and postpartum groups is statistically insignificant.Fasting blood glucose during gestation is low.The level of blood glucose in mid-gestation and late-gestation rats after being injected with glucose is apparently higher than that of the non-pregnant group(P < 0.01.The level of methylation in the leptin gene promoter zone of the placenta drops along with gestation.Conclusions High levels of progesterone,insulin,and leptin contribute to physiological insulin resistance during gestation,resulting in reduced fasting blood glucose

  11. Accretion of visceral fat and hepatic insulin resistance in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Yang, Xiao Man; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of pregnancy. Because increased visceral fat (VF) is associated with IR in nonpregnant states, we reasoned that fat accretion might be important in the development of IR during pregnancy. To determine whether VF depots increase in pregnancy and whether VF contributes to IR, we studied three groups of 6-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats: 1) nonpregnant sham-operated rats (Nonpreg; n = 6), 2) pregnant sham-operated rats (Preg; n = 6), and 3) pregnant rats in which VF was surgically removed 1 mo before mating (PVF-; n = 6). VF doubled by day 19 of pregnancy (Nonpreg 5.1 +/- 0.3, Preg 10.0 +/- 1.0 g, P Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in late gestation in chronically catheterized unstressed rats. Glucose IR (mg.kg(-1).min(-1)) was highest in Nonpreg (19.4 +/- 2.0), lowest in Preg (11.1 +/- 1.4), and intermediate in PVF- (14.7 +/- 0.6; P insulin sensitivity than Preg [hepatic glucose production (HGP): Nonpreg 4.5 +/- 1.3, Preg 9.3 +/- 0.5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1); P insulin sensitivity was similar to nonpregnant levels in PVF- (HGP 4.9 +/- 0.8 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)). Both pregnant groups had lower peripheral glucose uptake compared with Nonpreg. In parallel with hepatic insulin sensitivity, hepatic triglyceride content was increased in pregnancy (Nonpreg 1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. Preg 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg/g) and decreased with removal of VF (PVF- 1.3 +/- 0.4 mg/g; P insulin action in pregnancy.

  12. A NEW ANIMAL-MODEL FOR HUMAN PREECLAMPSIA - ULTRA-LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN INFUSION IN PREGNANT RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; VISSCHER, CA; BAKKER, WW

    OBJECTIVE: An animal model for preeclampsia was developed by means of an ultra-low-dose endotoxin infusion protocol in conscious pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Rats received a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 0 of pregnancy, through which endotoxin (1.0 mu/kg body weight) (n = 10) or saline

  13. Gestational hypoxia induces preeclampsia-like symptoms via heightened endothelin-1 signaling in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Xiao, Daliao; Hu, Yali; Wang, Zhiqun; Paradis, Alexandra; Mata-Greenwood, Eugenia; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia induces preeclampsia-like symptoms via heightened endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling. Time-dated pregnant and nonpregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from the gestational day 6-21) groups. Chronic hypoxia had no significant effect on blood pressure or proteinuria in nonpregnant rats but significantly increased blood pressure on day 12 (systolic blood pressure, 111.7 ± 6.1 versus 138.5 ± 3.5 mm Hg; P=0.004) and day 20 (systolic blood pressure, 103.4 ± 4.6 versus 125.1 ± 6.1 mm Hg; P=0.02) in pregnant rats and urine protein (μg/μL)/creatinine (nmol/μL) ratio on day 20 (0.10 ± 0.01 versus 0.20 ± 0.04; P=0.04), as compared with the normoxic control group. This was accompanied with asymmetrical fetal growth restriction. Hypoxia resulted in impaired trophoblast invasion and uteroplacental vascular remodeling. In addition, plasma ET-1 levels, as well as the abundance of prepro-ET-1 mRNA, ET-1 type A receptor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein in the kidney and placenta were significantly increased in the chronic hypoxic group, as compared with the control animals. Treatment with the ET-1 type A receptor antagonist, BQ123, during the course of hypoxia exposure significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced hypertension and other preeclampsia-like features. The results demonstrate that chronic hypoxia during gestation induces preeclamptic symptoms in pregnant rats via heightened ET-1 and ET-1 type A receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking gestational hypoxia and increased risk of preeclampsia.

  14. Antioxidant enzymes response induced by static magnetic field in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chater, S.; Abdelmelek, H.; Garrel, C.; Favier, A.; Sakly, M.; Rhouma, K.B.

    2005-01-01

    Some recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that static magnetic fields (MF) affect human health and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer, depression, and miscarriage might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. However, despite numerous studies concerning MF, the mechanism of its adverse effect still remains unknown. So, our work hypothesis was that abortion effects induced by MF exposure could be due to an over production of reactive oxygen species produced by pregnant rats. The aim of our study was to examine if MF was able to induce an oxidative stress in pregnant-rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to MF (128 mT/1h/day) on day 6 to 19 of gestation. Animals were sacrificed three days after delivery and plasma was collected to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), an indirect oxidative stress marker, glutathion peroxidase activity (GPX), an antioxydant enzyme, and the total antioxidant status (TAS). MF exposure had no effects on MDA level (2.97 ± 0.50 μmol/l vs 2.62 ±0.19 μmol/l, p>0.05) and plasma GPX activity (6936.00 ±109.59 U/l vs 6258.00 ±111.12 U/l, p>0.05). Interestingly, MF exposure induced elevation in the total antioxidant status values (0.716 ±0.018 mmol/l vs 0.646 ±0.023 mmol/l, p<0.05). The results indicated that sub-acute exposures to magnetic field during rat pregnancy have no effects on lipid peroxidation, probably related to the protection role of antioxidant enzymes

  15. Embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion intravenously administered to pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Ye, Xiangfeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Bangjie; Zhang, Yingxue; Bao, Jie; Li, Wanfang; Wei, Jinfeng; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. The drug was intravenously injected to pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0, 200, 600 and 2000 μg/kg/day from day 6-15 of gestation. All the pregnant animals were observed for body weights and any abnormal changes and subjected to caesarean-section on gestation day (GD) 20; all fetuses obtained from caesarean-section were assessed by external inspection, visceral and skeletal examinations. No treatment-related external alterations as well as visceral and skeletal malformations were observed in honokiol microemulsion groups. There was no significant difference in the body weight gain of the pregnant rats, average number of corpora lutea, and the gravid uterus weight in the honokiol microemulsion groups compared with the vehicle control group. However, at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, there was embryo-fetal developmental toxicity observed, including a decrease in the body length and tail length of fetuses. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of honokiol microemulsion is 600 μg/kg/day, 75 times above the therapeutic dosage and it has embryo-fetal toxicity at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, which is approximately 250 times above the therapeutic dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  17. Kinetic variation of protein metabolism in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Katsuharu

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic variation of nitrogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle and liver of rats during the course of pregnancy was studied by the use of 15 N-amino nitrogen during acclimatization on a protein-free diet. 15 N from 15 N-glycine given on day 1 of pregnancy decreased from the 1st to 2nd trimester in the liver, suggesting contribution to the N metabolic pool. In the muscle, the rate of 15 N showed a marked decrease in the 2nd trimester, indicating, along with an increased accumulation of the total muscular N content, N accumulation in muscle protein in the 2nd trimester and promoted decomposition of mobiler muscular protein in the 2nd trimester. The marked decrease in the muscle 15 N content from the 2nd trimester and the decrease in the total N content in the 3rd trimester support the serious involvement of muscular N in fetal growth. The level of 15 N from 15 N-ammonium during the course of pregnancy was significantly high in the 2nd trimester and low in the 3rd. The 2nd trimester showed amino N accumulation in the muscle, and the 3rd, a decrease in N accumulation and amino N release. In regard to the kinetics of 15 N-lysine in the cell fraction, the muscular microsomes showed a high 15 N accumulation in the 2nd trimester and a voluminous release in the 3rd trimester. In contrast, the liver microsomes showed a linear decrease of 15 N up to 2nd trimester, followed by no change. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a general anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures, including those in pregnant women. Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause neuronal injury to the offspring of primates if it is administered during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether those neuronal changes would lead to long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring. In this study, propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min, IV, 2 h, saline, or intralipid solution was administered to pregnant rats on gestational day 18. We detected increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 in fetal brain at 6 h after propofol exposure. The neuronal density of the hippocampus of offspring was reduced significantly on postnatal day 10 (P10 and P28. Synaptophysin levels were also significantly reduced on P28. Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28 were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring.

  19. Sub-acute toxicological effects of Jobelyn on pregnant albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Egbung, Godwin Eneji; Williams, Olabisi Ibidun; Okubena, Olajuwon

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sub-acute toxicological effects of Jobelyn® on pregnant albino rats by employing biochemical, haematological and histopathological methods. A total of 32 pregnant female rats were randomly assigned to four different groups of eight rats each. The control group received distilled water and different doses of Jobelyn®; 250, 500, 1000 mg kg-1 were administered orally once a day for 2 weeks to the other groups. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant decrease (pAlkaline phosphatase, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, WBC count, revealed no significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to the control. The results show that at an appropriate dosage, the use of Jobelyn® during pregnancy may have no adverse effect on the liver and kidney tissues and may possess hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties however the histopathological studies revealed that very high levels of Jobelyn may be hepatotoxic.

  20. Role of the availability of substrates on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis in the fasted late pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzano, A.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the role of gluconeogenetic substrate availability on glucose production in the fasted late pregnant rat. Virgin and 21-day pregnant rats were studied after 24 hours' food deprivation. Pregnant animals showed decreased circulating glucose and gluconeogenic amino acid and increased plasma glycerol concentration. Glucose formation was studied in vivo two, five, and ten minutes after the intravenous administration of two concentrations of 14 C-alanine, 14 C-pyruvate, or 14 C-glycerol. Concentrations of 0.2 mmols of 14 C-glycerol or 14 C-pyruvate, but not of 14 C-alanine, enhanced 14 C-glucose production in pregnant rats, whereas 1 mmol of any of the three 14 C-substrates always enhanced 14 C-glucose production in these rats. Both 1 mmol/L and 5 mmol/L 14 C-alanine increased 14 C-glucose formation in 90-minute-incubated liver slices of fasted pregnant rats, in spite of decreased cytosolic activity of alanine aminotransferase. The three substrates enhanced in vitro renal gluconeogenesis in pregnant rats. Under all experimental conditions studied, labeled glycerol was converted more efficiently into glucose than equivalent amounts of any other substrate used, and this difference was greater in pregnant, than in virgin animals. Results indicate that, in spite of enhanced gluconeogenetic activity, maternal glucose production in the fasted state at late gestation is limited by the deficiency of certain substrates, such as amino acids. It is proposed that glycerol derived from enhanced maternal adipose tissue lipolysis constitutes a preferential gluconeogenetic substrate in comparison with others, such as alanine, that are more efficiently transferred through the placenta to the fetus

  1. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour [ 203 Hg]-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total 203 Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood 203 Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater 203 Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals 203 Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain 203 Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing 203 Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system

  2. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  3. Effect of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor on insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Jin, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhou

    2018-06-21

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining. Lp-PLA2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of biochemical indicators, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. Western blot was applied to determine levels of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with Control group, rats in the STZ + saline group were significantly decreased in body weight, the number of embryo implantation, the number of insulin positive cells and pancreatic islet size as well as the islet endocrine cells, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level, but substantially increased in Lp-PLA2, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fatty acids (FFA), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) levels. Moreover, the increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HOMA-IR and inflammatory cytokines but decreased fasting insulin (FINS) and ISI were also found in diabetic pregnant rats. On the contrary, rats in the darapladib-treated groups were just opposite to the STZ + saline group, and STZ + High-dose group improved better than STZ + Low-dose group. Thus, darapladib can improve lipid metabolism, and enhance insulin sensitivity of diabetic pregnant rats by regulating inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in the uterine vascular bed of pregnant rats with adriamycin-induced nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mariam H; Adeagbo, Ayotunde S; Kadavil, Elizabeth A; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Oriowo, Mabayoje A

    2002-01-01

    This project was designed to study endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the uterine vascular bed during experimentally induced preeclampsia in rats. Uterine vascular beds were isolated from non-pregnant and pregnant rats with or without treatment with adriamycin (ADR) and perfused with physiological solution. Thereafter, vasodilator responses to acetylcholine were recorded. RECORDS: Pregnant ADR-treated rats displayed symptoms of preeclampsia including hypertension and proteinuria. Blood pressure was 110.0 +/- 4.7 mm Hg (n = 5) in control pregnant rats and 136.0 +/- 5.3 mm Hg (n = 5) in ADR-treated pregnant rats, and urinary protein concentrations were 0.35 mg/ml (n = 5) and 13.2 +/- 3.6 mg/ml (n = 9), respectively. Both blood pressure and proteinuria values were significantly (p acetylcholine-induced dose-dependent vasodilator responses in the vascular beds were not significantly different between the pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Although acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) in both groups, the residual response to acetylcholine was not affected by indomethacin, suggesting that prostanoids were not involved in this response. The L-NAME-resistant component, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), was greater in ADR-treated uterine beds than in those of the controls, indicating a significant contribution from EDHF in these vessels. In the presence of an elevated external potassium ion concentration, acetylcholine produced similar vasodilator responses, indicating that the release of nitric oxide was not impaired. These results indicate that endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not impaired in this model of preeclampsia.

  5. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoyl β-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl β-glucuronide, retinoyl β-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates

  6. Malformations Induced in Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses Treated with Fluconazole and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the synergistic effect of antifungal (fluconazole) treatment and / or g-radiation stress on pregnant mothers and their developing embryos by evaluating the maternal biochemical changes, embryological and histopathological lesions. Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum azole antifungal medication used for the treatment of several types of fungal infections including common forms such as vaginal candidiasis. Fluconazole (50 mg/kg b.wt.) was daily administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats from the 4th to the 13th gestational days during which they were subjected to g-radiation at a dose level of 1 Gy given at the 6th day (post implantation period) and 1 Gy on the 12th day (organogenesis period) of gestation. The animals were dissected and examined on the 20th day of gestation (one day prior to praturation). Fluconazole and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and sodium (Na + ) level accompanied with a decline in potassium (K + ) concentration. The results showed that there was an elevation in the lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and heart tissues of pregnant rats. Meantime, the developing embryos in the uteri showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairments. Moreover, the fluconazole treatment and / or g-radiation harm effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. The examination of the endoskeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the center of vertebrae and appendages. In addition, the embryonic histological examinations revealed heart loss of normal architecture, the interstitial tissues were oedematous and containing necrotic cellular debris together with fibrosis of nerve cells in the brain

  7. Effects of d- and l-limonene on the pregnant rat myometrium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Hódi, Ágnes; Seres, Adrienn B; Gáspár, Róbert

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of d- and l-limonene on pregnant rat myometrial contractility in vitro, and investigate how these effects are modified by other agents. D- and l-limonene (10(-13)-10(-8) M) caused myometrial contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Contractions of uterine rings from 22-day-pregnant rats were measured in an organ bath in the presence of d- or l-limonene (10(-13)-10(-8) M) and nifedipine (10(-8) M), tetraethyl-ammonium (10(-3) M), theophylline (10(-5) M), or paxilline (10(-5) M). Uterine cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Oxidative damage was induced by methylglyoxal (3×10(-2) M) and the alteration was measured via noradrenaline (1×10(-9) to 3×10(-5) M) -induced contractions. Pre-treatment with nifedipine (10(-8) M), tetraethylammonium (10(-3) M), and theophylline (10(-5) M) attenuated the contracting effect of d- and l-limonene, while in the presence of paxilline (10(-5) M) d- and l-limonene were ineffective. The two enantiomers decreased the myometrial cAMP level, but after paxilline pretreatment the cAMP level was not altered compared with the control value. Additionally, l-limonene (10(-6) M) diminished consequences of oxidative damage caused by methylglyoxal (3×10(-2) M) on contractility, whereas d-limonene was ineffective. Our findings suggest that l-limonene has an antioxidant effect and that both d-and l-limonene cause myometrial contraction through activation of the A2A receptor and opening of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel. It is possible that limonene-containing products increase the pregnant uterus contractility and their use should be avoided during pregnancy.

  8. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of monosodium glutamate and /or gamma irradiation on pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the destructive impact of the widely used nutritional flavouring agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or radiation stress on the female rats mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical and embryological morphological and histopathological lesions induced. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, widely used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in modern nutrition. MSG (4 mg/rat) was daily administered subcutaneously to pregnant female rats from the 10 th to the 15 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy increments delivered every other day up to a cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. MSG and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum levels of lipid peroxides, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and sodium together with decreased calcium concentrations. consequently, the developing embryos in the uteri, due to their increased sensitivity, showed various teratological and histological impairments . MSG and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. moreover, embryonic histological examination revealed ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layer together with severely degenerated neurons

  10. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  11. The elimination, distribution, and metabolism of 14C-toxaphene in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, G.A.; Hillstrand, R.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 14 C-toxaphene in olive oil on day 15 of pregnancy and housed in glass metabolism cages. Urine, feces, and tissues were collected and assayed for radioactivity. The elimination was similar to that in virgin females with the majority of activity excreted in the feces (38.4%; five days) and less in the urine (23.7%; five days). The fetuses contained the lowest levels of radioactivity of all tissues tested (28 ppb; five days) and fat contained the highest levels (7476 ppb; five days). A comparison of the activity in the fetuses with that in the dam's fat showed slight differences, indicating the presence of more polar compounds (perhaps metabolites)

  12. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct

  13. T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sehata

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

  14. Changes in brain development of rat fetus exposed to 137Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods of the female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuefeng; Wang Mingming

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant rats in 11d and 16d of their pregnancy were given one-off whole body exposure by 137 Cs γ rays to 0.2, 0.4, 0.9 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Changes were observed in conditioned drinking response and cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number of the baby rats exposed to the γ rays in different periods of their embryo development. As a result, that pregnant rats exposed to 137 Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods may induce significant decrease in cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number and achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies. The dose-response relationship can be described by Y=a-b log 10 D. The achieving rate of conditioned drinking response were significantly correlated to cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number in the babies, and the achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies exposed at pregnant 11d was lower than others exposed at pregnant 16d

  15. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  16. Impact of Isotretinoin on The Liver and Kidney of Irradiated Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Ismail, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isotretinoin and/or gamma radiation on the pregnant rats and their fetuses as judged by the maternal biochemical, histochemical and histopathological lesions induced in their fetuses. Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is related to both retinoic acid and retinol (vitamin A) and found in small natural quantities in liver. It is medically indicated for treatment of severe cytic acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin at a dose level of 30 mg/kg was daily administered orally to pregnant albino rats from the 5th to 10th day of gestation. Mothers were subjected to 1 Gy of gamma radiation (0.5 Gy each time) on the 6th and 9th days of gestation then investigations were carried out on 20th day of gestation. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant increase in maternal serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), glucose, alanine and aspartate transaminases (AST, ALT) and creatinine (Cr) . In addition to decreased levels of serum protein, gamma, beta, alpha 2, alpha 1 and albumin with concomitance increase in pre-albumin were observed. The histopathological results of the liver tissue showed different distortions, which varied from necrotic cells, such as loss of architecture of hepatic lobules, rupture of the walls of blood vessels, dilated and congested blood vessels and vacuolated cytoplasm of the liver cells. On the other hand, the kidney tissue showed thickness of Bowman's capsule with hyaline material, atrophic glomerular tufts, fragmentlysis convoluted and completely degeneration of renal tubules. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed diminutions in each of the polysaccharides and DNA contents. It could be concluded that isotretinoin intake and/or radiation exposure could exert deleterious effect, therefore, radiation occupational workers, especially females, have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake

  17. Transplacental passage of {sup 26}Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and {sup 26}Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used {sup 26}Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}AlCl{sub 3}) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. {sup 26}Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the {sup 26}Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and {sup 26}Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of {sup 26}Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that {sup 26}Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  18. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S. [Univ. of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva (Slovenia); Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Influence of exposure of pregnant rats to tritiated water (HTO) on swimming function and brain weight of their litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefeng

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the effects of HTO exposure on the development of central nervous system in rats, the influence of exposure of pregnant rat to HTO on the swimming ability of their litters was studies. Experiment was completed in 21 rats and their 237 litters. It was found that exposure of rats to HTO at activity of 0.185 MBq/ml of body water (5 μCi/ml) or 0.740 MBq/ml (20 μCi/ml), begining on the 8th day of gestation, may retard the development of swimming ability in young litters (up to 18 day of life). These findings indicate that exposure to HTO at lower doses (0.20-1.85 Gy) may resut in a retardation of the function of the development of central nervous system in rats

  20. Malformations induced by gamma irradiation combined with vitamin A administration in pregnant female albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    In The Present investigation, oral administration of vitamin A of the therapeutic doses and double therapeutic doses (9.000 lU/kg b.wt and 18.000 IU/ kg body, wt) to female rats starting on day 1 up to day 19 of pregnancy and exposed to 3 Gy (1 Gy/3 times) whole body gamma irradiation on days 7th, 1th and 15th of gestation (dissection was preformed on day 20) caused morphological, histochemical and skeletal changes in pregnant rats and their foetuses. The congenital anomalies occurred in foetuses when pregnant rats were exposed to γ-irradiation including diminution of size and subcutaneous haemorrhage. On the other hand, miscellaneous malformations including kypophysis, exencephally, anophthalmia and deformation of ear region were designated in foetuses maternally treated with excess vitamin A. The malformations were severe when mothers were irradiated during vitamin A administration as manifested by macrocephaly and fusion of digits of the hind limb (Oligosyndactyly). The examination of the endo skeletal system of foetuses obtained from irradiated pregnant rats and treated with low or excess doses of vitamin A showed retardation in of the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the centre of vertebrae. Moreover, no ossification was observed in sternebra, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges. In the present study, the content of DNA exhibited significant decrease in mother irradiated and combined or not with vitamin A. The results are of great importance from the standpoint of radiation protection and drug safety

  1. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant

  2. Influence of γ-irradiation on the structure and enzymatic activity of nuclear membrane in pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Mirkhamidova, P.; Shamsutdinova, G.T.; Filatova, L.S.; Khamidov, D.Kh.; Zbarskij, I.B.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical investigations of pregnant rats and embryo liver cell nuclei after in vivo irradiation in the doses of 1 and 2 Gy revealed their high radiosnsitivity at all stages of gestation and embryonal development. At damaging effect of radiation, we managed to observe sharp accumulation of products of lipid peroxide oxidation and suppresion of the activities of such enzymes in liver nuclei of pregnant rats and embryos. The changes of such a kind are shown to intensify with the increasing of irradiation doses. The most profound inhibition of activities of these enzymes in liver nuclei of embryos irradiated in utero was observed during the period of organogenesis (the 13th day of the development) and in fetal period of embryogenesis (the 17th day of the development), as well as the 13th and 17th day of gestation. The morphological data also demonstate the high level of cell nucleus sensitivity to the action of radiation during gestattion and embryogenesis

  3. Protective effects of Allium sativum against defects of hypercholesterolemia on pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Gadallah, Abdelalim A; Bakr, Iman H

    2010-06-10

    Sixty fertile female and male albino rats of Wistar strain (I male/ 3 females) were used in the present study. The females were divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 received water and standard feeds for thirty-four days. Group 2 was fed with a cholesterol-containing diet (1%) for two weeks prior to onset of gestation and maintained administration till parturition, produce atherosclerosis (34 days). Group 3 received intragastric administration of 100mg homogenate of garlic (Allium sativum)/kg body weight for three weeks prior to onset of gestation as well as throughout the gestation period. Group 4 intragastrically administered garlic for one week of group B and maintained with combined garlic-treatment for the mentioned period. At parturition, the pregnant were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TCL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and creatine kinase activity (CK) were determined. The total numbers of offspring were recorded and examined morphological for congenital abnormalities. Biopsies of heart and dorsal aorta of both pregnant and their offspring (1 day-age) were processed for investigation at light and transmission electron microscopy. The skeleton of the newborn of different experimental groups were stained with alizarin red s and mor-phometric assessment of mandibular and appendicular bone length. The study revealed that the myocardium of atherosclerotic mother exhibited leuhkocytic inflammatory cell infiltration associated with necrosis, eosinophilia of myocardiai fibers, and edema of blood vessels. Ultrastructural studies revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of cristae in the myocardiai muscle fibers. The dorsal aorta possessed accumulation of extra-cellular lipid in intima lining of endothelium. The collagenous fibrils in the tunica adventitia became fragile and loosely separated from each other. Numerous foamy lipid loaden cells were detected within the tunica intima causing deterioration of the elastic fibers, resulting in

  4. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Role on the Biochemical, Histological and Teratological Changes Induced in Diabetic Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 called Cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal function of the brain, nervous system, cell division and for the formation of blood. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vitamin B 12 intake on radiation induced damage in diabetic mothers.Diabetes was induced in female rats by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg b.wt. dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received vitamin B 12 0.1 mg/100 g b.wt. from the 1st up to 19th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.6 Gy on the 7th and the 14th days of gestation. The increased incidence of malformations in diabetic pregnancy with an excess of free oxygen radicals in the embryos was recorded .Vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mother ameliorated radiation-induced damage which was obvious by diminishing the increase in glucose level, improving serum insulin level, glycogen content in the liver and ameliorating the decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses.In addition, vitamin B 12 treatment improved the decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) of fetuses and DNA content in the liver tissues. Moreover, vitamin B 12 treatment lead to the regeneration of normal architecture of maternal and fetuses hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that vitamin B 12 supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation effect which induced biochemical, histochemical, histological and teratological disorders.Furthermore, the results obtained showed that vitamin B 12 administration caused a protection to diabetic pregnant rats against embryo malformations induced by gamma rays

  5. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  6. Appearance of circulating and tissue 14C-lipids after oral 14C-tripalmitate administration in the late pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles, J.; Herrera, E.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether and/or how dietary lipids participate in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late gestation in the rat. After oral administration of glycerol-tri(1-14C)-palmitate, total radioactivity in plasma increased more rapidly in 20-day pregnant rats than in either 19-day pregnant rats or virgin controls. At the peak of plasma radioactivity, four hours after the tracer was administered, most of the plasma label corresponded to 14C-lipids in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (d less than 1.006), and when expressed per micromol of triglyceride, values were higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. The difference was less after 24 hours, although at this time the level of 14C-lipids in d less than 1.006 lipoproteins was still higher in 20-day pregnant rats than in virgins. Tissue 14C-lipids, as expressed per gram of fresh weight, were similar in pregnant and virgin rats, but the values in mammary glands were much higher in the former group. Estimated recovery of administered radioactivity four hours after tracer in total white adipose tissue, mammary glands, and plasma lipids was higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. No difference was found between 20-day pregnant and virgin rats either in the label retained in the gastrointestinal tract or in that exhaled as 14C-CO2 during the first four hours following oral administration of 14C-tripalmitate. These findings plus the known maternal hyperphagia, indicate that in the rat at late pregnancy triglyceride intestinal absorption is unchanged or even enhanced and that dietary lipids actively contribute to both maternal hypertriglyceridemia and lipid uptake by the mammary gland

  7. Regulation of caspase-3 expression to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has been involved in a variety of systemic disorders and suspected as a potential risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria may actively regulate embryonic development, implantation and placental trophoblast cell invasion. This study aimed to analyze the role of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonasgingivalis-infected pregnant rats. Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The weight and length of placentas and fetuses were evaluated. The expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. On GD14, TNF-α (R2=0.416;P=0.000 and IL-10 (R2=0.187;P=0.012 had an important role to increase expression of caspase-3 in the placenta, but only TNF-α (R2=0.393;P=0.000 was able to increase the expression of caspase-3 on GD20. TNF-α and caspase-3 also had an important role (P0.000. The increasing expressions of TNF-α and IL-10 did not only enhance immune protection, but also maintained the trophoblast cells survival by regulating expression of caspase-3. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in maternal periodontal tissue can lead to decrease in placental weight, fetal weight and fetal length which mediated by increasing expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in the placenta.

  8. Outcome of Angiotensin II Inhibition in Pregnant Irradiated Rats and their Embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F. L.; Ashry, Kh. M.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the synergism of losartan and or irradiation stress on the female rat mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical pathways during gestation and teratogenic effects on the embryos. Losartan is an angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist used to regulate blood pressure. Losartan (5 mg/kg b.wt day) was daily orally administrated to pregnant rats from the 6 th to 18 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy/4 times at the 9 th, 10 th, 11 th and 12 th days of gestation whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. Dual treatment of losartan and radiation resulted in increased maternal serum levels of creatinine and bilirubin.The developing embryos in the uteri due to their high sensitivity showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairment. Losartan and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations expressed as anopthalmia, kypophysis, subcutaneous haemorrhage and microtia as well as elevated intrauterium death and embryonic resorption. Moreover, the examination of endo skeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the vertebrae and edges. Also, maternal and embryonic histological examination revealed that losartan and gamma radiation induced injury to kidney tissue manifested in rupture and shrinkage of renal corpuscle, infiltration, disappearance of glomularies, while the kidney of fetuses showed loss of renal pattern. Results point out that losartan should be used with caution in women at the reproductive age and those occupationally exposed to irradiation

  9. Inorganic mercury exposure in drinking water alters essential metal homeostasis in pregnant rats without altering rat pup behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Costa, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Taíse F; Fonseca, Mariana M; Bernardi, Jamile S; Fiuza, Tiago L; Pereira, Maria E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of HgCl 2 exposure in the doses of 0, 10 and 50μg Hg 2+ /mL in drinking water during pregnancy on tissue essential metal homeostasis, as well as the effects of HgCl 2 exposure in utero and breast milk on behavioral tasks. Pregnant rats exposed to both inorganic mercury doses presented high renal Hg content and an increase in renal Cu and hepatic Zn levels. Mercury exposure increased fecal Hg and essential metal contents. Pups exposed to inorganic Hg presented no alterations in essential metal homeostasis or in behavioral task markers of motor function. In conclusion, this work showed that the physiologic pregnancy and lactation states protected the offspring from adverse effects of low doses of Hg 2+ . This protection is likely to be related to the endogenous scavenger molecule, metallothionein, which may form an inert complex with Hg 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The adverse effect of 4-tert-octylphenol on fat metabolism in pregnant rats via regulation of lipogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kang, Eun-Jin; Park, Mee-Na; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik; Hwang, Dae-Youn; An, Beum-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Alkylphenols such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol, and bisphenol A are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by many endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon, and estrogen. These factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy. The alteration of nutritional intake and fat metabolism may affect the maintenance of pregnancy and supplementation of nutrients to the fetus, and therefore can cause severe metabolic diseases such as ketosis, marasmus and diabetes mellitus in pregnant individuals. In this study, we examined the effects of OP on fat metabolism in pregnant rats. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was also administered as an estrogenic positive control. In our results, rats treated with OP showed significantly reduced body weights compared to the control group. In addition, histological analysis showed that the amount of fat deposited in adipocytes was reduced by OP treatment. To study the mechanism of action of OP in fat metabolism, we examined the expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in rat adipose tissue and liver by real-time PCR. OP and EE negatively regulated the expression of lipogenic enzymes, including FAS (fatty acid synthase), ACC-1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1), and SCD-1 (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1). The levels of lipogenic enzyme-associated transcription factors such as C/EBP-α (CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c) were also reduced in both liver and adipose tissue. In summary, these findings suggest that OP has adverse effects on fat metabolism in pregnant rats and inhibits fat deposition via regulating lipogenic genes in the liver and adipose tissue. The altered fat metabolism by OP may affect the nutrition balance during pregnancy and can cause metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  12. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Othman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  13. The influence of γ-radiation on biosynthesis of nuclear matrix proteins of hepatic cells of pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkhamidova, P.; Shamsutdinova, G.T.; Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Filatova, L.S.; Bul'dyaeva, T.V.; Zbarskij, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of incorporation of 35 S-methionine into nuclear matrix proteins of hepatic cells of pregnant rats and their embryos subjected to single γ-irradiation ( 60 Co, 1 and 2 Gy, 0.0233 Gy/s) on days 3, 13 and 17 of pregrnancy and embryogenesis. On day 21 of pregnancy and embryogenesis a decrease in the rate of incorporation of 35 S-methionine into nuclear matrix proteins was shown to be a function of radiation dose and time of pregnancy and embryogenesis on the moment of exposure

  14. Dose-Related Effects of Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on Gamma Radiation-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Reviews of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a widely used nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug, has consistently suggested a possible association between prenatal ASA ingestion and adverse effects in the pregnant mothers and their developing fetuses. The objective of the current study was to comprehensively define the effect of relatively low and high doses of ASA (25 mg/kg body wt. and 200 mg/kg body wt. respectively) on gestating rats and their possible impact on the irradiated ones. Therefore 36 pregnant rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Three rat groups were daily orally gavaged from the 7th to the 18th gestational days with: distilled water (Group 1), 25 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 2) and 200 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 3). The other three groups similarly received the same previous treatments besides 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation of each, to serve as: Group 4 (distilled water + irradiation), Group 5 (25 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation) and Group 6 (200 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation). All rat groups were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy and the uterine contents were examined. The lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg body wt.) treated group (Group 2) displayed healthy mothers and fetuses whereas that of the higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) (Group 3) despite not showing significant maternal or fetal mortalities, yet the intrauterine contents presented fetal developmental disorders including stunted growth and resorption together with some head and limb anomalies including plagiocephaly, marked acampsia and acrocontracture. Meanwhile, results have unexpectedly shown a radioprotective role of the lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg. body wt.) (Group 5) to pregnant rats and their fetuses as inspected by its efficacy in retrieving the radiation induced maternal weight loss together with its noticeable ameliorating effects on the intrauterine lethality of the affected fetuses and their externally detected abnormalities in addition toits effectiveness in retaining some

  15. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  16. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  17. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  18. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol (E2, and progesterone (P4 were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-α, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  19. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  20. Frequency analysis of pulmonary tumors occurrence at the rat after exposure to actinide oxide aerosols. Risk factors identification by comparing NpO2 and PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudoignon, N.

    2001-07-01

    Inhalation of actinide oxide particles is potentially one route of contamination of workers, which might induce pulmonary tumours due to aerosol generation during nuclear fuel fabrication process. Dose-effect relationships for lung tumour induction have been well established from epidemiological and experimental studies. However, they do not take into account specific parameters of exposure. The aim of this study was to compare cancer incidence among groups of rats exposed either to NpO 2 or to PuO 2 , two actinide oxides with different specific activity, but with similar aerosol granulometry. During the rat life-span, lung tumour development could occur and the individual follow-up allowed the determination of lung dose at death. Although aerosol particle sizes were similar, the mean number of particles per unit of activity was 2400 times higher for NpO 2 as compared to PuO 2 . This range of variation appeared higher than the variation of specific activity (450). Initial distribution of aerosol was then much more homogeneous for neptunium. In the range of initial lung deposits studied, the only physiological changes observed concerned lung clearance and rat life- span after exposure to the highest levels of Np activity. Pathological examination performed at death showed that carcinogenic power of neptunium was 2 to 3 times higher than that of plutonium. Dose-effect relationships appeared linear and when compared to previous studies, showed an increase of lung cancer risk as the specific activity of the inhaled actinide oxide decreases. The range of risk variation can reach a factor of 10, revealing that the consideration of lung dose at death solely might not be sufficient for an accurate estimate of risk and that specific parameters of exposure, such as nature and granulometry of aerosols, should also be taken into account. (author)

  1. Distribution of 131I-labeled recombinant human erythropoietin in maternal and fetal organs following intravenous administration in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, O.; Lambrecht, F.Y.; Durkan, K.; Gokmen, N.; Erbayraktar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the possible transplacental transmission of 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin ( 131 I-rh-EPO) in pregnant rats and its distribution through maternal and fetal organs. Six Wistar Albino Rats in their pregnancy of 18 days were used 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin (specific activity = 2.4 μCi/IU) was injected into the tail vein of rats. After 30 minutes labeled erythropoietin infusion maternal stomach, kidney, lung, liver, brain and heart as well as fetus were removed. Then, the same organs were removed from each fetus. Measuring weight of maternal and fetal organs as well as placenta were followed by radioactivity count via Cd(Te) detector. 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin was found to be able to pass rat placenta and its distribution order in fetal organs was similar to those of maternal organs. Besides, as measurements were performed closer to cornu uteri, uptakes were decreasing in every fetus and its corresponding placenta. (author)

  2. Apoptosis Induced in The Brain and Liver of Fetuses And Placenta of Irradiated Pregnant Rats Treated With Antacid Containing Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Madkour, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in antacid medicine which frequently used by pregnant women. It is of great importance to increase the knowledge about its harmful effects on the fetuses. The present study clarified that administration of antacid containing Al and/or exposure to gamma radiation induced maternal and fetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered antacid containing Al on the gestational days 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th and 17th at a dose of 4.5 mg/g and exposed to whole body fractionated gamma radiation (2 Gy) at a dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on gestational days 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th of pregnancy. Morphological, biochemical and molecular changes were studied. The investigation was carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20th day of gestation). Antacid containing Al and/or radiation induced growth retardation, intrauterine death, malformations and embryonic resorption. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as glutathione content in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses and placenta of pregnant rats were used as sensitive parameters to evaluate tissues damage. Antacid containing Al and/or radiation treatment resulted in decreased total protein content in the maternal placenta tissue. Moreover, the elevation in the lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde; MDA) was accompanied with decline in the glutathione content (GSH) in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses. The activity of a key enzyme of apoptosis namely the caspase-3 was analyzed, which its activation represent a point of no return in apoptosis induction. Apoptosis was confirmed by another important hallmark of programmed cell death such as the DNA fragmentation. Treatment with antacid containing Al and/or gamma irradiation significantly increased caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in maternal placental tissue and fetal brain and liver tissues as compared to control animals. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that the deleterious

  3. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P≤0.001. This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.

  4. Distribution of 14C-morphine and macromolecules in the brain and liver and their nuclei in pregnant rats and their foetuses after infusion of morphine into pregnant rats at near-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, W.J.; Johannesson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Timed-pregnant (day 21 or 22) Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 14 C-morphine (2.85 mci/mmol) 5 mg/kg/hr, or saline in equivalent volumes, by continuous intravenous infusion for periods of up to 4hrs. The brains and livers of the maternal rats and of their foetuses were collected and their nuclei were isolated. The tissues and nuclei isolated from them were analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content and radioactivity. Morphine infused maternal rats exhibited no significant difference in the total amount of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain or in the concentration of these constituents in brain nuclei. The concentration of nuclear RNA in foetal brain of morphine infused mothers was significantly lower at 4 hrs than that of saline infused controls. It was concluded that RNA synthesis in the foetal brain must be much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of morphine on macromolecular synthesis than that in maternal brain. The change in nuclear RNA concentration in foetal brain became significantly different when morphine reached its highest level in foetal brain nuclei. The morphine concentration (pmol 14 C-morphine equivalents per mg DNA) in the brain of foetal and maternal rats was the same at each time period, whereas the maternal liver levels were at least eight times greater than those in foetal liver. The concentrations in foetal brain nuclei were 2-14 times greater than those in maternal brain nuclei, whereas levels in the latter were found to be low and virtually constant at all time periods tested. It was concluded that foetal brain nuclei have a greater capacity to bind or retain morphine than maternal brain nuclei. (author)

  5. Distribution of /sup 14/C-morphine and macromolecules in the brain and liver and their nuclei in pregnant rats and their foetuses after infusion of morphine into pregnant rats at near-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W J; Johannesson, T [Iowa Univ., Iowa City (USA)

    1975-01-01

    Timed-pregnant (day 21 or 22) Sprague-Dawley rats were administered /sup 14/C-morphine (2.85 mci/mmol) 5 mg/kg/hr, or saline in equivalent volumes, by continuous intravenous infusion for periods of up to 4hrs. The brains and livers of the maternal rats and of their foetuses were collected and their nuclei were isolated. The tissues and nuclei isolated from them were analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content and radioactivity. Morphine infused maternal rats exhibited no significant difference in the total amount of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain or in the concentration of these constituents in brain nuclei. The concentration of nuclear RNA in foetal brain of morphine infused mothers was significantly lower at 4 hrs than that of saline infused controls. It was concluded that RNA synthesis in the foetal brain must be much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of morphine on macromolecular synthesis than that in maternal brain. The change in nuclear RNA concentration in foetal brain became significantly different when morphine reached its highest level in foetal brain nuclei. The morphine concentration (pmol /sup 14/C-morphine equivalents per mg DNA) in the brain of foetal and maternal rats was the same at each time period, whereas the maternal liver levels were at least eight times greater than those in foetal liver. The concentrations in foetal brain nuclei were 2-14 times greater than those in maternal brain nuclei, whereas levels in the latter were found to be low and virtually constant at all time periods tested. It was concluded that foetal brain nuclei have a greater capacity to bind or retain morphine than maternal brain nuclei.

  6. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gest...

  7. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model for the Thyroid Hormones in the Pregnant Rat and Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A developmental PBPK model is constructed to quantitatively describe the tissue economy of the thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in the rat. The model is also used to link maternal (THs) to rat fetal tissues via placental transfer. THs are importan...

  8. Beneficial effects of vitamin C treatment on pregnant rats exposed to formaldehyde: Reversal of immunosuppression in the offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Beatriz Silva; Barioni, Éric Diego; Heluany, Cíntia [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Braga, Tárcio Teodoro [Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Drewes, Carine Cristiane [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, Silvia Goes [Post Graduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, University Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo (Brazil); Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva [Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana, E-mail: alsantosfranco@gmail.com [Post Graduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, University Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-06-01

    Inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) during the pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus, and here we hypothesized that this mechanism may be responsible for the impaired immune response detected in the offspring. In order to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C on the oxidative stress induced by FA in the uterine microenvironment, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with vitamin C (150 mg/kg, gavage) or vehicle (distilled water, gavage) 1 h before FA exposure (0.92 mg/m{sup 3}, 1 h/day, 5 days/week), for 21 days, and the 30 days old offspring were submitted to LPS injection (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced gene expression of iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 and decreased gene expression of SOD-2 in the uterus of FA exposed mothers was rescued by Vit C treatment. Moreover, vitamin C rescued the impaired immune response elicited by LPS in the offspring from FA exposed mothers, by increasing the number of blood and bone marrow leukocytes, and augmenting gene expression of IL-6 and reducing mRNA levels of IL-10 and IFN in the lungs. Vitamin C treatment did not rescue the impaired TLR4-NF-kB pathway in the lung of the offspring, suggesting that FA-induced uterine oxidative stress affects other inflammatory pathways activated by LPS in the offspring. Together, data obtained here confirm our hypothesis that FA-induced oxidative stress in the uterine microenvironment modifies the programming mechanisms of the immune defenses of offspring, leading to an impaired host defense. - Highlights: • FA exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus. • Vitamin C treatment blunted the oxidative stress in uterus induced by FA exposure. • Oxidative stress in uterus after FA exposure impairs the immune response of offspring. • Vitamin C in pregnant rats rescued the impaired immune response in the offspring.

  9. Beneficial effects of vitamin C treatment on pregnant rats exposed to formaldehyde: Reversal of immunosuppression in the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Beatriz Silva; Barioni, Éric Diego; Heluany, Cíntia; Braga, Tárcio Teodoro; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Costa, Silvia Goes; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) during the pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus, and here we hypothesized that this mechanism may be responsible for the impaired immune response detected in the offspring. In order to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C on the oxidative stress induced by FA in the uterine microenvironment, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with vitamin C (150 mg/kg, gavage) or vehicle (distilled water, gavage) 1 h before FA exposure (0.92 mg/m 3 , 1 h/day, 5 days/week), for 21 days, and the 30 days old offspring were submitted to LPS injection (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced gene expression of iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 and decreased gene expression of SOD-2 in the uterus of FA exposed mothers was rescued by Vit C treatment. Moreover, vitamin C rescued the impaired immune response elicited by LPS in the offspring from FA exposed mothers, by increasing the number of blood and bone marrow leukocytes, and augmenting gene expression of IL-6 and reducing mRNA levels of IL-10 and IFN in the lungs. Vitamin C treatment did not rescue the impaired TLR4-NF-kB pathway in the lung of the offspring, suggesting that FA-induced uterine oxidative stress affects other inflammatory pathways activated by LPS in the offspring. Together, data obtained here confirm our hypothesis that FA-induced oxidative stress in the uterine microenvironment modifies the programming mechanisms of the immune defenses of offspring, leading to an impaired host defense. - Highlights: • FA exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus. • Vitamin C treatment blunted the oxidative stress in uterus induced by FA exposure. • Oxidative stress in uterus after FA exposure impairs the immune response of offspring. • Vitamin C in pregnant rats rescued the impaired immune response in the offspring.

  10. Diaplacental transfer of 14C ethanol in pregnant albino rats at various stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberl, E.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of an acutely small dose of ethanol was studied for the first time in this paper. The kinetics of the ethanol during the elimination phase were ascertained during the early as well as late stages of development. The kinetic study is supplemented by measurements of the activity concentration in the exhaled air of the pregnant animals and by gas chromatographic determinations of blood alcohol concentration. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its primary metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Grote, Konstanze; Csanady, Gyoergy A.; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Filser, Johannes G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the dose-dependent blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets is presented. Sprague-Dawley rats and marmosets were treated orally with 30 or 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, nonpregnant animals on 7 (rats) and 29 (marmosets) consecutive days, pregnant animals on gestation days 14-19 (rats) and 96-124 (marmosets). In addition, rats received a single dose of 1000 mg DEHP/kg. Blood was collected up to 48 h after dosing. Concentrations of DEHP and MEHP in blood were determined by GC/MS. In rats, normalized areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of DEHP were two orders of magnitude smaller than the normalized AUCs of the first metabolite MEHP. Metabolism of MEHP was saturable. Repeated DEHP treatment and pregnancy had only little influence on the normalized AUC of MEHP. In marmosets, most of MEHP concentration-time courses oscillated. Normalized AUCs of DEHP were at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of MEHP. In pregnant marmosets, normalized AUCs of MEHP were similar to those in nonpregnant animals with the exception that at 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, the normalized AUCs determined on gestation days 103, 117, and 124 were distinctly smaller. The maximum concentrations of MEHP in blood of marmosets were up to 7.5 times and the normalized AUCs up to 16 times lower than in rats receiving the same daily oral DEHP dose per kilogram of body weight. From this toxicokinetic comparison, DEHP can be expected to be several times less effective in the offspring of marmosets than in that of rats if the blood burden by MEHP in dams can be regarded as a dose surrogate for the MEHP burden in their fetuses

  12. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  13. Efficacy of ginger in alleviating the severe radiation-induced biochemical, histological and embryological impactions pregnant female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation

  14. Propolis maintaining the restorative role played by bone marrow transplantation in pregnant rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El Beih, N.M.; Hussien, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of the natural product propolis with its high anti oxidative capacity as a protector for bone marrow graft transplanted to pregnant rats 3 h post irradiation of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Different treatments were performed on days 7 or 13 of gestation and examined at the end of the gestation period. Irradiation significantly elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine while it declined total proteins and albumin. Haematological parameters showed decrease in RBCs, Hb, Ht, WBCs and their differential counts. BMT (75 x 106 ± 5 cells) 3 h post-irradiation depressed AST, ALT and ALP but were still significantly different from the control. Urea, uric acid and creatinine declined approaching the control level. Less drop in total proteins and globulin and elevation in RBCs, Ht, Hb and WBCs were detected. Rats exposed to 3 Gy and treated with propolis (50 mg/ kg) showed results comparable and even exceeding those of BMT. Combined treatment of BMT and propolis accentuated the recovery process and could restore the physiological and haematological parameters and protect pregnancy which suggests that propolis maintained BMT graft so that they may have future potential value in patients subjected to irradiation and BMT

  15. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Oxidative stress contributes to soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 induced vascular dysfunction in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jason P; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Colson, Drew; Gilbert, Sara A; Dukes, Matthew P; Ryan, Michael J; Granger, Joey P

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence indicates that both increased oxidative stress and an altered balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors such as vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the soluble VEGF receptor (sFlt-1) contribute to endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. We hypothesized that chronic infusion of sFlt-1 to mimic the increase observed in preeclamptic patients would reduce plasma VEGF concentrations, increase blood pressure (BP) and vascular superoxide levels, and cause endothelial dysfunction in the pregnant rat. Recombinant sFlt-1 was infused (500 ng/h) during days 13-18 of pregnancy. BP, fetal and placental weight, oxidative stress and vessel vasorelaxation were determined on day 18 of pregnancy. Plasma sFlt-1 concentrations (299 +/- 33 vs. 100 +/- 16 pg/ml; P 570 +/- 77 vs. 780 +/- 48 pg/ml; P < 0.01) were decreased when compared to vehicle infused dams. sFlt-1 rats had smaller fetuses (1.3 +/- 0.03 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.04 g, P < 0.01) and placentas (0.41 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.02 g; P < 0.05). Placental (180 +/- 66 vs. 24 +/- 2.3 RLU/min/mg; P < 0.05) and vascular (34 +/- 8 vs. 12 +/- 5 RLU/min/mg; P < 0.05) superoxide production was increased in the sFlt-1 compared to vehicle infused rats. Vasorelaxation to acetylecholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were both decreased (P < 0.05) in the sFlt-1 infusion group compared to the vehicle and this decrease was attenuated (P < 0.05) by the superoxide scavenger Tiron. These data indicate elevated maternal sFlt-1 and decreased VEGF concentrations results in increased oxidative stress that contributes to vascular dysfunction during pregnancy.

  17. Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase on Blood Pressure Regulation and Vascular Function in Pregnant Rats on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palei, Ana C; Spradley, Frank T; Granger, Joey P

    2017-03-01

    While obesity is a leading risk factor for preeclampsia, the mechanisms whereby obese women are more susceptible to pregnancy-induced hypertension are unclear. As high-fat diet (HFD) is an important contributor to the development of obesity, we tested the hypothesis that pregnant rats on HFD have hypertension and endothelial dysfunction due to reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Twelve-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed normal diet (ND, 13% fat kcal) or HFD (40% fat kcal) for 9 weeks. Timed-pregnant rats were then generated and the effect of HFD on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and vascular function was assessed on gestational day (GD) 19. MAP was not different between HFD and ND pregnant rats. Intriguingly, sensitivity to acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was enhanced in small mesenteric arteries of HFD dams compared to ND controls (logEC50 -7.9 ± 0.3 vs. -6.7 ± 0.3 M; P hydrochloride (100 mg/l, drinking water) from GD 14 to 19. It was found that NOS inhibition increased MAP equally in HFD and ND groups. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, HFD dams were normotensive and presented increased endothelial function and NO/NOS3 levels. This enhanced NOS-mediated vascular function does not appear to have a major impact on blood pressure regulation of HFD-fed pregnant rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Increased expression of SNARE proteins and synaptotagmin IV in islets from pregnant rats and in vitro prolactin-treated neonatal islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A CUNHA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy and the perinatal period of life, prolactin (PRL and other lactogenic substances induce adaptation and maturation of the stimulus-secretion coupling system in pancreatic β-cells. Since the SNARE molecules, SNAP-25, syntaxin 1, VAMP-2, and synaptotagmins participate in insulin secretion, we investigated whether the improved secretory response to glucose during these periods involves alteration in the expression of these proteins. mRNA was extracted from neonatal rat islets cultured for 5 days in the presence of PRL and from pregnant rats (17th-18th days of pregnancy and reverse transcribed. The expression of genes was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. The expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Transcription and expression of all SNARE genes and proteins were increased in islets from pregnant and PRL-treated neonatal rats when compared with controls. The only exception was VAMP-2 production in islets from pregnant rats. Increased mRNA and protein expression of synaptotagmin IV, but not the isoform I, also was observed in islets from pregnant and PRL-treated rats. This effect was not inhibited by wortmannin or PD098059, inhibitors of the PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways, respectively. As revealed by confocal laser microscopy, both syntaxin 1A and synaptotagmin IV were immunolocated in islet cells, including the insulin-containing cells. These results indicate that PRL modulates the final steps of insulin secretion by increasing the expression of proteins involved in membrane fusion.

  19. Influences of serum from ozone-exposed pregnant rats in an in vitro model of implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our previous studies, ozone (O3) exposure during implantation [gestational day (GD) 5 and 6)] in rats resulted in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), suggesting impairment of implantation with exposure. The aim of this study was to (1) determine if serum collected from pre...

  20. Effect of Diabetes on Circulating Pancreatic Hormones in Pregnant Rats and Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iessi, I L; Sinzato, Y K; Gallego, F Q

    2016-01-01

    into: control (C); mildly diabetic (MD); and severely diabetic (SD). The rats were mated and distributed into 2 subgroups: euthanasia at day 21 of pregnancy and at day 10 postpartum. Both MD and SD dams showed impaired oral glucose tolerance. SD dams had lower body weight and insulin levels compared...

  1. Release of Zn from maternal tissues in pregnant rats deficient in Zn or Zn and Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, L.S.; Masters, D.G.; Lonnerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that diets that increase tissue catabolism reduce the teratogenic effects of Zn deficiency. The hypothesis that Zn may be released from body tissues when the metabolic state is altered was further tested. Nonpregnant Sprague Dawley females were injected with Zn-65; after equilibration, the two major pools of Zn, bone and muscle, had different specific activities (SA), muscle being much higher. Females were mated and fed diets adequate in Zn and Ca (C) or deficient in Zn (ZnD) or deficient in both Zn and Ca (ZnCaD). Calculations using weight loss in ZnD and ZnCaD rats, Zn content of maternal bone and muscle, and total fetal Zn at term indicated that in ZnCaD rats a relatively small amount of Zn from bone early in pregnancy was sufficient to prevent abnormal organogenesis, but most fetal Zn came from breakdown of maternal muscle in the last 3 days of pregnancy. Isotope data supported this conclusion. SA of Zn in ZnD fetuses was equal and high, indicating that most Zn came from the same maternal tissue. High muscle SA prior to mating, and increased SA in tibia and liver during pregnancy suggest that muscle provided Zn for other maternal tissues as well as fetuses. In contrast, SA in C fetuses was less than 30% of that of the D groups, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that most fetal Zn in C rats is accrued directly from the diet

  2. Study of magnetic structure of neptunium compounds: Np As, Np Sb, Np Se et Np Ru2 Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnisseau, D.

    1987-11-01

    Magnetic behavior and localization of 5f electrons in actinide compounds is studied experimentally by Moessbauer spectroscopy and neutron diffraction. Binary actinide compounds with a NaCl structure are examined and properties of U, Pu and Np monopnictides and monochalcogenides are recalled. Results of neutron diffraction by NpAs and NpSb are discussed and results of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, Moessbauer spectroscopy and neutron diffraction measurements on NpSe and NpTe are presented. Magnetic properties of NpRu 2 Si 2 are also presented. Heavy fermion system electronic and magnetic properties are described and theory is discussed. Electronic and magnetic properties of CeCu 2 Si 2 , CeRu 2 Si 2 and URu 2 Si 2 are compared to NpRu 2 Si 2 which has the same crystal structure [fr

  3. Effect of administration of lead nitrate to pregnant rats on the lungs in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed'ko, O A; Ryzhavskii, B Ya

    2005-06-01

    Lead nitrate in a dose of 200 mg/kg was administered to female rats via a gartric tube on days 5 and 12 of pregnancy. The lungs of their offspring were examined on day 40 of life. We found a decrease in the ratio between the specific volumes of alveolar lumens and interalveolar septa and hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue in the bronchial wall (compared to the offspring of intact females). Chemiluminescent analysis revealed activation of lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant antiradical activity of the lungs.

  4. Coexistence of insulin resistance and increased glucose tolerance in pregnant rats: a physiological mechanism for glucose maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Marcia Aparecida; Batista, Márcia Regina; Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro; Felisberto, Antonio Machado; Guilhermetti, Marcio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2012-06-06

    The contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance to the maintenance of blood glucose levels in non diabetic pregnant Wistar rats (PWR) was investigated. PWR were submitted to conventional insulin tolerance test (ITT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) using blood sample collected 0, 10 and 60 min after intraperitoneal insulin (1 U/kg) or oral (gavage) glucose (1g/kg) administration. Moreover, ITT, GTT and the kinetics of glucose concentration changes in the fed and fasted states were evaluated with a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) technique. Furthermore, the contribution of the liver glucose production was investigated. Conventional ITT and GTT at 0, 7, 14 and 20 days of pregnancy revealed increased IR and glucose tolerance after 20 days of pregnancy. Thus, this period of pregnancy was used to investigate the kinetics of glucose changes with the RT-CGMS technique. PWR (day 20) exhibited a lower (pinsulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance during late pregnancy. In contrast to the general view that IR is a pathological process associated with gestational diabetes, a certain degree of IR may represent an important physiological mechanism for blood glucose maintenance during fasting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of subchronic administration of methyl parathion on in vivo protein synthesis in pregnant rats and their conceptuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Thornburg, J.E.; Stedman, D.B.; Welsch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant rats received daily po doses of the organophosphate methyl parathion (MPTH) from Day 6 through Day 15 or 19 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg/kg) or minimal (1.5 mg/kg) signs of maternal toxicity. Following the dose of MPTH on Day 15 or 19, in vivo protein synthesis was measured 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hr after sc injection of L-[1- 14 C]valine at a dose of 5 microCi/mmol/100 g body wt. The specific activity of [ 14 C]valine in the free amino acid pool and protein bound pool was significantly reduced in various regions of maternal brain and in maternal viscera, placenta, and whole embryos (Day 15), and in fetal brain and viscera (Day 19). The inhibitory effect of MPTH on net protein synthesis was dose dependent, greater on Day 19 than 15 of gestation and more pronounced in fetal than in maternal tissues

  6. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  7. Effect of valproic acid on 65Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, C.L.; Peters, J.M.; Hurley, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of valproic acid on the distribution of gavaged 65 Zn in maternal and embryonic tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 h after gavaging of the drug on d 13 of pregnancy. Valproic acid treatment resulted in a significantly higher retention of 65 Zn in maternal liver and lower amounts in uterus, placenta and embryos than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from valproic acid-treated dams showed higher 65 Zn counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight of 6,500, the approximate molecular weight of the Zn-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the teratogenicity of valproic acid is in part due to an induction of embryonic Zn deficiency secondary to a drug-induced sequestering of Zn into maternal liver that results in a decrease in maternal plasma Zn and subsequent reduction in embryonic Zn uptake

  8. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8 th day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14 th which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21 st showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8 th day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8{sup th} day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14{sup th} which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21{sup st} showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8{sup th} day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effect of short-term administration of lead to pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubermont, G; Buchet, J P; Roels, H; Lauwerys, R

    1976-03-01

    Lead was administered to adult female rats in drinking water (0; 0.1; 1 and 10 ppM) for 3 weeks before mating, during pregnancy and during 3 weeks after delivery. On day 21 after delivery the mothers and their newborns were sacrificed and various parameters of blood--lead concentration (Pb-B), hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), free erythrocyte porphyrins (FEP), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD)--and tissue--ALAD, free tissue porphyrins (FTP), lead concentration (Pb-T)--were determined. In mothers a significant increase in Pb-B and Pb concentration in kidney was found in the 10 ppM group, but this increase in lead concentration was not associated with any statistically significant modification of the biochemical parameters. In newborns, lead concentration in blood and in kidney was also significantly increased in the 10 ppm group and this lead exposure was associated with a decrease of the ALAD activity in blood and an increase of FTP in kidney. On the basis of the biochemical parameters investigated it was concluded that the developing organism is more susceptible to the biological action of lead than the organism of adult animals and that the ''no-effect'' level of lead administered during pregnancy and in the neonatal period is around 1 ppM.

  11. Effect of 6-mercaptopurine on 65Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) on the distribution of gavaged 65 Zn in maternal and embryonic tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 hr after injection of the drug on day 13 of pregnancy. 6-MP injection resulted in a significantly higher retention of counts of 65 Zn in maternal liver and lower counts in maternal plasma, uterus, placenta, and embryo than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from 6-MP injected dams showed higher counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight 6,000-8,000, the approximate molecular weight of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the zinc deficiency, which is observed in day 21 fetuses from dams injected with 6-MP during midgestation, may be the result of a drug-induced sequestering of zinc into maternal liver followed by a decrease in maternal plasma zinc and subsequent reduction in fetal zinc uptake. We suggest that this 6-MP-associated redistribution of zinc into maternal liver may be due to induction of maternal metallothionein synthesis by the drug

  12. Application of the multitracer technique. Transport of various elements in the pregnant rats and the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2003-01-01

    The placenta functions as a barrier between fetus and mother, providing regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. There is limited information on the transport of trace elements from the mother to the fetus. Transfer of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus rats was examined by the multitracer technique, which can be used to evaluate the behavior of many elements under the same experimental condition. In this experiment, the multitracer solution contained the following elements: Be, Na, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc and Ru. We examined the time courses of uptake of various elements in the placenta and the fetus. From these results, we observed a significant difference in time dependency between each element. The elements were divided into three groups. Based on the results, it was considered that the placenta is highly selective because essential elements are readily transported across placenta/membranes to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals hardly penetrated the placental barrier that protects the fetus from toxic effects. (author)

  13. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  14. Marginal zinc deficiency in pregnant rats impairs bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masashi; Kayanoma, Megumu; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy may result in a variety of defects in the offspring. We evaluated the influence of marginal Zn deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal bone status. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing 35 mg Zn/kg (Zn adequately supplied, N) or 7 mg Zn/kg (low level of Zn, L) from 14-day preconception to 20 days of gestation, that is, 1 day before normal delivery. Neonates were delivered by cesarean section. Litter size and neonate weight were not different between the two groups. However, in the L-diet-fed dam group, bone matrix formation in isolated neonatal calvaria culture was clearly impaired and was not recovered by the addition of Zn into the culture media. Additionally, serum concentration of osteocalcin, as a bone formation parameter, was lower in neonates from the L-diet-fed dam group. Impaired bone mineralization was observed with a significantly lower content of phosphorus in neonate femurs from L-diet-fed dams compared with those from N-diet-fed dams. Moreover, Zn content in the femur and calvaria of neonates from the L-diet group was lower than that of the N-diet-fed group. In the marginally Zn-deficient dams, femoral Zn content, serum concentrations of Zn, and osteocalcin were reduced when compared with control dams. We conclude that maternal Zn deficiency causes impairment of bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in neonates, implying the importance of Zn intake during pregnancy for proper bone development of offspring.

  15. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  16. Maternal adipose tissue becomes a source of fatty acids for the fetus in fasted pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-11-10

    The utilization of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) by the fetus may exceed its capacity to synthesize them from essential fatty acids, so they have to come from the mother. Since adipose tissue lipolytic activity is greatly accelerated under fasting conditions during late pregnancy, the aim was to determine how 24 h fasting in late pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions affects maternal and fetal tissue fatty acid profiles. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given isoenergetic diets containing 10% palm-, sunflower-, olive- or fish-oil. Half the rats were fasted from day 19 of pregnancy and all were studied on day 20. Triacylglycerols (TAG), glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were analyzed by enzymatic methods and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fasting caused increments in maternal plasma NEFA, glycerol and TAG, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolytic activity. Maternal adipose fatty acid profiles paralleled the respective diets and, with the exception of animals on the olive oil diet, maternal fasting increased the plasma concentration of most fatty acids. This maintains the availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during brain development. The results show the major role played by maternal adipose tissue in the storage of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy, thus ensuring adequate availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during late pregnancy, even when food supply is restricted.

  17. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by nicotine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinying; Bao, Junjie; Li, Xiaolan; Ye, Aihua; Zhang, Guozheng; Liu, Huishu

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) exerts a more intense systemic inflammatory response than normal pregnancy. Recently, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in regulating inflammation has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying it. Rats were administered LPS (1.0 μg/kg) via tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Nicotine (1.0 mg/kg/d) and α-bungarotoxin (1.0 μg/kg/d) were injected subcutaneously into the rats from gestational day 14-19. Clinical symptoms were recorded. Serum and placentas were collected to determine cytokine levels using Luminex. The mRNA and protein expression levels of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined using Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in placentas. Nicotine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats (P preeclampsia (P preeclampsia rats. Our findings suggest that the activation of α7nAChR by nicotine attenuates preeclampsia-like symptoms, and this protective effect is likely the result of the inhibition of inflammation via the NF-κB p65 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Teratogenicity Induced By 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid and/or Gamma Irradiation on Bone of Fetuses and Placenta of Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Ismail, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) has revolutionized the management of severe treatment-resistant acne and it has been widely used for a range of dermatological conditions. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies were occurred in pregnant rats given isotretinion and/or exposed to gamma irradiation on specific days during organogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of isotretinoin administration and/or exposure to gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rats, vertebrae and neural spine of their fetuses. Isotretinoin at the dose level 70 mg/kg was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 11th to 15th days of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation 1.5 Gy as fractionated dose (0.5 Gy/3 times) on the 11th, 12th and 13th day of gestation. The experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20 th day of gestation) have demonstrated that isotretinoin intake from the 11th-15th days of gestation induced embryological, biochemical, histochemical and histopathological disorders in irradiated mothers and their fetuses. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase accompanied by a decline in total protein and DNA in the placenta tissues and vertebrae bone. In addition, histopathological results showed different distortions in the placenta which varied from necrotic nuclei of giant cells, haemorrhage and pyknotic nuclei in trophoblast. Moreover, ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layers and reduced number of chondrocytes together with severe damage in spine neural arch were viewed. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a serious and powerful drug and should be used with great caution, therefore, it is recommended that radiation workers especially females have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake during pregnancy.

  19. Efficacy of wheat germ oil in alleviating certain disorders induced by aspirin administration and/or Γ-irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, induces during pregnancy high incidence of developmental anomalies in pregnant rats when given on specific days during stage of organogenesis. Accordingly, this study was performed to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of wheat germ oil on the effect of aspirin administration and/or radiation induced maternal and foetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered aspirin from the gestational day (GD), 6 to (GD) 17 at a dose of 250 mg kg/day body wt and exposed to whole body γ-irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on GD 9,10,11 and 12 days from pregnancy. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as estimation of alkaline phosphatase and total proteins content in tissues of liver and placenta was used as sensitive parameters of choice to evaluate tissue damage. Radiation exposure and aspirin administration induced marked elevation in lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde), alkaline phosphatase, accompanied by decline in total protein content in placenta and liver tissues. In addition, miscellaneous malformations including anopthalmia, microtia, excencephaly, diminution of size or kypophysis were designated. The results showed that supplementation of pregnant female rats with wheat germ oil were able to reduce the high levels of malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase. Total protein content returned once more to its normal pattern. Also, reduction of severe deleterious symptoms of radiation and aspirin administration inducing i foetal mortality were reduced. Wheat germ oil showed to increase growth in surviving foetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities as well as biochemical, histochemical and embryological disorders

  20. Hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats causes sex-related vascular dysfunction in adult offspring: role of cyclooxygenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Francine Gomes; de Queiroz, Diego Barbosa; Ramos-Alves, Fernanda Elizabethe; Santos-Rocha, Juliana; da Silva, Odair Alves; Moreira, Hicla Stefany; Leal, Geórgia Andrade; da Rocha, Marcelo Aurélio; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Xavier, Fabiano Elias

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy induces vascular dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring. Given that female offspring from other fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, the present study investigated whether there are sex differences in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension only in male offspring. We found sex differences in oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostanoid production that might underlie the vascular dysfunction. These differences, particularly in resistance arteries, may in part explain the absence of hypertension in female offspring born to hyperglycaemic dams. Exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia induces hypertension and vascular dysfunction in adult male offspring. Given that female offspring from several fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, in this study we analysed possible differences relative to sex in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. Hyperglycaemia was induced on day 7 of gestation (streptozotocin, 50 mg kg -1 ). Blood pressure, acetylcholine and phenylephrine or noradrenaline responses were analysed in the aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries of 3-, 6- and 12-month-old male and female offspring. Thromboxane A 2 release was analysed with commercial kits and superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production by dihydroethidium-emitted fluorescence. Male but not female offspring of hyperglycaemic dams (O-DR) had higher blood pressure than control animals (O-CR). Contraction in response to phenylephrine increased and relaxation in response to acetylcholine decreased only in the aorta from 12-month-old male O-DR and not in age-matched O-CR. Contractile and vasodilator responses were preserved in both the

  1. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. III. Distribution and transference of /sup 115m/Cd in pregnant rat and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y; Takanaka, A; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S; Urakubo, G [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1975-08-01

    Distribution of sup(115m)Cd in pregnant rat, transference to fetus and distribution in fetal organs were investigated by means of intraveneous injection of sup(115m)CdCl/sub 2/ solution to dam at 20th day after mating, dissection at 1 hr later and measurement of radioactivities. In the pregnant rat, the thickest accumulation of radioactivity in liver, and much thicker concentration in pancreas, pituitary, kidney and adrenal than in blood were found. Besides, 24.6% of dose remained in gastrointestinal tract. The transference of sup(115m)Cd to fetus was not so remarkable. Concerning the distribution of partially transfered metal in fetus, outstanding accumulation were observed in adrenal, spleen and testis, and secondly thicker concentrations were seen in liver and bone. The distribution pattern in fetus was not similar to that of dam, and rather thicker concentrations of sup(115m)Cd were observed in fetal spleen, bone, adrenal and brain, comparing with the corresponding organs of dam. In conclusion, cadmium introduced in dam body was transfered partially to fetus through placenta and was distributed in many parts of fetal body.

  2. Dietary (n-6 : n-3 Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Abdulbari Kassem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO: 50% cod liver oil (CLO (1 : 1, 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1, 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1. Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  3. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  4. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  5. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  6. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  7. This Is So NP!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Bylinina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction we are discussing is a recent American English construction (though it can be found in a number of other languages as well with an individual-denoting noun phrase (NP in the predicate position modified by a degree modifier that typically occurs with gradable adjectives, as in 'This is so Obama!' We attempt to look deeper into the structure and compositional semantics of this construction, and though we do not provide a complete analysis of it, we believe that the study of this construction can contribute to questions of gradable predicate semantics, multidimensionality, degree constructions and proper name semantics.ReferencesDik, S. 1968. Coordination: Its Implications for the Theory of General Linguistics. NorthHolland, Amsterdam.Doetjes, J. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection. Ph.D. thesis, Leiden University.Gary-Prieur, M.-N. 1991. ‘La modalisation du nom propre’. Langue Francaise 92: 49–62.Gary-Prieur, M.-N. 1994. Grammaire du nom propre. Paris: Le Seuil.Gary-Prieur, M.-N. 2001. L’individu pluriel: Les noms propres et le nombre. Paris: CNRS Editions.Geurts, B. 1997. ‘Good news about the description theory of names’. Journal of Semantics 14: 319–348.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/14.4.319Heim, I. 2000. ‘Degree Operators and Scope’. Proceedings of SALT 10: 40–64.Heim, I. & Kratzer, A. 1998. Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.J. Hay, C. Kennedy & Levin, B. 1999. ‘Scale structure underlies telicity in ‘degree achievements”. Semantics and Linguistic Theory 9: 127–44.Kagan, O. & Alexejenko, S. 2010. ‘The Adjectival Suffix -ovat as a Degree Modifier in Russian’. To appear in proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 15.Kamp, H. & Partee, B. 1995. ‘Prototype theory and compositionality’. Cognition 57:129–191.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(9400659-9Kennedy, C. 1999. Projecting the adjective: The syntax and semantics of gradability and comparison. New York: Garland. (1997 UCSC Ph.D thesis

  8. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  9. Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M U; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

    2014-08-01

    To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats. Review. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (p0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (p<0.001); however, lamivudine at the usual and 3-times doses, delavirdine at 3-times dose, and amprenavir at 3-times dose increased the litter weight (p<0.001). In the maternal compartment, we observed lethal toxicity in the pregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.

  10. Incorporation of organically bound tritium (OBT) of food or tritium (OBT) of food or tritiated water (TW) into foetuses, placentas and some tissues of pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Szot, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant rats between 9 and 17 days of gestation were given OBT or TW during 5 days. On the 6th day the animals were sacrificed (13, 15, 17, 19 and 21st day gestation). Tritium radioactivity of foetuses, placentas, yolk sacs, some organs of mother and some organic compounds separated from foetuses and placentas were examined. The results were referred to the last day of experiment. The highest tritium concentration in the foetuses and placentas was found on the 13th day of gestation and decreased until the 17th day. Then, after a short lasting increase, the incorporation values attained the lowest values on the 21st day. Tritium radioactivity of foetuses was of the order of magnitude of that in the mother's liver and small intestine. During the last days of pregnancy diminished incorporation into phospholipids, nucleic acids and proteins and an increase into acid-soluble fraction was observed. (author)

  11. Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaloids from Senna alata leaves implicated as the active constituents of abortifacient are yet to be investigated for their effects on the normal functioning of the maternal liver and kidney. Therefore, the effects of crude alkaloids on some biochemical indices of kidney and liver damage were investigated in pregnant rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into 4 groups: A (control, B, C, and D and were orally administered 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the alkaloids respectively once daily on days 10-18 post coitum. Results: Thin-layer chromatographic separation gave five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47, and 0.55 that produced creamy precipitate and reddish-brown colour, respectively, with Mayer’s and Wagner’s reagents. Quantitative determination gave 0.30 g which corresponded to a percentage yield of 1.50 % of the alkaloids. The decreases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases in the liver and kidney of the animals by the alkaloids were accompanied by corresponding increases in the serum enzymes. The alkaloids reduced liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum globulin, urea, uric acid, and phosphate ions while the serum concentrations of albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, potassium ions, AST/ALT ratio, blood urea nitrogen: creatinine increased. The levels of sodium, calcium, and chloride ions did not change significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Overall, the alkaloid at doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight produced permeability changes in the plasma membrane of the organs and adversely affected the normal secretory, synthetic, and excretory functions of these organs.

  12. New and superior adrenal scanning agent, NP-59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.D.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Ice, R.D.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hertzel, K.R.; Kennedy, W.P.; Mason, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The first synthesis of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol had a 10 to 25 percent radiochemical impurity that was not iodide ion. This impurity has been identified as 6β- 131 I-iodomethyl-19-nor cholest-5(10)-en-3β-ol (NP-59) and has been synthesized. Tissue distribution studies with 131 I-NP-59 in rats and dogs revealed a higher adrenal uptake and adrenal-to-tissue ratios compared to 131 I 19-iodocholesterol, probably less in vivo deiodination, and superior adrenal images. A high uptake was seen in the adrenal medulla in addition to that in the cortex. Iodine-131-NP-59 is being evaluated for the early detection of adrenal--cortical disorders and as a potential scanning agent for detecting structural abnormalities of the adrenal medulla

  13. Upper respiratory tract nociceptor stimulation and stress response following acute and repeated Cyfluthrin inhalation in normal and pregnant rats: Physiological rat-specific adaptions can easily be misunderstood as adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluhn, Juergen

    2018-01-05

    This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans. However, while thermolabile rats respond to such stresses reflexively, homeothermic humans appear to respond psychologically. With this focus in mind, past inhalation studies in rats and human volunteers were reevaluated and assessed to identify common denominators to such neuroexcitatory stimuli upon inhalation exposure. This analysis supports the conclusion that the adaptive physiological response occurring in rats secondary to such chemosensory stimuli requires inhalation exposures above the chemosensory threshold. Rats, a species known to undergo adaptively a hibernation-like physiological state upon environmental stresses, experienced reflexively-induced bradypnea, bradycardia, hypothermia, and changes in acid-base status during inhalation exposure. After cessation of the sensory stimulus, rapid recovery occurred. Physiological data of male and female rats from a 4-week repeated inhalation study (exposure 6-h/day, 5-times/week) were used to select concentration for a 10-day developmental inhalation toxicity study in pregnant rats. Maternal hypothermia and hypoventilation were identified as likely cause of fetal and placental growth retardations because of a maternal adaptation-driven reduced feto-placental transfer of oxygen. In summary, maternal reflex-hypothermia, reduced cardiac output and placental perfusion, and disruption of the gestation-related hyperventilation are believed to be the maternally mediated causes for developmental

  14. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  15. GLOMERULAR INFLAMMATION IN PREGNANT RATS AFTER INFUSION OF LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN - AN IMMUNOHISTOLOGICAL STUDY IN EXPERIMENTAL PREECLAMPSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; BAKKER, WW

    1995-01-01

    Increased endotoxin sensitivity during pregnancy occurs in many animals, including rats. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In the present study it was investigated whether this increased sensitivity is reflected by an altered inflammatory pattern. Inflammatory cell influx, the

  16. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  17. Disposition of cefixime in the material-fetal unit after an i.v. dose to pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin-Walega, E.; Barr, A.; Tonelli, A.P.; Shin, K.; Batra, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Cefixime, a potent, broad spectrum oral cephalosporin, is currently undergoing clinical trials. To determine the extent of transfer of cefixime across the placenta to the fetus, a single dose of 17.8 mg/kg 14 C-cefixime was administered to rats on day 18 of gestation via the caudal vein. Maternal serum and urine, fetal plasma and tissues, and placentae were sampled at appropriate times after dosing. Separate rats were subjected to whole body autoradiography. The half-life for elimination of radioactivity from both maternal serum and placentae was 6.9 hours. Elimination from fetal plasma and tissues was somewhat longer, 12.5 and 13.7 hours, respectively. However, based on a comparison of area under the curve, relative to maternal dose, exposure of the fetuses to cefixime was far less than that of placentae. Peak radioactivity in fetal plasma occurred at 2 hours and was less than 2% of the maternal peak at 0.5 hours after dosing. Whole body autoradiography showed the greatest radioactivity in maternal liver, kidney and intestines. Somewhat less radioactivity appeared in placentae and virtually none could be visualized within the amniotic sac. Overall, the data indicate that exposure of the rat fetus to cefixime after a single maternal dose is limited by the placenta

  18. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  19. Two new Np--Ga phases: α-NpGa2 and metastable m-NpGa2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giessen, B.C.; Elliott, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Following an earlier study of metastable Np-rich Np--Ga alloys, rapidly quenched Np--Ga alloys with 63 to 80 at. pct. Ga were prepared and studied. Two new NpGa 2 phases, both with an AlB 2 type structure, were found: α-NpGa 2 , with a = 4.246A, c = 4.060A, c/a = 0.956, and m-NpGa 2 , with a = 4.412A, c = 3.642A, c/a = 0.825. While m-NpGa 2 was observed only in very fast quenched (splat cooled) samples and appears to be metastable, α-NpGa 2 is probably an equilibrium phase. In a splat cooled alloy with 75 at. pct. Ga, another, unidentified, metastable phase was observed. Crystal chemical discussions of atomic volumes, interatomic distances and axial ratios are given; the volume difference between the two forms of NpGa 2 is correlated with a valence change of Np

  20. The similitude of some negative outcomes of Omega-3 to those of gamma radiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Yacoub, S.F.; Abdel Aziz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Even though it is established that manipulation of Omega-3, the essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is beneficial during pregnancy for its well known antioxidant capacity, yet the present work aims at underscoring the adverse maternal biochemical and fetal teratological traits arising in consequence of excessive Omega-3 peri conceptional supplementation, some of which resemble various oxidative stress induced harmful effects of the prenatal maternal whole body gamma irradiation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. In the present study, adult Sprague Dawley female rats were randomized into 3 groups, one of which served as pregnant control (Group 1) whereas another one was orally administered with Omega-3 (0.5 g / kg /day) for 45 consecutive days (25 days preconception + 20 days of pregnancy) (Group 2) while the third group was subjected to 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on the 15th gestational day (Group 3). Five rats of each group were sacrificed after 20 days of gestation. The results revealed that both Omega-3 administration for 45 consecutive days or gamma radiation exposure resulted in a remarkable decrease in maternal blood Glutathione (GSH) content and Catalase accompanied by a significant elevation in maternal plasma Malonaldehyde (MDA), Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol levels when compared to the control group. Accordingly, the fetuses of the Omega-3 treated mothers, despite their lively active appearance, showed the occurrence of unexpected abnormal malformed extremities, sharing this phenomenon with the fetuses of the irradiated mother group who showed an exceptional high mortality rate together with higher incidence of recorded growth defects. Thus it can be speculated that Omega-3 over supplementation, may be inadvisable in pregnancy time in a manner relative to some extent to the maternal gamma irradiation prohibition.

  1. A comparative study of the carcinogenetic effects of 241Am, 239Pu and 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yumin; Wei Zhikang; Chen Xueyi; Yao Yongheng; Liu Peibin; Xu Lin; Lun Mingyao

    1984-01-01

    In this experiment, 420 wistar rats were used to study the comparative carcinogenetic effects of 241 Am, 239 Pu and 237 Np. These nuclides were injected to animals intravenously, subcutaneously or directly into the lung (Stansen's lung puncture method) in doses of 1.0, 5.0 and 8.5 μCi/kg, respectively. As soluble nitrate, the nuclides were rapidly transfered from the site of injection into the bone and the liver. Osteosarcomas were found in some animals 8 months to one year after intoxication. Diagnosis of osteosarcoma is based on the histopatological examination and X-ray photography. In the Am-poisoned rats the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 31-74%, varied with different doses and different routes of intoxication; in Pu-poisoned rats, the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 55-66%. while in Np-poisoned rats, it is about 36-53%. Primary lung cancers were also found in those animals poisoned by means of Stansen's lung puncture method with the above three nuclides. The incidence of primary lung cancers is about 6% in Am-and Pu-poisoned rats and 13% in Np-poisoned rats. The incidence of metastasis of osteosarcoma in lung is about 25-65% for Am-poisoned rats, 45-55% for Pu-poisoned rats and 41-80% for Np-poisoned rats. The life-span of above poisoned rats was significantly shorter than that of the normal control animals. The chemical weight for 241 Am, 239 Pu and 237 Np in same unit of radioactivity (1.0 μCi) equals to 0.308 μg, 15.9 μg and 1418.7 μg, respectively. For this reason, we have to pay more attention to the chemical mass effect in carcinogenesis of the above three nuclides

  2. Study of Np speciation in citrate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L.; Den Auwer, C.; Ansoborlo, E.; Moisy, P. [CEA Valrho - DEN/DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Cote, G. [ENSP - LECA, UMR 7575, Paris (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the French Environmental Nuclear Toxicology program, additional experiments related to the decorporation of actinides are planned. Decorporation is the removal or release from target organs (bones, liver, kidney..), tissues or cells of radioactive material previously incorporated in them, using chelating agents or other administrated pharmaceutical agents. The contradictory data on the neptunium complexation behaviour within blood and its transfer to target organs, as well as the inefficiency of therapeutic treatments, led us to study the complexation of this element with biological constituents. Within this purpose, the in vitro behaviour of Np(IV) and Np(V) in simple media simulating biological fluids was studied. This study was more specifically focused on the behaviour of neptunium with citrate ion, which is an essential component in a number of metalloenzyme active sites. In order to determine the speciation of this system, spectrophotometry was more particularly used. Concerning the complexation phenomenon, the existence of several complexes of Np(V) with various acido-basic forms of the citrate anion was observed; regarding Np(IV), complexes with Cit{sup 3-} have been observed. From the quantitative study of these equilibria, the values of the absolute constants for the complexation of Np(IV) and Np(V) with citrate were determined. Concerning the stability of neptunium towards oxydo-reduction, it was confirmed that Np(VI) was very quickly reduced to Np(V) by the citrate anions, whereas Np(IV) was stable. In the case of Np(V), it was observed that, depending on the pH and the citrate concentration, Np(V) was unstable and was reduced to Np(IV). The E-pH diagrams, constructed using the stability constants determined in this study, showed that this instability was due to the Np(V) disproportionation. (orig.)

  3. Np(VI)/Np(V) in concentrated carbonate medium; Np(VI)Np(V) en milieu carbonate concentre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offerle, S.; Capdevila, H.; Vitorge, P.

    1995-02-01

    The formal potential, E, of the Np (VI)Np(V) redox couple is measured versus a Ag/AgC1 electrode with junction potential less than 0.002 V, by using cyclic voltammetry in 0.22, 0.55, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions, and at T = 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 60 deg. C. At each T, E is extrapolated to I 0 (I: ionic strength) by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) formula E(I) E(0) + 9 a{radical}I/1+ Ba{sub i}{radical}I + 2 {delta}{xi}m. At each I, E data are fitted to a second order polynomial expression as a function of T, to deduce the entropy change, {delta}S, and the heat capacity change, {delta}Cp. The variations of {delta}S and {delta}Cp with I calculated by using formulae deduced from the SIT one, are consistent with the data. In the standard conditions E deg.=0.341 {+-} 0.017 V/ESH, {delta}Sdeg. = -190 {+-} 5 J/K/mol, {delta}Cpdeg. -345{+-}750 J/K/mol. {delta}{xi} = 0,15 + 0,05 -(0,005{+-}0,001){delta}T + 0,00004 {delta}T{sup 2} kg /mol, where {delta}T=T-25 deg.C. These numerical values are consistent with the U and Pu ones. The redox potential measured in 1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution, is greater by about 0.06 V than the published ones. Junction potentials might account for this difference. Supplementary materials are added, concerning the calculation of activity of water in a weak electrolyte, and on correlation between the numerical values of {xi}, or with ionic radius. (authors). 12 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR. METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1. Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0. Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1. SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10: Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine treated with L-arginine 2%; Group Alpha-methyldopa treated with Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg; Group L-Arginine+Alpha-methyldopa treated with L-arginine 2%+Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg. L-arginine 2% solution was offered ad libitum in drinking water and Alpha-methyldopa was administered by gavage twice a day during the length of pregnancy (20 days. Blood pressure was measured by tailcuff plethysmography on days 0 and 20. Body weight was measured on days 0, 10 and 20. Results were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation. One-Way ANOVA/Tukey (or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, as appropriate was used for group comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted as pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensivas (SHR. MÉTODOS: 30 SHR e 10 Wistar-EPM-1 ratas virgens foram utilizadas no estudo. Antes da distribuição, as fêmeas foram acasaladas com machos da mesma linhagem (3:1; a prenhez foi confirmada pela presença de espermatozóides no esfregaço vaginal. As ratas Wistar-EPM-1 foram utilizadas como controles. As ratas SHR foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em 4 grupos (n=10: Grupo Controle-2, não-tratado; Grupo L-Arginina, tratado com L-arginina; Grupo Alfa-metildopa, tratado com alfa-metildopa; Grupo L-Arginina+Alfa-metildopa, tratado com arginina+Alfa-metildopa. L-arginina (2% foi oferecida ad libitum na água de beber e a Alfa-metildopa (33 mg/Kg foi administrada por gavagem, duas vezes ao dia, durante toda a

  5. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  6. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eLucas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  7. Nuclear Physics studies at ELI-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, P.D.; Goddard, P.M.; Rios, A.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility is to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. At ELI-NP, high-power lasers together with a very brilliant γ-ray beam are the main research tools. Their targeted operational parameters are described. The emerging experimental program of the facility in the field of nuclear physics is reported and the main directions of the research envisioned are presented. The experimental instrumentation, which will operate at ELI-NP for the realization of the research program, is discussed. The expected impact of ELI-NP on the future advance of the field is summarized

  8. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant rats impaired learning and memory of their offspring by promoting the p75NTR signal pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect the neurodevelopment of their offspring. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH on spatial learning and memory, and its relationship with the apoptotic factors in cerebral cortex of the offspring. Methods: Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group: control (CON group, SCH group and overt hypothyroidism (OH group. Spatial learning and memory in the offspring were evaluated by long-term potentiation (LTP and Morris water-maze (MWM test. The protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and Bax were detected by Western blotting. Results: The Pups in the SCH and OH groups showed longer escape latencies in the MWM and decreased field-excitatory post synaptic potentials in LTP tests compared with those in the CON group. p75NTR, p-JNK, p53 and Bax expression levels in the cerebral cortex increased in pups in the SCH and OH groups compared with those in the CON group. Conclusions: Maternal SCH during pregnancy may impair spatial learning and memory in the offspring and may be associated with the increased apoptosis in the cerebral cortex.

  10. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  11. A toxicidade do Hypericum perforatum administrado a ratas prenhes Evaluation of Hypericum perforatum toxicity when administered to pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Valente Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho foi avaliada a toxicidade do H. perforatum administrado a ratas no período de organogênese (9º ao 15º dia de gestação. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratas Wistar inseminadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente nos grupos controle e tratado, que receberam, respectivamente, 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica e 36 mg/kg de extrato seco de Jarsin diluídos em 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica por gavagem. A toxicidade materna foi avaliada por: consumo de água e ração, peso corporal, piloereção, deambulação, diarréia e ocorrência de mortes. As ratas foram sacrificadas no 21º dia de gestação, quando foram removidos e pesados: rins, fígado e ovários. Foram calculados os índices de implantação e de reabsorção e foi verificado o número médio de fetos por rata. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados sinais clínicos de toxicidade materna e nenhuma das variáveis analisadas apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos experimentais. CONCLUSÃO: Na dose administrada e no modelo experimental utilizado, o Hypericum perforatum não apresenta manifestações tóxicas para ratas prenhas no período de organogênese.BACKGROUND: Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: In the present paper, the toxicity of H. perforatum administered to female rats during organogenesis (9th to 15th day of pregnancy was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty inseminated Wistar rats were randomly distributed into Control and Treated groups, which received by gavage, respectively, 0.5 ml of saline and 36 mg/Kg body weight of Jarsin dried extract diluted into 0.5 ml of saline. Maternal toxicity was evaluated by means of: water and food intake, body weight, piloerection, walking activity, diarrhea and death. Animals were killed on the 21st day of pregnancy, when kidneys, liver and ovaries were weighed. Implantation and reabsorption indices

  12. Expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in 17α-ethinyl estradiol-induced intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingyun; Wang, Jingjing; Yan, Shi; Zhao, Jin; Li, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant (ICP) offspring. The model of ICP rats was established by injecting s.c. 17α-ethinyl estradiol. The expression of NPY and POMC in female offspring was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry at birthday and 6 months. ICP group offspring had lower bodyweight at birthday. ICP offspring were markedly heavier than control offspring after 6 months. mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC significantly increased at 6 months as compared with the birthday among control offspring. Among ICP offspring, mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC also were higher at 6 months than at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of NPY were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of POMC were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. After 6 months, the mRNA expression and protein expression of NPY also were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The mRNA expression and protein expression of POMC also were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ICP offspring demonstrated evidence of persistent appetite stimulation with significantly upregulated NPY expression and reduced POMC expression at birthday and 6 months. ICP offspring showed a hunger state and then gained weight. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in the placenta but not the fetus is matched by plasma unesterified DHA uptake rates in pregnant Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined. For tissue DHA uptake, pregnant dams (14-18 days) were infused for 5 min with radiolabeled 14 C-DHA and kinetic modeling was used to determine fetal and placental serum unesterified DHA uptake rates. DHA accretion rates in the fetus were determined to be 38 ± 2 nmol/d/g, 859 ± 100 nmol/d/litter and 74 ± 3 nmol/d/pup, which are all higher (P  0.05) in placental DHA accretion rates versus serum unesterified DHA uptake rates were observed as values varied only 6-35% between studies. No differences in placental accretion and uptake rates suggests that serum unesterified DHA is a significant pool for the maternal-placental transfer of DHA, and lower fetal DHA uptake compared to accretion supports remodeling of placental DHA for delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ação crônica do napsilato de propoxifeno na prenhez da rata Chronic effects of propoxyphene napsylate on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane T. R. Mendes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do napsilato de propoxifeno sobre a prenhez da rata albina. Para tanto utilizamos 50 ratas prenhes divididas ao acaso em cinco grupos iguais. Todas receberam diariamente, por gavagem, o volume de 1 ml, desde os dias 0 (zero até o 20 de prenhez, com as seguintes características: grupo I - somente água destilada (controle; grupo II - solução aquosa de acácia 2% (veículo; grupos III, IV e V - respectivamente, 5, 15 e 45 mg/kg de peso de napsilato de propoxifeno dissolvido em solução de acácia a 2%. Os pesos maternos foram anotados nos dias 0 (zero, 7, 14 e 20 de prenhez; no 20º dia as matrizes foram sacrificadas. Nossos resultados mostraram que os animais tratados com 45 mg/kg do fármaco apresentaram redução dos pesos individuais dos fetos como também dos pesos das ninhadas e das placentas. Quanto às outras variáveis apreciadas: número de reabsorções, de implantações e de placentas não houve diferença significante entre os grupos tratados em relação ao grupo controle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of propoxyphene napsylate on the pregnancy of the rat. We used fifty pregnant rats divided into five groups. All the animals received daily 1 ml of the solution by gavage from day 0 to the 20th day of pregnancy. Group I - only distilled water (control; group II - aqueous solution of acacia 2% (vehicle; groups III, IV and V - respectively, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg of weight of propoxyphene napsylate diluted in 2% acacia solution. The animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy. Our results showed that the animals treated with 45 mg/kg of propoxyphene napsylate presented reduction of the individual weights of the fetuses, as well as of the weights of the newborns and placentas. The difference betewwn number of resorptions, implantations and placentas of the treated groups was shown to be non

  15. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry analysis of cocaine and its metabolites from blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissues: study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Wang, P P; Eley, A T; White, C A; Bartlett, M G

    2000-08-18

    The ability to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and its 12 metabolites from pregnant rat blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissue homogenates aids in elucidating the metabolism and distribution of cocaine. An efficient extraction method was developed to simultaneously recover these 13 components using underivatized silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The overall recoveries for cocaine and its metabolites were studied from pregnant rat blood (47-100%), amniotic fluid (61-100%), placental homogenate (31-83%), and fetal homogenate (39-87%). Extraction of the samples using silica is not classical SPE, but rather allows for the concentration of the sample into a small volume prior to injection and the removal of the proteins due to their strong interaction with the active silica surface. A positive ion mode electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was used and validated to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and 12 metabolites from these four biological matrices. A gradient elution method with a Zorbax XDB C8 reversed-phase column was used to separate the components. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of a product ion arising from the corresponding precursor ion was used in order to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Low background noise was observed from the complex biological matrices due to efficient SPE and the selectivity of the MRM mode. Linear calibration curves were generated from 0.01 to 2.50 ppm. The method also showed high intra-day (n =3) and inter-day (n=9) precision (% RSD) and accuracy (% error) for all components. The limits of detection (LODs) for the method ranged from 0.15 to 10 ppb. The LODs of cocaine and its major metabolites were less than 1 ppb from all four biological matrices. This method was applied to the study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats following intravenous infusion to a steady state plasma drug concentration. The

  17. The Magnets Puzzle is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete.......In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete....

  18. Pregnant Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Børve , Hege Eggen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the impact that the interplay between workplace, the welfare state and global working life has on female workers when they become pregnant. By focusing on two highly educated Norwegian female workers, it explores how this change process takes place in two companies operating in the global market located in different countries: Norway and the US. Pregnancy contributes to transforming the neutralized bodiless female worker into an embodied worker with g...

  19. Piperine Enhances the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against 3-NP Induced Neurotoxicity: Possible Neurotransmitters Modulation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin well established model used for inducing symptoms of Huntington's disease. Curcumin a natural polyphenol has been reported to possess neuroprotective activity by decreasing oxidative stress. The aim of present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of curcumin with piperine (bioavailability enhancer) against 3-NP induced neurotoxicity in rats. Administration of 3-NP (10 mg/kg for 21 days) showed loss in body weight, declined motor function and changes in biochemical (LPO, nitrite and glutathione level), neuroinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β level) and neurochemical (DA, NE, 5-HT, DOPAC, 5-HIAA and HVA). Chronic treatment with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and curcumin (25 mg/kg) with piperine (2.5 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days prior to 3-NP administration. All the behavioral parameters were studied at 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day. On 22nd day all the animals was scarified and striatum was separated. Curcumin alone and combination (25 mg/kg) with piperine (2.5 mg/kg) showed beneficial effect against 3-NP induced motor deficit, biochemical and neurochemical abnormalities in rats. Piperine (2.5 mg/kg) with curcumin (25 mg/kg) significantly enhances its protective effect as compared with curcumin alone treated group. The results of the present study indicate that protective effect of curcumin potentiated in the presence of piperine (bioavailability enhancer) against 3-NP-induced behavioral and molecular alteration.

  20. Identification of NpO{sub 2+x} in the binary Np-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Akhil, E-mail: aakhiltayal@gmail.com [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 Cedex (France); Conradson, Steven D., E-mail: St3v3n.c0nrads0n@icloud.com [Josef Stefan Institute, Department of Complex Matter Department, Jamovacesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Washington State University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 644630, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Baldinozzi, Gianguido, E-mail: gianguido.baldinozzi@centralesupelec.fr [SPMS, LRC Carmen, CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Châtenay-Malabry and CEA/DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA/LA2M-LRC CARMEN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Namdeo, Sonu [Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, University Campus Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Roberts, Kevin E., E-mail: roberts29@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Allen, Patrick G., E-mail: allen42@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Shuh, David K., E-mail: dkshuh@lbl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    In contrast to UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}, there is no consensus on the existence of mixed valence NpO{sub 2+x}, resulting in a gap between NpO{sub 2} and Np{sub 2}O{sub 5} (the highest binary oxide of Np) in the Np-O phase diagram. We now show NpO{sub 2+x} via Np L{sub III} Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra of three samples of NpO{sub 2} that, analogous to U and Pu, exhibit multisite Np-O distributions with varying numbers of oxygen atoms at 1.87–1.91 Å. This is supported by the diffraction pattern of the sample with the largest amount of this oxo-type species that can be refined with both the simple fluorite structure and a trigonal one related to α-U{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The implied Np(V)-bridging oxo moieties as well as possible indications of OH¯ found by detailed EXAFS analysis suggest that NpO{sub 2+x} more closely resembles PuO{sub 2+x} than UO{sub 2+x}. An additional common characteristic suggested by the EXAFS and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the phase separation into NpO{sub 2} and what would be previously unreported Np{sub 4}O{sub 9(–δ)}, indicative of O clustering. - Graphical abstract: A reanalysis of the EXAFS of NpO{sub 2} finds a multisite Np-O distribution with Np(V)-oxo moieties at 1.88–1.91 Å. The structure and behavior of NpO{sub 2+x} more closely resemble PuO{sub 2+x} than UO{sub 2+x}.In addition EXAFS and XRD results indicate phase separation into NpO{sub 2} and previously unreported Np{sub 4}O{sub 9(–δ)}, signifying O clustering. - Highlights: •A reanalysis of XAFS data shows Np-oxo groups indicative of NpO{sub 2+x} in some samples. •Certain characteristics imply Np{sub 4}O{sub 9}, O clustering, and NpO{sub 2}:Np{sub 4}O{sub 9} phase separation. •Np(V) and other results indicate NpO{sub 2+x} resembles PuO{sub 2+x} more than UO{sub 2+x}. •Reanalysis of XRD data shows that the lattice constant Np{sub 4}O{sub 9} equals that of NpO{sub 2}.

  1. HSPB8 and the Cochaperone BAG3 Are Highly Expressed During the Synthetic Phase of Rat Myometrium Programming During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Noelle M; Wareham, Angela; White, Bryan G; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; Landry, Jacques; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    The small heat shock protein (HSP) B family of proteins are a group of molecular chaperones that enable tissues to adapt to changes in their local environments during differentiation, stress, or disease conditions. The objective of this research was to characterize the expression of HSPB8 and its cochaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant rat myometrium during myometrial programming. Rat myometrium was collected from NP and pregnant rats as well as 1 day postpartum (PP) and samples prepared for immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis. Immunoblot analysis determined that HSPB8 protein expression was significantly elevated at Day (D) 15, D17, and D19 compared to expression at NP and D6, while BAG3 expression was significantly elevated at D15 compared to NP, and D17 compared to NP, D6, D23, and PP time points (P BAG3 were predominantly localized to myometrial cells throughout pregnancy, with intense cytoplasmic HSPB8 and BAG3 detection on D15 and D17 in both longitudinal and circular muscle layers. Immunoblot analysis of HSPB8 and BAG3 protein expression in myometrium from unilateral pregnancies also revealed that expression of both proteins was significantly increased at D15 in gravid compared to nongravid horns. Thus, HSPB8 and BAG3 are highly expressed during the synthetic phase of myometrial differentiation marked by initiation of uterine distension and myometrial hypertrophy. HSPB8 and BAG3 could be regulators of the protein quality control required for this process. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde from a loaded TBP phase containing Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Lim, Jae Kwan; Chung, Dong Yong; Yang, Han Beom; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2008-01-01

    The reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde (NBA) from loaded organic solution containing Np, which was oxidative-extracted in a system of a 30 % TBP/NDD-2M HNO 3 and O/A=2 containing 0.005 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 as an oxidant of Np, was studied. The stripping yields of Np was increased with an increasing the NBA concentration, with a decreasing the nitric acid concentration of stripping solution and with a decreasing the reaction temperature. The apparent reductive stripping rate equation was shown by the following equation : -d [Np]-O-r-g/dt = 1,524 exp(-2,906/T) [NBA] 0.92 [Np] Org . At 1.04 M NBA and 2 M HNO 3 , the stripping yield of Np and U was 70.1 %, and 7.1 %, respectively, and the separation factor of U over Np (=D U /D Np ) was about 30.4. Therefore, it was found that U and Np co-extracted in a system of TBP-NHO 3 could be effectively mutual-separated by the NBA.

  3. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  4. 237Np analytical method using 239Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Morrison, Samuel S; Clark, Sue B; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237 Np analyses are challenged by low 237 Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237 Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239 Np (t 1/2  = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237 Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239 Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243 Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 10 6 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237 Np contamination within 600 m of this site, with maximum 237 Np concentrations on the order of 10 3 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Criticality of a 237Np sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Loaiza, David J.; Kimpland, Robert H.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.

    2003-01-01

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg 237 Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of 237 Np. To attain criticality, the 237 Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt% 235 U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k eff of 0.99089 ± 0.0003 compared with a k eff 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of 237 Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties. (author)

  6. Np Analysis of Freshly Separated Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Np analysis has historically relied upon the Pa/Np secular equilibrium for quantitative results. The Savannah River Site has recently undertaken a mission concerning Np. In this application, Np is separated from Pa, packaged, possibly mixed with other batches, and assayed. The fresh separation and mixing of batches prevents the use of the Pa133 prodigy peaks for assay. This effort was a developmental project novel in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the challenges encountered in the design of instrumentation to assay Np directly. The most abundant Np peak that is unfettered by Pa prodigy, Am, or other SNM materials is the 29.6keV. Quantitative measurement of such a low energy peak presents significant problems with attenuation, Compton effects, and other such issues that arise while trying to maximize the effects of low energy peaks. The solutions rely on exploiting the ''tried and true'' methods with regard to shielding, detector technology, and calibration techniques, but wit h a very low energy perspective. The results are intriguing and, with some assumptions regarding sample homogeneity, quantitative within normal MC and A statistics

  7. Neutron Data Evaluation of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.; Tetereva, N.A.; Kolesov, A.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Zolotarev, K.I.; Granier, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.

    2010-11-01

    The diverse measured data base of n+ 237 Np was evaluated using a statistical theory and generalized least squares codes. Consistent description of the total, fission and partial inelastic scattering data in 1-3 MeV energy range provides an important constraint for the absorption cross section, which is quite important for the robust estimate of the capture cross section in the 0.5-500 keV energy range. Important constraints for the measured capture cross section come from the average radiative S0 and S1 strength functions. The evaluated inelastic cross sections of available evaluations are in severe disagreement with measured data on the inelastic scattering of neutrons with excitation of specific groups of levels. A change of the inelastic data shape at E n ∼1.5 MeV might be explained by the sharp increase of the level density of the residual odd-even nuclide 237 Np due to the onset of three-quasi-particle excitations. The influence of exclusive (n, xnf) pre-fission neutrons on prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) and (n, xn) spectra is modeled. Contributions of emissive/non-emissive fission and exclusive spectra of (n, xnf) reactions are defined by a consistent description of the 237 Np (n, F), 237 Np (n, 2n) 236s Np reactions and the ratio of the yields of short-lived (1 - ) and long-lived (6 - ) 236 Np states measured at 14 MeV. Excited levels of 236 Np are modeled using predicted Gallher-Moshkowski doublets. This work is performed under the project Agreement B-1604 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The financing party is EU. Partial support of International Atomic Energy Agency under Research Contract 14809 is acknowledged by JINER. (author)

  8. Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions; Np(V)/Np(IV) en solutions carbonate/bicarbonate concentrees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.; Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H.

    1996-01-01

    A 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H{sup +}) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO{sub 2} in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 {+-} 2.1, 8.44 {+-} 0.9 and 28.9 {+-} 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 {+-} 5.5, 40.6 {+-} 4.1 and 8.53 {+-} 0.9 for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-} ones, and log((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-}) / ((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-})(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}))) = 1.47 {+-} 0.08, 1.63 {+-} 0.05, 1.80 {+-} 0.04, 1.79 {+-} 0.10 and 2.21 {+-} 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 {+-} 0.1 V/SEH and {Delta}S/F = -1.1 {+-} 0.7 mV. deg C{sup -1}. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-} + 2 CO{sub 2} + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log {Beta}{sub 5}{sup d}eg = 38 {+-} 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs.

  9. Np(V) and Np(VI) in bicarbonate/carbonate aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H.

    1998-01-01

    Formation constants for NpO 2 (CO 3 ) i l2i (i = 1, 2 and 3), NaNpO 2 CO 3(s) and Na 3 NpO 2 (CO 3 ) 2(s) are deduced from Simakin's et al. (1977), Maya's (1983), and Vitorge's et al. data, who also found evidence for a mixed Np(V)-OH-CO 3 soluble complex. Simakin (1977) found NpO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 -4 , it was confirmed by Riglet (1989), and by Offerle, Capdevilla and Vittorge (1995). Temperature influence was studied by Ullman and Schreiner (1988), and by Offerle, Capdevila and Vittorge (1995). Grenthe, Riglet and Vitorge (1986 and 1989) proved the existence of the trinuclear species (NpO 2 ) 3 (CO 3 ) 6 -6 . Maya (1984) mis-interpreted his data; nevertheless they show evidence of a new polynuclear mixed species, certainly (NpO 2 ) 2 (OH) 3 CO 3 -1 , as initially proposed by Maya. No other Np(V) or Np(VI) soluble complex could be detected, the proposed ones quantitatively account for all published works. Unpublished data allowed to estimate the stability of intermediary mononuclear complexes and NpO 2 CO 3(s) solubility product. M 4 NpO 2 (CO 3 ) 3(s) (M + = K + or NH 4 + ) ones are deduced from Gorbenko-Germanov and Klimov (1966), and Moskvin (1975) data as respectively interpreted and reinterpreted by this review. Thermodynamic data determined in this report are under discussion within OECD-NEA-TDB. (author)

  10. Solubility studies of Np(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Jiao Haiyang; Ren Lihong; Zhou Duo; Fan Xianhua

    2001-01-01

    The solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water and redistilled water has been measured with the variations of pH(6-12) and storage time (0-100 d) in the presence of reductant (Na 2 S 2 O 4 , metallic Fe). All experiments are performed in a low oxygen concentration glove box containing high purity Ar(99.99%), with an oxygen content of less than 5 x 10 -6 mol/mol. Experimental results show that the variation of pH in solution has little effect on the solubility of Np(IV) in the two kinds of water; the measured solubility of Np(IV) is affected by the composition of solution; with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (9.23 +- 0.48) x 10 -10 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (8.31 +- 0.35) x 10 -10 mol/L; with metallic Fe as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (1.85 +- 0.56) x 10 -9 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (1.48 +- 0.66) x 10 -9 mol/L

  11. Chemical aspects of 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The 237 Np Moessbauer effect has been especially useful in studies of neptunium chemistry, by virtue of its excellent resolution and straightforward experimental techniques. Neptunium can have valences from +3 to +7, and a broad range of compounds can be prepared that are analogous to those of other actinide elements. Studies on neptunium compounds, for example, have a ready application to the analogous compounds of uranium and plutonium. The emphasis in this paper will be on the application of the 237 Np Moessbauer effect to problems in neptunium chemistry

  12. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  13. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  14. Computing quantum discord is NP-complete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yichen

    2014-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement), and prove that computing quantum discord is NP-complete. Therefore, quantum discord is computationally intractable: the running time of any algorithm for computing quantum discord is believed to grow exponentially with the dimension of the Hilbert space so that computing quantum discord in a quantum system of moderate size is not possible in practice. As by-products, some entanglement measures (namely entanglement cost, entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, squashed entanglement, classical squashed entanglement, conditional entanglement of mutual information, and broadcast regularization of mutual information) and constrained Holevo capacity are NP-hard/NP-complete to compute. These complexity-theoretic results are directly applicable in common randomness distillation, quantum state merging, entanglement distillation, superdense coding, and quantum teleportation; they may offer significant insights into quantum information processing. Moreover, we prove the NP-completeness of two typical problems: linear optimization over classical states and detecting classical states in a convex set, providing evidence that working with classical states is generically computationally intractable. (paper)

  15. Autoionizing np Rydberg states of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, E.Y.; Helm, H.; Kachru, R.

    1989-01-01

    We report a study of the autoionizing np Rydberg states near the lowest ionization threshold of H 2 . Using resonant two-photon excitation, intermediate states in specific rotovibrational levels in the double well, E,F 1 Σ/sub g/ + states are prepared. Then, a second, tunable laser is used to photoionize via excitation of the np Rydberg states. Because of the stepwise laser excitation scheme employed in our experiment the photoionization occurs from states with vibrational wave functions very similar to those of the H 2 + core. As a consequence, the autoionizing states appear as nearly symmetric resonances, rather than the highly asymmetric Beutler-Fano profiles observed from the direct photoexcitation from the ground state of H 2 . Our experiments show that the J = 1 np states are broader than the J = 3 np states converging to the same limit, suggesting that the two states autoionize into the epsilon-cp and epsilon-cf continuum, respectively. We compare our observations with a theoretical analysis using a multichannel quantum defect theory. The J = 1 states reveal the profound effect caused by the perturbation of the autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the lowest vibrational and rotational state of H 2 + by low-n states converging to higher vibrational states of the H 2 -ion core

  16. Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestroem, A.E.; Collins, C.D.; Smith, S.R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are surfactants found ubiquitously in the environment due to widespread industrial and domestic use. Biodegradation of NPEOs produces nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disruptor. Sewage sludge application introduces NPEOs and NP into soils, potentially leading to accumulation in soils and crops. We examined degradation of NP and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils. NP12EO degraded rapidly (initial half time 0.3-5 days). Concentrations became undetectable within 70-90 days, with a small increase in NP concentrations after 30 days. NP initially degraded quickly (mean half time 11.5 days), but in three soils a recalcitrant fraction of 26-35% remained: the non-degrading fraction may consist of branched isomers, resistant to biodegradation. Uptake of NP by bean plants was also examined. Mean bioconcentration factors for shoots and seeds were 0.71 and 0.58, respectively. Removal of NP from the soil by plant uptake was negligible (0.01-0.02% of initial NP). Root concentrations were substantially higher than shoot and seed concentrations. - Degradation curves of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils indicate that 26-35% of NP is recalcitrant, with minor NP ingrowth from NP12EO breakdown

  17. Complex chemistry of Np(V) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi

    1989-01-01

    Despite the importance of Np(V) in both the nuclear chemical engineering and the actinoid chemistry, little work has been performed on the complex chemistry of Np(V) in aqueous solutions, since Np(V) reacts less readily with various ligands. The author has directed his effort to understand the chemical behavior of Np(V) in aqueous solutions, especially the determination of the stability constants of Np(V) complexes with various ligands. A part of the results obtained so far is presented in the following order. (1) The synergistic extraction of Np(V) as a method for studying the complex chemistry of Np(V): TTA-MTOA(methyltrioctylammonium chloride), TTA-phen and TTA-TOPO. (2) The determination of the stability constants of Np(V) complexes with 22 organic- and 5 inorganic ligands by means of the solvent extraction. (3) The distribution of the chemical species of Np(V) in solutions under various conditions

  18. Experimental thermochemistry of neptunium oxides: Np2O5 and NpO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dzik, Ewa A.; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Burns, Peter C.

    2018-04-01

    Neptunium (Np) compounds are important in the nuclear fuel cycle because of the buildup and long half-life (2.14 Ma) of Np-237 in nuclear waste, especially during long-term disposal in a geological repository. Neptunium in environmental conditions exists mainly in two oxidation states (+5 and + 4) and can substitute for uranium and/or rare earths in solid phases. Yet thermochemical data for solid neptunium compounds are scarce, despite being critical for evaluating the environmental transport of this radioactive and toxic element. Although high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry has proven very useful in obtaining thermodynamic data for the formation of uranium and thorium oxide materials, it has not yet been applied to transuranium compounds. Continuing a program at Notre Dame to study the thermodynamics of transuranium compounds, we report the first determination of the enthalpies of drop solution of well-characterized neptunium oxides (Np2O5 and NpO2) using oxide melt solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate solvent at 973 K. The enthalpy of the decomposition reaction, Np2O5(cr) = 2NpO2(cr) + 1/2O2(g) at 298 K, is determined to be 7.70 ± 5.86 kJ/mol, and this direct measurement is consistent with existing thermodynamic data. The calorimetric methodology is straightforward and produces reliable data using milligram quantities of radioactive materials, and can be applied to many other transuranium compounds.

  19. The reduction of Np(VI) and Np(V) by tit dihydroxyurea and its application to the U/Np separation in the PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, T.H.; Zheng, W.F.; Zuo, C.; Xian, L.; Zhang, Y.; Bian, X.Y.; Li, R.X.; Di, Y. [Dept. of Radiochemistry, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, BJ (China)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction of Np(VI) and Np(V) by Dihydroxyurea (DHU) was studied by spectrophotometry. The results show that the reduction of Np(VI) to Np(V) by DHU is particularly fast. The apparent rate constant is 1.86s{sup -1} at 4 C as [HNO{sub 3}] = 0.44 M and [DHU] = 7.5 x 10{sup -2} M. While further reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) is so slow that no Np(IV) is observed in 2 h. The reduction back-extraction behavior of Np(VI) in 30% tri-butyl phosphate/kerosene was firstly investigated under conditions of different temperature, different concentrations of DHU and HNO{sub 3} and various phase contact time, respectively. The results show that 98% of Np(VI) in the organic phase can be stripped rapidly to the aqueous phase by DHU under the given experimental conditions. As the concentration of HNO{sub 3} in the aqueous phase increases, the stripping efficiency decreases. While the stripping efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of DHU. Simulating the 1B contactor of the PUREX process using DHU as the stripping agent, the SF{sub U}/Np equals to 183 under the given experimental conditions. It indicates that Np will follow with Pu in the U/Pu separation stage in the reprocessing of spent fuels. (orig.)

  20. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  1. Solitaire Chess is NP-complete

    OpenAIRE

    Maßberg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    "Solitaire Chess" is a logic puzzle published by Thinkfun, that can be seen as a single person version of traditional chess. Given a chess board with some chess pieces of the same color placed on it, the task is to capture all pieces but one using only moves that are allowed in chess. Moreover, in each move one piece has to be captured. We prove that deciding if a given instance of Solitaire Chess is solvable is NP-complete.

  2. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1998-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden

  3. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, K.; Kirchgessner, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden

  4. Influence of separate and combined impact both of radiation and chemical factors on state of lipid peroxide oxidation system and antioxidant protection at pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Kolb, V.G.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of low dozed ionizing irradiation and chemical toxicant was studied both under separate and combined action in the process of pregnancy. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) indices and antioxidant protection (AOP) parameters of females rats were studied. The result received proved that irradiation during pregnancy induced activation both of lipids free radical oxidation and of antioxidant protection in female rats. Chemical toxicants introduction resulted in shifts on the LPO-AOP system the hydrogen peroxide blood level increasing and the antioxidants ones reducing. Combined action of both factors led to development of a new level of LPO-AOP

  5. Magnetic properties of Np2T2Sn compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.P.; Colineau, E.; Jeandey, C.; Oddou, J.L.; Rebizant, J.; Seret, A.; Spirlet, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the Np 2 T 2 Sn series investigated by 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy are reported. Magnetic ordering is shown to occur for T = Ni, Pd, Pt, whereas the Np ions do not carry a local moment when T = Co, Ru, Rh. Comparison is made with the corresponding Np 2 T 2 In and U 2 T 2 Sn compounds. (authors). 5 refs., 3 figs

  6. Precipitation of Np(VI) by urotropine from heated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvis, A.I.; Krot, N.N.

    1993-01-01

    The precipitate formed by heating HNO 3 solutions of Np(VI) and urotropine under various conditions is studied by x-ray phase analysis, gravimetry, and spectrophotometry. The precipitate is determined to be NpO 3 ·xH 2 O·yNH 3 , where x ≤ 2 and y ≤ 0.28. It is demonstrated that at least 12% of the starting Np remains in solution as Np(V)

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001034750.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001034750.1 chr11 Solution NMR structure of human myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88). North...east Structural Genomics target HR2869A p2js7a_ chr11/NP_001034750.1/NP_001034750.1_apo_70-218.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_064572.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available theast Structural Genomics Consortium Target BoR24. c2bdva_ chr3/NP_064572.2/NP_064572.2_apo_2-265.pdb psi-blast 0 ... ...NP_064572.2 chr3 X-Ray Crystal Structure of Phage-related Protein BB2244 from Bordetella bronchiseptica. Nor

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_001103132.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001103132.1 chr12 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE SECA PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION ATPASE FROM MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULO...SIS COMPLEX WITH ADPBS d1nkta_ chr12/NP_001103132.1/NP_001103132.1_holo_1997-2946.p

  10. Comparison of phototoxic effects of pregnant rats exposure in Chernobyl NPP site and external prolonged exposure in the dose of 0.5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, E.E.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2007-01-01

    The morphometric study showed that within the 10-kilometre zone of the Chernobyl NPP delay of the rat fetus cerebral cortex maturation occurred, whereas used in the experiment prolonged low-dose irradiation did not cause essential disorders of cortical ontogenesis.(authors)

  11. Change in ATP-ase activity and transport of rna of liver cell nuclei of pregnant rats and embryos following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsutdinova, G.T.; Mirkhamidova, P.; Ibragimkhodzhaeva, M.P.; Mirakhmedov, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation on ATP-ase activity in rat liver nuclei and RNA transport of isolated liver nuclei in vitro is studied. It is shown that irradiation changes RNA transport from isolated liver cell nuclei of maternal organism and embryos. Irradiation during prefetus and fetus periods changes ATP-ase activity of embryon and maternal organism nuclei

  12. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON EX VIVO AND IN VITRO LUTEAL FUNCTION AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a drinking water disinfection by-product, causes pregnancy loss, i.e. full-litter resorption, in F344 rats when treated during the luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent period. This effect is associated with reduced maternal serum progesterone (P) and LH...

  13. Criticality of a 237Np sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene; Loaiza, David; Kimpland, Robert; Hayes, David; Cappiello, Charlene; Chadwick, Mark

    2006-01-01

    For the past five years, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have mounted an unprecedented effort to get a better estimate of the critical mass of 237 Np. To accomplish this task, a 6-kg neptunium sphere was recently cast at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) facility, which is part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neptunium sphere was clad with tungsten and nickel to reduce the dose rates from the 310 keV gamma rays from the first daughter of neptunium, namely, 233 Pa. 237 Np is a byproduct of power production in nuclear reactors. It is primarily produced by successive neutron captures in 235 U or through the (n,2n) reaction in 238 U. These nuclear reactions lead to the production of 237 U, which decays by beta emission into 237 Np, namely, 235 U(n,γ) 236 U, 236 U(n,γ) 237 U→β→ 237 Np, 238 U (n,2n) 237 U→β→ 237 Np. It is estimated that a typical 1000 MW(e) produces on the order of 12 to 13 kg of neptunium in a year. Some of this neptunium in irradiated fuel elements has been separated and is presently stored in containers in a liquid form. This method of storage is quite adequate because the fission cross section for 237 Np at thermal energies is quite low and any moderation of the neutron population by diluting the configurations with water would increase the critical mass to infinity. However, for long term storage, the neptunium liquid solutions must be converted into oxides and metals because these form are less movable and less likely to leak out of containers. Metals and oxides made out of neptunium have finite critical masses but there is a great uncertainty about these values because of the lack of experimental criticality data. Knowing precisely the critical mass of neptunium not only will help to validate mass storage limits or optimize storage configurations for safe disposition of these materials, but will also save thousands of dollars in transportation and disposition costs. The experimental results presented in

  14. Histological changes in the endometrial of pregnant Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a changed uterine morphometry and its application to the endometrial structure of a pregnant rat. The number and the size of uterine gland and blood vessels changed during the pregnancy period of the rat. This effect on day 15 was significantly changed in the different groups. When the endometrial ...

  15. Update neutron nuclear data evaluation for 236,238Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guochang; Wang, Jimin; Yu, Baosheng; Cao, Wentian; Tang, Guo-you

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear data with high accuracy for actinides play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle, estimation of the amount of minor actinides (MAs) in high burnup reactors and to research to transmute the MAs to short half-lived nuclides or stable ones. The nuclides of 236 Np are generated via the α-decay of 240 Am or 237 Np(n, 2n) and 237 Np(d, t) reactions. And the nuclides of 238 Np are generated via the α-decay of 242 Am or 237 Np(n, γ) and 237 Np(d, p) reactions. In the present work, according to the systematic trend of the total cross section and elastic cross section etc. of different Np isotopes, and based on the neutron optical model parameters (OMP) of 237 Np, a new set of neutron optical model parameters were obtained for 236,238 Np. Based on the new set OMP and the systematic trend of the cross sections of different Np isotopes, a full set of 236,238 Np neutron nuclear data has been updated and improved by theoretical calculation. The present result has significant improvements over the data in CENDL-3.1

  16. PROXIMITY TO DELIVERY ALTERS INSULIN SENSITIVITY AND GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN PREGNANT MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Vaughan, Owen R.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2016-01-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy, day (D) 16, and near term, D19, (term 20.5D). Non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, tissue insulin signalling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and ut...

  17. Bone turnover markers in medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a lack of data on the effects of prolactin on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in hyperprolactinemia of various origins. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia on bone turnover in female rats. Methods. Experimental animals (18 weeks old, Wistar female rats were divided as follows: the group P - 9 rats, 3 weeks pregnant; the group M3-10 rats that were intramuscularly administrated sulpirid (10 mg/kg twice daily for 3 weeks, the group M6 - 10 rats that were intramuscularly administrated with sulpirid (10 mg/kg twice daily for 6 weeks, and age matched nulliparous rats as the control group: 10 rats, 18-week-old (C1 and 7 rats, 24 weeks old (C2. Laboratory investigations included serum ionized calcium and phosphorus, urinary calcium and phosphorous excretion, osteocalcin and serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP. Results. Experimental animals in the group P compared to the control group, displayed lower mean serum ionized calcium (0.5 ± 0.2 vs 1.12 ± 0.04 mmol/L; p < 0.001; higher mean serum phosphorus (2.42 ± 0.46 vs 2.05 ± 0.2 mmol/L; p < 0.05; increased urinary calcium (3.90 ± 0.46 vs 3.05 ± 0.58; p < 0.01 and significantly increased P1NP (489,22 ± 46,77 vs 361.9 ± 53,01 pg/mL; p < 0.001. Experimental animals in the group M3 had significantly decreased P1NP, compared to the control group. Prolongated medicamentous hyperprolactinemia (the group M6 induced increased serum ionized calcium (1.21 ± 0.03 vs 1.15 ± 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001; decreased serum phosphorus (1.70 ± 0.13 vs 1.89 ± 0.32 mmol/L; p < 0.001; decreased osteocalcin and P1NP. Conclusions. Physiological hyperprolactinemia does not have such harmful effect on bone metabolism as medicamentous hyperprolactinemia. Chronic medicamentous hyperprolactinemia produces lower serum levels of bone formation markers. Assessment of bone turnover markers in prolongated medicamentous

  18. Nuclear Physics Research at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    The new research facility Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Romania, on the Magurele Physics campus. Valued more than 300 Meuros the center will be operational in 2019. The research center will use a high brilliance Gamma Beam and a High-power Laser beam, with unprecedented characteristics worldwide, to investigate the interaction of very intense radiation with matter with specific focus on nuclear phenomena and their applications. The energetic particle beams and radiation produced by the 2x10 PW laser beam interacting with matter will be studied. The precisely tunable energy and excellent bandwidth of the gamma-ray beam will allow for new experimental approaches regarding nuclear astrophysics, nuclear resonance fluorescence, and applications. The experimental equipment is presented, together with the main directions of the research envisioned with special emphasizes on nuclear physics studies.

  19. Sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Wang Bo; Bao Liangjin; Zhou Duo; Long Haoqi; Song Zhixin; Chen Xi

    2012-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of Np (Ⅴ) on the granite fracture filling materials were studied by batch experiments under anaerobic in Beishan groundwater. The impact of pH of groundwater, CO 3 2- , humic acid and different components of granite fracture filling materials on sorption of Np (Ⅴ) was investigated. The results show that the granite fracture filling materials have strong capacity of Np (Ⅴ) adsorption. The value of K d , for Np (Ⅴ) sorption on the granite fracture filling materials is 843 mL/g. With the increase of pH, the value of K d increases at first and then decreases. K d of Np sorption on granite fracture filling materials in the presence of CO 3 2- and humic acid decreases. The chlorite and feldspar are major contributors to the sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials. (authors)

  20. Solubility studies of Np(V) in simulated underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Ren Lilong; Jiao Haiyang; Yao Jun; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2004-01-01

    The solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water has been measured with the variation of pH, storage time (0-100 days). All experiments were performed in an Ar glove box which contained high purity Ar, with an oxygen content of less than 5ppm. Experimental results show that the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water decreased with increasing pH value of solution; the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water determined at different pH is : pH=6.96, [Np(V)]=(3.52±0.37) x 10 -4 mol/L; pH=8.04, [Np(V)]=(8.24±0.32) x 10 -5 mol/L; pH=9.01, [Np(V)]=(3.04±0.48) x 10'- 5 mol/L, respectively. (author)

  1. NpX3 compounds under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, S.; Kalvius, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    The systematics of hyperfine interactions and the ordering temperature T ord in isostructural NpX 3 compounds (X=Al, Si, Ga, Ge, ln, Sn) are briefly reviewed. NpSn 3 has been viewed as a Kondo lattice system, similar to CeAl 2 , NpIn 3 shows a modulated magnetic structure including low moment and nonmagnetic contributions at ambient pressure and 4.2 K. Preliminary results of recent 237 Np Moessbauer studies on NpIn 3 at ambient pressure and various temperatures and at 4.0(8) GPa and 4.2 K are reported. At 4.0(8) GPa, T ord rises from 17 to 22 K, the low-moment contributions of the modulated structure are reduced and the non-magnetic site is lost below T ord . The variation of the hyperfine parameters and of T ord with pressure is similar to the behavior observed in NpSn 3 . (orig.)

  2. Protective effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic second-generation tetracycline against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Manuj; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2008-01-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of the electron transport enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial Complex II enzyme. Minocycline is a semi-synthetic second-generation tetracycline with neuroprotective activity and has the capability to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of minocycline on behavioral, biochemical, inflammation related and neurochemical alterations induced by the sub-chronic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid to rats. Chronic pre-administration of minocycline (50 and 100 mg/kg) dose dependently prevented 3-NP-induced dysfunction behavioral (hypoactivity, memory retention, locomotor and rota-rod activity). In addition, 3-NP produced a marked increase in lipid peroxidation levels whereas decreased the activities of catalase and succinate dehydrogenase. In contrast, pretreatment of 3-NP injected rats with minocycline resulted in the attenuation of all these alterations. A marked increase in an inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by 3-NP was also decreased by minocycline treatment. Neurochemically, the administration of 3-NP significantly decreased the levels of catecholamines in the brain homogenates (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) which were reversed by pretreatment of minocycline. The present finding explains the neuroprotective effect of minocycline against 3-NP toxicity by virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity

  3. 239Np application as tracer of 237Np in liquid effluents and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diodati, Jorge M; Sartori, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a technique to separate and measure 237 Np using 239 Np as a tracer, is presented. After the radiochemical separation, a liquid scintillation measurement with pulse decay discrimination and a γ measurement on the same vial is performed. The method also allows an electrodeposition for an α and γ measurement. The chemical recoveries obtained by LSC and γ spectrometry in vial are similar to those obtained by α and γ spectrometry on electroplated disc. The MDA is 0.08 Bq/l by α spectrometry and 0.22 Bq/l by LSC, with 2 σconfidence interval, and 93.7 % measurement efficiency and 98.0% chemical recovery. (author)

  4. Gestational Day-Dependent Expression of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Porphyromonas gingivaliscan induce placental inflammatory response resulting in fetal growth restriction. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in rat placental tissues to understand whether these events were causally related. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: A higher expression of TNF-α was found in spongiotrophoblast of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (6.30±1.16, and in trophoblastic giant cells of Pg-D group on GD20 (5.50±1.35. Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-10 was found in trophoblastic giant cells of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (4.50±1.51 and in syncytiotrophoblasts of Pg-BD group on GD20 (8.70±2.67. Conclusion: The expression of TNF-α on GD14 and GD20 were accompanied by increased expression of IL-10. The placental pathologic conditions induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis can be inhibited by elevated expression of IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.199

  5. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh

  6. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  7. The homeless pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Umo I

    2017-09-01

    Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.

  8. Activation of lysosomal cathepsins in pregnant bovine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Md Abdus Shabur; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Shirozu, Takahiro; Kim, Sung Woo; Kunii, Hiroki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ito, Tsukino; Kimura, Koji; Takahashi, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    In ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT) - mediated expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can indicate pregnancy. Recently, type 1 IFN-mediated activation of lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins (CTSs) was observed in immune cells. This study investigated the status of lysosomal CTSs and lysosomes in PBLs collected from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) dairy cows, and conducted in vitro IFNT stimulation of NP blood leukocytes. Blood samples were collected 0, 7, 14 and 18 days post-artificial insemination, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) separated. The fluorescent activity of CTSB and CTSK in PMNs significantly increased with the progress of pregnancy, especially on day 18. In vitro supplementation of IFNT significantly increased the activities of CTSB and CTSK in NP PBMCs and PMNs. CTSB expression was significantly higher in PBMCs and PMNs collected from P day-18 cows than from NP cows, whereas there was no difference in CTSK expression. IFNT increased CTSB expression but did not affect CTSK expression. Immunodetection showed an increase of CTSB in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. In vitro stimulation of IFNT increased CTSB in NP PBMCs and PMNs. Lysosomal acidification showed a significant increase in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. IFNT also stimulated lysosomal acidification. Expressions of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1 and LAMP2 were significantly higher in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. The results suggest that pregnancy-specific activation of lysosomal functions by CTS activation in blood leukocytes is highly associated with IFNT during maternal and fetal recognition of pregnancy. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Car sequencing is NP-hard: a short proof

    OpenAIRE

    B Estellon; F Gardi

    2013-01-01

    In this note, a new proof is given that the car sequencing (CS) problem is NP-hard. Established from the Hamiltonian Path problem, the reduction is direct while closing some gaps remaining in the previous NP-hardness results. Since CS is studied in many operational research courses, this result and its proof are particularly interesting for teaching purposes.

  10. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.

  11. Low concentration NP preoxidation condition for PWR decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fuduan; Yu Degui; Lu Jingju; Ding Dejun; Zhao Yukun

    1991-02-01

    To use preoxidation condition with low concentration NP (nitric acid permanganate) instead of conventional high concentration AP (alkline permanganate ) for PWR oxidation decontamination (POD) was summarized. Experiments including three parts have been performed. The defilming performance and decontamination factor of preoxidation with low concentration NP, which is 100, 10 times lower than that of AP are better than that with high concentration AP. The reason has been studied with the aid of prefilmed specimens of corrosion potential measuring in NP solution and chromium release in NP and AP solutions. The behaviour of alloy 13 prefilmed specimen in NP preoxidation solution is different from 18-8 ss and Incoloy 800. In the low acidity, the corrosion potential moves toward positive direction as the acidity becomes high

  12. Sorption and Migration Mechanisms of 237 Np through Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraprachoom, Nanthavan; Tanaka, Tadao

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste into a shallow land burial, the sorption characteristic and migration behavior of 237 Np through sandy soil was studied. Two experimental methods were performed by using batch and column systems. The distribution coefficients (K d ) obtained from the adsorption and desorption process are rather small about 16 and 21 cm 3 /g respectively. Size distribution of 237 Np species in the influent solution was measured by ultra-filtration technique. Migration mechanism of 237 Np was studied by column experiments. The experimental condition was the influence of volume of eluting solution; 100, 300, 500, 1000 and 2000 ml respectively. The result from five column experiments confirm that the sorption characteristics of 237 Np are mainly controlled by a reversible ion-exchange reaction and the migration of 237 Np in the sandy soil can be estimated by using the K d concept

  13. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  14. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe dehydration, chronic malabsorption resulting in fetal growth restriction, and in the case of E. histolytica , invasive disease, including amebic liver abscess and colitis. Pregnant women should avoid swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, ...

  15. Np Incorporation into Uranyl Alteration Phases: A Quantum Mechanical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.C. Huller; R.C. Win; U.Ecker

    2006-01-01

    Neptunium is a major contributor to the long-term radioactivity in a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) due to its long half-life (2.1 million years). The mobility of Np may be decreased by incorporation into the U 6+ phases that form during the corrosion of SNF. The ionic radii of Np (0.089nm) and U (0.087nm) are similar, as is their chemistry. Experimental studies have shown Np can be incorporated into uranyl phases at concentrations of ∼ 100 ppm. The low concentration of Np in the uranyl phases complicates experimental detection and presents a significant challenge for determining the incorporation mechanism. Therefore, we have used quantum mechanical calculations to investigate incorporation mechanisms and evaluate the energetics of Np substituting for U. CASTEP, a density functional theory based code that uses plane waves and pseudo-potentials, was used to calculate optimal H positions, relaxed geometry, and energy of different uranyl phases. The incorporation energy for Np in uranyl alteration phases was calculated for studtite, [(UO 2 )O 2 (H 2 O) 2 ](H 2 ) 2 , and boltwoodite, HK(UO 2 )(SiO 4 )* 1.5(H 2 O). Studtite is the rare case of a stable uranyl hydroxyl-peroxide mineral that forms in the presence of H 2 O 2 from the radiolysis of H 2 O. For studtite, two incorporation mechanisms were evaluated: (1) charge-balanced substitution of Np 5+ and H + for one U 6+ , and (2) direct substitution of Np 6+ for U 6+ . For boltwoodite, the H atomic positions prior to Np incorporation were determined, as well as the Np incorporation mechanisms and the corresponding substitution energies. The preferential incorporation of Np into different structure types of U 6+ minerals was also investigated. Quantum mechanical substitution energies have to be derived at Np concentrations higher than the ones found in experiments or expected in a repository. However, the quantum mechanical results are crucial for subsequent empirical force-field and Monte

  16. Colloidal behavior of Np(V) in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xin; Zhang Yingjie; Wei Liansheng; Lin Zhangji

    2004-01-01

    The speciation of Np(V) in solutions is measured by means of FT-Raman spectrometer. The formation of colloid of Np(V) in aqueous solutions is studied with the variation of pH(2-12), ionic strength (0.01 mol/L, 0.1 mol/L, 1.0 mol/L), storage time (6h, 30h, 1 week, 6 weeks) and neptunium concentration. The adsorption behavior of Np(V) on granite and its rock-forming minerals (quartz, microcline, albite, biotite and hornblende) is also studied in an aqueous phase of artificial ground water. The experiments are performed at ambient temperature. Experimental results show that a small fraction of Np removed from the solution is adsorbed on the walls of container at the pH above 6 due to the formation of colloid of Np. The formation of colloid of Np depends on its hydrolytic extent, ionic strength, and storage time. The adsorption of Np on granite and the individual mineral depends strongly on the formation of the colloids with the variation of pH in solutions. (author)

  17. Towards experiments at the new ELI-NP facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanski D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI Pan-European initiative represents a major step forward in quest for extreme electromagnetic fields. The Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP laboratory is one of the three pillars of the ELI project, that aims to use such extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics and quantum electrodynamics research. At ELI-NP two ten petawatt high-power laser systems together with a very brilliant narrow-width γ beam are the main research tools. Here the current status of the project and the experimental program related to nuclear research, which is under preparation at ELI-NP, are presented.

  18. Dissociation behavior of Np(IV) from humic acid colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Tobitsuka, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Kohara, Y. [Inspection Development Corporation, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1112 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Dissociation behavior of Np(IV) from humic colloid, which was prepared with purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) was investigated. The complexation experiments were carried out in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} - 0.05 M Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} solution at pH 8 with PAHA concentration between 0 and 500 mg L-1 under anaerobic condition. Np-237 was added as Np(V) solution so that its concentration becomes 1.1 x 10-5 mol L-1. After shaking from 1 to 156 days, aliquots of experimental solution were filtered through the membranes with 50, 10 and 3 kD of MWCO to obtain the size distribution of colloid, followed by adding the filtrate into the 6 M HCl for dissociation. At the end of experiments for 596 days, 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} was used for dissociation solution. The concentration of Np released into this solution was evaluated by measuring a activity of Np-237. The concentration of Np becomes constant by 112 days. Since Eh of the solution has been kept between -300 and -100 mV vs. SHE during experimental duration, Np is presumed to be reduced into tetravalent. In the case of higher PAHA concentration than 50 mg L{sup -1}, the Np concentration is close to that of initially added Np. Since the size of the dissolved species of Np during complexation experiments varies from 3 to 50 kD, the Np is sorbed on humic acid colloid. In the dissociation experiments, the Np dissociated by 6 M HCl decreases with increasing complexation time and PAHA concentration. After 156 days complexation with 500 mg L{sup -1} of PAHA, 35% of Np can be dissociated from the colloid. Such a tendency, however, is not observed in case of the lowest PAHA concentration, 5 mg L{sup -1}. After 596 days complexation, the dissociation experiments were carried out by adding 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution to avoid the precipitation which might hinder the dissociation of Np in the aforementioned experiments with HCl. As a result, 50% of Np is dissociated in the presence of 50 and 100 mg L-1 of

  19. A study on enhancement of Np extraction by TBP through the electrochemical adjustment of Np valance by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Song, K. C.; Lee, I. H.; Choi, I. K.; Yoo, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The Np valance state in nitric acid and the effect of nitrous acid on the Np valance composition were studied through ways of absorbance by spectrophotometer, extraction by TBP, and electrochemistry. Enhancement of Np extraction to 30 vol.% TBP was carried out through adjustment of Np valance state by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system. The Np solution used in this work consisted of only Np(V) and Np(VI) without Np(IV). The composition of Np(V) in the range of 0.5M ∼ 5.5 M nitric acid was 32% ∼ 19%. The electrolytic oxidation of Np(V) coexisting with Np(VI) in the solution enhanced Np extraction by 30 vol.% TBP about five times more than the one without the electrolytic oxidation. The facts were confirmed that the nitrous acid of less than about 10 -5 M acted as a catalyst to accelerate the chemical oxidation reaction of Np(V) to Np(VI) and the nitrous acid of more than 10 -3 M reduced Np(VI) to Np(V) reversely

  20. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABAA receptor antagonist NP260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Alison H.; Eaddy, John S.; Rose, Kelly; Cullen, John M.; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu; Watkins, Paul B.; LeCluyse, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA A receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity

  1. Separation of Np from U and Pu using a salt-free reductant for Np(VI) by continuous counter-current back-extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yasutoshi; Asakura, Toshihide; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    Reduction properties of several salt-free reagents for Np(VI) and Pu(IV) were reviewed to choose selective reductants that reduce only Np(VI) to Np(V) for separating Np from U and Pu in TBP by reductive back-extraction. Allylhydrazine was proposed as a candidate for selective Np(VI) reductant, and it was confirmed by a batch experiment that allylhydrazine reduced almost all Np(VI) to Np(V) and back-extracted Np from organic phase (30 vol.% TBP diluted in n-dodecane) to aqueous phase (3 mol/dm 3 HNO 3 ) within 10 min. A continuous counter-current experiment using a miniature mixer-settler was carried out with allylhydrazine at room temperature. At least 91% of Np(VI) that fed to the mixer-settler was selectively reduced to Np(V) and separated from U and Pu. (author)

  2. Magnetic sublattices in Np{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Np{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colineau, E., E-mail: eric.colineau@ec.europa.eu; Hen, A. [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) (Germany); Sanchez, J.-P. [CEA, INAC-SPSMS (France); Griveau, J.-C.; Magnani, N.; Eloirdi, R. [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) (Germany); Halevy, I. [Ben Gurion University, Nuclear Engineering Department (Israel); Gaczyński, P. [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) (Germany); Orion, I. [Ben Gurion University, Nuclear Engineering Department (Israel); Shick, A. B. [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Caciuffo, R. [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Rare-earth-based compounds R{sub 2}T{sub 17} (R=Rare earth; T=Transition metal) have been extensively studied and developed for applications as permanent magnets. The actinide-based analogues, however, are much less documented and we report here about the magnetic properties of Np{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Np{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, as inferred from {sup 237}Np Mössbauer spectroscopy, the best resonance in actinides, and specific heat.

  3. Complexation of Np(V) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; Hansford, M.I.; Staunton, S.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1992-01-01

    Various parameters affecting the diffusion coefficient of neptunium (V) in clay systems have been studied; e.g. clay mineralogy, the charge compensating cation in the clay, the ionic strength of a background perchlorate solution and the presence of three organic ligands. Several well established techniques have been employed to obtain stability constants for the neptunium systems; Np(V)/EDTA and Np(V)/citrate, Np(V)/Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA), Np(V)/Gorleben Humic Acid (GHA) and for the uranium systems U(VI)/EDTA, U(VI)/citrate and U(VI)/AHA. The experimental techniques employed were UV/visible spectroscopy, polarography, solvent extraction and ion exchange. (Author)

  4. Complexation of Np(V) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; Hansford, M.I.; Staunton, S.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1993-01-01

    Various parameters affecting the diffusion coefficient of neptunium (V) in clay systems have been studied; e.g. clay mineralogy, the charge compensating cation in the clay, the ionic strength of a background perchlorate solution and the presence of three organic ligands. Several well established techniques have been employed to obtain stability constants for the neptunium systems; Np(V) EDTA and Np(V)/citrate, Np(V)/Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA), Np(V)/Gorleben Hulic Acid (GHA) and for the uranium systems U(VI)/EDTA, U(VI)/citrate and U(VI)/AHA. The experimental techniques employed were UV/visible spectroscopy, polarography, solvent extraction and ion exchange. (author). 50 refs., 24 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant | Ting | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... defensin genetic engineering of plant in recent years, and also focuses on the existing problems and new strategies in this area.

  6. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  7. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  8. Synthesis and Property of Ag(NP)/catechin/Gelatin Nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhamad; Apriani, Dita

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterial play important role future industry such as for the medical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Ag (NP) and catechin exhibit antibacterial property. Ag(NP) with diameter around 15 nm was synthesis by microwaved method. We have successfully produce Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber composite by electrospinning process. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber was synthesized by using gelatin from tuna fish, polyethylene oxide (PEO), acetic acid as solvent and silver nanoparticle(NP)/catechin as bioactive component, respectively. Morphology and structure of bioactive catechin-gelatin nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. SEM analysis showed that morphology of nanofiber composite was smooth and had average diameter 398.97 nm. FTIR analysis results were used to confirm structure of catechin-gelatin nanofiber. It was confirmed by FTIR that specific vibration band peak amide A (N-H) at 3286,209 cm-1, amide B (N-H) 3069,396 cm-1, amide I (C=O) at 1643,813 cm-1, amide II (N-H and CN) at 1538,949 cm-1, amide III (C-N) at 1276,789 cm-1, C-O-C from polyethylene oxide at 1146,418 cm-1, respectively. When examined to S. Aureus bacteria, Ag/catechin/gelatin nanofiber show inhabitation performance around 40.44%. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber has potential application antibacterial medical application.

  9. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  10. Structure and bonding in compounds containing the NpO2+ and NpO22+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Burns, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of oxo cations of Np(V) and Np(VI) were made on single crystals using X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods. Quantitative measurements of the geometry of the triatomic ion and its uranyl(VI) analog made it possible to assess the effects on bond lengths of the nature of equatorial secondary bonds, the change in valence from V to VI, and the actinide contraction. Absorption spectra showed marked changes in the solid state compared to the same ion in solution, especially anisotropy with crystal orientation (dichroism). The compounds analyzed were Na 4 NpO 2 (O 2 ) 3 .9H 2 O, Na 4 UO 2 (O 2 ) 3 .9H 2 O, K 4 NpO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 , and BaNpO 2 (H 3 C 2 O 2 ).2H 2 O. All actinyl ions were found to be linear. The largest difference in M=O bond lengths is between 1.776 in the compound having the relatively weak secondary linkage to carbonate, and 1.843 A in which the peroxide forms much stronger covalent bonds. Between compounds identical except for change of U to Np the M=O bond length contracts by only about 0.01 A. However an elongation of about 0.11A is observed when neptunium(VI) is reduced to neptunium(V) without change in the equatorial ligand. (U.S.)

  11. Higher density of serotonin-1A receptors in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring P rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Lumeng, L.; Li, Ting-Kai

    1990-01-01

    Saturable [ 3 H]-80HDPAT binding to 5HT-1A receptors in membranes prepared from hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring (P) rats and of alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats has been compared. The B max values or densities of recognition sites for 5HT-1A receptors in both brain areas of the P rats are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats. The corresponding K D values are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats, indicating higher affinities of the recognition sites for the 5HT-1A receptors in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the P rats. These findings indicate either an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptor density during selective breeding for alcohol preference or an upregulation of 5HT-1A receptors of 5HT found in these brain areas of P rats as compared with the NP rats

  12. BACE1 inhibition by microdose lithium formulation NP03 rescues memory loss and early stage amyloid neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E N; Do Carmo, S; Iulita, M F; Hall, H; Ducatenzeiler, A; Marks, A R; Allard, S; Jia, D T; Windheim, J; Cuello, A C

    2017-08-01

    Lithium is first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder and has recently been shown to have protective effects in populations at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying this protection is poorly understood and consequently limits its possible therapeutic application in AD. Moreover, conventional lithium formulations have a narrow therapeutic window and are associated with a severe side effect profile. Here we evaluated a novel microdose formulation of lithium, coded NP03, in a well-characterized rat model of progressive AD-like amyloid pathology. This formulation allows microdose lithium delivery to the brain in the absence of negative side effects. We found that NP03 rescued key initiating components of AD pathology, including inactivating GSK-3β, reducing BACE1 expression and activity, and reducing amyloid levels. Notably, NP03 rescued memory loss, impaired CRTC1 promoter binding of synaptic plasticity genes and hippocampal neurogenesis. These results raise the possibility that NP03 be of therapeutic value in the early or preclinical stages of AD.

  13. Sorption of Np(V) by synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.C.; Holt, K.; Zhao, H.; Hasan, A.; Awwad, N.; Gasser, M.; Sanchez, C.

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of Np(V) to synthetic hydroxyapatite was determined in batch experiments in a 0.1 M NaClO 4 solution. The hydroxyapatite used was of high purity as determined by SEM, EDS, XRD, FT-IR and ICP-MS analysis. Results from kinetic experiments with an initial Np(V) concentration of 1 x 10 -7 to 1 x 10 -6 M indicate the sorption process is relatively fast with more than 90% of the Np(V) being sorbed in approximately 3 hours. Equilibrium experiments performed over the pH range of 6 to 11 indicated sorption is strongly pH dependent with distribution coefficients, K d values (mL/g), increasing from 123 L/mole at pH 6 to 69 200 L/mole at pH 8.5. K d values are observed to decrease as pH further increases. Data points over a range of Np(V) concentrations were collected at pH 8 and fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model for simple adsorption. The Langmuir equation gave an excellent representation of the data. Langmuir parameters were determined to be C a = 0.032 mole/mole and K = 1.22 x 10 6 L/mole, indicating the high affinity of hydroxyapatite for Np(V) adsorption. (orig.)

  14. An overview on polynomial approximation of NP-hard problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschos Vangelis Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that polynomial time algorithm is very unlikely to be devised for an optimal solving of the NP-hard problems strongly motivates both the researchers and the practitioners to try to solve such problems heuristically, by making a trade-off between computational time and solution's quality. In other words, heuristic computation consists of trying to find not the best solution but one solution which is 'close to' the optimal one in reasonable time. Among the classes of heuristic methods for NP-hard problems, the polynomial approximation algorithms aim at solving a given NP-hard problem in poly-nomial time by computing feasible solutions that are, under some predefined criterion, as near to the optimal ones as possible. The polynomial approximation theory deals with the study of such algorithms. This survey first presents and analyzes time approximation algorithms for some classical examples of NP-hard problems. Secondly, it shows how classical notions and tools of complexity theory, such as polynomial reductions, can be matched with polynomial approximation in order to devise structural results for NP-hard optimization problems. Finally, it presents a quick description of what is commonly called inapproximability results. Such results provide limits on the approximability of the problems tackled.

  15. Np(V) carbonates in solid state and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrath, G.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of NaNpO 2 CO 3 (s) in 0.1M perchlorate solution at 25 deg C in equilibrium with 1.0% CO 2 /N 2 atmosphere has been investigated as a function of pH/lg [CO 3 2- ]. The solid phase was found hexagonal with a=1008.1±0.3 pm and c=991.1±0.2 pm. A solubility product of lg Ksp(NaNpO 2 CO 3 ) = -10.22±0.02 and a formation constant of the first Np(V) carbonato species of lg β 01 = 4.52±0.02 was evaluated. For the dicarbonato species an upper limit of lg lg β 02 2 partial pressure gave evidence that carbonato species are prevailing in solutions at both 1% and 0.03% CO 2 partial pressures. (author) 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Biokinetics of 237Np in mussels and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of 237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated 237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the 237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination

  17. Garvey-Kelson mass relations and n-p interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zaochun; Meng Jie; Chen Yongshou

    2001-01-01

    Two Garvey-Kelson mass relations are found to be directly related to the n-p interaction. In the case of the same nuclear core, the neutron-proton interaction energy between two neutrons and one proton ε 2n-1p is experimentally found to be close to that between one neutron and two protons ε 1n-2p , which is equivalent to the first Garvey-Kelson mass relation. The sum of ε 2n-1p and ε 1n-2p is close to the n-p interaction energy between two neutrons and two protons ε 2n-2p , which leads to the second Garvey-Kelson mass relation. An explanation of these two n-p interaction relations is presented. It is shown that both of these mass relations hold more accurately when the core is an even-even core

  18. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it.

  19. NMR studies of the dynamics of high-spin nitrophorins: comparative studies of NP4 and NP2 at close to physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Robert E; Muthu, Dhanasekaran; Yang, Fei; Walker, F Ann

    2015-01-20

    The β-barrel nitrophorin (NP) heme proteins are found in the saliva of the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus, which synthesizes and stores nitric oxide (NO) in the salivary glands. NO is bound to iron of the NPs and is released by dilution and an increase in pH when the insect spits its saliva into the tissues of a victim, to aid in obtaining a blood meal. In the adult insect, there are four nitrophorins, NP1-NP4, which have sequence similarities in two pairs, NP1 and NP4 (90% identical) and NP2 and NP3 (80% identical). The available crystal structures of NP4 have been used to propose that pH-dependent changes in the conformation of two loops between adjacent β-strands at the front opening of the protein, the A-B and G-H loops, determine the rate of NO release. At pH 7.3, NP4 releases NO 17 times faster than NP2 does. In this work, the aqua complexes of NP4 and NP2 have been investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements to probe the pico- to nanosecond and micro- to millisecond time scale motions at two pH values, 6.5 and 7.3. It is found that NP4-OH2 is fairly rigid and only residues in the loop regions show dynamics at pH 6.5; at pH 7.3, much more dynamics of the loops and most of the β-strands are observed while the α-helices remain fairly rigid. In comparison, NP2-OH2 shows much less dynamics, albeit somewhat more than that of the previously reported NP2-NO complex [Muthu, D., Berry, R. E., Zhang, H., and Walker, F. A. (2013) Biochemistry 52, 7910-7925]. The reasons for this major difference between NP4 and NP2 are discussed.

  20. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  1. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  2. High-field susceptibility in ferromagnetic NpOs2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Aldred, A.T.; Lam, D.J.; Davidson, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    NpOs 2 is known to be a ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 7.5 0 K. Previous bulk magnetization measurements indicated a field-induced magnetization even well below the transition temperature. By a measurement of the local high-field susceptibility, using the Moessbauer effect in 237 Np, a susceptibility of (1.2 +- 0.2) x 10 -2 emu/mole at 1.6 0 K is obtained, in general agreement with the bulk measurement. Such a large susceptibility is best understood by a model f itinerant magnetism, although other properties of the material indicate localized behavior

  3. Adrenal scintiscanning with NP-59: a new radioiodinated cholesterol agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.M.; Wahner, H.W.; Carpenter, P.C.; Salassa, R.M.; Northcutt, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenal imaging in the past has been limited in its clinical application by the long interval between administration of dose and visualization of adrenal glands. We review our experience with the use of a newer labeling agent, NP-59, in 29 patients with various adrenal disorders and in 4 normal subjects. With this agent, identification of adrenal lesions is possible with a high degree of accuracy, and diagnostic information is usually available within 48 hrs. NP-59 is particularly useful in evaluating primary aldosteronism and selected cases of Cushing's syndrome

  4. Biokinetics of 237Np in two marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    The long-lived alpha-emitting actinide 237 Np (T 1/2 = 2.2 x 10 6 y) enters the aquatic environment directly from nuclear testing and reprocessing plant wastes as well as indirectly by in situ generation from 241 Am. Earlier studies on 239 Np in the Columbia river ecosystem demonstrated that neptunium accumulated in aquatic species such as algae, sponges and insect larvae but was not detectable in higher trophic level organisms. Based on these findings and the fact that neptunium is chemically similar to the rare earth elements, it has been suggested that this actinide would not easily become incorporated into aquatic biota

  5. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Ni{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x})(Cr{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, and FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications

  6. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe 3 O 4 and NiFe 2 O 4 . On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr 2 O 3 , (Ni 1-x Ni x )(Cr 1-y Fe y ) 2 O 4 , and FeCr 2 O 4 . Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. It is revealed that Inconel-600 specimen is more

  7. Sorption of Np by UO2 under repository conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakovskaya, T. V.; Zakharova, E. V.; Haire, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    This work is a part of the joint Russian - American Program on Beneficial Use of Depleted Uranium. The production of nuclear fuels results in the accumulation of large quantities of depleted uranium (DU) in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is converted to uranium oxides. Depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) can be used as a component of radiation shielding and as an absorbent for migrating radionuclides that may emerge from casks containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that are stored for hundreds of thousands of years in high-level wastes (HLW) and SNF repositories (e.g. Yucca Mountain Project). In this case DU oxides serve as an additional engineered chemical barrier. It is known that the primary radioisotope contributor to the calculated long-term radiation dose to the public at the Yucca Mountain SNF repository site boundary is neptunium-237 (237Np). This paper describes the sorption of 237Np in various media (deionized water and J-13 solution) by DUO2. Samples of DUO2 used in this work originated from the treatment of UF6 in a reducing media to form UO2(DUO2-1 at 600°C, DUO2-2 at 700°C, and DUO2-3 at 800°C). All species of DUO2 sorb Np(V) and Np(IV) from aqueous media. Equilibrium was achieved in 24 hours for Np(V) and in 2 hours for Np(IV). Np(V) sorption is accompanied with partial reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) and vice versa. The sorption of Np(V) onto DUO2 surfaces is irreversible. The investigations on DUO2 transformations were performed under dynamic and static conditions. Under static conditions the solubility of the DUO2 samples in J-13 solution is considerably higher than in DW. When the pre-treatment temperature is decreased, the solubility of DUO2 samples raises regardless of the media. The experiments on interaction between DUO2 and aqueous media (DW and J-13 solution) under dynamic conditions demonstrated that during 30-40 days the penetration/filtration rate of DW and J-13 solution through a thin DUO2 layer decreased dramatically, and then

  8. Epistemologiese en ontologiese dominante in "Die beiteltjie" van NP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epistemologiese en ontologiese dominante in "Die beiteltjie" van N.P. van Wyk Louw en ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... may be found in the shift of the dominant from problems of knowing to problems of modes of ...

  9. 2018 Status Report of NP04 (ProtoDUNE-SP)

    CERN Document Server

    Touramanis, C

    2018-01-01

    The NP04 Liquid Argon TPC has been constructed in the CERN Neutrino Facility and is in final preparation for taking beam data before the end of the current beam period at CERN. Progress in the last twelve months, current status, and plans are presented.

  10. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the 237 Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating 241 Pu and 233 Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within ± 10% for samples containing 3 μg Pu, while being within ± 20% for 0.4 μg Pu. (authors)

  11. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S. [IAEA, Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, Wagramer Str. 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the {sup 237}Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating {sup 241}Pu and {sup 233}Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within {+-} 10% for samples containing 3 {mu}g Pu, while being within {+-} 20% for 0.4 {mu}g Pu. (authors)

  12. Two aspects of NP in top quark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnak, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present 2 different aspects of new physics (NP) in top quark sector. On one hand, we focus on the manifestation of NP in charged quark currents which affect the tW b vertex. Employing an effective theory approach to parametrize the NP of scales Λ well above the electro-weak, we show that in some cases the indirect B physics constraints are much more sever than the constraints coming from the helicity fraction measurements at Tevatron, which we analyse at next-to-leading order in QCD. On the other hand we show that the charge asymmetry in tt-bar production at the LHC, A C , and the forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron, A FB , are in general not tightly correlated. We demonstrate this by using an effective theory description as well as on-shell implementation in form of a light axigluon. The small value of A C measured at the LHC is thus shown not to exclude a NP interpretation of the anomalously large A FB at the Tevatron. (author)

  13. Breakdown of NpNn scheme in very heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, A.K.; Singh, M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, K.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The proton neutron interaction has been considered the key ingredient in the development of configuration mixing, collectivity and ultimately deformation in atomic nuclei for over five decades. Phenomenologically, the correlation of the integrated valance p - n interaction with the onset of collectivity and deformation has been described in terms of NpNn scheme

  14. Agreement of NP and VP Coordination in English and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ryong; Na, Won-Shik

    2011-01-01

    There have been long argumentations about this topic and people are still having difficulty in explaining precisely what the agreement values the mother NP phrase should have from two conjunct daughters which have different AGR (Agreement) values. Especially, this could be more complicated when the values of gender, number, and person of each…

  15. Molecular size distribution of Np(V)-humate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagao, Seiya; Tanaka, Tadao

    1996-10-01

    Molecular size distributions of humic acid and Np(V)-humate were studied as a function of pH and an ionic strength by an ultrafiltration method. Small particle (10,000-30,000 daltons) of humic acid increased slightly with increases in solution pH. The ion strength dependence of the molecular size distribution was clearly observed for humic acid. The abundance ratio of humic acid in the range from 10,000 to 30,000 daltons increased with the ionic strength from 0.015 M to 0.105 M, in place of the decreasing of that in range from 30,000 to 100,000 daltons. Most of neptunium(V) in the 200 mg/l of the humic acid solution was fractionated into 10,000-30,000 daltons. The abundance ratio of neptunium(V) in the 10,000-30,000 daltons was not clearly dependent on pH and the ionic strength of the solution, in spite of the changing in the molecular size distribution of humic acid by the ionic strength. These results imply that the molecular size distribution of Np(V)-humate does not simply obey by that of the humic acid. Stability constant of Np(V)-humate was measured as a function of the molecular size of the humic acid. The stability constant of Np(V)-humate in the range from 10,000 to 30,000 daltons was highest value comparing with the constants in the molecular size ranges of 100,000 daltons-0.45μm, 30,000-100,000, 5,000-10,000 daltons and under 5,000 daltons. These results may indicate that the Np(V) complexation with humic acid is dominated by the interaction of neptunyl ion with the humic acid in the specific molecular size range. (author)

  16. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Vaughan, Owen R; Ozanne, Susan E; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth, but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy at day 16 (D16) and near term at D19. Nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by DEXA, tissue insulin signaling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilization, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [(3)H]glucose infusion. Whole-body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production, and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19, with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signaling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole-body, tissue, and molecular levels will favor fetal glucose acquisition, while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice, with implications for human and other species. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. New and superior adrenal imaging agent, 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholesterol (NP-59): evaluation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.D.; Cohen, E.L.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Ice, R.D.; Cooper, R.; Gold, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    We have reported tissue distribution studies in rats and dogs with a new adrenal imaging agent, 131 I-6β-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholesterol (NP-59). This agent concentrated five times higher in the adrenal cortex than 131 I-19-iodocholesterol without increased concentration in non-adrenal tissues. We now report in 34 patients, the findings on scintigraphy with NP-59 compared with angiograms and/or adrenal vein hormone levels and histopathology, including 13 patients with hypercortisolism, 12 with primary aldosteronism, 2 with low renin hypertension, 5 with catecholamine excess, 1 with a liver metastasis from an aldosterone producing adrenal cortical carcinoma, and 1 with anaplastic adrenal cortical carcinoma. NP-59 adrenal cortical uptake was more rapid and intense and background activity was less prominent, allowing earlier and more definite interpretation of images than was possible with 131 I-19-iodocholesterol

  18. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Fang; Wang, Pei-Wei; Huang, Li-Wei; Yang, Winnie; Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Shang-Han; Chiu, Hsin-Hao; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2014-01-01

    intake via breast milk in three month-old babies exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 5 µg/kg bw/day indicated a potential risk for Taiwan infants. - Highlights: • A cohort of pregnant women was established and followed until delivery. • The pregnant and lactating mothers and their infants were exposed to NP. • Fetuses in Taiwan showed high NP milk level. • Daily NP intake via breast milk indicated a potential risk for Taiwan infants

  19. Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Fang [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Pei-Wei [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Li-Wei [Department of OBS and GYN, Taipei City Hospital, Women and Children' s Campus, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Winnie [Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Shang-Han; Chiu, Hsin-Hao [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mei-Lien, E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    intake via breast milk in three month-old babies exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 5 µg/kg bw/day indicated a potential risk for Taiwan infants. - Highlights: • A cohort of pregnant women was established and followed until delivery. • The pregnant and lactating mothers and their infants were exposed to NP. • Fetuses in Taiwan showed high NP milk level. • Daily NP intake via breast milk indicated a potential risk for Taiwan infants.

  20. NeptuniumV Retention by Siderite under Anoxic Conditions: Precipitation of NpO2-Like Nanoparticles and of NpIV Pentacarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Andreas C; Steudtner, Robin; Hübner, René; Weiss, Stephan; Bok, Frank

    2016-10-04

    The Np V retention by siderite, an Fe II carbonate mineral with relevance for the near-field of high-level radioactive waste repositories, was investigated under anoxic conditions. Batch sorption experiments show that siderite has a high affinity for aqueous Np V O 2 + across pH 7 to 13 as expressed by solid-water distribution coefficients, log R d, > 5, similar to the log R d determined for the (solely) tetravalent actinide Th on calcite, suggesting reduction of Np V to Np IV by siderite. Np L 3 -edge X-ray absorption near edge (XANES) spectroscopy conducted in a pH range typical for siderite-containing host rocks (7-8), confirmed the tetravalent Np oxidation state. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed a local structure in line with NpO 2 -like nanoparticles with diameter nanoparticles (∼10 -9 M), along with their negligible surface charge at neutral pH conditions which favors particle aggregation, suggest an efficient retention of Np in the near-field of radioactive waste repositories. When Np V was added to ferrous carbonate solution, the subsequent precipitation of siderite did not lead to a structural incorporation of Np IV by siderite, but caused precipitation of a Np IV pentacarbonate phase.

  1. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  2. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  3. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  4. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  5. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno, Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  6. Electrochemistry of actinide on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide: Electrocatalysis of Np(VI)O22+/Np(V)O2+ in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambolikar, Arvind S.; Guin, Saurav K.; Kasar, U.M.; Kamat, J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of neptunium on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO). • First report on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + . • The electrochemical reversibility of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + redox couple improves on ERGNO compared to GC. • ERGNO shows higher sensitivity for the determination of Np compared to bare GC electrode. • The efficiency of detection of Np by ERGNO is improved by virtue of the electrocatalysis. - Abstract: Driven by the academic interest, we have studied the aqueous electrochemistry of neptunium (Np) in 1 M nitric acid solution on the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Similar to our previous experiences on the electrocatalytic action of ERGNO on the electrochemistry of uranium(VI)/uranium(IV) and plutonium(IV)/plutonium(III) redox couples, the present study confirms the robust electrocatalytic ability of ERGNO for the redox reaction of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + in acidic solution even at high anodic working potentials. The extent of the electrochemical reversibility of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + redox couple increases on ERGNO compared to the bare GC electrode. For the first time, the electron transfer reaction of Np (VI) O 2 2+ /Np (V) O 2 + redox couple is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The improved sensitivity as well as the lower limit of detection of Np by anodic square wave voltammetry on ERGNO compared to bare GC opens up the application of ERGNO in the nuclear science and technology.

  7. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Jung-Hyun Park,1 Yun-Jung Choi,1 Min-Hee Kang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim11Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice.Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc. At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions.Results: The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of

  8. Updated and revised neutron reaction data for 237Np

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guochang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Based on the evaluated experimental data, the updated and revised evaluation of a full set of n+237Np nuclear data from 10−5 eV ∼ 20 MeV are carried out and recommended. Mainly revised quantities are neutron multiplicities from fission reaction, inelastic, fission, (n, 2n and (n, γ reaction cross sections as well as angular distribution and so on. The promising results are obtained when the renewal evaluated data of 237Np will be used to instead of the evaluated data in CENDL-3.1 database.

  9. np elastic scattering analyzing power characteristics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Davis, C.A.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Healey, D.C.; Miller, C.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Wait, G.D.; Ahmad, M.; Cairns, E.B.; Coombes, G.H.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Moss, G.A.; Roy, G.; Soukup, J.; Tkachuk, R.R.; Ye, Y.; Watson, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Recent measurements of charge symmetry breaking in the np system at 477 MeV, and of A oonn for np elastic scattering at 220, 325 and 425 MeV also yield accurate analyzing power data. These data allow the energy dependence of the analyzing power zero-crossing angle and the slope of the analyzing power at the zero-crossing to be determined. The incident neutron energies span a region where the zero-crossing angle is strongly energy dependent (Ε n n > 350 MeV). The results are compared to current phase shift analysis predictions, recently published LAMPF data, and the predictions of the Bonn and Paris potentials. (Author) 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  10. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  11. Learning optimal quantum models is NP-hard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cyril J.

    2018-02-01

    Physical modeling translates measured data into a physical model. Physical modeling is a major objective in physics and is generally regarded as a creative process. How good are computers at solving this task? Here, we show that in the absence of physical heuristics, the inference of optimal quantum models cannot be computed efficiently (unless P=NP ). This result illuminates rigorous limits to the extent to which computers can be used to further our understanding of nature.

  12. On reducibility and symmetry of disjoint NP pairs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 295, - (2003), s. 323-339 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019901; GA MŠk LN00A056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : disjoint NP-pairs * polynomial reducibility * propositional proof systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2003

  13. Effects of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on rat myometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-gang; ZHOU Liang; TANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on the contractility of isolated uterine muscle strips from pregnant and non-pregnant female rats. Methods: Full-thick myometrial strips were prepared from 18- to 21-day pregnant (n=g) and non-pregnant rats (n=7). After contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the two drugs from 10-8 to 10-4 mol/L, amplitude and frequency of the uterine contraction was recorded. Results: Two local anesthetics caused a concentration dependent inhibition on contractility of myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In the myometrium from non-pregnant rats, -logIC50 of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were 4.85 and 4.25 respectively. In the myometrium from pregnant rats, similar concentrations of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were observed, -logIC50 were 2.7 and 2.9respectively. Levobupivacaine produced an increase in amplitude of contractions, while bupivacaine showed an increased trend in frequency. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that levobupivacaine and bupivacaine may inhibit myometrium contractility.The inhibitory effect of levobupivacaine or bupivacaine is not enhanced by gestation in rat. Levobupivacaine may have more positive influence than bupivacaine in pregnant myometrium.

  14. Measurements of {sup 237}Np secondary neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilov, N.V.

    1997-03-01

    The activities carried out during the first year of the project are summarized. The main problems for Np spectra measurements arise from high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the sample and admixture of the oxygen and iron nuclei. The inelastically scattered neutrons and the fission neutrons spectra for {sup 237}Np were measured by time-of-flight spectrometer of the IPPE at incident neutron energies {approx_equal}1.5 MeV, and {approx_equal}0.5 MeV. A solid tritium target and a Li-metallic target were used as neutron sources. The neutron scattering on C sample (C(n,n) standard reaction) was measured to normalize the Np data. The experimental data should be simulated by Monte Carlo method to correct the experimental data for oxygen and iron admixture as well as for multiple scattering of the neutrons in the sample. Therefore the response function of the spectrometer, and the neutron energy distribution from the source were investigated in detail. (author)

  15. Metabolism of 1-[14C]nitropyrene in isolated perfused rat livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), a constituent of diesel exhaust, is carcinogenic to rats and is a bacterial and mammalian mutagen. Biliary and fecal excretion of 1-NP metabolites are the major routes of excretion in rats, suggesting that hepatic metabolism plays a dominant role in determining the biological fate of 1-NP. The purpose of this investigation was to quantitate 1-[14C]NP metabolites formed in isolated perfused rat livers and excreted in bile from rats. Perfused rat livers displayed a capacity for oxidation, reduction, acetylation, and conjugation of 1-NP (or its metabolites). Reduction of 1-NP followed by N-acetylation was the major metabolic pathway observed in the perfused livers. Acetylaminopyrene (AAP) was the major metabolite detected, with total quantities (150 nmol) accounting for about 60% of the total 1-[14C]NP dose (258 nmol) added to the perfusate. Considerably smaller quantities of aminopyrene and hydroxynitropyrenes were also detected. Livers perfused with 1-[14C]NP excreted about 36 nmol equivalents of 1-[14C]NP (12% of the total 1-NP dose) in bile after 60 min. Some of the biliary metabolites were tentatively identified as metabolites of the mercapturic acid pathway. The spectrum of biliary metabolites was qualitatively identical to that seen in bile from intact rats. Quantities of 14C covalently bound to hepatic macromolecules from perfused livers were 0.4 nmol 1-NP eq/g liver. The data from this study indicate that the liver may be an important site for metabolism of 1-NP

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent serum assay specific for the 7S domain of Collagen Type IV (P4NP 7S)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Nielsen, Mette J; Dai, Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  The present study describes the ability of a newly developed N-terminal pro-peptides of type IV collagen 7S domain (P4NP 7S) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for describing liver fibrosis. The assay applies a monoclonal antibody specific for a PIVNP 7S epitope 100...... were significantly elevated in rat with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (CCL4: 283% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared with controls, P = 0.001; BDL: 183% elevated at week 4 compared with sham, P type IV collagen...... expression in BDL rats (r = 0.49, P serum assay specific for P4NP 7S was highly related to liver fibrosis...

  17. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  18. Linear thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and melting temperature of Am-MOX and Np-MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, D.; Belin, R.C.; Manara, D.; Staicu, D.; Richaud, J.-C.; Vigier, J.-F.; Scheinost, A.C.; Somers, J.; Martin, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal properties of Np- and Am-MOX solid solutions were investigated. • Np- and Am-MOX solid solutions exhibit the same linear thermal expansion. • The thermal conductivity of Am-MOX is about 10% higher than that of Np-MOX. • The melting temperatures of Np-MOX and Am-MOX are 3020 ± 30 K and 3005 ± 30 K, respectively. - Abstract: The thermal properties of Np- and Am-MOX solid solution materials were investigated. Their linear thermal expansion, determined using high temperature X-ray diffraction from room temperature to 1973 K showed no significant difference between the Np and the Am doped MOX. The thermal conductivity of the Am-MOX is about 10% higher than that of Np-MOX. The melting temperatures of Np-MOX and Am-MOX, measured using a laser heating self crucible arrangement were 3020 ± 30 K and 3005 ± 30 K, respectively

  19. Interaction study of rice stripe virus proteins reveals a region of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) required for NP self-interaction and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-04-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), which belongs to the genus Tenuivirus, is an emergent virus problem. The RSV genome is composed of four single-strand RNAs (RNA1-RNA4) and encodes seven proteins. We investigated interactions between six of the RSV proteins by yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) assay in vitro and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in planta. Y2H identified self-interaction of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and NS3, while BiFC revealed self-interaction of NP, NS3, and NCP. To identify regions(s) and/or crucial amino acid (aa) residues required for NP self-interaction, we generated various truncated and aa substitution mutants. Y2H assay showed that the N-terminal region of NP (aa 1-56) is necessary for NP self-interaction. Further analysis with substitution mutants demonstrated that additional aa residues located at 42-47 affected their interaction with full-length NP. These results indicate that the N-terminal region (aa 1-36 and 42-47) is required for NP self-interaction. BiFC and co-localization studies showed that the region required for NP self-interaction is also required for NP localization at the nucleus. Overall, our results indicate that the N-terminal region (aa 1-47) of the NP is important for NP self-interaction and that six aa residues (42-47) are essential for both NP self-interaction and nuclear localization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaku, Tomoyuki, E-mail: takakut@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-{sup 14}C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up {sup 14}C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K{sub m} (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.

  1. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Tomoyuki; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U- 14 C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up 14 C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K m (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments

  2. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  3. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  4. Evaluation of the (n,p) and (n,np) reactions of the isotopes of titanium for ENDF/B-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magurno, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    Threshold detectors generally use elemental titanium rather than isotopically enriched samples necessitating the evaluation of all the (n,p), (n,np), and (n,d) reactions of the major contributing isotopes separately. 49 Ti and 50 Ti are not dealt with here since they are both approximately 5 percent abundant and have small cross sections. The (n,np), (n,pn) and (n,d) reactions are lumped together and called (n,np). The energy range is divided into three regions. Region I is that of threshold to 7 MeV, Region II, 7 to 12 MeV and Region III, 12 to 20 MeV

  5. Characterization of oxalate-based 237NpO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, D.T.; Burney, G.A.; Smith, P.K.; Sisson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    238 Pu, a radioisotope heat source, is produced by irradiating reactor targets containing 237 NpO 2 . The neptunium oxide is obtained by precipitating and calcining 237 Np(IV) oxalate. The effects of oxalate precipitation parameters on particle morphology and size distribution of 237 NpO 2 powder were established to provide process controls for fabricating reactor targets

  6. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Alison H., E-mail: ahharrill@uams.edu [College of Public Health, The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Eaddy, John S. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rose, Kelly [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Cullen, John M. [College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Ramanathan, Lakshmi [QPS, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu [NeuroTherapeutics Pharma, Inc., Chicago, IL 60631 (United States); Watkins, Paul B. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); LeCluyse, Edward L. [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  7. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  8. The co phylogeny reconstruction problem is NP-complete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Y; Fielder, D; Conow, C; Libeskind-Hadas, R

    2011-01-01

    The co phylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimum cost explanations of differences between historical associations. The problem arises in parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography. Existing software tools for this problem either have worst-case exponential time or use heuristics that do not guarantee optimal solutions. To date, no polynomial time optimal algorithms have been found for this problem. In this article, we prove that the problem is NP-complete, suggesting that future research on algorithms for this problem should seek better polynomial-time approximation algorithms and heuristics rather than optimal solutions.

  9. Simulation of photofission experiments at the ELI-NP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, P.; Balabanski, D.L.; Cuong, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    An extensive experimental program for the study of photofission will take place at the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, where different actinide targets will be exposed to a brilliant gamma beam to produce fission fragments. We report on the implementation within the Geant4 simulation toolkit of the photofission process, of related background processes, and of extended ionic charge parameterization. These developments are used to evaluate the production rates of photofission fragments and their release efficiency from the actinide targets.

  10. Spin isovector giant resonances in (n,p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present status of the study of spin-flip isovector giant resonances, using the (n,p) charge exchange reaction, is reviewed. After a brief history of the discovery of these giant resonances, a critical appraisal of the interpretation of the data in terms of giant resonances is given, along with some of the theoretical advances that impact on the interpretation of these data. A sampling of the results obtained for typical targets is given, followed by the interpretation of these results. A brief statement is made concerning the way forward in experimental technique for nuclear structure research using charge exchange reactions

  11. NP-hardness of the cluster minimization problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2005-10-01

    The computational complexity of the 'cluster minimization problem' is revisited (Wille and Vennik 1985 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 18 L419). It is argued that the original NP-hardness proof does not apply to pairwise potentials of physical interest, such as those that depend on the geometric distance between the particles. A geometric analogue of the original problem is formulated, and a new proof for such potentials is provided by polynomial time transformation from the independent set problem for unit disk graphs. Limitations of this formulation are pointed out, and new subproblems that bear more direct consequences to the numerical study of clusters are suggested.

  12. NP-hardness of the cluster minimization problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, Artur B

    2005-01-01

    The computational complexity of the 'cluster minimization problem' is revisited (Wille and Vennik 1985 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 18 L419). It is argued that the original NP-hardness proof does not apply to pairwise potentials of physical interest, such as those that depend on the geometric distance between the particles. A geometric analogue of the original problem is formulated, and a new proof for such potentials is provided by polynomial time transformation from the independent set problem for unit disk graphs. Limitations of this formulation are pointed out, and new subproblems that bear more direct consequences to the numerical study of clusters are suggested

  13. NP-hardness of the cluster minimization problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, Artur B [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2005-10-07

    The computational complexity of the 'cluster minimization problem' is revisited (Wille and Vennik 1985 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 18 L419). It is argued that the original NP-hardness proof does not apply to pairwise potentials of physical interest, such as those that depend on the geometric distance between the particles. A geometric analogue of the original problem is formulated, and a new proof for such potentials is provided by polynomial time transformation from the independent set problem for unit disk graphs. Limitations of this formulation are pointed out, and new subproblems that bear more direct consequences to the numerical study of clusters are suggested.

  14. Simulation of photofission experiments at the ELI-NP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, P., E-mail: paul.constantin@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Balabanski, D.L. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Cuong, P.V. [Centre of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-04-01

    An extensive experimental program for the study of photofission will take place at the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, where different actinide targets will be exposed to a brilliant gamma beam to produce fission fragments. We report on the implementation within the Geant4 simulation toolkit of the photofission process, of related background processes, and of extended ionic charge parameterization. These developments are used to evaluate the production rates of photofission fragments and their release efficiency from the actinide targets.

  15. The lesser spotted pregnant surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L C

    2017-10-19

    With more women entering surgical training, it will become more commonplace to encounter pregnant surgeons. This paper discusses the evidence for work-related risk factors as well as outlining the rights of a pregnant doctor. There are, in fact, very few real risks to pregnancy encountered as a surgeon, with the main risks involving standing or sitting for long periods and fatigue, which can be managed with support from the department. It is important for women in surgery to know that it is possible to continue their training while pregnant so they do not feel pressured into changing to a less demanding specialty or even leaving medicine entirely. It is also important for other professionals to understand the risks and choices faced by pregnant surgeons so that they can better support them in the workplace.

  16. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  17. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  18. CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...... further show that the CpNpG and CpG effects are largely uncorrelated. Our results suggest different roles of CpG and CpNpG methylation, with CpNpG methylation possibly playing a specialized role in defense against transposons and RNA viruses....

  19. Quantitative biokinetic analysis of radioactively labelled, inhaled Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wenk, Alexander; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Lungenbiologie und Erkrankungen, Netzwerk Nanopartikel und Gesundheit

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this project was the determination of the biokinetics of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP) in the whole body of healthy adult rats after NP administration to the respiratory tract - either via inhalation or instillation. We developed an own methodology to freshly synthesize and aerosolize TiO{sub 2}-NP in our lab for the use of inhalation studies. These NP underwent a detailed physical and chemical characterization providing pure polycrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2}-NP of about 20 nm (geometric standard deviation 1.6) and a specific surface area of 270 m{sup 2}/g. In addition, we developed techniques for sufficiently stable radioactive {sup 48}V labelling of the TiO{sub 2} NP. The kinetics of solubility of {sup 48}V was thoroughly determined. The methodology of quantitative biokinetics allows for a quantitative balance of the retained and excreted NP in control of the administered NP dose and provides a much more precise determination of NP fractions and concentrations of NP in organs and tissues of interest as compared to spotting biokinetics studies. Small fractions of TiO{sub 2}-NP translocate across the air-blood-barrier and accumulate in secondary target organs, soft tissue and skeleton. The amount of translocated TiO{sub 2}-NP is approximately 2% of TiO{sub 2}-NP deposited in the lungs. A prominent fraction of these translocated TiO{sub 2}-NP was found in the remainder. Smaller amounts of TiO{sub 2}-NP accumulate in secondary organs following particular kinetics. TiO{sub 2}-NP translocation was grossly accomplished within the first 2-4 hours after inhalation followed by retention in all organs and tissues studied without any detectable clearance of these biopersistent TiO{sub 2}-NP within 28 days. Therefore, our data suggest crossing of the air-blood-barrier of the lungs and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues depends on the NP material and its physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, we extrapolate that during repeated or chronic

  20. Quantitative biokinetic analysis of radioactively labelled, inhaled Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wenk, Alexander; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was the determination of the biokinetics of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NP) in the whole body of healthy adult rats after NP administration to the respiratory tract - either via inhalation or instillation. We developed an own methodology to freshly synthesize and aerosolize TiO 2 -NP in our lab for the use of inhalation studies. These NP underwent a detailed physical and chemical characterization providing pure polycrystalline anatase TiO 2 -NP of about 20 nm (geometric standard deviation 1.6) and a specific surface area of 270 m 2 /g. In addition, we developed techniques for sufficiently stable radioactive 48 V labelling of the TiO 2 NP. The kinetics of solubility of 48 V was thoroughly determined. The methodology of quantitative biokinetics allows for a quantitative balance of the retained and excreted NP in control of the administered NP dose and provides a much more precise determination of NP fractions and concentrations of NP in organs and tissues of interest as compared to spotting biokinetics studies. Small fractions of TiO 2 -NP translocate across the air-blood-barrier and accumulate in secondary target organs, soft tissue and skeleton. The amount of translocated TiO 2 -NP is approximately 2% of TiO 2 -NP deposited in the lungs. A prominent fraction of these translocated TiO 2 -NP was found in the remainder. Smaller amounts of TiO 2 -NP accumulate in secondary organs following particular kinetics. TiO 2 -NP translocation was grossly accomplished within the first 2-4 hours after inhalation followed by retention in all organs and tissues studied without any detectable clearance of these biopersistent TiO 2 -NP within 28 days. Therefore, our data suggest crossing of the air-blood-barrier of the lungs and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues depends on the NP material and its physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, we extrapolate that during repeated or chronic exposure to insoluble NP the translocated fraction of NP will

  1. The effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide on pregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A; van Pampus, M G; Aarnoudse, J G; van der Schans, C P; Abbas, F; Faas, M M

    OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis, mostly associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, has frequently been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We therefore investigated whether lipopolysaccharides of P. gingivalis (Pg-LPS) induced pregnancy complications in the rat. METHODS: Experiment 1: pregnant rats (day

  2. The ELI–NP facility for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ur, C.A.; Balabanski, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Gales, S.; Morjan, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Ursescu, D.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure–Nuclear Physics (ELI–NP) is aiming to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. The facility, currently under construction at Magurele–Bucharest, will comprise a high power laser system and a very brilliant gamma beam system. The technology involved in the construction of both systems is at the limits of the present-day’s technological capabilities. The high power laser system will consist of two 10 PW lasers and it will produce intensities of up to 10 23 –10 24 W/cm 2 . The gamma beam, produced via Compton backscattering of a laser beam on a relativistic electron beam, will be characterized by a narrow bandwidth (<0.5%) and tunable energy of up to almost 20 MeV. The research program of the facility covers a broad range of key topics in frontier fundamental physics and new nuclear physics. A particular attention is given to the development of innovative applications. In the present paper an overview of the project status and the overall performance characteristics of the main research equipment will be given. The main fundamental physics and applied research topics proposed to be studied at ELI–NP will also be briefly reviewed

  3. Ação da melatonina sobre a dinâmica sanguínea de ratas prenhes e sobre a histogênese do baço e do timo da prole The action of melatonin on the blood dynamics of pregnant rats and on the histogenesis of the spleen and thymus of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C. Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a influência da melatonina sobre o hemograma de ratas prenhes e dos filhotes e sobre a histogênese e morfometria do baço e do timo dos filhotes. A melatonina foi administrada na dose 0,5mg/kg de peso corporal, dissolvida em 0,1mL de etanol e diluída em 0,3mL de solução salina. Para análise do hematócrito, contagem total de hemácias e contagem total e diferencial dos leucócitos, amostras de sangue foram coletadas no sétimo, 14ºe 21ºdias de prenhez e aos 10 dias de nascimento dos filhotes. Cortes histológicos do baço e do timo da prole foram utilizados para histoquímica e morfometria. A ausência da melatonina promoveu alterações no hemograma apenas no terço final da gestação, sem interferir no hemograma dos filhotes, e induziu modificações morfológicas e morfométricas no timo e no baço nos primeiros dias de vida dos filhotes. Concluiu-se que a melatonina materna é importante para a modulação do hemograma em ratas prenhes e para o desenvolvimento normal do baço e do timo dos filhotes.We investigated the influence of melatonin on the hemogram of pregnant rats and puppies, and on the histogenesis and morphology of the spleen and thymus of puppies. Melatonin was administered at a dose 0.5mg/kgbody weight, dissolved in 0.1mL of ethanol and diluted in 0.3mL of saline. For hematocrit analysis, total erythrocyte count and total and differential leukocyte count, blood samples were collected on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of pregnancy and the offspring at 10 days of birth. Histological sections of spleen and thymus of the offspring were used for histochemistry and morphometry. The absence of melatonin promoted changes in blood count only in the final third of gestation, without interfering with the hemogram of the puppies, and induced morphological and morphometric changes in the thymus and spleen in the first days of life of the puppies. It was concluded that maternal melatonin is important for the modulation of

  4. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  5. Savannah River Plant 200 Area technical manual. Part SP. Processing of Np/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.J. (comp.)

    1963-01-03

    This manual covers the technology involved in the 200 Area process for the recovery of Np/sup 237/ from certain aqueous waste streams in the separations plants, for the recovery of NP/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/ from irradiated NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs and for the fabrication of NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs. The manual contains sections on the fundamental chemistry, the primary recovery of Np by ion exchange, the decontamination of Np by ion exchange, the processing of NpO/sub 2/-Al targets, the separation and purification of Np/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/, the finishing of Np, the preparation of NpO/sub 2/, the disposal of spent resin, and the safety aspects of the handling of hydrazine. The section on the fabrication of NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs will be added later. 76 refs., 22 figs.

  6. Oral exposure to low-dose of nonylphenol impairs memory performance in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Kohara, Yumi; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-02-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) is a non-ionic surfactant, that is degraded to short-chain NPE and 4-nonylphenol (NP) by bacteria in the environment. NP, one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, exhibits weak estrogen-like activity. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of NP (at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg doses) affects spatial learning and memory, general activity, emotionality, and fear-motivated learning and memory in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats of both sexes were evaluated using a battery of behavioral tests, including an appetite-motivated maze test (MAZE test) that was used to assess spatial learning and memory. In the MAZE test, the time required to reach the reward in male rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg NP group and female rats administered 5 mg/kg NP was significantly longer than that for control animals of the corresponding sex. In other behavioral tests, no significant differences were observed between the control group and either of the NP-treated groups of male rats. In female rats, inner and ambulation values for animals administered 0.5 mg/kg NP were significantly higher than those measured in control animals in open-field test, while the latency in the group treated with 5 mg/kg NP was significantly shorter compared to the control group in step-through passive avoidance test. This study indicates that oral administration of a low-dose of NP slightly impairs spatial learning and memory performance in male and female rats, and alters emotionality and fear-motivated learning and memory in female rats only.

  7. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  8. Cellular Neural Networks for NP-Hard Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ercsey-Ravasz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cellular neural/nonlinear network (CNN is used for NP-hard optimization. We prove that a CNN in which the parameters of all cells can be separately controlled is the analog correspondent of a two-dimensional Ising-type (Edwards-Anderson spin-glass system. Using the properties of CNN, we show that one single operation (template always yields a local minimum of the spin-glass energy function. This way, a very fast optimization method, similar to simulated annealing, can be built. Estimating the simulation time needed on CNN-based computers, and comparing it with the time needed on normal digital computers using the simulated annealing algorithm, the results are astonishing. CNN computers could be faster than digital computers already at 10×10 lattice sizes. The local control of the template parameters was already partially realized on some of the hardwares, we think this study could further motivate their development in this direction.

  9. np Elastic-scattering experiments with polarized neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, J.S.; Ditzler, W.R.; Hill, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the spin transfer parameters, K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/, at 500, 650, and 800 MeV are presented for the reaction p-vector d → n-vector pp at 0 0 . The data are useful input to the NN data base and indicate that the quasi-free charge exchange (CEX) reaction is a useful mechanism for producing neutrons with at least 40% polarization at energies as low as 500 MeV. Measurements of np elastic scattering observables C/sub LL/ and C/sub SL/ covering 35 0 to 172 0 are performed using a polarized neutron beam at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Preliminary results are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs

  10. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, François

    2011-05-01

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  11. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  12. Interaction of Np(4) and Pu(4) with diisoamylphosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokhina, L.P.; Rovnyj, S.I.; Goncharuk, L.V.; Sladkova, M.V.; Tyumentseva, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Interaction of neptunium (4) and plutonium (4) with diisoamylphosphoric acid (HD) in nitric acid solutions is investigated. It is ascertained that depending on mole ratio of HD and Np(Pu) in solution three types of compounds: Me (NO 3 ) 2 D 2 , Me(NO 3 ) 2 D 2 ·2HD and Me(NO 3 ) 2 D 2 ·4HD, are formed. The solubility of neptunium (plutonium) diisoamylphosphates in nitric acid, oxalate, carbonate and organic solutions, is determined. The possibility of the compound depositions in the extraction equipment should be taken into account in the process of spent fuel regeneration, when 30% HD solutions in n-paraffins are used as extractants

  13. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  14. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  15. Solubility and hydrolysis of Np(V) in dilute to concentrated alkaline NaCl solutions. Formation of Na-Np(V)-OH solid phases at 22 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Vladimir G. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Fellhauer, David; Gaona, Xavier; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Joerg; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    The solubility of Np(V) was investigated at T=22±2 C in alkaline NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.1-5.0 M). The solid phases controlling the solubility at different -log{sub 10} m{sub H{sup +}}(pH{sub m}) and NaCl concentration were characterized by XRD, quantitative chemical analysis, SEM-EDS and XAFS (both XANES and EXAFS). Aqueous phases in equilibrium with Np(V) solids were investigated for selected samples within 8.9≤pH{sub m}≤10.3 by UV-vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy. In 0.1 M NaCl, the experimental solubility of the initial greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) solid phase is in good agreement with previous results obtained in NaClO{sub 4} solutions, and is consistent with model calculations for fresh NpO{sub 2}OH(am) using the thermodynamic data selection in NEA-TDB. Below pH{sub m}∝11.5 and for all NaCl concentrations studied, Np concentration in equilibrium with the solid phase remained constant during the timeframe of this study (∝2 years). This observation is in contrast to the aging of the initial NpO{sub 2}OH(am) into a more crystalline modification with the same stoichiometry, NpO{sub 2}OH(am, aged), as reported in previous studies for concentrated NaClO{sub 4} and NaCl. Instead, the greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) transforms into a white solid phase in those systems with [NaCl]≥1.0 M and pH{sub m}≥11.5, and into two different pinkish phases above pH{sub m}∝13.2. The solid phase transformation is accompanied by a drop in Np solubility of 0.5-2 log{sub 10}-units (depending upon NaCl concentration). XANES analyses of green, white and pink phases confirm the predominance of Np(V) in all cases. Quantitative chemical analysis shows the incorporation of Na{sup +} in the original NpO{sub 2}OH(am) material, with Na:Np ≤ 0.3 for the greenish solids and 0.8 ≤ Na:Np ≤ 1.6 for the white and pinkish phases. XRD data confirms the amorphous character of the greenish phase, whereas white and pink solids show well-defined but discrepant XRD patterns

  16. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters (A, B, C), with each group having a control and a treated subgroup. The Control Groups (A1, B1, ... offspring of tobacco smokers. Keywords: Cortex, Histology, Prenatal nicotine, Adolescent rats, Neurological abnormalities ...

  17. Angiogenesis inhibition causes hypertension and placental dysfunction in a rat model of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wentzel, Parri; Skøtt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    in the mesometrial triangle was smaller in the pregnant Suramin-treated rats group than in the pregnant control rats group. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of uterine angiogenesis increases maternal blood pressure and compromises fetal and placental development. Placental hypoxia and subsequent activation of the renin...

  18. Risk and the pregnant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Harris, Lisa H; Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it's time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don't work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence.

  19. Guidance for Thyroid Assays in Pregnant Animals, Fetuses and Postnatal Animals, and Adult Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study may be done in place of a rat DNT study for thyroid disrupting chemicals. This special study is intended to provide LOAEL or NOAEL to derive RfDs to be protective of thyroid development in pregnant women, fetuses or newborns.

  20. Montecarlo calculation of the isomeric cross sections ratio for the reaction 237Np(n,2n)236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleri, F.

    1988-01-01

    A Montecarlo calculation of the isomeric cross section ratio for the (n,2n) reaction on 237 Np has been carried out based on the Hauser-Feshbach formulation. A standard energy-dependent optical model potential was used, with zero deformation parameters and no spin-orbit coupling. Investigation was made about the role of the energy cut-off value, of the higher multipole (E2) transition, of the gamma-ray versus second neutron emission, of the value of the spin cutt-off parameter. The results give the correct qualitative energy dependence of the branching ratio, with the assumption that the 1 - level is the ground state. The spin cut-off value obtained indicates a less pronounced deviation of the nuclear moment of inertia from the rigid-body value, with respect to older evaluations for high-mass nuclei. (author)

  1. The (n,p) reaction as a probe of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.P.; Celler, A.

    1988-08-01

    An account is given of some results of studies of the (n,p) reaction on nuclear targets at TRIUMF. The (n,p) reaction, inducing spin flip transitions in isospin space, appears to exhibit a unique sensitivity to certain aspects of nuclear structure. The TRIUMF facility is the first to exploit the (n,p) reaction as a detailed probe of nuclear structure at energies above 65 MeV. In the (n,p) reaction Fermi transitions are absent, but there is a dramatic impact on Gamow-Teller and other collective transactions. Some nuclear transition matrix elements can be estimated on the basis of (n,p) measurements. Experiments have been carried out at TRIUMF on Li 6 , Fe 5 4, and Zr 9 0 targets. The calibration of the (n,p) reaction as a probe of the Gamow-Teller strength B + GT has been achieved for three targets. (L.L.) (45 refs., 10 figs.)

  2. ΔNp63 mediates cellular survival and metastasis in canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Maren; Gardner, Heather L; Roberts, Ryan D; Fenger, Joelle M; Guttridge, Denis C; London, Cheryl A; Cam, Hakan

    2016-07-26

    p63 is a structural homolog within the 53 family encoding two isoforms, ΔNp63 and TAp63. The oncogenic activity of ΔNp63 has been demonstrated in multiple cancers, however the underlying mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis are poorly characterized. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor in dogs, exhibiting clinical behavior and molecular biology essentially identical to its human counterpart. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of ΔNp63 to the biology of canine OSA. As demonstrated by qRT-PCR, nearly all canine OSA cell lines and tissues overexpressed ΔNp63 relative to normal control osteoblasts. Inhibition of ΔNp63 by RNAi selectively induced apoptosis in the OSA cell lines overexpressing ΔNp63. Knockdown of ΔNp63 upregulated expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Puma and Noxa independent of p53. However the effects of ΔNp63 required transactivating isoforms of p73, suggesting that ΔNp63 promotes survival in OSA by repressing p73-dependent apoptosis. In addition, ΔNp63 modulated angiogenesis and invasion through its effects on VEGF-A and IL-8 expression, and STAT3 phosphorylation. Lastly, the capacity of canine OSA cell lines to form pulmonary metastasis was directly related to expression levels of ΔNp63 in a murine model of metastatic OSA. Together, these data demonstrate that ΔNp63 inhibits apoptosis and promotes metastasis, supporting continued evaluation of this oncogene as a therapeutic target in both human and canine OSA.

  3. ΔNp73 enhances promoter activity of TGF-β induced genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Niemantsverdriet

    Full Text Available The p53 homolog p73 is frequently overexpressed in cancers. Especially the transactivation domain truncated isoform ΔNp73 has oncogenic properties and its upregulation is associated with poor patient survival. It has been shown that ΔNp73 has an inhibitory effect on the transactivation capacity of p53 and other p73 isoforms. Here, we confirm this finding but surprisingly find that ΔNp73 may also stimulate the expression of TGF-β signaling targets. Promoter-reporter analysis indicated that the presence of Smad Binding Elements (SBE in the promoter is sufficient for stimulation of gene expression by ΔNp73. TGF-β signaling was less efficient in ΔNp73 downregulated cells, whereas tetracycline induced ΔNp73 increased expression of endogenous TGF-β regulated genes PAI-1 and Col1a1. Pull-down assays with SBE DNA suggest that ΔNp73 enhances smad3/4 binding to SBEs, thereby stimulating TGF-β signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed a direct interaction between ΔNp73 and SBE. Given the role of TGF-β signaling in carcinogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis via targets like PAI-1 and Col1a1, our data suggest a model on how this effect of ΔNp73 could be a contributing factor in cancer progression.

  4. Perspectives for photonuclear research at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipescu, D.; Balabanski, D.L.; Constantin, P.; Gales, S.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C.A.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N.V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Anzalone, A.; La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Belyshev, S.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation); Camera, F. [Departement of Physics, University of Milano, Milano (Italy); INFN section of Milano, Milano (Italy); Csige, L.; Krasznahorkay, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Institute of Nuclear Research, Post Office Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Cuong, P.V. [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Centre of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Physics, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Mazzocchi, C. [University of Warsaw, Warszawa (Poland); Derya, V.; Zilges, A. [University of Cologne, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Gai, M. [University of Connecticut, LNS at Avery Point, Connecticut, Groton (United States); Gheorghe, I. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Nuclear Physics Department, Post Office Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ishkhanov, B.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, A.A.; Orlin, V.N.; Stopani, K.A.; Varlamov, V.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Institut fur Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Sin, M. [University of Bucharest, Nuclear Physics Department, Post Office Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Konan University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan); University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Saitama (Japan); Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, North Carolina, Durham (United States); Duke University, Department of Physics, North Carolina, Durham (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The perspectives for photonuclear experiments at the new Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility are discussed in view of the need to accumulate novel and more precise nuclear data. The parameters of the ELI-NP gamma beam system are presented. The emerging experimental program, which will be realized at ELI-NP, is presented. Examples of day-one experiments with the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique, photonuclear reaction measurements, photofission experiments and studies of nuclear collective excitation modes and competition between various decay channels are discussed. The advantages which ELI-NP provides for all these experiments compared to the existing facilities are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  6. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  7. Purification and biochemical characterization of NpABCG5/NpPDR5, a plant pleiotropic drug resistance transporter expressed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Frédéric; Pierman, Baptiste; Bertin, Aurélie; Lévy, Daniel; Boutry, Marc

    2017-05-04

    Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters belong to the ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and are involved in the transport of various molecules across plasma membranes. During evolution, PDR genes appeared independently in fungi and in plants from a duplication of a half-size ABC gene. The enzymatic properties of purified PDR transporters from yeast have been characterized. This is not the case for any plant PDR transporter, or, incidentally, for any purified plant ABC transporter. Yet, plant PDR transporters play important roles in plant physiology such as hormone signaling or resistance to pathogens or herbivores. Here, we describe the expression, purification, enzymatic characterization and 2D analysis by electron microscopy of NpABCG5/NpPDR5 from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , which has been shown to be involved in the plant defense against herbivores. We constitutively expressed NpABCG5/NpPDR5, provided with a His-tag in a homologous system: suspension cells from Nicotiana tabacum (Bright Yellow 2 line). NpABCG5/NpPDR5 was targeted to the plasma membrane and was solubilized by dodecyl maltoside and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The ATP-hydrolyzing specific activity (27 nmol min -1  mg -1 ) was stimulated seven-fold in the presence of 0.1% asolectin. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that NpABCG5/NpPDR5 is monomeric and with dimensions shorter than those of known ABC transporters. Enzymatic data (optimal pH and sensitivity to inhibitors) confirmed that plant and fungal PDR transporters have different properties. These data also show that N. tabacum suspension cells are a convenient host for the purification and biochemical characterization of ABC transporters. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Photoemission study of Kr 3d→np autoionization resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Heimann, P.A.; Ferrett, T.A.; Piancastelli, M.N.; Shirley, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Resonant photoelectron spectra of Kr have been taken in the photon-energy ranges of the 3d/sub 5/2/→5p,6p and 3d/sub 3/2/→5p excitations. The spectra, which closely resemble normal Kr + 3d/sup -1/ Auger spectra, illustrate the importance of ''spectator'' Auger-like decay for inner-shell resonances, in which the initially excited electron does not participate in the core-hole deexcitation process, except to respond to the change in the atomic potential. Possible assignments for some of the spectator decay channels are discussed based on photoemission intensity measurements at the different 3d resonances. These assignments suggest that shake-up (e.g., 5p→6p) of the ''spectator'' electron during the decay process is not quite as important as previously suspected. The resonance profiles of some of the more intense satellites have been determined over the 3d→np resonances. Very small resonance effects also were observed in the partial cross section for 4p subshell ionization, which produced asymmetric Fano-type profiles. The 4p angular distribution, in contrast, exhibits a pronounced effect in the resonance energy range. The 4p results demonstrate that nonspectator autoionization also is present

  9. PA and NP productivity in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Eileen A; Basa, Edesha; Gao, Jian; Woodmansee, Denni; Almenoff, Peter L; Hooker, Roderick S

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the 2014 clinical productivity of 5,959 physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) in the US Department of Veterans Affairs' Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Total work relative value units divided by the direct clinical full-time equivalent measured annual productivity, and correlated factors were examined using weighted analysis of variance. PAs and NPs in adult primary care roles were more productive than those in other specialties. Both providers were more productive in rural than in nonrural settings and less productive in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Men were slightly more productive than women but age and years of VHA employment were not correlates of productivity. PAs were more productive when their scope of practice allowed significant autonomy; NP productivity was unaffected by supervisory requirements. PAs and NPs are an important component of the VHA provider workforce, and their productivity correlates with a number of factors. More organizational research is necessary to better understand the contributing roles PAs and NPs provide in a rapidly evolving, vertically integrated, national health delivery system.

  10. Coulex fission of 234U, 235U, 237Np, and 238Np studied within the SOFIA experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona

    2014-01-01

    SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin) is an experimental project which aims at systematically measuring the fission fragments' isotopic yields as well as their total kinetic energy, for a wide variety of fissioning nuclei. The PhD work presented in this dissertation takes part in the SOFIA project, and covers the fission of nuclei in the region of the actinides: 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np and 238 Np. The experiment is led at the heavy-ion accelerator GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. This facility provides intense relativistic primary beam of 238 U. A fragmentation reaction of the primary beam permits to create a secondary beam of radioactive ions, some of which the fission is studied. The ions of the secondary beam are sorted and identified through the FR-S (Fragment Separator), a high resolution recoil spectrometer which is tuned to select the ions of interest.The selected - fissile - ions then fly further to Cave-C, an experimental area where the fission experiment itself takes place. At the entrance of the cave, the secondary beam is excited by Coulomb interaction when flying through an target; the de-excitation process involves low-energy fission. Both fission fragments fly forward in the laboratory frame, due to the relativistic boost inferred from the fissioning nucleus.A complete recoil spectrometer has been designed and built by the SOFIA collaboration in the path of the fission fragments, around the existing ALADIN magnet. The identification of the fragments is performed by means of energy loss, time of flight and deviation in the magnet measurements. Both fission fragments are fully (in mass and charge) and simultaneously identified.This document reports on the analysis performed for (1) the identification of the fissioning system, (2) the identification of both fission fragments, on an event-by-event basis, and (3) the extraction of fission observables: yields, TKE, total prompt neutron multiplicity. These results, concerning the actinides, are discussed, and

  11. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  12. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Oliver, Yolanda; Giuliano, Chiara; Economidou, Daina; Goodlett, Charles R; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Everitt, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  13. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peña-Oliver

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  14. Cardiovascular responses to the change from the left lateral to the upright position in pregnant hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, R A; Anthony, J; Ledeboer, Q; James, M F

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate by non-invasive means, the autonomically mediated changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to postural change in pregnancy. Ninety-one patients were studied, of whom 17 were non-pregnant controls, 21 were normotensive parturients, 22 had non-proteinuric hypertension, and 31 were pre-eclamptics. In all patients the heart rate and blood pressure response to the change from the left lateral to the erect position was measured non-invasively, during the third trimester in the pregnant groups. The change from the left lateral to the erect position induced significantly greater mean changes (increases) in systolic blood pressure in the normotensive pregnant (PC) women than all other groups (Pchanges when comparing the PC, NP and H groups. The PE group exhibited a significantly greater increase in heart rate on adopting the erect position than all other groups. Pre-eclamptics exhibit smaller changes in blood pressure than normotensive pregnant patients and non-proteinuric hypertensives on standing, while producing an exaggerated heart rate response, indicating altered autonomic compensatory mechanisms in these patients.

  15. miRNA signatures can predict acute liver failure in hepatitis E infected pregnant females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupma Trehanpati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute viral hepatitis E (AVH-E can often result in acute liver failure (ALF during pregnancy. microRNAs serve as mediators in drug induced liver failure. We investigated their role as a biomarker in predicting ALF due to HEV (ALF-E. Methods: We performed next generation sequencing and subsequent validation studies in PBMCs of pregnant (P self limiting AVH-E, ALF due to HEV (ALF-E and compared with AVH-E in non-pregnant (NP females and healthy controls. Findings: Eleven microRNAs were significantly expressed in response to HEV infection; importantly, miR- 431, 654, 1468 and 4435, were distinctly expressed in pregnant self-limiting AVH-E and healthy females (p = 0.0005, but not in ALF-E. Sixteen exclusive microRNAs differentiated ALF-E from self limiting AVH-E in pregnant females. miR-450b which affects cellular proliferation and metabolic processes through RNF20 and SECB was predominanlty upregulated and correlated with poor outcome (ROC 0.958, p = 0.001. Interpretation: Our results reveal that a specific microRNA profile can predict fatality in ALF-E in pregnancy. These microRNAs could be exploited as prognostic biomarkers and help in the development of new therapeutic interventions. Keywords: Health sciences, Virology

  16. Antibacterial ethylene propylene rubber impregnated with silver nanopowder: AgNP@EPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Miranzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following our interest in reaching for a molded rubber article with possible detergent contact applications, durable silver nanopowder (AgNP is synthesized by arc discharge, then mixed with varying ratios of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR, affording novel AgNP@EPR nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of AgNP as well as AgNP@EPR show no trace of impurity, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicates an average diameter of 50 nm for the former. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images while confirm the SEM results, show quite a few 5 nm AgNP particles lying beside some micro crumbs. Our DC arc discharge technique involves explosion of movable silver anode and static cathode by a current pulse between 5 to 10 A cm-2. A solution blending method is employed for preparation of AgNP@EPR nanocomposites. The AgNP is first dispersed in toluene using an ultrasonic homogenizer, and then thoroughly mixed with EPR in the same solvent whose removal gives nanocomposites of 2, 4, 6 and 8 vol% AgNP in EPR,  showing strong antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Chemical approaches to understanding the environmental behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: speciation behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc; thermodynamic and radiochemical behavior; sorption studies with soils; Pu oxidation states in fresh water; Np oxidation states in soils; effect of oxidation state of Tc on environmental transport predictions; and thermodynamic calculations of Tc speciation

  18. siRNAs targeting PB2 and NP genes potentially inhibit replication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    % and has caused the death or culling of millions of poultry since 2003. In this study, we have designed three siRNAs (PB2-2235, PB2-479 and NP-865) targeting PB2 and NP genes of avian influenza virus and evaluated their potential, ...

  19. Preparation of /sup 237/Np samples by electrodeposition and its determination by alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertzig, W; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method followed by alpha spectrometry was developed for the determination of trace amounts of actinides. A technique for quantitative electrodeposition of /sup 237/Np, under optimal conditions, using a carrier, is presented. This method will be applied for the control of trace amounts of /sup 237/Np in the solutions from the reprocessing (Purex process) of irradiated uranium.

  20. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Kirchdoerfer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP, a phosphoprotein (VP35 and a polymerase (L. However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis.

  1. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Moyer, Crystal L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps)

    2016-10-18

    Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis.

  2. Analysis of nuclear accumulation of influenza NP antigen in von Magnus virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, K; Aoki, H; Hamaguchi, M; Iinuma, M; Nagai, Y; Matsumoto, T; Takeura, S; Shibata, M

    1981-01-01

    When 1-5C-4 cells were infected with von Magnus virus derived from influenza A/RI/5+ virus by successive undiluted passages in chick embryos, virus-specific proteins were synthesized but production of infectious virus was inhibited. In these cells the synthesis of viral RNA was suppressed and the nucleoprotein (NP) antigen was found predominantly in the nucleus in contrast to standard virus-infected cells in which the antigen was distributed throughout the whole cell. The intracellular location and migration of NP were determined by isotope labeling and sucrose gradient centrifugation of subcellular fractions. In standard virus-infected cell NP polypeptide was present predominantly in the cytoplasm in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and intranuclear RNP was detected in reduced amounts. In contrast, in von Magnus virus-infected cells NP polypeptide was present predominantly in the nucleus in a nonassembled, soluble from and the amount of cytoplasmic RNP was considerably reduced. After short-pulse labeling NP was detected exclusively in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and after a chase a large proportion of such soluble NP was seen in the nucleus. It is suggested that a large proportion of the NP synthesized in von Magnus virus-infected cells in not assembled into cytoplasmic RNP because of the lack of available RNA and the NP migrated into the nucleus and remained there.

  3. Cloning and expression of the recombinant NP24I protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... protein from tomato fruit and study of its antimicrobial ... the recombinant NP24, as well as to prove the activity of native protein on the bacterial as well as fungal .... The antifungal effect of the recombinant NP24I protein was.

  4. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  5. Distribution of global fallout 237Np, Pu isotopes, and 241Am in lake and sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Y.; Chatani, K.; Komura, K.; Ueno, Kaoru; Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the sedimentary behaviour of neptunium, 237 Np together with Pu isotopes and 241 Am were measured for the sediment cores collected from Lake Mikata (freshwater), from Lake Kugushi (brakish water) and from Nyu Bay (sea water). In all sediment core samples 237 Np was detected, and its concentrations were far below those of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am measured for the same samples. Inventories of 237 Np in the lakes were estimated to be 0.53, 0.29 and 0.34 MBq/km 2 , respectively. The activity ratios of 237 Np/ 239,240 Pu, except for Lake Mikata, are two or three times lower than the value of 0.3-0.4% observed for surface soils of 0-20 cm depth, suggesting that Np is more soluble compared with Pu. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang; Yao, Linlin; Li, Jiale; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang; Evalde, Mulindankaka

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO 2 ) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (K oc ) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength. - Highlights: • Both surface and intra-particle diffusion were rate-controlling processes. • Soil composition influences the partition activity of NP. • Soil organic matter has dominated the sorption capacity of NP on soil. • NP molecule was limited to migrate to deep soil in sewage-irrigated area

  7. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  8. Effect of the oral administration of monosodium glutamate during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the offspring of pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da administração de glutamato monossódico durante a gestação e amamentação na prole de ratas Wistar prenhes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius von Diemen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Determine the effects of the MSG (monosodium glutamate in the offspring of pregnant rats through the comparison of the weight, NAL (nasal-anal length and IL (Index of Lee at birth and with 21 days of life. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring were divided into 3 groups: GC, G10 and G20. Each of the groups received 0%, 10% and 20% of MSG, respectively from coupling until the end of the weaning period. RESULTS: Neither weight nor NAL were different among the groups at birth. The group G20 at birth had an IL lower than the group GC (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do glutamato monossódico (GMS nos fetos de ratas prenhes por meio da comparação do peso, comprimento nasal-anal (CNA e índice de Lee (IL ao nascimento e com 21 dias de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas ratas prenhes da linhagem Wistar distribuídas em três grupos: grupo controle (GC, G10 e G20. Estes, respectivamente, foram alimentados com ração contendo 0, 10 e 20% de GMS desde o período de acasalamento até o final da amamentação. RESULTADOS: O peso e o CNA não foram diferentes entre os grupos ao nascimento. O grupo G20, ao nascimento, teve IL menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,05 e, aos 21 dias de vida, apresentou peso e CNA menores que o grupo G10, o qual foi menor que o GC (p < 0,01. O grupo G20, aos 21 dias de vida, teve IL semelhante aos outros dois grupos. O percentual de ganho de peso do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida foi menor no G20 em relação aos outros dois grupos (p < 0,01. O grupo G20 teve percentual de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida menor que o grupo G10, e este menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÕES: O GMS nas concentrações de 10 e 20% na ração de ratas prenhes Wistar apresentou uma relação dose-dependente nas variáveis peso e CNA. Houve diminuição no padrão de ganho de peso e de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida com uso de GMS. O IL na prole do grupo G20 aumentou em relação ao do grupo GC após 3

  9. Role of melatonin in mitigating nonylphenol-induced toxicity in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Ashafaq, Mohammad; Parvez, Suhel; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2017-03-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), an environmental endocrine disruptor mimics estrogen and is a potential toxicant both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In this study, the effect of melatonin on NP- induced neurotoxicity and cognitive alteration was investigated in adult male Wistar rats. Melatonin supplementation has been known to protect cells from neurotoxic injury. The animals were divided into three groups namely, control (vehicle) which received olive oil orally and treated rats received NP (25 mg/kg, per os) thrice a week for 45 days while the third group i.e., NP + melatonin, animals were co-administered melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) along with NP. On the 46th day, rats were assessed for anxiety, motor co-ordination, grip strength and cognitive performance using Morris water maze test and then sacrificed for biochemical and histopathological assays in brain tissues. Melatonin improved the behavioral performance in NP exposed group. The results showed that NP significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE), monoamine oxidase (MAO) and Na + /K + -ATPase, in rat brain tissue along with other enzymes of antioxidant milieu. The outcome of the study shows that NP, like other persistent endocrine disrupting pollutants, creates a potential risk of cognitive, neurochemical and histopathological perturbations as a result of environmental exposure. Taken together, our study demonstrates that melatonin is protective against NP-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Pa(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, R.H.; Edelstein, N.M.

    1979-12-01

    The actinide borohydrides of Pa, Np, and Pu have been prepared and some of their physical and optical properties measured. X-ray powder diffraction photographs of Pa(BH 4 ) 4 have shown that it is isostructural to Th(BH 4 ) 4 and U(BH 4 ) 4 . Np(BH 4 ) 4 and Pu(BH 4 ) 4 are much more volatile than the borohydrides of Th, Pa, and U and are liquids at room temperature. Results from low-temperature single-crystal x-ray diffraction investigation of Np(BH 4 ) 4 show that its structure is very similar to Zr(BH 4 ) 4 . With the data from low-temperature infrared and Raman spectra, a normal coordinate analysis on Np(BH 4 ) 4 and Np(BD 4 ) 4 has been completed. EPR experiments on Np(BH 4 ) 4 /Zr(BH 4 ) 4 and Np(BD 4 ) 4 /Zr(BD 4 ) 4 have characterized the ground electronic state. 5 figures

  12. Toxicity of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) on human monocytes and their mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbary, Fatemeh; Seydi, Enaytollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The effect of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NP) in human monocytes is still unknown. Therefore, an understanding of probable cytotoxicity of TiO 2 -NP on human monocytes and underlining the mechanisms involved is of significant interest. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of TiO 2 -NP on human monocytes. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of TiO 2 -NP at 10 μg/ml concentration to monocytes induced cytotoxicity following 12 h. The TiO 2 -NP-induced cytotoxicity on monocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, TiO 2 -NP triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in monocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally, our findings suggest that use of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with TiO 2 -NP.

  13. SERS-barcoded colloidal gold NP assemblies as imaging agents for use in biodiagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Priyanka; Olds, William; Blakey, Idriss; Thurecht, Kristofer J.; Izake, Emad L.; Fredericks, Peter M.

    2014-03-01

    There is a growing need for new biodiagnostics that combine high throughput with enhanced spatial resolution and sensitivity. Gold nanoparticle (NP) assemblies with sub-10 nm particle spacing have the benefits of improving detection sensitivity via Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and being of potential use in biomedicine due to their colloidal stability. A promising and versatile approach to form solution-stable NP assemblies involves the use of multi-branched molecular linkers which allows tailoring of the assembly size, hot-spot density and interparticle distance. We have shown that linkers with multiple anchoring end-groups can be successfully employed as a linker to assemble gold NPs into dimers, linear NP chains and clustered NP assemblies. These NP assemblies with diameters of 30-120 nm are stable in solution and perform better as SERS substrates compared with single gold NPs, due to an increased hot-spot density. Thus, tailored gold NP assemblies are potential candidates for use as biomedical imaging agents. We observed that the hot-spot density and in-turn the SERS enhancement is a function of the linker polymer concentration and polymer architecture. New deep Raman techniques like Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) have emerged that allow detection from beneath diffusely scattering opaque materials, including biological media such as animal tissue. We have been able to demonstrate that the gold NP assemblies could be detected from within both proteinaceous and high lipid containing animal tissue by employing a SORS technique with a backscattered geometry.

  14. New radiochemical methods for determination of 237Np a 241Pu using extraction chromatography (Presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thesis was focused on the development of a new methodology for the separation of anthropogenic transuranium radionuclides 237 Np a 241 Pu from different kinds of matrices. The analytical methods used in this study were based on extraction chromatography and were optimized according to the sample type. The proposed radiochemical procedure is a combination of two algorithms, which represent the separation of radionuclides by using extraction chromatographic sorbents TEVA resin and TRU resin supplied by Eichrom Technologies LLC. 239 Np a 237 Np were selectively captured on sorbent TEVA resin in oxidation state 4+. TRU resin was used for purification of plutonium fraction from interfering americium radionuclide. 242 Pu and 239 Np radionuclides as tracers have been used to monitor the radiochemical yields of separation. Before every radiochemical separation tracer radionuclide 239 Np was obtained by separation from the parent radionuclide 2 43 Am, which is in radioactive equilibrium to 239 Np. The average yield of chemical separation was 69,3% for 239 Np at 277 keV energy line and 65,9% at 228 keV energy line. The NPL AH-B08069 (2008) samples which consist of the mixture of alpha-radionuclides were used for the modification and optimization of separation method used for separation of Np and Pu in model samples. This method provided high radiochemical yields of 239,240 Pu (95,0 ± 3,5)% and 237 Np (87,9 ± 3,0)%.. Reliability of the method was verified by applying our modified separation procedures on reference materials IAEA-375 and IAEA-414 supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency. A good agreement between the results is obtained by this procedure and the certified values were found. Samples of contaminated soils from the area of Nuclear power plant A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice which is stored temporarily before disposal were analyzed using developed separation procedure. Specific activity of investigated radionuclides was determined in these samples. (author)

  15. Superior antibacterial activity of GlcN-AuNP-GO by ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraju, Saravanan; Samal, Monica; Yun, Kyusik, E-mail: ykyusik@gachon.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    A complete bacterialysis analysis of glucosamine-gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide (GlcN-AuNP-GO) and UV-irradiated GlcN-AuNP-GO was conducted. Analytical characterization of GlcN-AuNPs, GO and GlcN-AuNP-GO revealed UV-Vis absorbance peak at around 230 and 500 nm. Microscopic characterization of prepared nanomaterials was performed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. The results confirmed that the GlcN-AuNPs were uniformly decorated on the surface and edges of graphene sheets. In addition, potent antibacterial activity of GlcN-AuNP-GO that was UV irradiated for 10 min and normal GlcN-AuNP-GO was detected, compared to the standard drug kanamycin, against both Gram-negative and positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fluorescence intensity spectra results for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis showed that the UV-irradiated GlcN-AuNP-GO has better antibacterial activity than normal GlcN-AuNP-GO and kanamycin. Morphological changes were detected by AFM after treatment. These results confirmed that GlcN-AuNP-GO is a potent antibacterial agent with good potential for use in manufacturing medical instruments, pharmaceutical industries and in waste water treatment. - Highlights: • Glucosamine-gold nanoaprticle-graphene oxide (GlcN-AuNPs-GO) was synthesized. • Analytical and morphological characterizations were revealed. • UV irradiated GlcN-AuNP-GO has provide better antibacterial activity. • Morphological changes of before and after treating bacterial strains were imaged.

  16. Kinetic of the reduction of neptunium by hydrazine. Pt. 5. Reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) in nitric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltunov, V S; Tikhonov, M F; Shapovalov, M P

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between Np(V) and N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ in solutions of HNO/sub 3/+NaNO/sub 3/ was studied by a spectrophotometric method and an ionic strength ..mu..=4 in a broad range of N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ concentrations (0.01-1 M) at the temperatures 80 and 96/sup 0/C. It was shown that the order of the reaction with respect to Np(V) depends on the concentration of N/sub 2/H/sub 4/. At a low concentration (0.01-0.02 M), the reaction is second order with respect to Np(V), and its mechanism includes a slow step of disproportionation of NpO/sub 2//sup +/ ions. At a high concentration of N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ (1 M) the reaction is zero order with respect to Np(V), and its mechanism consists of the slow step of oxidation of N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ by nitric acid (by NO/sub 2//sup +/ ions) and the rapid steps of oxidation of the N/sub 2/H/sub 2/ radicals formed by NpO/sub 2//sup +/ ions and dimerization of radicals. A general kinetic equation was obtained for the reaction. Its parameters were determined with an electronic computer according to the results of experiments at ..mu..=4 and 90/sup 0/C: k/sub 2/=0.158+-0.017 M/sup -3/.min/sup -1/; k=(6.26+-1.79).10/sup -5/ M/sup -2/.min/sup -1/; K=(8.9+-39).10/sup -8/ M/sup -1/, and n=1.8+-0.4. The equation corresponds to the mechanism of the reaction.

  17. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  18. Conversion-electron experiment to characterize the decay of the 237Np shape isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Becker, J.A.; Bauer, R.W.; Gardner, D.G.; Decman, D.J.; Meyer, R.A.; Roy, N.; Sale, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Conversion electrons from the decay of low-lying levels of 237 Np have been measured to detect the population of these levels by gamma-ray decay of the 237 Np shape isomer. Analysis of the 208-keV transition L conversion-electron peak gives an upper limit of about 17 μb for the population of the 3/2 - 267-keV level in 237 Np from the shape isomer decay. Model calculations are compared with the measured limit. Improvements are suggested for this experiment. 9 refs., 4 figs

  19. Interference effects in Auger spectra at the 3d9np resonances in Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, B M; Demekhin, Ph V; Sukhorukov, V L; Ehresmann, A; Schmoranzer, H

    2003-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for the population of the Kr II 4p 4 np states when the exciting-photon energy corresponds to the first four 3d 9 np resonances were calculated beyond the two-step model for the first time. Good agreement between computed and measured photoionization cross sections proves the importance of taking into account the interference between different resonance channels in understanding the dynamics of the Auger decay of the Kr I 3d 9 np resonances. (letter to the editor)

  20. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in (α,np) reactions on 128,130Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Sankaracharyulu, M.G.V.; Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    1992-02-01

    Excitation functions for the reactions 128 Te(α,np) 130 I, 130 Te(α,np) 132 I and 130 Te(α,np) 132m I have been measured using stacked foil technique and have also been calculated using statistical model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission. As expected, inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission in compound nucleus calculations agree well with the experimental excitation functions. The pre-equilibrium fraction has been found to be energy and target mass number dependent. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Optical Absorption, Stability and Structure of NpO2+ Complexes with Dicarboxylic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guoxin Tian; Linfeng Rao

    2006-01-01

    Complexation of NpO2+ with oxalic acid (OX),2,2'-oxydiacetic acid (ODA), 2,2'-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and 2,2'-thiodiacetic acid (TDA), has been studied using spectrophotometry in1 M NaClO4. Both the position and the intensity of the absorption band of NpO2+ at 980 nm are affected by the formation of NpO2+/dicarboxylate complexes, providing useful information on the complexation strength, the coordination mode and the structure of the complexes

  2. Determination of the Np(IV)-Np(III) normal potential in fused LiCl-CsCl (55-45%) by absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysy, R.; Duyckaerts, G.

    1977-01-01

    The following reaction Np 4+ + 1/2 H 2 + Cl - reversible Np 3+ + HCl has been studied quantitatively in fused LiCl-CsCl (55-45 mol %) in the temperature range of 450-600 0 C, by visible and near IR absorption spectrophotometry. At 450 deg C, the equilibrium constant equals K = 7.4 atmsup(1/2). The mean values of ΔH and ΔS in the temperature range of 450-600 deg C are: ΔH = (35.6+-10.3) kJ mol -1 , ΔS=(65.5+-13.0)J mol -1 K -1 [fr

  3. [Effect of pregnancy and lactation on the nutritional status of essential fatty acids in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, J; Barriga, C

    1996-08-01

    Pregnancy and lactation could be high risk situations for the development of essential fatty acid deficiencies. To study the effect of pregnancy and lactation on red blood cell phospholipids percentual fatty acid composition of virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Twenty four pregnant rats of 50 +/- 1 days of age were supplement with soy and 24 with fish oil during 21 days. Twelve rats of each group were sacrificed after 18 days of lactation, twenty four non pregnant rats received soy oil and acted as controls of pregnant and lactating rats. Red blood cell phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. The percentage of total omega-6 fatty acids of red blood cell phospholipid was 37.8 +/- 5.9, 32.6 +/- 0.6 and 38.3 +/- 3.5% in non pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats respectively (p oil reverted the decrease in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid percentage of pregnant and lactating rats. Pregnancy and lactation decrease the capacity to transform precursors of essential fatty acids in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...

  5. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  6. Analysis of Np-237 ENDF for the theortical interpretation of critical assembly experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaila, B. (Bogdan); Chadwick, M. B. (Mark B.); MacFarlane, R. E. (Robert E.); Kawano, T. (Toshihiko)

    2004-01-01

    We report on the present status of our effort toward an improved Np-237 evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). The aim here is to bridge the gap between calculated and observed k-eff values, as measured at the Np-U critical assembly at LANL, TA-18. As such, we perform a critical analysis of the existing body of experimental data and recommended evaluations. We are targeting in principal the fission nu-bar and cross section in Np-237, as well as the inelastic scattering which is particularly important since Np-237 is a threshold fissioner. This analysis will be employed in a future sensitivity study of the calculated k-eff with respect to variations of the afore mentioned nuclear data.

  7. Determination of 237Np in environmental and nuclear samples: A review of the analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Mulholland, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of analytical methods has been developed and used for the determination of neptunium in environmental and nuclear fuel samples using alpha, ICP–MS spectrometry, and other analytical techniques. This review summarizes and discusses development of the radiochemical procedures for separation of neptunium (Np), since the beginning of the nuclear industry, followed by a more detailed discussion on recent trends in the separation of neptunium. This article also highlights the progress in analytical methods and issues associated with the determination of neptunium in environmental samples. - Highlights: ► Determination of Np in environmental and nuclear samples is reviewed. ► Various analytical methods used for the determination of Np are listed. ► Progress and issues associated with the determination of Np are discussed.

  8. Measurement of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by neutrons near thermal point (preliminary results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramo; vich, S.N.; Andreev, M.F.; Bol`shakov, Y.M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Measurements have been carried out of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by thermal neutrons. The isotope {sup 238}Np was built up through the reaction {sup 238}U(p,n) on an electrostatic accelerator. Extraction and cleaning of the sample were done by ion-exchange chromatography. Fast neutrons were generated on the electrostatic accelerator through the reaction {sup 9}Be(d,n); a polyethylene block was used to slow down neutrons. Registration of fission fragments was performed with dielectric track detectors. Suggesting that the behavior of {sup 238}Np and {sup 238}U. Westscott`s factors are indentical the fission cross-section of {sup 238}Np was obtained: {sigma}{sub fo}=2110 {plus_minus} 75 barn.

  9. Effect of Ebola virus proteins GP, NP and VP35 on VP40 VLP morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harty Ronald N

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently we described a role for Ebola virus proteins, NP, GP, and VP35 in enhancement of VP40 VLP budding. To explore the possibility that VLP structure was altered by co-expression of EBOV proteins leading to the observed enhancement of VP40 VLP budding, we performed density gradient analysis as well as electron microscopy studies. Our data suggest that VP40 is the major determinant of VLP morphology, as co-expression of NP, GP and VP35 did not significantly change VLP density, length, and diameter. Ultra-structural changes were noted in the core of the VLPs when NP was co-expressed with VP40. Overall, these findings indicate that major changes in morphology of VP40 VLPs were likely not responsible for enhanced budding of VP40 VLPs in the presence of GP, NP and/or VP35.

  10. RNA structural constraints in the evolution of the influenza A virus genome NP segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Gultyaev (Alexander); A. Tsyganov-Bodounov (Anton); M.I. Spronken (Monique); S. Van Der Kooij (Sander); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); R.C.L. Olsthoorn (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractConserved RNA secondary structures were predicted in the nucleoprotein (NP) segment of the influenza A virus genome using comparative sequence and structure analysis. A number of structural elements exhibiting nucleotide covariations were identified over the whole segment length,

  11. 27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudo, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D.; Onuki, Y.; Yasuoka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present 27 Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd 5 Al 2 (T c =4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27 Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T c . The temperature dependence of the 27 Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T c , indicating that NpPd 5 Al 2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd 5 Al 2 .

  12. [Pregnant diabetic patients: institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Héctor Israel; Carrillo Iñiguez, Mayra Judith; Pestaña Mendoza, Silvia; Santamaría Ferreira, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus complicates 3-5% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diet and insulin have revolutionized the care related with pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. To report the management experience in patients with diabetes and pregnancy at the Instituto Materno Infantil, Estado de Mexico. A descriptive, retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study of pregnant women with diabetes and pregnancy was conducted from 2003 to 2004. We included 55 pregnant women who had: gestational diabetes 30 (54.4%), pregestational diabetes 24 (43.6%), and carbohydrate intolerance 1 (1.8%); every one of them were controlled either with diet, insulin or both. The mean age was 30.6, 80% with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9% gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 33.3% by abnormal 50 g glucose screening and 46.6% with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The main complications among the patients were urinary disease (61.3%) and the major fetal malformation were those related with cardiovascular disease (9.09%). The most frequent mode of delivery was cesarean section (58%) and birth weight was of 3,146 g. The main risk factors identified among women in the study group were as follow: More than 25 years of age and family history of diabetes mellitus. We observed a progressive increase in the insulin dosage. The most consistent complications among the patients were urinary infection and the major fetal malformation was cardiovascular disease.

  13. Track record of the AREVA NP Nuclear Fuel in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Scott T.; Bordy, Michelaristide

    2006-01-01

    Having its American, German and French legacy, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to PWR and BWR reactors around the world. To develop its action on the world market, AREVA NP has organized its activities on its major locations in Europe (France, Germany and Belgium) and in the USA. Also AREVA NP is strongly represented in the other nuclear countries (Asia, Eastern Europe, South America, South Africa and remaining European countries). Today AREVA NP has supplied more than 110,000 PWR and 51,000 BWR fuel assemblies to the world market. In the USA, AREVA NP has produced about 28,000 PWR fuel assemblies. Representing almost a quarter of the PWR American fuel market, AREVA NP is currently supplying or starting to supply 22 reactors from its 2 manufacturing plants located at Lynchburg (VA) and Richland (WA). This supply is currently based on HTP and Mark-BW designs, which have been distributed to all types of the US reactors and satisfy the NRC requirements. Also they are prepared for the current development of reactors, including AREVA NP's EPR reactor. At the time being our US PWR fuel takes the advantage of the thorough review performed on all our products, in order to keep the most proven and best performance features and allow US to better respond to each customer need. We propose the AGORA products with enough flexibility and variants to offer customized products, well suited to each customer's needs. These products incorporate a set of common characteristics and associated features, which are: · the use of the M5R alloy, as cladding material and as structural material. · a welded structure comprising the HMP alloy 718 bottom end grid, the MONOBLOC guide thimbles and the ROBUST FUELGUARD as lower tie plate. AREVA NP's fuel activities are supported by their engineering, manufacturing and fuel services which enable AREVA NP to provide utilities with licensed fuel design, a complete fuel package and suitable

  14. Evaluations of photo-solution chemical behaviors of Pu and Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yukio; Morimoto, Kyouichi; Tomiyasu, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    A photochemical method of removing Np from a mixture of nitric acid solutions of Pu and Np has been studied in connection with the Purex reprocessing procedure. From these experiments, we confirmed the potential of the photochemical valency adjustment technology as an advanced reprocessing one. Furthermore, the applicability of the installation for the process and the mechanism of photochemical reactions from the standpoint of thermodynamic considerations were discussed. (author)

  15. 238U and 237Np nuclear fission by 90-270 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.L.; Nedorezov, V.G.; Nikitina, N.V.; Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Smirnov, A.N.; Ehjsmont, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for measuring cross sections of 238 U and 237 Np nuclei fission caused by 90-270 MeV electrons is described. Measurement results are given. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the virtual photon method. It is shown that the difference in cross sections of 238 U and 237 Np electrofission is due to the different contribution of the giant resonance [ru

  16. Quaternized chitosan/rectorite/AgNP nanocomposite catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yunzhi [State Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, Xianjie [School of Business Administration, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tan, Weirui [State Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Jiwen, E-mail: holdit@126.com [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Shijie, E-mail: sjliu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); China Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    This study investigated a one-step green fabrication of exfoliated quaternized chitosan/rectorite/AgNP nanocomposites under microwave radiation method. The nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS and TEM. The results revealed that quaternized chitosan and rectorite acted as reducing and stabilizing agents, spherical AgNPs were synthesized greenly and rapidly, meanwhile the layers of rectorite were exfoliated, and when the ratio of quaternized chitosan, rectorite and silver nitrate was 100 mg: 10 mg: 2 mmol, the AgNP content reached the maximum of 2.73%. Then, the quaternized chitosan/rectorite/AgNP nanocomposite was fabricated as a film, which was used in the catalytic reduction from 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by NaBH{sub 4}. The film showed excellent catalytic efficiency with an activation energy of 29.76 kJ mol{sup −1} and outstanding reusable performance even after catalysis for 10 times. - Graphical abstract: Quaternized chitosan/rectorite/AgNP nanocomposite catalyst was prepared greenly in one pot and fabricated as a film, which showed excellent catalytic efficiency and reusable performance. - Highlights: • Quaternized chitosan and rectorite acted as reducing and stabilizing agents. • Spherical Ag NPs were synthesized greenly and rapidly. • AgNP dispersed well on the surface and the interlayer of exfoliated rectorite. • Quaternized chitosan/rectorite/AgNP nanocomposite was prepared as a film. • The film showed excellent catalytic efficiency and reusable performance.

  17. Down-regulation of tissue N:P ratios in terrestrial plants by elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Luo, Yiqi; Elser, James; Wang, Ying-ping; Loladze, Irakli; Zhang, Quanfa; Dennis, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations generally alter element stoichiometry in plants. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the elevated CO2 impact on plant nitrogen: phosphorus (N:P) ratios and the underlying mechanism has not been conducted. We synthesized the results from 112 previously published studies using meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of elevated CO2 on the N:P ratio of terrestrial plants and to explore the underlying mechanism based on plant growth and soil P dynamics. Our results show that terrestrial plants grown under elevated CO2 had lower N:P ratios in both above- and belowground biomass across different ecosystem types. The response ratio for plant N:P was negatively correlated with the response ratio for plant growth in croplands and grasslands, and showed a stronger relationship for P than for N. In addition, the CO2-induced down-regulation of plant N:P was accompanied by 19.3% and 4.2% increases in soil phosphatase activity and labile P, respectively, and a 10.1% decrease in total soil P. Our results show that down-regulation of plant N:P under elevated CO2 corresponds with accelerated soil P cycling. These findings should be useful for better understanding of terrestrial plant stoichiometry in response to elevated CO2 and of the underlying mechanisms affecting nutrient dynamics under climate change.

  18. Spectroscopic identification of binary and ternary surface complexes of Np(V) on gibbsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gückel, Katharina; Rossberg, André; Müller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz; Bernhard, Gert; Foerstendorf, Harald

    2013-12-17

    For the first time, detailed molecular information on the Np(V) sorption species on amorphous Al(OH)3 and crystalline gibbsite was obtained by in situ time-resolved Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results consistently demonstrate the formation of mononuclear inner sphere complexes of the NpO2(+) ion irrespective of the prevailing atmospheric condition. The impact of the presence of atmospheric equivalent added carbonate on the speciation in solution and on the surfaces becomes evident from vibrational data. While the 1:1 aqueous carbonato species (NpO2CO3(-)) was found to become predominant in the circumneutral pH range, it is most likely that this species is sorbed onto the gibbsite surface as a ternary inner sphere surface complex where the NpO2(+) moiety is directly coordinated to the functional groups of the gibbsite's surface. These findings are corroborated by results obtained from EXAFS spectroscopy providing further evidence for a bidentate coordination of the Np(V) ion on amorphous Al(OH)3. The identification of the Np(V) surface species on gibbsite constitutes a basic finding for a comprehensive description of the dissemination of neptunium in groundwater systems.

  19. [Comparison of NP and MVP regimen in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, E; Wang, Song-ping; Liu, Shu-juan; Yiao, Juan

    2002-12-01

    Chemotherapy is the major treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the efficacy is not satisfactory. From January 1996 to December 2000, two chemotherapy regimen [NP: vinorelbine(NVB) + cisplatin(DDP); MVP: mitomycin (MMC) + vindesine(VDS) + cisplatin] have been used to treat 110 advanced NSCLC patients. The response and major adverse reaction were analyzed and compared. Forty-eight cases of advanced NSCLC (stage III-IV) patients were treated with NP (NVB: 25 mg/m2, d1, 8; DDP: 35 mg/m2, d1-3). The other 62 cases were treated with MVP regimen (MMC: 6 mg/m2, d1; VDS: 3 mg/m2, d1, 8; DDP: 30 mg/m2 d1-3). In NP group, the overall response rate was 50% (CR + PR = 24); medium response time was 5.5 months; medium survival time was 11 months. In MVP group, the overall response rate was 51.6% (CR + PR = 32), medium response time and survival time were 6.5 and 14.5 months, respectively. The major toxicities were myelosuppression and phlebitis in NP group, nausea/vomiting, myelosuppression in MVP group, respectively. NP and MVP regimen for advanced NSCLC have similar response rate (P > 0.05). Deep vein injection and improved infusion can be used to prevent phlebitis in NP regimen.

  20. The multi-domain protein Np95 connects DNA methylation and histone modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Andrea; Frauer, Carina; Pichler, Garwin; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications play a central role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation. Recently, Np95 (also known as UHRF1 or ICBP90) has been found to interact with Dnmt1 and to bind hemimethylated DNA, indicating together with genetic studies a central role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Using in vitro binding assays we observed a weak preference of Np95 and its SRA (SET- and Ring-associated) domain for hemimethylated CpG sites. However, the binding kinetics of Np95 in living cells was not affected by the complete loss of genomic methylation. Investigating further links with heterochromatin, we could show that Np95 preferentially binds histone H3 N-terminal tails with trimethylated (H3K9me3) but not acetylated lysine 9 via a tandem Tudor domain. This domain contains three highly conserved aromatic amino acids that form an aromatic cage similar to the one binding H3K9me3 in the chromodomain of HP1ß. Mutations targeting the aromatic cage of the Np95 tandem Tudor domain (Y188A and Y191A) abolished specific H3 histone tail binding. These multiple interactions of the multi-domain protein Np95 with hemimethylated DNA and repressive histone marks as well as with DNA and histone methyltransferases integrate the two major epigenetic silencing pathways. PMID:20026581

  1. The multi-domain protein Np95 connects DNA methylation and histone modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Andrea; Frauer, Carina; Pichler, Garwin; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2010-04-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications play a central role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation. Recently, Np95 (also known as UHRF1 or ICBP90) has been found to interact with Dnmt1 and to bind hemimethylated DNA, indicating together with genetic studies a central role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Using in vitro binding assays we observed a weak preference of Np95 and its SRA (SET- and Ring-associated) domain for hemimethylated CpG sites. However, the binding kinetics of Np95 in living cells was not affected by the complete loss of genomic methylation. Investigating further links with heterochromatin, we could show that Np95 preferentially binds histone H3 N-terminal tails with trimethylated (H3K9me3) but not acetylated lysine 9 via a tandem Tudor domain. This domain contains three highly conserved aromatic amino acids that form an aromatic cage similar to the one binding H3K9me3 in the chromodomain of HP1ss. Mutations targeting the aromatic cage of the Np95 tandem Tudor domain (Y188A and Y191A) abolished specific H3 histone tail binding. These multiple interactions of the multi-domain protein Np95 with hemimethylated DNA and repressive histone marks as well as with DNA and histone methyltransferases integrate the two major epigenetic silencing pathways.

  2. Crystallographic and Mössbauer investigations on Np1- xPuxB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipaux, R.; Bonnisseau, D.; Bogé, M.; Larroque, J.

    1988-08-01

    The diborides of neptunium and plutonium and their solid solutions Np 1- xPu xB 2 have been synthesized by direct reaction with a good purity. The lattice parameters follow Vegard's law. The magnetic properties of the samples containing neptunium have been investigated by Mössbauer spectrometry. The isomer shift is almost constant in all compounds (-14.5 (0.2) mm/s resp. to NpAl 2), suggesting tetravalent Np ions. At high temperatures, a large quadrupolar interaction, clearly connected to the crystal structure, is observed in all compounds, decreasing slowly with the neptunium concentration. At low temperature, magnetic patterns appear for x ⩽ 0.5. The magnetic moments are ordered perpendicular to the c-axis and equal to 0.57μ B for x = 0. In Np 0.5Pu 0.5B 2 and, in less degree in Np 0.7Pu 0.3B 2 and Np 0.33Pu 0.67B 2, magnetic fluctuations are detec ted.

  3. EFFECT OF INSULIN ON ENDOCRINE PANCREAS FUNCTION DURING LATE PREGNANCY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    To partly or completely satisfy the increasing demand for insulin, pregnant rats were infused SC with human insulin (2.4 or 4.8 IU/day) from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Cyclic control rats underwent the same procedure of 6 days of insulin-treatment. During the treatment all,stoups of rats were

  4. [An innovative policy for supporting pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stéphanie

    2015-04-01

    Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  6. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...

  7. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  8. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  9. Transplacental absorption of 238Pu in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats and guinea pigs were injected intravenously with 238 Pu citrate to determine if the potential for in utero accumulation of 238 Pu by these two species is related to the stage of development at which immunity is gained. Although guinea pigs retained more 238 Pu after birth than rats, the difference was not significant

  10. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  11. Contribution to the study of the redox couple Np(VI)/Np(V) in the presence of uranium(VI) in solutions of nitric acid and nitrous acid; Contribution a l'etude du comportement redox du couple Np(VI)/Np(V) en presence d'uranium VI dans les solutions constituees d'acide nitrique et d'acide nitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpigny, S. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. de Radiochimie et Procedes, DRP, 30 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The redox behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was the subject of a spectrometric study of the Np(VI) reduction reaction in nitric acid solutions (4 to 5 M) containing variable concentrations (1.5 to 3.5 x 10{sup -3} M) of nitrous acid. A low nitrous acid concentration and a high nitric acid concentration were found to favor the stabilization of Np(VI). The stoichiometric coefficients of nitrous acid and nitric acid in the Np(VI) reduction reaction were determined thermodynamically, although only the reaction order with respect to HNO{sub 2} could be calculated from a kinetic analysis. Adding nitrate ions to a HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} solution enhanced the stability of neptunium at oxidation state +VI, but also increased the reduction rate. When uranium(VI) was added to the HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} solutions, the total quantity of neptunium at oxidation state +V (either free or as a Np(V)-U(VI) complex) remained practically unchanged, as did the Np(VI) reduction rate. The electrochemical behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was investigated in a weak acidic medium by voltammetry with an ultra-micro-electrode (UME). The oxidation wave limiting current variation was a linear function of the Np(V) concentration when a gold UME was used, but not with a platinum UME; the reduction wave limiting current variation versus the Np(V) concentration was linear with either gold or platinum UMEs. The presence of the Np(V)-U(VI) complex in the neptunium solutions was characterized by a shift in the normal apparent potential of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple toward anodic potentials consistent with the previously determined values of the complexation constants. (author)

  12. NP108, an Antimicrobial Polymer with Activity against Methicillin- and Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvars, Laura K.; Hewitt, Fiona; Smith, Daniel W.; Robertson, Jennifer; O'Neil, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a clinically significant human pathogen that causes infectious diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and health care-associated infections (HAI) to potentially fatal bacteremia and endocarditis. Nasal carriage of S. aureus, especially for persistent carriage, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection, particularly nosocomial and surgical site infections (SSI), usually via autoinfection. NP108 is a cationic antimicrobial polymer composed of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) amino acid building blocks. NP108 is broad spectrum and rapidly bactericidal (3-log kill in ≤3 h), killing bacteria by membrane disruption and cell lysis. NP108, contrary to many antibiotics, shows equally effective antimicrobial activity against a variety of S. aureus (MIC100 = 8 to 500 mg/liter) and S. epidermidis (MIC100 = 4 to 8 mg/liter) isolates, whether exponentially growing or in stationary phase. NP108 is antimicrobially active under nutrient-limiting conditions similar to those found in the anterior nares (MIC100 = 8 mg/liter) and kills antibiotic-resilient small colony variants (MIC100 = 32 mg/liter) and S. aureus biofilms (prevention, MIC100 = 1 to 4 mg/liter; eradication, MIC100 ≥ 31.25 mg/liter). NP108 is active against isolates of S. aureus resistant to the current standard-of-care decolonization agent, mupirocin, with no significant increase in the MIC100. NP108 is water soluble and has been formulated into compatible aqueous gel vehicles for human use in which antimicrobial efficacy is retained (2.0% [wt/vol]). NP108 is a potential nonantibiotic antimicrobial alternative to antibiotics for the nasal decolonization of S. aureus, with clear advantages in its mechanism of action over the existing gold standard, mupirocin. PMID:28607014

  13. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumane Kourouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical, may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg b.wt in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS and decrease of antioxidant enzyme were observed in the 4-NP exposed rat. Extensive fatty accumulation in liver section and elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH and γ-GT were also observed. Incidence and severity of liver steatosis was scored and taken into consideration (steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. Hepatocytes apoptosis could promote NAFLD progression; Fas/FasL, TNF-α and Caspase-9 mRNA activation were important contributing factors to hepatic steatosis. These findings provide the first evidence that 4-NP affects the gene expression related to liver hepatotoxicity, which is correlated with hepatic steatosis.

  14. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  15. Teratogenic assessment of 'Winniecure' in pregnant Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  17. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Silva Vinhas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected by the HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breast-feeding crossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impediment from the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to the affectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, they were interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a Public Hospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy was not planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectations regarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood out that the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnant react to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnant soroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize the specific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV. KEY WORDS: Risk Prenatal; Nursing; HIV.

  18. Controls over foliar N:P ratios in tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Asner, Gregory P; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between foliar nutrient concentrations and soil nutrient availability have been found in multiple ecosystems. These relationships have led to the use of foliar nutrients as an index of nutrient status and to the prediction of broadscale patterns in ecosystem processes. More recently, a growing interest in ecological stoichiometry has fueled multiple analyses of foliar nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratios within and across ecosystems. These studies have observed that N:P values are generally elevated in tropical forests when compared to higher latitude ecosystems, adding weight to a common belief that tropical forests are generally N rich and P poor. However, while these broad generalizations may have merit, their simplicity masks the enormous environmental heterogeneity that exists within the tropics; such variation includes large ranges in soil fertility and climate, as well as the highest plant species diversity of any biome. Here we present original data on foliar N and P concentrations from 150 mature canopy tree species in Costa Rica and Brazil, and combine those data with a comprehensive new literature synthesis to explore the major sources of variation in foliar N:P values within the tropics. We found no relationship between N:P ratios and either latitude or mean annual precipitation within the tropics alone. There is, however, evidence of seasonal controls; in our Costa Rica sites, foliar N:P values differed by 25% between wet and dry seasons. The N:P ratios do vary with soil P availability and/or soil order, but there is substantial overlap across coarse divisions in soil type, and perhaps the most striking feature of the data set is variation at the species level. Taken as a whole, our results imply that the dominant influence on foliar N:P ratios in the tropics is species variability and that, unlike marine systems and perhaps many other terrestrial biomes, the N:P stoichiometry of tropical forests is not well constrained. Thus any use of N:P

  19. Design, synthesis, and actions of a novel chimeric natriuretic peptide: CD-NP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Ondrej; Huntley, Brenda K; McCormick, Daniel J; Kurlansky, Paul A; Burnett, John C

    2008-07-01

    Our aim was to design, synthesize and test in vivo and in vitro a new chimeric peptide that would combine the beneficial properties of 2 distinct natriuretic peptides with a biological profile that goes beyond native peptides. Studies have established the beneficial vascular and antiproliferative properties of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). While lacking renal actions, CNP is less hypotensive than the cardiac peptides atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide but unloads the heart due to venodilation. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide is a potent natriuretic and diuretic peptide that is markedly hypotensive and functions via a separate guanylyl cyclase receptor compared with CNP. Here we engineered a novel chimeric peptide CD-NP that represents the fusion of the 22-amino acid peptide CNP together with the 15-amino acid linear C-terminus of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide. We also determined in vitro in cardiac fibroblasts cyclic guanosine monophosphate-activating and antiproliferative properties of CD-NP. Our studies demonstrate in vivo that CD-NP is natriuretic and diuretic, glomerular filtration rate enhancing, cardiac unloading, and renin inhibiting. CD-NP also demonstrates less hypotensive properties when compared with B-type natriuretic peptide. In addition, CD-NP in vitro activates cyclic guanosine monophosphate and inhibits cardiac fibroblast proliferation. The current findings advance an innovative design strategy in natriuretic peptide drug discovery and development to create therapeutic peptides with favorable properties that may be preferable to those associated with native natriuretic peptides.

  20. Integral test for Np237 and Am241 cross sections in JENDL, ENDF and JEF libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Unesaki, Hironobu; Kitada, Takanori

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using Kyoto University critical assembly (KUCA) were performed for measuring the capture and fission reaction rates of 237 Np and 241 Am. A back-to-back fission chamber was employed for the measurement of the fission rate of 237 Np and 241 Am relative to 235 U. The capture rate of 237 Np relative to 197 Au was measured by using activation method. Eleven cores, of which the spectra were changed systematically, were mocked up for the present measurements. Five cores among the eleven were utilized for the fission reaction rate measurement. The experiment was analyzed using the Monte Carlo code MVP, the transport code TWOTRAN and the diffusion code CITATION using the libraries based on JENDL3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2. As the results, for 237 Np, JENDL3.2 showed good agreement for both capture and fission. However, for the fission rate of 241 Am, JENDL3.2 underestimates 15-20%. On the other hand, ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2 show different C/Es for 237 Np and 241 Am. (author)

  1. Crystallography and magnetic properties of transuranium element oxygen compounds (Np, Pu and Am)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuteau, Alain.

    1981-05-01

    This paper includes: 1) The brief description of the experimental techniques used for analyzing very small quantities of solid radioactive compounds (differential thermal micro-analyses, diffraction of X rays, magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer resonance). 2) The methods of synthesis of the ternary oxides of transuranic elements at oxidation degrees III (Pu 2 MoO 6 , Pu 2 WO 6 , Pu 2 (WO 4 ) 3 , Am 2 MoO 6 , Am 2 WO 6 , Am 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 and Am 2 (WO 4 ) 3 ) and at degree IV (Np(VO 3 ) 4 , Np(MoO 4 ) 2 , Np(WO 4 ) 2 and Pu(MoO 4 ) 2 ). The drawing up of liquid-solid balance diagrams enabled the field of stability of molybdate (or tungstate) systems of alkaline transuranic - mobybdates (or tungstates) to be clarified. 3) The study of the structural properties of the identified phases. These results taken as a whole made it possible to establish a ''comparative crystal - chemistry'' of the oxigenated phases of Np, Pu and Am with those of the thorium and uranium actinide elements and with the rare earths of adjacent ionic radius. 4) The Moessbauer resonance study of 237 Np in the solid solution Usub(1-x)Npsub(x)O 2 (0 [fr

  2. The reduction of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) by organic chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Aase, S.B.; Banaszak, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of NpO 2+ and PuO 2 2+ by oxalate. citrate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated in low ionic strength media and brines. This was done to help establish the stability of the An(VI) oxidation state in the presence of organic complexants. The stability of the An(VI) oxidation state depended on the pH and relative strength of the various oxidation state-specific complexes. At low ionic strength and pH 6, NpO 2 O 2+ was rapidly reduced to form NpO 2 + organic complexes. At longer times, Np(IV) organic complexes were observed in the presence of citrate. PuO 2 2+ was predominantly reduced to Pu 4+ , resulting in the formation of organic complexes or polymeric/hydrolytic precipitates. The relative rates of reduction to the An(V) complex were EDTA > citrate > oxalate. Subsequent reduction to An(IV) complexes, however, occurred in the following order: citrate > EDTA > oxalate because of the stability of the An(V)-EDTA complex. The presence of organic complexants led to the rapid reduction of NpO 2 2+ and PuO 2 P 2+ in G-seep brine at pHs 5 and 7. At pHs 8 and 10 in ERDA-6 brine, carbonate and hydrolytic complexes predominated and slowed down or prevented the reduction of An(VI) by the organics present

  3. Np(V)O2+ sorption on hydroxyapatite-effect of calcium and phosphate anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Choppin, G.R.; Moore, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of NpO 2 + from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite was studied as a function of the amount of sorbent, initial NpO 2 + concentration, ionic strength and pcH. The hydroxyapatite was characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, FT-IR and ICP-MS measurements. At ionic strengths of 0.10 to 5.00 M NaClO 4 , the sorption increased with increased pcH to a maximum between pcH 8-8.5, then decreased as the pcH increased. The kinetics of NpO 2 + sorption on hydroxyapatite followed Lagergren first order kinetics. The temperature dependence of sorption was small in the range of 273-283 K, but increased more sharply at higher temperatures of 298-333 K. The heat of sorption of NpO 2 + was endothermic and the free energy values were exothermic indicating large, positive entropy. The activation energy for the sorption process was calculated to be 29.52 ± 1.2 kJ/mole. The effect of calcium and phosphate on NpO 2 + sorption was studied as a function of concentration and pcH. (orig.)

  4. Neutron induced fission of 237Np – status, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruskov Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increased interest in a complete study of the neutron-induced fission of 237Np. This is due to the need of accurate and reliable nuclear data for nuclear science and technology. 237Np is generated (and accumulated in the nuclear reactor core during reactor operation. As one of the most abundant long-lived isotopes in spent fuel (“waste”, the incineration of 237Np becomes an important issue. One scenario for burning of 237Np and other radio-toxic minor actinides suggests they are to be mixed into the fuel of future fast-neutron reactors, employing the so-called transmutation and partitioning technology. For testing present fission models, which are at the basis of new generation nuclear reactor developments, highly accurate and detailed neutron-induced nuclear reaction data is needed. However, the EXFOR nuclear database for 237Np on neutron-induced capture cross-section, σγ, and fission cross-section, σf, as well as on the characteristics of capture and fission resonance parameters (Γγ, Γf, σoΓf, fragments mass-energy yield distributions, multiplicities of neutrons vn and γ-rays vγ, has not been updated for decades.

  5. A correlation between isomer shifts of 237Np Moessbauer spectra and coordination numbers of Np atoms in neptunyl(V) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, M.; Nakada, M.; Nakamoto, T.; Yamashita, T.; Masaki, N.M.; Krot, N.N.

    1999-01-01

    Five neptunyl(V) compounds were synthesized and studied by 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy. The isomer shifts (δ) of the Moessbauer spectra ranged from -18.6 to -19.1 mm/s for the compounds with Np atoms surrounded by 7 oxygen atoms (coordination number (CN) 7). On the other hand, the larger value of δ was obtained for the compound with CN 8. From the comparison of the present results with those reported on neptunyl(V) and (VI) compounds, it is concluded that there is a correlation between the δ and the CN for neptunyl(V) compounds, and the distribution of δ is narrower for neptunyl(V) compounds than that of neptunyl(VI) compounds. (author)

  6. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters ... form of attention deficit hyperactive disorder characterised by ..... Yoshinaga K., Rice C., Krenn J., Pilot R.L. (1979). Effects of nicotine on ...

  7. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  8. Ebola virus VP24 interacts with NP to facilitate nucleocapsid assembly and genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadyga, Logan; Hoenen, Thomas; Ambroggio, Xavier; Dunham, Eric; Groseth, Allison; Ebihara, Hideki

    2017-08-09

    Ebola virus causes devastating hemorrhagic fever outbreaks for which no approved therapeutic exists. The viral nucleocapsid, which is minimally composed of the proteins NP, VP35, and VP24, represents an attractive target for drug development; however, the molecular determinants that govern the interactions and functions of these three proteins are still unknown. Through a series of mutational analyses, in combination with biochemical and bioinformatics approaches, we identified a region on VP24 that was critical for its interaction with NP. Importantly, we demonstrated that the interaction between VP24 and NP was required for both nucleocapsid assembly and genome packaging. Not only does this study underscore the critical role that these proteins play in the viral replication cycle, but it also identifies a key interaction interface on VP24 that may serve as a novel target for antiviral therapeutic intervention.

  9. Role of transitional levels in 237Np (γ,f): Perspectives for studying highly deformed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Mesa, J.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Geraldo, L. P.; Garcia, C.; Guzman, F.; Rodrigues, T. E.; Shtejer, K.; Semmler, R.

    2006-01-01

    The transition levels at the top of the two 237 Np fission barriers were obtained for the first time by means of the so-called semimicroscopic combined method, which we have developed and implemented. To overcome the difficulties in dealing with large nuclear deformations, we used our developed BARRIER code, which calculates single-particle spectra in a deformed Woods-Saxon potential using a coordinate system based on Cassini ovaloids as nuclear shape parametrization. The results enabled us to describe the experimentally observed near-barrier photofission cross-section structures for 237 Np, as well as a subbarrier shelf, the latter being consistently interpreted in terms of the accumulation of levels at the top of the inner and outer double fission barrier of 237 Np

  10. Speciation of 239U and 239Np by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almahamid, Ilham

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to contribute to a better knowledge of chemical effects associated with nuclear transformations of 238 U(n, γ) 239 U(β) and 239 Np in different uranium salts in solid state or aqueous solutions. A method of separation of tetravalent and hexavalent uranium and of tetravalent and pentavalent neptunium has been developed. The best separations have been obtained by using an equimolar aqueous solution of nitric acid and oxalic acid with elution durations between 2 and 9 minutes. Several uranyl and uranium compounds have been irradiated and the distribution of 239 U and 239 Np depending on the oxidation level has been measured with respect to the nature of the irradiated compound, to the irradiation duration, and to the composition of the dissolution medium. The stabilisation of 239 U and 239 Np is discussed in terms of chemical forces, mechanical recoil, and localised radiolysis due to Auger electrons [fr

  11. Vapor deposition of large area NpO2 and UO2 deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Gibson, J.R.; Kobisk, E.H.; Dailey, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Deposition of NpO 2 and UO 2 thin films over an area of 7.5 to 10 cm diam has become a routine operation in preparation of fission chamber plates. Vacuum evaporation or electroplating has been used for this purpose. The ''paint brush'' technique has been used as well; however, uniformity requirements normally eliminate this procedure. Vapor deposition in vacuum appears to be the most suitable technique for preparing NpO 2 and UO 2 deposits of >200 cm 2 . This paper describes the procedures used in preparing uniform large area deposits of NpO 2 (approximately 300 cm 2 ) and UO 2 (approximately 2000 cm 2 ) by vacuum evaporation using electron bombardment heating and several substrate motion and heating methods to achieve uniformity and adhesion

  12. Isotopic measurement of uranium using NP-type chelate resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lanbi; Chen Wenpo; Wang Shijun

    1994-08-01

    NP-type chelate resin beads is used as a carrier of samples in the isotopic measurements of uranium by mass spectrometry. The results show that its absorption efficiency for uranium can be greater than 50%. It is one order magnitude higher than that strong basic anion resin, however, the ionization efficiencies of both are almost the same. Therefore, the amount of uranium required for isotopic analysis can be reduced one order of magnitude. This method has been used for isotopic analysis of uranium in NP-type chelate resin beads contained 10 -9 ∼ 10 -7 g uranium. For standard sample UTB-500, the external precision of measurements are within +-0.2%, for natural uranium samples are within +- 0.5%. The application of NP-type chelate resin beads in the isotopic measurement of uranium is a new creative achievement. It has been used in the depletion test of uranium-atomic vapor laser isotope separation

  13. Lattice thermal expansions of NpN, PuN and AmN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Lattice parameters of NpN, PuN and AmN were measured by a high temperature X-ray diffraction method from room temperature up to 1478 K. Linear thermal expansions of these TRU nitrides were determined as a function of temperature. The average coefficients of linear thermal expansion from 293 to 1273 K were 8.8, 11.1 and 11.2 x 10 -6 K -1 for NpN, PuN and AmN, respectively. The instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion either at 293 or at 1273 K against the reciprocal decomposition temperature under 1 atm of nitrogen showed a linear relationship for TiN, ZrN, HfN, UN, NpN and PuN. Based on this relationship, the decomposition temperature of AmN was roughly predicted to be 2700 K

  14. Transfer and expression of the rabbit defensin NP-1 gene in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Xiong, X; Tu, W F; Yao, W; Liang, H W; Chen, F J; He, Z Q

    2017-01-23

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae, with high food and medicinal value. However, the crop is susceptible to several viruses that are transmitted by aphids and is highly vulnerable to post-harvest diseases, as well as insect and mammal pests and fungal and bacterial diseases. Here, the rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was transferred into lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to obtain a broad-spectrum disease-resistant lettuce. Transgenic lettuce plants were selected and regenerated on selective media. The presence of the NP-1 gene in these plants was confirmed by western blot analyses. Resistance tests revealed native defensin NP-1 expression conferred partial resistance to Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests new possibilities for lettuce disease resistance.

  15. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  16. Purex Process Improvements for Pu and NP Control in Total Actinide Recycle Flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, J.E.; Carrott, M.J.; Crooks, G.; Fox, O.D.; Maher, C.J.; Taylor, R.J.; Woodhead, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvements are required in the Purex process to optimise it for Advanced Fuel Cycles. Two key challenges we have identified are, firstly, developing more efficient methods for U/Pu separations especially at elevated Pu concentrations and, secondly, improving recovery, control and routing of Np in a modified Purex process. A series of Purex-like flowsheets for improved Pu separations based on hydroxamic acids and are reported. Purex-like flowsheets have been tested on a glovebox-housed 30-stage miniature centrifugal contactor train. A series of trials have been performed to demonstrate the processing of feeds with varying Pu contents ranging from 7 - 40% by weight. These flowsheets have demonstrated hydroxamic acids are excellent reagents for complexant stripping of Pu being able to achieve high decontamination factors (DF) on both the U and Pu product streams and co - recover Np with Pu. The advantages of a complexant-based approach are shown to be especially relevant when AFC scenarios are considered, where the Pu content of the fuel is expected to b e significantly higher. Recent results towards modifying the Purex process to improve recovery and control of Np in short residence time contactors are reported. Work on the development of chemical and process models to describe the complicated behaviour of Np under primary separation conditions (i.e. the HA extraction contactor) is described. To test the performance of the model a series of experiments were performed including testing of flowsheets on a fume-hood housed miniature centrifugal contactor train. The flowsheet was designed to emulate the conditions of a primar y separations contactor with the Np split between the U-solvent product and aqueous raffinate. In terms of Np routing the process model showed good agreement with flowsheet trial however much further work is required to fully understand this complex system. (authors)

  17. Will the NP workforce grow in the future? New forecasts and implications for healthcare delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, David I

    2012-07-01

    The nurse practitioner (NP) workforce has been a focus of considerable policy interest recently, particularly as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may place additional demands on the healthcare professional workforce. The NP workforce has been growing rapidly in recent years, but fluctuation in enrollments in the past decades has resulted in a wide range of forecasts. To forecast the future NP workforce using a novel method that has been applied to the registered nurse and physician workforces and is robust to fluctuating enrollment trends. An age-cohort regression-based model was applied to the current and historical workforce, which was then forecasted to future years assuming stable age effects and a continuation of recent cohort trends. A total of 6798 NPs who were identified as having completed NP training in the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses between 1992 and 2008. The future workforce is projected to grow to 244,000 in 2025, an increase of 94% from 128,000 in 2008. If NPs are defined more restrictively as those who self-identify their position title as "NP," supply is projected to grow from 86,000 to 198,000 (130%) over this period. The large projected increase in NP supply is higher and more grounded than other forecasts and has several implications: NPs will likely fulfill a substantial amount of future demand for care. Furthermore, as the ratio of NPs to Nurse Practitioners to physicians will surely grow, there could be implications for quality of care and for the configuration of future care delivery systems.

  18. Polylactic acid (PLA)/Silver-NP/VitaminE bionanocomposite electrospun nanofibers with antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Aytac, Zeynep; Pricope, Gina M.; Uyar, Tamer; Vasile, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E have been combined by incorporation of these two active components within polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning (PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers). The morphological and structural characterizations of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average fiber diameter was 140 ± 60 nm, and the size of the Ag-NP was 2.7 ± 1.5 nm. PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhymurium up to 100 %. The amount of released Ag ions from the nanofibers immersed in aqueous solution was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and it has been observed that the release of Ag ions was kept approximately constant after 10 days of immersion. The antioxidant activity of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers was evaluated according to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and determined as 94 %. The results of the tests on fresh apple and apple juice indicated that the PLA/Ag/VitaminE nanofiber membrane actively reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity. The multifunctional electrospun PLA nanofibers incorporating Ag-NP and Vitamin E may be quite applicable in food packaging due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These materials could find application in food industry as a potential preservative packaging for fruits and juices.

  19. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  20. Intermediate filaments in smooth muscle from pregnant and non-pregnant human uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, P; Carli, F; Halliday, D

    1990-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle and smooth-muscle cells in culture were analysed using SDS/PAGE. The desmin content in uterine muscle increases dramatically during pregnancy, whereas vimentin remains unchanged or changes very little. When muscle cells are kept in culture, a considerable increase in vimentin content is observed as compared with vimentin in freshly isolated non-pregnant uterine tissue. Our results strengthen t...

  1. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Apr 27, 2018 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  2. pulmonary tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that TB infection is present in one- third of the world's ... tuberculosis among pregnant women would be as high as in .... previous two years appeared to confer an increased ... limited to the immediate neighborhood or workplace.

  3. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  4. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  5. Guided Imagery and Stress in Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Theresa A; Jones, Brittney A; Ausderau, Karla K

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of a guided imagery intervention on perceived stress in pregnant adolescents. Thirty-five pregnant adolescents recruited from a local alternative education program participated in a guided imagery intervention. Participants listened to a pregnancy-specific guided imagery recording on four separate occasions during their pregnancies. Perceived stress was measured immediately before and after each session using the Perceived Stress Measure-9 (PSM-9). Participants' pre- and postsession PSM-9 scores for three of the four sessions demonstrated a significant reduction in stress. Participants' baseline stress levels also decreased significantly across the four listening sessions. The greatest reductions in stress within and between sessions occurred in the early sessions, with effects diminishing over time. Pregnant teens experienced initial short- and long-term stress reduction during a guided imagery intervention, supporting the use of guided imagery to reduce stress in pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Development of an analytical instrumentation for determining U, Np and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jizong; Guo Kuisheng; Liu Huanliang

    1995-01-01

    An analytical instrumentation for determining U, Np and Pu in the solution of reprocessing factory are made. The principle of the instrumentation is based on that of flow injection analysis and ion chromatography. The instrumentation is composed of controlling box and working box, the distance between the two boxes is 1.5 m. Important quantity of impurity is permitted. The determination limit is 1 mg/l. The relative standard deviation is better than 5%. The instrumentation can be used in 1AF, 1AP and other many controlling points for determining U, Np and Pu

  7. Take it NP-easy: Bounded model construction for duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Following the recent successes of bounded model-checking, we reconsider the problem of constructing models of discrete-time Duration Calculus formulae. While this problem is known to be non-elementary when arbitrary length models are considered [Hansen94], it turns out to be only NP-complete when...... constrained to bounded length. As a corollary we obtain that model construction is in NP for the formulae actually encountered in case studies using Duration Calculus, as these have a certain small-model property. First experiments with a prototype implementation of the procedures demonstrate a competitive...

  8. Charged multiplicity distributions in anti np interactions at 6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.V.; Boguslavskij, I.B.; Gramenitskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inelastic topological anti np cross sections at 6 GeV/c have been determined based on a study of the charged multiplicity distribution in antideuteron-proton collisions at 12 GeV/c. The data were obtained in an exposure of the ''Ludmila'' JINR 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber at the Serpukhov accelerator. In anti np interactions average charged multiplicity and its ratio to dispersion, /D, were found to be 3.32+-0.13 and 1.86+-0.16, respectively. Comparison with anti pn, anti pp and pp data was made

  9. Dilute nitride InNP quantum dots: Growth and photoluminescence mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Y. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Takabayashi, K.; Kamiya, I. [Quantum Interface Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Sukrittanon, S. [Material Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Pan, J. L.; Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Self-assembled dilute nitride InNP quantum dots (QDs) in GaP matrix grown under the Stranski-Krastanov mode by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The N-related localized states inside the InNP QDs provide a spatially direct recombination channel, in contrast to the spatially indirect channel through the strained In(N)P QDs/GaP interface states. The N incorporation into InP QDs therefore causes a blueshift and double-peak features in photoluminescence, which are not observed in other dilute nitride materials.

  10. Cooperation agreement between the Technical University Dresden and AREVA NP GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Hansen, V.; Druschel, R.; Heyer, J.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the complete refurbishment of the Technical University Dresden (TUD) training reactor AKR and its equipment with the digital safety system TELEPERM XS by AREVA NP it is actually the most advanced facility in this category in Germany. Following the positive experience gained during project execution an agreement between AREVA NP and TUD was signed to bundle each organizations competence's in the interest of new recruits in the field of nuclear technology in 2006. The content and the experience with the cooperation are described in this paper. Conclusions show that both parties found an attractive way to support fellow young nuclear engineers. (authors)

  11. Performance studies of X3 silicon detectors for the future ELISSA array at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnevskaya, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Choudhury, D.; Constantin, P.; Filipescu, D. M.; Ghita, D. G.; Guardo, G. L.; Lattuada, D.; Matei, C.; Rotaru, A.; State, A.

    2018-05-01

    ELISSA is an array of silicon strip detectors under construction at the ELI-NP facility for measurements of photodissociation reactions using high-brilliance, quasi monoenergetic gamma beams. The detection system consists of 35 single-sided position-sensitive X3 detectors arranged in a cylindrical configuration and eight QQQ3 detectors as end-caps. A batch of forty X3 detectors have been tested at ELI-NP. The energy and position resolution, ballistic deficit, leakage currents, and depletion voltage were measured and analyzed. Measurements of the energy resolution were carried out using two read-out electronic chains, one based on multichannel preamplifiers and another based on multiplexers.

  12. Calculability of the n-p mass difference in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiskis, J.

    1980-01-01

    The requirement of a calculable n-p mass difference leads to a consideration of unified gauge theories. Future developments in grand unified models may provide a realistic framework for the calculation of the n-p mass difference. The possibility that the relatively soft ultraviolet behavior of QCD softens the divergence in the lowest-order electromagnetic mass shift is considered in detail. It is shown that, if the bare mass and QCD coupling are constrained to be independent of the electromagnetic coupling, as is natural, then the lowest-order electromagnetic shifts of the renormalized mass and QCD coupling are infinite

  13. New results of Δσ L( np) at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V. I.; Adiasevich, B. P.; Anischenko, N. G.; Antonenko, V. G.; Averichev, S. A.; Azhgirey, L. S.; Bartenev, V. D.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Belyaev, A. A.; Blinov, N. A.; Borisov, N. S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Borzunov, Yu. T.; Bushuev, Yu. P.; Chernenko, L. P.; Chernykh, E. V.; Chumakov, V. F.; Dolgh, S. A.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Golovanov, L. B.; Gurevich, G. M.; Janata, A.; Kirillov, A. D.; Kolomiets, V. G.; Komogorov, E. V.; Kopylov, S. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kovalev, A. I.; Krasnov, V. A.; Krstonoshich, P.; Kuzmin, E. S.; Ladygin, V. P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Liburg, M. Yu.; Livanov, A. N.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Maniakov, P. K.; Matafonov, V. N.; Matyushevsky, E. A.; Moroz, V. D.; Morozov, A. A.; Neganov, A. B.; Nikolaevsky, G. P.; Nomofilov, A. A.; Panteleev, Tz.; Pilipenko, Yu. K.; Pisarev, I. L.; Plis, Yu. A.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Prytkov, V. Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Schedrov, V. A.; Schevelev, O. N.; Shilov, S. N.; Shishov, Yu. A.; Shutov, V. B.; Slunečka, M.; Slunečková, V.; Starikov, A. Yu.; Stoletov, G. D.; Strunov, L. N.; Svetov, A. L.; Usov, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, T.; Volkov, V. I.; Vorobiev, E. I.; Yudin, I. P.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zhmyrov, V. N.

    2002-03-01

    Preliminary results of the Δσ L( np) at 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.0 GeV are presented. They were obtained during the two data-taking runs at the JINR Dubna Synchrophasotron in 2001 and complete the existing data above 1.1 GeV. The data analysis is in progress. The aim of the present studies is to determine the imaginary and real parts of the np spin-dependent forward scattering amplitudes over this energy range.

  14. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  15. Biological N2 fixation mainly controlled by Sphagnum tissue N:P ratio in ombrotrophic bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Tatjana; Moore, Tim R.

    2017-04-01

    Most of the 18 Pg nitrogen (N) accumulated in northern nutrient-poor and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands (bogs and fens) can be attributed to N2-fixation by diazotrophs either associated with the live Sphagnum or non-symbiotically in the deeper peat such as through methane consumption close to the water table. Where atmospheric N deposition is low (Sphagnum, suggested by the increase in tissue N:P to >16. It is unclear how Sphagnum-hosted diazotrophic activity may be affected by N deposition and thus changes in N:P ratio. First, we investigated the effects of long-term addition of different sources of nitrogen (0, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1as NH4Cl and NaNO3), and phosphorus (5 g P m-2 y-1as KH2PO4) on Sphagnum nutrient status (N, P and N:P ratio), net primary productivity (NPP) and Sphagnum-associated N2fixation at Mer Bleue, a temperate ombrotrophic bog. We show that N concentration in Sphagnum tissue increased with larger rates of N addition, with a stronger effect on Sphagnum from NH4 than NO3. The addition of P created a 3.5 fold increase in Sphagnum P content compared to controls. Sphagnum NPP decreased linearly with the rise in N:P ratio, while linear growth declined exponentially with increase in Sphagnum N content. Rates of N2-fixation determined in the laboratory significantly decreased in response to even the smallest addition of both N species. In contrast, the addition of P increased N2 fixation by up to 100 times compared to N treatments and up to 5-30 times compared to controls. The change in N2-fixation was best modeled by the N:P ratio, across all experimental treatments. Secondly, to test the role of N:P ratio on N2-fixation across a range of bogs, eight study sites along the latitudinal gradient from temperate, boreal to subarctic zone in eastern Canada were selected. From each bog, two predominant microptopographies, hummocks and hollows, were tested for both N2-fixation activity in the laboratory and Sphagnum tissue concentrations of N, P and N:P

  16. Excretion and metabolism of 1-nitropyrene in rats after oral or intraperitoneal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutcher, J.S.; Sun, J.D.; Bechtold, W.E.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism and excretion of 1-nitropyrene (NP), a prevalent NPAH, by Fischer-344 rats after intraperitoneal (ip) or oral administration was studied. Radiolabeled NP was administered to rats (10 mg NP/kg body wt), and urine and feces were collected for 7 days. After ip administration of [ 14 C]NP, 60% of the radioactivity was found in the urine and 20% in the feces. Likewise, 55 and 35% of the orally administered 14 C was found in urine and feces, respectively. Both urine and feces were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for metabolites. The majority of the radioactivity in both urine and feces was associated with very polar metabolites, none accounting for more than 10% of the dose. Small amounts (less than 1% of the dose) of aminopyrene (AP), acetylaminopyrene, and NP were detected. A urinary metabolite (3-8% of the dose) was found that converted to acetylaminopyrene phenol (two isomers) when urine was heated overnight at 37 0 C at pH 4.5. More of this metabolite (2.2 times) as well as AP (1.8 times), was excreted after oral than after ip administration of NP. The NP metabolites found in this study demonstrate that reduction of the nitro group is a significant route of NP metabolism in rats. Since nitroreduction appears to be necessary in the activation of NPAHs to bacterial mutagens, this indicates that similar metabolic pathways are present in rats (catalyzed by mammalian and/or gut bacterial enzymes) and that activation of NPAHs to carcinogens or toxins by nitroreduction is possible. 29 references, 8 figures

  17. Cytokine production of in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphocytes during the course of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Eenling, R; van der Schaaf, G; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; Vos, P

    Problem Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? Method of study Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood samples

  18. Magnetic form factor of NpAs2: a crystal field wave function for 5f electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, G.; Blaise, A.; Bonnet, M.; Boucherle, J.X.; Delapalme, A.; Fournier, J.M.; Vigneron, F.

    1982-10-01

    Neptunium magnetic form factor measurements in the ferromagnetic phase of NpAs 2 (T = 4.2 K, H = 4.6 T) are analysed under different assumptions: Np 3 + , Np 4 + or Np 5 + , with a free ion wave-function (Russel-Saunders and intermediate coupling scheme) or with a Crystal Field Wave function for 5f electrons: sub(m)sup(μ)asub(m)asub(m)/J,m>. The experimental results are compatible with either a 3+ or 4+ state

  19. Efficiency Of The Photodynamic Therapy Using Gold Nanoparticles (np-Au) And PpIX Induced And Not Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado-Alvarado, Elizabeth; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco jesus; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Tanori-Cordova, Judith; Sanchez-Espindola, Maria Esther; Jimenez-Perez, Jose Luis; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles (np-Au) to eliminate cancer has proved to be very effective due to the fact that cancerous cells accumulate it 600% more than healthy cells. In addition they have a high capacity of absorption and dispersion of light. Therefore, the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be improved by the simultaneous use of np-Au and photosensitizes (Ps), emphasizing the high efficiency of the PDT to diagnose and to treat pre-malignant and malignant processes. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using np-Au and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced and not induced by the δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). It were found the conditions of synthesis of hydrosoluble np-Au, and were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was realized a kinetic by TEM to determine the cellular incorporation time of np-Au, the maximum incorporation of np-Au was of 16 h. PDT was applied using different doses of np-Au and photosensitizers. It was observed that the use of PDT simultaneously with np-Au did not increase the mortality of HeLa cells. In the case of C33, when PpIX not induced is used as photosensitizer simultaneously with np-Au, the mortality increased 20%

  20. Corrosion Characteristics of Inconel-600 at the NP(Cu)-HYBRID Decontamination Demonstration Test with HANARO FTL Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Seon Byeong; Choi, Wang Kyu; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been generally used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. AP is advantageous for the corrosion resistance, but increases the volume of secondary waste during the decontamination procedure. On the other hand, NP has a high corrosion rate but reduces secondary waste. For the safe use of an oxidative decontamination solution with high corrosive resistance and less amount of secondary waste are required. In this study, we modified NP oxidative decontamination solution by adding Cu{sup 2+} to reduce the corrosion rate. To evaluate the general corrosion characteristics, we measured the weight losses of selected specimens in an NP(Cu) and other solutions. The localized corrosion was observed using an optical microscope (OM). To compare the decontamination performance, we measured the contact dose rate of specimens treated in NP-HYBRID and NP(Cu)-HYBRID systems. The reduced corrosion characteristics of the Inconel-600 specimen in a NP(Cu) oxidative solution was observed in terms of generalized corrosion as well as localized corrosion. Less corrosion characteristics do not affect the performance of the overall decontamination compared to the NP-HYBRID process. Therefore, our results support that the NP(Cu)-HYBRID decontamination process is appropriate for the decontamination of the primary coolant system in a nuclear reactor.

  1. 76 FR 60922 - Kimberly Maloney, N.P.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... nurse practitioner, Kimberly Maloney, N.P. (Respondent), of Chula Vista, California, will be unable to... address of 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-9191 and a mailing address of 1503 Apache Drive, Unit A, Chula Vista, CA 81910; 2. In a letter dated April 3, 2009, Respondent requested that the...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Credit sales. The following provisions apply to MFH credit sales on NP terms: (1) Offers. Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-45 or FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-46, as appropriate, will be used to document the offer and acceptance. Contract...

  3. A New Spectral Shape-Based Record Selection Approach Using Np and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Bojórquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to improve code-based real records selection criteria, an approach inspired in a parameter proxy of spectral shape, named Np, is analyzed. The procedure is based on several objectives aimed to minimize the record-to-record variability of the ground motions selected for seismic structural assessment. In order to select the best ground motion set of records to be used as an input for nonlinear dynamic analysis, an optimization approach is applied using genetic algorithms focuse on finding the set of records more compatible with a target spectrum and target Np values. The results of the new Np-based approach suggest that the real accelerograms obtained with this procedure, reduce the scatter of the response spectra as compared with the traditional approach; furthermore, the mean spectrum of the set of records is very similar to the target seismic design spectrum in the range of interest periods, and at the same time, similar Np values are obtained for the selected records and the target spectrum.

  4. Measurements of np scattering at 96 and 162 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, N.; Rahm, J.; Blomgren, J.; Conde, H.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Roennqvist, T.; Zorro, R.; Ringbom, A.; Tibell, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents new, precise measurements of differential cross sections for np scattering at 96 and 162 MeV. The data are steeper at backward angles than most previous data, and point to the classical value for the charged πNN coupling constant. (orig.)

  5. Switching Between the NVT and NpT Ensembles Using the Reweighting and Reconstruction Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    thermodynamic conditions from a single MC Markov chain. The latter scheme, was first developed to extrapolate quantities in NV T ensemble for struc- tureless Lennard-Jones particles. However, it is evident that for most real life applications the NpT ensemble

  6. Ionization Spectroscopic Measurement of nP Rydberg Levels of 87Rb Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufan; Zaheeruddin, Syed; Zhao, Dongmei; Ma, Xinwen; Yang, Jie

    2018-05-01

    We created an ultracold plasma via the spontaneous ionization of cold dense Rydberg atoms of 87Rb in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and measured the nS1/2 (n = 50-80), nP1/2 (n = 16-23), nP3/2 (n = 16-98), and nD5/2 (n = 49-96) Rydberg levels by detecting the electrons in the ultracold plasma. By fitting the energy levels of Rydberg states, the first ionization potential of 33690.950(11) cm-1 and the quantum defects of S, P, and D orbitals were obtained. The absolute transition energies of nS1/2 (n = 66-80), nP1/2 (n = 16-23), nP3/2 (n = 16-98), and nD5/2 (n = 58-96) states of 87Rb, as well as the quantum defects for p1/2 and p3/2 series, are given for the first time.

  7. Two NP-hardness results for preemptive minsum scheduling of unrelated parallel machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, R.A.; Aardal, K.; Gerards, B.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the problems of minimizing total completion time and of minimizing the number of late jobs on unrelated parallel machines, when preemption is allowed, are both NP-hard in the strong sense. The former result settles a long-standing open question.

  8. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented. Keywords. ... J Adam et al. Table 1. Samples properties for 0.7 and 1 GeV experiments. ..... If we suppose that this conclusion is true also for ratios in ...

  9. Performance of CarbaNP and CIM tests in OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Serap Süzük; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Avcıküçük, Havva; Öztürk, Şükran

    2017-03-01

    This study applied two phenotypic tests, namely "Carbapenemase Nordmann-Poirel" (CarbaNP) test and "Carbapenem Inactivation Method" (CIM), against the isolates carrying the carbapenem resistance genes. The study included 83 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates producing oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) and 30 carbapenem-sensitive Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Out of the total isolates studied, 77 isolates (92.77%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and six isolates (7.23%) were identified as Escherichia coli by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method used to detect resistance genes found that 74 isolates (89.16%) produced OXA-48 carbapenemase, whereas nine isolates (10.84%) produced both OXA-48 and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1). The isolates producing both OXA-48 and NDM-1 were found to be positive by both phenotypic tests. Among isolates carrying only bla OXA-48 gene alone, nine isolates (13.04%) for CarbaNP test and two isolates for CIM test (2.90%) displayed false negative results, respectively. The sensitivity of CarbaNP and CIM tests was found to be 89.16% and 97.59%, respectively, whereas the specificity was determined to be 100% for both tests. These findings suggest that CarbaNP and CIM tests are useful tools to identify the carbapenemase producers. Molecular methods like PCR are recommended to verify false negative tests predicted to have OXA-48 activity.

  10. The clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in adrenal cortical diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Duk Kyu

    1997-01-01

    131 I-6-β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) has an advantage to assess adrenal dysfunction caused by adrenal cortical disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in each adrenal disease. Ten patients who did eleven NP-59 adrenal scintigraphies at Dong-A University Hospital from March 1990 to December 1996 were selected as the subject. Among the subject there were 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, 2 cases of incidentaloma, 1 case of metastatic adrenal tumor, liver cirrhosis with hirsutism and hypertension respectively. Among 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, there were 2 cases of Cushing's disease, 2 cases of adrenal adenoma and 1 case of adrenal carcinoma. There are no disagreement between clinical diagnosis and scan finding in Cushing's syndrome. In 2 incidentaloma cases, even though one is interpretated as a functioning tumor, both of 2 cases could avoid unnecessary biopsy according to scintigraphy result. One case of hirsutism, clinically adrenal originated, revealed the normal scintigraphic finding after dexamethasone suppression scan. It could suggest that the etiology of hirsutism was extra-adrenal origin. One case of hypertension took the study to exclude the possibility of primary aldosteronism. Normal suppression scan finding revealed that primary aldosteronism did not exist in this case. In conclusion, NP-59 scintigraphy was very useful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and it could avoid unnecessary biopsy in the incidental adrenal tumor

  11. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  12. A study of the multipolar composition of the electrofission cross section of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The electrofission cross section for 237 Np was measured over the energy range from 0,6 to 60,0 MeV. The multipolar composition of this cross section was investigated using the virtual photons formalism with three different techniques of analysis: unfolding and two versions of multiple parameter regression. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. Optimization of liquid media and biosafety assessment for algae-lysing bacterium NP23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunli; Liu, Xiaobo; Shan, Linna

    2014-09-01

    To control algal bloom caused by nutrient pollution, a wild-type algae-lysing bacterium was isolated from the Baiguishan reservoir in Henan province of China and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain NP23. Algal culture medium was optimized by applying a Placket-Burman design to obtain a high cell concentration of NP23. Three minerals (i.e., 0.6% KNO3, 0.001% MnSO4·H2O, and 0.3% K2HPO4) were found to be independent factors critical for obtaining the highest cell concentration of 10(13) CFU/mL, which was 10(4) times that of the control. In the algae-lysing experiment, the strain exhibited a high lysis rate for the 4 algae test species, namely, Chlorella vulgari, Scenedesmus, Microcystis wesenbergii, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity tests showed that the bacterium NP23 had no toxic and mutagenic effects on fish, even in large doses such as 10(7) or 10(9) CFU/mL. Thus, Enterobacter sp. strain NP23 has strong potential application in the microbial algae-lysing project.

  14. Silicate complexation of NpO2+ ion in perchlorate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Choppin, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Complexation behavior of NpO 2 + with ortho-silicic acid (o-SA) has been studied using solvent extraction at ionic strengths varying from 0.10 to 1.00M (NaClO 4 ) at pcH 3.68±0.08 and 25 deg C with bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as the extractant. The stability constant value (log β 1 ) for the 1:1 complex, NpO 2 (OSi(OH) 3 ), was found to decrease with increase in ionic strength of the aqueous phase [6.83±0.01 at I = 0.10M to 6.51±0.02 at I = 1.00M]. These values have been fitted in the SIT model expression and compared with similar values of complexation of the metal ions Am 3+ , Eu 3+ , UO 2 2+ , PuO 2 2+ , Np 4+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ . The speciation of NpO 2 + -o-silicate/carbonate system has been calculated as a function of pcH under ground water conditions. (author)

  15. Multimode approach to Am-241 and Np-237 fission induced by 660-MeV protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.; Demekhina, N. A.; Adam, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2009), s. 911-916 ISSN 1063-7788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : FISSION * Am-241 * Np-237 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.539, year: 2009

  16. Validity of the Generalized Brink-Axel Hypothesis in (238)Np.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttormsen, M; Larsen, A C; Görgen, A; Renstrøm, T; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G; Tveten, G M

    2016-01-08

    We analyze primary γ-ray spectra of the odd-odd (238)Np nucleus extracted from (237)Np(d,pγ)(238)Np coincidence data measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The primary γ spectra cover an excitation-energy region of 0≤E(I)≤5.4  MeV, and allow us to perform a detailed study of the γ-ray strength as a function of excitation energy. Hence, we can test the validity of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, which, in its strictest form, claims no excitation-energy dependence on the γ strength. In this work, using the available high-quality (238)Np data, we show that the γ-ray strength function is to a very large extent independent of the initial and final states. Thus, for the first time, the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is experimentally verified for γ transitions between states in the quasicontinuum region, not only for specific collective resonances, but also for the full strength below the neutron separation energy. Based on our findings, the necessary criteria for the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis to be fulfilled are outlined.

  17. The clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in adrenal cortical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyu [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 131}I-6-{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) has an advantage to assess adrenal dysfunction caused by adrenal cortical disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in each adrenal disease. Ten patients who did eleven NP-59 adrenal scintigraphies at Dong-A University Hospital from March 1990 to December 1996 were selected as the subject. Among the subject there were 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, 2 cases of incidentaloma, 1 case of metastatic adrenal tumor, liver cirrhosis with hirsutism and hypertension respectively. Among 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, there were 2 cases of Cushing's disease, 2 cases of adrenal adenoma and 1 case of adrenal carcinoma. There are no disagreement between clinical diagnosis and scan finding in Cushing's syndrome. In 2 incidentaloma cases, even though one is interpretated as a functioning tumor, both of 2 cases could avoid unnecessary biopsy according to scintigraphy result. One case of hirsutism, clinically adrenal originated, revealed the normal scintigraphic finding after dexamethasone suppression scan. It could suggest that the etiology of hirsutism was extra-adrenal origin. One case of hypertension took the study to exclude the possibility of primary aldosteronism. Normal suppression scan finding revealed that primary aldosteronism did not exist in this case. In conclusion, NP-59 scintigraphy was very useful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and it could avoid unnecessary biopsy in the incidental adrenal tumor.

  18. Characterization of reduced height mutant of emmer wheat var. NP200 (Triticum dicoccum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Sud; Nayeem, K.A.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Emmer wheat commonly known as Khapli is cultivated on limited area in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Although cultivation of emmer wheat is confirmed to a small area, improvement work in this species is gaining importance because of its potential for diabetic patients and high dietary fibre in comparison to durum and bread wheats. Emmer wheat cultivar NP200 is a selection from local wheats of Andhra Pradesh. The cultivar NP200 is tall and is prone to lodging leading to yield loss. Therefore, systematic effort to improve cultivar NP200 is needed with the objective to reduce height and introduce lodging tolerance and to improve harvest index. The cultivar NP200 was irradiated with γ-rays. A reduced height mutant with vigorous growth and high tillering was found in M2 population. The mutant was designated as HW1095. The progeny of mutant in M3 showed 35.7 percent reduction in height as compared to parent. The HW1095 mutant was subjected to gibberellic acid treatment at seedling stage and was found to be insensitive to gibberellic acid. An allele specific marker for major dwarfing gene Rht B1b was used to check the status of dwarfing gene in semi dwarf emmer (DDK1009, DDK1025, HW5013, HW5301 and MACS2961) and tall emmer (Np200 and NP201), semi dwarf durums (HD4502, HD4530, MACS2846) along with dwarf mutant (HW1095). The validity of primer in semi dwarf durums and emmer for Rht B 1b gene was found to be perfect. The parent variety NP200 showed presence of wild type allele (Rht B1a) with the primer pair BF-WR1. All semi dwarf emmer showed a band of 237 bp with primer pair BF-MR1. However, mutant (HW1095) showed absence of amplification for both Rht B1a and Rht B1b alleles with respective primer pairs. The results indicated that the reduced height mutant carried a mutation different than from the existing allele (Rht B1b)

  19. Dentist's opinion toward treatment of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSadhan, Raed; AlManee, Abdullatif

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of dentists in Riyadh city about treatment alternatives available for pregnant patients. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 500 dentists practicing in Riyadh city. The questionnaire included data on dentists socio-demographic and practice characteristics in addition to management choices of the pregnant dental patient such as dental treatment practices and selected therapeutic choices. Out of the questionnaires distributed, 212 questionnaires were collected (42.5% response rate). Most of the participants were general practitioners, with less than 5 years clinical experience, who obtained their degree from local institutes and practiced in the government sectors. Over half of the participants stated that they would radiograph a pregnant patient who was suffering from pain from a tooth with doubtful diagnosis or would extract a non-restorable painful tooth. Two-thirds of the participating dentists would not replace a missing molar with a fixed partial denture during pregnancy. The majority of the participants (86%) would give oral hygiene instructions, prescribe a mouthwash and do scaling and/or root planing for a pregnant patient with gingival bleeding and calculus deposits. In respect to antibiotics, the majority of the dentists (96%) would prescribe amoxicillin to a pregnant patient. Of the four analgesic agents surveyed, paracetamol was the most popular analgesic agent (96.7%). On the use of local anesthetics, the majority of the dentists (75%) would use lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and would not use prilocaine with felypressin vasoconstrictor. The study showed that there was a lack of knowledge about the clinical management of the pregnant dental patients among the surveyed dentists regardless of their socio-demographic and practice characteristics necessitating continuous dental education programs on the dental management of pregnant dental patients. (author)

  20. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  1. Synthesis and crystal structures of new complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine, [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].1.5H2O and [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].2.5H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charushnikova, I.A.; Krot, N.N.; Starikova, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals were prepared, and the structures of two complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine of the compositions [NpO 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )(OOC 2 H 2 OH)].1.5H 2 O (I) and [NpO 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )(OOC 2 H 2 OH)]2.5H 2 O (II) were studied. The structures of the compounds are based on neptunyl-glycolate chains in which the glycolate anion manifests its complexation ability in different manner. In structure I, the bidentate-bridging anion links the adjacent NpO 2 - cations through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group. The neptunyl-glycolate chains of I exhibits the mutual coordination of the NpO 2 - cations acting toward each other simultaneously as ligands and coordinating centers. In compound II, the glycolate anion is bidentately coordinated to one neptunium atom to form a planar five-membered metallocycle [NpOCCO]. The O atom external with respect to the metallocycle is in the coordination environment of the adjacent neptunyl. The nitrogen-containing molecular ligand Bipy is included into the coordination environment of Np. The coordination polyhedron of the Np atoms in both structures is a pentagonal bipyramid in which the average Np-N bond length is 2.666 Aa (I) and 2.596 Aa (II). (orig.)

  2. A comparison of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant and non pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties study of neptunium compounds: NpX{sub 3} and Np{sub 2}T{sub 2}X by Moessbauer effect, neutrons diffraction and Squid magnetometry; Etude des proprietes magnetiques et electroniques de composes de neptunium NpX{sub 3} et Np{sub 2}T{sub 2}X par spectrometrie mossbauer, diffraction de neutrons et magnetometrie squid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colineau, E.

    1996-07-11

    This work is a contribution to the study of magnetic and electronic properties of the intermetallic compounds: NpX{sub 3} (X= Al, Ga, In, Sn) and Np{sub 2}T{sub 2}X (T= Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt; X= In, Sn). These properties have been determined by Moessbauer effect, neutron diffraction and Squid magnetometry. The obtained results for NpX{sub 3} show particularly that NpAl{sub 3} orders in a type II (k= 1/2 1/2 1/2) antiferromagnetic structure at T{sub N} {approx_equal} 37 K. The antiferromagnetic phase NpGa{sub 3} orders in a type II too and the magnetic moments carried by neptunium in the ferromagnetic phase are oriented along the (111) axes. The two NpIN{sub 3} magnetic phases observed by Moessbauer effect (4.2 K-10 K and 10 K- 14 K) are identified by neutron diffraction as ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic (k= 3/8 3/8 3/8). In this last phase the moments are oriented along the (111) axes. The magnetization measures on monocrystals show a weak anisotropy with (111) at all the temperatures and reveal the presence of a third magnetic phase between 8.2 and 10 K. At last, the fundamental state of the compounds NpAl{sub 3}, NpGa{sub 3} and NpIn{sub 3} is attributed to the {Gamma}{sub 5} crystal field and the strong reduction of the ordered moment in NpSn{sub 3} to a Kondo effect. Concerning the Np{sub 2}T{sub 2}X compounds, the Moessbauer effect measures have revealed that eight of these compounds order and three do not order. (O.M.). 239 refs.

  4. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  5. Intravenous Exposure of Pregnant Mice to Silver Nanoparticles: Silver Tissue Distribution and Effects in Maternal and Extra-Embryonic Tissues and Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carlye Anne

    This research explores the tissue distribution of silver, as well as adverse effects in pregnant mice and embryos, following prenatal silver nanoparticle (AgNP) exposure. Chapter one of this dissertation is a survey of the published literature on the reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of AgNPs. The available data indicate that AgNPs adversely affect sperm count, viability, and/or motility both in vivo and in vitro, and cause apoptosis and necrosis in spermatogonial stem cells and testicular cells. Additionally, AgNP exposure results in mortality and morphological deformities in fish embryos, but produces no adverse effects in chicken embryos. The current published research on in vivo AgNP exposure to mammals during gestation consists of only three studies, one of which is described in chapter two of this dissertation. These studies report results that may suggest a potential for adverse effects on fetal development (e.g. , decreased viability and fetal and placental weights, increased incidence of developmentally young embryos), but additional research is needed. Chapter two of this dissertation investigates the distribution of silver in tissues of pregnant mice and gestation day (GD) 10 embryos following intravenous maternal exposure to 50 nm AgNPs during early organogenesis (GDs 7-9). Examinations of embryo morphology and histology were also performed. Results demonstrated the presence of silver in all organs and tissues examined. Silver concentrations were highest in liver, spleen, and visceral yolk sac, and lowest in embryos. Groups of mice were also treated with soluble silver nitrate, and the pattern of silver tissue distribution following silver nitrate exposure was similar to that which followed AgNP treatment. Transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) confirmed the presence of vesicle-bound nanoparticulate silver in visceral yolk sac endoderm, but not mesoderm. This finding, along with the high silver

  6. Porcine bocavirus NP1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the DNA-binding domain of IRF9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruoxi; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.

  7. Porcine bocavirus NP1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the DNA-binding domain of IRF9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruoxi [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi [College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering, Wuhan 430415 (China); Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-11-15

    To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.

  8. The nonstructural protein NP1 of human bocavirus 1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hela cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bin; Cai, Yingyue; Li, Yongshu; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Kaiyu; Li, Yi; Yang, Yongbo

    2013-01-01

    Human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV1) is a newly identified pathogen associated with human respiratory tract illnesses. Previous studies demonstrated that proteins of HBoV1 failed to cause cell death, which is considered as a possible common feature of bocaviruses. However, our work showed that the NP1 of HBoV1 induced apoptotic cell death in Hela cells in the absence of viral genome replication and expression of other viral proteins. Mitochondria apoptotic pathway was involved in the NP1-induced apoptosis that was confirmed by apoptotic characteristics including morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. We also demonstrated that the cell cycle of NP1-transfected Hela cells was transiently arrested at G2/M phase followed by rapid appearance of apoptosis and that the N terminal domain of NP1 was critical to its nuclear localization and function in apoptosis induction in Hela cells. These findings might provide alternative information for further study of mechanism of HBoV1 pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► NP1 protein of HBoV1 induced apoptosis in Hela cells was first reported. ► NP1 induced-apoptosis followed the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. ► The NP1 induced-apoptosis was mediated by mitochondrion apoptotic pathway. ► N terminal of NP1 was critical for apoptosis induction and nuclear localization

  9. The nonstructural protein NP1 of human bocavirus 1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hela cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin; Cai, Yingyue; Li, Yongshu [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Li, Jingjing [College of Life Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, Hubei (China); Liu, Kaiyu [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: johnli2668@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Bioengineering Department, Wuhan Bioengineering Institute, Wuhan 430415, Hubei (China); Yang, Yongbo, E-mail: yongboyang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China)

    2013-05-25

    Human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV1) is a newly identified pathogen associated with human respiratory tract illnesses. Previous studies demonstrated that proteins of HBoV1 failed to cause cell death, which is considered as a possible common feature of bocaviruses. However, our work showed that the NP1 of HBoV1 induced apoptotic cell death in Hela cells in the absence of viral genome replication and expression of other viral proteins. Mitochondria apoptotic pathway was involved in the NP1-induced apoptosis that was confirmed by apoptotic characteristics including morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. We also demonstrated that the cell cycle of NP1-transfected Hela cells was transiently arrested at G2/M phase followed by rapid appearance of apoptosis and that the N terminal domain of NP1 was critical to its nuclear localization and function in apoptosis induction in Hela cells. These findings might provide alternative information for further study of mechanism of HBoV1 pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► NP1 protein of HBoV1 induced apoptosis in Hela cells was first reported. ► NP1 induced-apoptosis followed the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. ► The NP1 induced-apoptosis was mediated by mitochondrion apoptotic pathway. ► N terminal of NP1 was critical for apoptosis induction and nuclear localization.

  10. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  11. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  12. Distribution of global fallout sup 237 Np, Pu isotopes, and sup 241 Am in lake and sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Y; Chatani, K; Komura, K; Ueno, Kaoru; Sakanoue, Masanobu [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Low Level Radioactivity Lab.; Igarashi, Syuiti [Fukui Prefectural Inst. of Public Health (Japan)

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the sedimentary behaviour of neptunium, {sup 237}Np together with Pu isotopes and {sup 241}Am were measured for the sediment cores collected from Lake Mikata (freshwater), from Lake Kugushi (brakish water) and from Nyu Bay (sea water). In all sediment core samples {sup 237}Np was detected, and its concentrations were far below those of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am measured for the same samples. Inventories of {sup 237}Np in the lakes were estimated to be 0.53, 0.29 and 0.34 MBq/km{sup 2}, respectively. The activity ratios of {sup 237}Np/{sup 239,240}Pu, except for Lake Mikata, are two or three times lower than the value of 0.3-0.4% observed for surface soils of 0-20 cm depth, suggesting that Np is more soluble compared with Pu. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs.

  13. Initial investigations of (np)-scattering with a polarized deuterium target at ANKE-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of the forces among nucleons is fundamental to the whole of nuclear and hadronic physics. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering is the ideal probe to study the nuclear forces. The scattering amplitudes for the complete description of the NN interactions can be reconstructed from phase-shift analyses (PSA), which requires measurements with polarized experiments. The existing data allow to extract unambiguous proton-proton (pp) amplitudes below 2 GeV. However, there is very little known about the neutron-proton (np) system above 800 MeV nucleon energy. THE ANKE-COSY collaboration has embarked on a systematic program which aims to extract the np scattering amplitudes through the deuteron-proton charge-exchange process dp→{pp}{sub s}n. First part of the program via polarized deuteron beam and hydrogen target allowed successful measurement of np amplitudes up to 1.135 GeV nucleon energy, which is the maximum nucleon energy that can be accessed with deuteron beam at COSY. Via inverse kinematics, i.e. using a proton beam incident on a polarized deuterium target will allow to enhance the np study up to 2.8 GeV, the highest energy available at COSY. The method of inverse kinematics has to be validated prior to the production experiment. As the proof-of-principle (POP) experiment, the initial research has been conducted at proton energy T{sub p}=600 MeV using a polarized deuterium target. The projectiles were measured by two silicon tracking telescopes (STT) placed closed to the target and by the ANKE sub-detection systems. Four polarization modes of the deuterium target were employed. In order to increase the effective target thickness, polarized deuterium atoms produced by the atomic beam source (ABS) was filled into a storage cell, where the circulating COSY beam collides with the target. The target polarizations were measured using the proton-deuteron elastic reaction. The vector and tensor analyzing powers A{sub y} and A{sub yy} of pvector d

  14. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  15. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  16. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A.; Domènech, Òscar; Banjar, Zainy M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  17. Developmental and testicular toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate in the rat and the impact of study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Dormans JAMA; Elvers LH; Valk V de; Biesebeek JD te; Pieters MN; Slob W; LEO

    1999-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate was investigated in the rat in an alternative study design using ten treatment groups. The effect of exposure period was studied, and a comparison of reaction to treatment in pregnant versus non-pregnant females was made. The classical data

  18. Histopathological alterations in neonate after in utero irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Gawad, I.I.

    2000-01-01

    Series of experiments were performed to study the histopathological changes induced in embryonic tissue during various stages of gestation in female rats after gamma irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to doses 0.5, 1,2 and 3 Gy on 9 th 12 th and 15 th days of gestation. Histopathological changes were detected in tissues of neonates, namely, liver ileum, kidney, brain, spleen, suprarenal, thymus, lungs and heart. These tissues showed variable degrees of radiation induced tissue changes. For quantifying these changes arbitrary scores were formulated to assess the type and severity of changes observed tissues of thirty six neonates randomly selected after radiation exposure of pregnant animals as scheduled

  19. ΔNp63α induces the expression of FAT2 and Slug to promote tumor invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tuyen T.; Westcott, Jill M.; Maine, Erin A.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Xing, Chao; Pearson, Gray W.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor invasion can be induced by changes in gene expression that alter cell phenotype. The transcription factor ΔNp63α promotes basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) migration by inducing the expression of the mesenchymal genes Slug and Axl, which confers cells with a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal state. However, the extent of the ΔNp63α regulated genes that support invasive behavior is not known. Here, using gene expression analysis, ChIP-seq, and functional testing, we find that ΔNp63α promotes BLBC motility by inducing the expression of the atypical cadherin FAT2, the vesicular binding protein SNCA, the carbonic anhydrase CA12, the lipid binding protein CPNE8 and the kinase NEK1, along with Slug and Axl. Notably, lung squamous cell carcinoma migration also required ΔNp63α dependent FAT2 and Slug expression, demonstrating that ΔNp63α promotes migration in multiple tumor types by inducing mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal genes. ΔNp63α activation of FAT2 and Slug influenced E-cadherin localization to cell-cell contacts, which can restrict spontaneous cell movement. Moreover, live-imaging of spheroids in organotypic culture demonstrated that ΔNp63α, FAT2 and Slug were essential for the extension of cellular protrusions that initiate collective invasion. Importantly, ΔNp63α is co-expressed with FAT2 and Slug in patient tumors and the elevated expression of ΔNp63α, FAT2 and Slug correlated with poor patient outcome. Together, these results reveal how ΔNp63α promotes cell migration by directly inducing the expression of a cohort of genes with distinct cellular functions and suggest that FAT2 is a new regulator of collective invasion that may influence patient outcome. PMID:27081041

  20. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium sp. (cultured at different N/P ratios on micro and mesozooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Vaqué

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether two potential predators such as Oxyrrhis marina (phagotrophic dinoflagellate and Acartia margalefi (Copepoda: Calanoida had different responses when feeding on toxic (Karlodinium sp.-strain CSIC1- or non-toxic (Gymnodinium sp1 dinoflagellates with a similar shape and size. Both prey were cultured at different N/P ratios (balanced N/P = 15, and P-limited N/P > 15 to test whether P-limitation conditions could lead to depressed grazing rates or have other effects on the predators. Both predators ingested the non-toxic Gymnodinium sp1, and low or non-ingestion rates were observed when incubated with Karlodinium sp. The dinoflagellate O. marina did not graze at all on Karlodinium sp. at N/P > 15 and very little at NP = 15, as its net growth rates were always negative when feeding on Karlodinium sp. cultured under P-limitation conditions. A. margalefi had lower ingestion rates when feeding on Karlodinium sp. grown at N/P = 15 than when feeding on Gymnodinium sp1, and did not graze on P-limited Karlodinium sp. Nevertheless, feeding on Karlodinium sp. grown under N/P =15 or N/P > 15 did not have any paralyzing or lethal effect on A. margalefi after 24 h. Finally, a direct effect on the viability of A. margalefi eggs was detected when healthy eggs were incubated for 5 days in the presence of Karlodinium sp. grown under N/P =15 or N/P > 15, producing a decrease in viability of 20% and 60% respectively.