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Sample records for pregnant cows starting

  1. Immune response to Babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T D; Figueroa, M J V; Ramos, A J A; Rojas, M C; Cantó, A G J; Falcón, N A; Alvarez, M J A

    2004-10-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector Boophilus microplus. In this study, we investigate B. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, T cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.

  2. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed

  3. Sensor data on cow activity, rumination, and ear temperature improve prediction of the start of calving in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Kamphuis, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Steeneveld, W.

    2017-01-01

    Management during calving is important for the health and survival of dairy cows and their calves. Although the expected calving date is known, this information is imprecise and farmers still have to check a cow regularly to identify when it starts calving. A sensor system that predicts the momen

  4. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  5. The slaughter of increased numbers of pregnant cows in Tanga abattoir, Tanzania: A cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Swai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the level of foetal wastage in slaughtered cattle in Tanzania is limited. A three-month observational study (April – June 2014 of animals slaughtered at the Tanga abattoir in Tanga region, Tanzania was carried out to determine the number of pregnant cows slaughtered. The total number of cattle slaughtered during the study period was 3643, representing a monthly kill average of 1214 and a daily kill average of 40. Over 98% of the cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter were local breed (Tanzania shorthorn zebu and most were above 3 years of age. Improved breeds of cattle represented only 1.3% of all slaughters. Of the cattle slaughtered, 2256 (61.9% were female and 1387 (38.1% were male. A total of 655 slaughtered cows were pregnant, representing a foetal wastage of 29.1%. Of the 655 recovered foetuses, 333 (50.8% were male and 322 (49.2% were female. Of the recovered foetuses, 25.8% were recovered in the first, 42.7% in the second and 31.6% in the third trimester. This study indicates cases of significant foetal losses, negatively impacting future replacement stock as a result of the slaughter of pregnant animals. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows suggests that existing animal welfare legislation is not sufficiently enforced and routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of trade animals is failing to prevent the high level of foetal wastage.

  6. Transrectal combined thickness of the uterus and placenta in normal pregnant Egyptian buffalo-cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, H; Abdalla, H; Labib, F; Eidaroos, A

    2012-04-15

    The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) is one of the characteristics that can be used to assess fetal development and/or placental function in bovine. The current study was designed to establish reference values for the CTUP throughout pregnancy in normal pregnant buffalo-cows. The CTUP at the intracotyledonary space was measured monthly from the second month until full term using electronic calipers of the ultrasound machine. The CTUP increased monthly from 2.5 mm at the second month to 12 mm at the full term. During the last trimester, the monthly increase in the CTUP was higher than that recorded during the first and second trimesters. The result of the current study can be used as normal values for future studies of CTUP in pathologically pregnant buffalo-cows.

  7. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo vaccination of pregnant beef cows and subsequent growth rate of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, R G

    1980-10-01

    Five experiments with Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo vaccine were carried out over a 6-year period in pregnant Brahman-cross and Sahiwal-cross cows in the dry tropics on northern Queensland. The numbers ranged from 127 breeders aged 2 to 5 years in 1972 to 344 breeders aged 2 to 9 years in 1977. Half of the cows were vaccinated twice in mid-pregnancy except for 1977, when they were vaccinated once. In 1975-1977 inclusive, half of the heifers were given an additional dose of vaccine at commencement of mating. Vaccination caused a significant (P less than 0.01) reduction of prenatal loss but not of perinatal or postnatal losses. Growth rates of calves from vaccinated and unvaccinated dams were similar.

  8. Starting Ovsynch protocol on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle increased fertility in dairy cows by affecting ovarian response during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective was to compare fertility in cows using an Ovsynch protocol starting on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle with an Ovsynch protocol initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle during heat stress (temperature-humidity index (THI)=77-83). Cows (n=459) at the beginning of the lactation period were randomly assigned to time-of-ovulation synchronization treatments: (1) control, Ovsynch (first GnRH treatment, PGF2α treatment 7 days later, second GnRH treatment 56 h later, and TAI 16 h later), initiated at random stages of the estrous cycle (40 ± 2 days postpartum, n=224) and (2) Ovsynch initiated on day 6 of first postpartum estrous cycle (estrus=day 0) based on detection of the first estrus after day 30 postpartum (O6, 35 ± 2 postpartum, n=235). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS. The percentage of cows responding to the initial GnRH injection using the Ovsynch protocol was greater with the O6 treatment compared to the control treatment (60.4% compared with 52.6%). The percentage of cows having a corpus luteum (CL) on the day of the PGF2α injection was not different among treatments (control=87.0% and O6=90.2%, respectively). Also more cows in the O6 treatment group responded to the second GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol compared with control treatments (82.5% compared with 75.8%). Treatment affected the percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32 ± 0.7 days and 60 ± 3 days after the resynchronized timing of AI but pregnancy losses (5.3% compared with 6.8%) did not differ between treatment groups. It is concluded that initiating the Ovsynch protocol 6 days after estrus during the first 40 days postpartum resulted in a greater pregnancy rate at the synchronized estrus and increased fertility compared with control cows during heat stress.

  9. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  10. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...... was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited...... and magnesium is presumed to result from a combination of interference of zeolite with intestinal absorption and a marginal dietary supplementation of these minerals....

  11. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P feeding events, but these were of longer (P feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P feed for similar levels of productivity, spent less time engaged in feeding-behavior-related activities, and differed in ruminal fermentation parameters. Feeding events are a significant (17%) contributory factor to variation in RFI in pregnant beef cows offered grass silage.

  12. Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenk, Lisa; Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine; Nagel, Christina

    2015-11-01

    In this study, fetomaternal electrocardiograms were recorded once weekly in cattle during the last 14 weeks of gestation. From the recorded beat-to-beat (RR) intervals, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) were calculated. To differentiate between effects of lactation and gestation, pregnant lactating (PL) cows (n = 7) and pregnant nonlactating (PNL) heifers (n = 8) were included. We hypothesized that lactation is associated with stress detectable by HRV analysis. We also followed the hypothesis that heart rate and HRV are influenced by growth and maturation of the fetus toward term. Maternal heart rate changed over time in both groups, and in PL cows, it decreased with drying-off. During the last 5 weeks of gestation, maternal heart rate increased in both groups but was lower in PL cows than in PNL heifers. Maternal HRV did not change over time, but SDRR was significantly higher in PL cows than in PNL heifers, and significant interactions of group × time existed. On the basis of HRV, undisturbed pregnancies are thus no stressor for the dam in cattle. Fetal heart rate decreased from week 14 to week 1 before birth with no difference between groups. Gestational age thus determines heart rate in the bovine fetus. The HRV variables SDRR and RMSSD increased toward the end of gestation in fetuses carried by cows but not in those carried by heifers. The increase in HRV indicates maturation of fetal cardiac regulation which may be overrun by high sympathoadrenal activity in fetuses carried by heifers as suggested by their low HRV.

  13. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  14. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  15. Healthy Start Programa Madrina: A Promotora Home Visiting Outreach and Education Program to Improve Perinatal Health among Latina Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Debra E.; Hock-Long, Linda; Mesure, Maryann; Bryer, Pamela; Zambrano, Neydary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of Healthy Start Programa Madrina (HSPM), a home visiting promotora outreach and education program for Latina pregnant women and to present the 10-year findings of the program (1996-2005). Perinatal health disparities continue to persist among low-income…

  16. Consequences of starting whole cow milk at 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnessen, W W; Oski, F A

    1987-12-01

    Two groups of infants, one fed whole cow milk commencing at 6 months of age (n = 69) and the other continuing to receive iron-fortified infant formula (n = 98), were closely observed over their second 6 months of life. At 12 months of age, infants fed cow milk had significantly lower mean serum ferritin levels and mean corpuscular volume, higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin values, and greater incidence of hemoglobin values less than 11 g/dl than did formula-fed infants. There were no significant differences in frequency of otitis media, wheezing episodes, nasal discharge or congestion, diaper dermatitis, constipation, guaiac-positive stools, or hospital admissions between the two groups. These data suggest that, to avoid iron deficiency, infants should continue to receive iron-fortified formula throughout the first year of life or a daily iron supplement if they are fed whole cow milk before their first birthday.

  17. Seasonal heat stress affects adipose tissue proteome toward enrichment of the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in late-pregnant dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Kra, G; Livshitz, L; Portnick, Y; Yakoby, S; Friedlander, G; Levin, Y

    2017-03-31

    Environmental heat stress and metabolic stress during transition from late gestation to lactation are main factors limiting production in dairy cattle, and there is a complex interaction between them. Many proteins expressed in adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress. We aimed to investigate the effects of seasonal heat stress on adipose proteome in late-pregnant cows, and to identify biomarkers of heat stress. Late pregnant cows during summer heat stress (S, n=18), or during the winter season (W, n=12) were used. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies sampled 14days prepartum from S (n=10) and W (n=8) were analyzed by intensity-based, label-free, quantitative shotgun proteomics (nano-LC-MS/MS). Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and cortisol were higher in S than in W cows. Proteomic analysis revealed that 107/1495 proteins were differentially abundant in S compared to W (Padipose were Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response, acute-phase response, and FXR/RXR and LXR/RXR activation. Novel biomarkers of heat stress in adipose tissue were found. These findings indicate that seasonal heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows. This work shows that seasonal heat stress increases plasma concentrations of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and cortisol in transition dairy cows. As many proteins expressed in the adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress, we investigated the effects of heat stress on the proteome of adipose tissue from late-pregnant cows during summer or winter seasons. We demonstrated that heat stress enriches several stress-related pathways, such as the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response and the acute-phase response in adipose tissues. Thus, environmental heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows, as part of the regulatory adaptations to chronic heat load during the summer season. In addition, this study presents the widest available

  18. HoBi-Like Virus RNA Detected in Foetuses Following Challenge of Pregnant Cows that had Previously Given Birth to Calves Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Ridpath, J F

    2016-09-11

    The ability of ruminant pestivirus including bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the related emerging pestivirus, HoBi-like virus, to establish persistent infection (PI) following foetal infection is central to keeping these viruses in circulation. Non-PI dams carrying BVDV PI calves develop high levels of immunity due constantly viral exposure. A study to determine whether the immunity developed following the generation of a BVDV PI is enough to prevent HoBi-like virus infection of a subsequent foetus was performed. This study consisted of nine pregnant cows, four had birthed BVDV-1 PI calves in a previous pregnancy, three cows had birthed BVDV-2 PIs and two had birthed pestivirus negative calves. From this, six pregnant cows were challenged with HoBi-like virus about day 85 of gestation (four BVDV-1 and two BVDV-2 cows) and three non-challenged cows (negative control). At the day of challenge, the serum neutralizing titres against the homologous BVDV strains of the first inoculation ranged from 1148 to 5793. At day 6 post-challenge, HoBi-like RNA was detected in the serum of all four BVDV-1 cows but not in the two BVDV-2 cows. The foetuses harvested from five of the exposed dams (three BVDV-1 and two BVDV-2 cows) at day 30 post-challenge were positive for HoBi-like virus RNA. The sixth cow, BVDV-1 cow #541, while pregnant at the time of exposure, had no foetus 30 days after exposure. Foetuses from HoBi-like virus exposed dams were significantly smaller and lighter than control foetuses. HoBi-like RNA was detected in samples of all challenged foetuses. The identification of viral RNA in the serum of 4 cows at day 6 post-challenge, as well viral RNA detection in all foetuses 30 days post-inoculation, indicates that the foetuses of dams with high antibodies titres against BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 would not be protected from challenge with a HoBi-like virus.

  19. Retention in care of HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women starting ART under Option B+ in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P < 0.001) and to have no follow-up after the first visit (42.4% vs. 29.2% vs. 16.4%; P < 0.001) than 'own health' women. In adjusted analyses, risk of being lost to follow-up was higher in 'B+ pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P < 0.001) and 'B+ lactating' (asHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.37-2.74; P < 0.001). Type 2 health centre was the only additional significant risk factor for loss to follow-up. Retention among PLW starting option B+ ART was poor and mainly driven by early losses. The success of Option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural settings with weak health systems will depend on specific improvements in counselling and retention measures, especially at the beginning of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10(-7)M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P<0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P<0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P<0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P<0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P<0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  2. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families.

  3. Effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Tchimbou, A F; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. Studies have shown that N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed Holstein Friesian (HF) pregnancies. This study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (P4), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG)-1 and -2, and prolactin patterns produced during gestation in N caninum-infected beef/dairy cows. We analyzed 74 pregnancies in nonaborting cows carrying a single fetus established in 26 lactating HF cows bred with Holstein bulls (H-H), 13 HF cows bred with Limousin bulls (H-L), 12 HF cows used as recipients of transferred in vivo-produced frozen-thawed Rubia Gallega (beef breed; RG) embryos (H-RG-ET), and 23 RG suckling cows bred with RG bulls (RG-RG). Of the cows, 29 (39%) were seropositive for N caninum. Blood samples for hormone and placental protein determinations were collected on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 of gestation. Procedures of repeated measures analysis of variance throughout gestation revealed higher PAG-1 levels in the H-L and H-RG-ET groups compared with H-H and RG-RG. Higher prolactin levels were detected in RG-RG than in the remaining groups. N caninum seropositivity and fetal genotype had a significant effect on PAG-2 concentrations, such that highest levels of PAG-2 occurred in RG-RG seropositive cows and lowest in H-H seropositive cows, whereas Neospora-seropositive cows showed lower P4 concentrations than their seronegative partners. In conclusion, chronic N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns of PAG-2 and P4 during pregnancy, whereas PAG-1 and prolactin concentrations are affected by breed and fetal genotype, irrespective of Neospora infection status.

  4. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Sato, Akio

    2005-01-01

    The continued increase in incidence of some hormone-related cancers worldwide is of great concern. Although estrogen-like substances in the environment were blamed for this increase, the possible role of endogenous estrogens from food has not been widely discussed. We are particularly concerned about cows' milk, which contains a considerable quantity of estrogens. When we name cows' milk as one of the important routes of human exposure to estrogens, the general response of Western people is that "man has been drinking cows' milk for around 2000 years without apparent harm." However, the milk that we are now consuming is quite different from that consumed 100 years ago. Unlike their pasture-fed counterparts of 100 years ago, modern dairy cows are usually pregnant and continue to lactate during the latter half of pregnancy, when the concentration of estrogens in blood, and hence in milk, increases. The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers (1993-97 from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents) with food intake (1961-97 from FAOSTAT) in 40 countries. Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862). Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767). Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0

  5. Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Lora, I; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F

    2015-11-01

    Reference limits for metabolic profiles in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows were determined considering the effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. Blood samples were collected from 104 pregnant heifers and 186 dry cows (68 primiparous and 118 pluriparous) from 60 to 10 d before the expected calving date in 31 dairy farms in northeastern Italy. Sampling was performed during summer (182 samples) and the following winter (108 samples). All the animals were judged as clinically healthy at a veterinary visit before sampling. Outliers were removed from data of each blood analyte, and variables that were not normally distributed were log transformed. A mixed model was used to test the fixed effects of parity (late-pregnant heifers, primiparous or pluriparous dry cows), class of days relative to calving (60-41 d, 40-21 d, 20-10 d), season (summer or winter), and the interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season, with farm as random effect. Single general reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for analytes that did not vary according to fixed effects. Whenever a fixed effect included in the model significantly affected a given analyte, specific reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for each of its levels. Albumin, urea, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, conjugated bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, chloride, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were not influenced by any of the fixed effects. Total protein, globulins, creatinine, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium plasma concentrations were affected by parity. The class of days relative to calving had a significant effect on the concentrations of total protein, globulins, fatty acids, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and sodium. Season affected plasma concentrations of

  6. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system.

  7. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors.

  8. Factors associated with the differential in actual gestational age and gestational age predicted from transrectal ultrasonography in pregnant dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine (1) how gestational age predicted using transrectal ultrasonography related to actual gestational age derived as the number of days from the most recent artificial insemination date, (2) what factors, if any, were associated with the differential between the two measures, and (3) the association between this differential in gestational age and the likelihood of subsequent pregnancy loss, stillbirth, or calving dystocia. The data set contained 7340 ultrasound records from 6805 Holstein Friesian dairy cows in 175 herds. Ultrasonography assessment underestimated gestational age relative to days since last service by 0.51 days (standard error [SE]: 0.040), although the differential was less during embryonic development phase (i.e., ≤42 days of gestation; mean overestimation of 0.31 days) versus fetal development phase (i.e., >42 days of gestation; mean underestimation of 0.81 days). Predicted calving date calculated from ultrasonography was 1.41 days (SE: 0.040) later than the actual subsequent calving date and was, on average, 0.52 days later than predicted calving date, assuming a gestation length of 282 days. Parity of the dam (P gestation length. Gestation length was 1.27 days longer (SE: 0.01) for bull calves compared to heifer calves. Calves from beef sires had a longer gestation length than calves from dairy sires, and older parity cows had a longer gestation length than younger cows. The results highlight factors associated with differences in gestational age obtained from ultrasonography and insemination data and illustrate the value of ultrasonography for the prediction of calving date and pregnancy loss.

  9. Use of pregnant mare’s sera gonadotropin (PMSG in media in vitro maturation of cow oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaituni Udin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that hormone addition in media helps in vitro maturation of oocyte. This research was aimmed to determine the effect of PMSG in media to maturation rate and nucleous developvement of cow oocyte. Ovaries were obtainned from local slaughterhouse. The media used for in vitro maturation of oocyte was TCM- 199 and the treatment was 3 levels of PMSG: 0, 10 and 20 mg/ml. Result of this research showed that the dose of PMSG in maturation media was significantly affected (P<0.05 nucleolus development of oocytes and maturation rate. The average of germinal vesicle (GV stage in 3 levels of PMSG 0, 10 and 20 mg/ml were 38.33; 12.64 and 9.64%, respectivelly. There was no germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD found in 3 levels of PMSG addition. The nucleous development of metaphase–I (M-I were 7.64; 20.2 and 22.00%, but the average of maturation rate (M-II was 16.32; 48.10 and 35.34% for 3 levels of PMSG: 0, 10 and 20 mg/ml, respectivelly. It is concluded that 10 mg/ml PMSG in media of in vitro maturation resuls in the highest maturation rate of cow oocyte.

  10. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  11. Conceptus-induced changes in the endometrial transcriptome: how soon does the cow know she is pregnant?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, F; Spencer, T.E.; Bazer, F.W.; Sandra, Olivier; Mansouri-Attia, N.; Okumu, L.A.; McGettigan, P.A.; Mehta, J P; McBride, R; O'Gaora, P.; Roche, J. F.; Lonergan, P

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine the earliest response of the bovine uterine endometrium to the presence of the conceptus at key developmental stages of early pregnancy. There were no detectable differences in gene expression in endometria from pregnant and cyclic heifers on Days 5, 7, and 13 postestrus, but the expression of 764 genes was altered due to the presence of the conceptus at maternal recognition of pregnancy (Day 16). Of these 514 genes, MX2, BST2, RSAD2, ISG15, OAS1, USP18, IFI44, ...

  12. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  13. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  14. Head start is too late: integrating and applying infant observation studies, and attachment, trauma, and neurobiological research to groups with pregnant and new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Irene

    2006-01-01

    In this paper new knowledge generated from theoretical and empirical work in infant observation studies and attachment, trauma, and neurobiology research is integrated and applied to the development of a group for pregnant and new mothers. The purposes of this group were to (1) promote the establishment of a secure base for each baby through optimum self and dyadic affect regulation, the repair of ruptures, and the emergence of positive heightened affective moments; (2) to facilitate secure attachment between mother and infant by helping mothers mentalize the experiences of their babies; (3) to build affiliative bonds between group members and; at the very least, (4) to prevent insecure disorganized attachments. The group interactions also were thought to prevent new psychopathology from developing, as well as to minimize the intergenerational transmission of trauma. A discussion of how this group came out of gestation and birthed itself in a community setting is included.

  15. The establishment of an ELISA for the detection of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in the serum of pregnant cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan A; Parks, Tina E; Avalle, Mary Pavlo; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash; McLain, April L; Peterson, A James; McMillan, William; Mathialagan, Nagappan; Hook, Reuel R; Xie, Sancai; Roberts, R Michael

    2005-03-15

    The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large gene family expressed in trophoblast cells of ruminant ungulates. The detection of PAGs (more specifically, PAG-1) in maternal serum has served as the basis for pregnancy detection in cattle. Unfortunately, PAG-1 and/or antigenically-related PAGs exhibit a long half-life in maternal serum (>8 d) and can be detected 80-100 d post-partum, thereby producing false positives in animals bred within 60-d of calving. The goal of the present studies was to develop a monoclonal-based assay that targeted early-pregnancy PAGs whose persistence in maternal serum post-partum might be relatively short-lived. Three anti-PAG monoclonal antibodies that recognized distinct subsets of PAGs were selected and used as trapping reagents in a 'sandwich' type of enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). A polyclonal antiserum with broad specificity was used for detecting bound PAGs. A total of 42 cows and heifers were bled daily on day 15, days 22 to 28, and then weekly throughout pregnancy and for 10 weeks (approximately 70 d) into the post-partum period. The ELISA was able to detect PAG in maternal serum of all animals unambiguously by day 28 post-insemination (PAG concentration: 8.75 +/- 3.04 ng/mL). In maternal serum, PAG concentrations peaked during the week of parturition at 588.9 +/- 249.9 ng/mL, and after calving, PAG was completely cleared (half-life: 4.3 d) by eight-week post-partum in 38 of 40 of the animals tested and was at very low concentrations in the remaining two (1.4 and 4.9 ng/mL, respectively). In summary, a monoclonal-based assay has been established that is sensitive enough to detect PAG in maternal serum by the forth week of pregnancy, but does not suffer from carry-over of antigen from a previous pregnancy.

  16. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  17. CORRELAÇÕES DA MORFOMETRIA OVARIANA E HORMONAIS DE PROGESTERONA E CORTISOL EM VACAS ZEBUS NÃO PRENHES OVARIAN MORPHOMETRY AND HORMONAL CORRELATIONS OF PROGESTERONE AND CORTISOL IN NO PREGNANT ZEBU COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da morfometria ovariana está diretamente ligado as suas aplicações práticas, na realização e interpretação dos achados dos exames ginecológicos em vacas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as correlações morfométricas e hormonais de 114 pares de ovários de vacas zebus não prenhes coletados em abatedouro entre os dias sete e quatorze do ciclo estral, procedendo-se a sua mensuração quanto a espessura, comprimento, largura e volume; diâmetro e volume do folículo, diâmetro e área do corpo lúteo, e concentrações de progesterona e cortisol. Observou-se diferença significativa para largura (1,95 cm e 1,83 cm e volume (7,26 mL e 6,23 mL do ovário esquerdo e direito, respectivamente. Houve correlação positiva (p<0,01 entre o volume do ovário esquerdo e a área do corpo lúteo. Houve predomínio do corpo lúteo do tipo maciço e protruso, presente em 43,39% dos 53 ovários, em relação ao tipo cavitário e incluso. Dos 84 ovários com corpos lúteos, 26,20% eram do tipo incluso e não houve correlação entre a área do corpo lúteo, progesterona e cortisol. Conclui-se que a área do corpo lúteo influencia no tamanho do ovário, havendo predominância dos corpos lúteos maciços e protrusos. Não existe correlação entre a produção de progesterona pelos corpos lúteos e a secreção de cortisol.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abatedouro, bovino, corpo lúteo, folículo. The study of ovarian morphometry is directly related to its practical applications to interpret the examination of the reproductive tract of the cow. The objective of this work was to study the morphometry and hormonal correlations in ovaries collected in slaughterhouse between 7 and 14 days post estrus in no pregnant zebu cows. One hundred fourteen pairs of ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse, measured in thickness, length, width and volume, diameter and volume of the follicle, diameter and area of the corpus luteum. Significative

  18. Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (≤ 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ≥ 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ∼330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond to mature cow BW of ∼550 kg.

  19. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... 1Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznań University of ... Jersey cows, very similar levels were recorded for four culling reasons: "sterility and reproductive ... specialization of large farms have been observed.

  20. Análisis del perfil hematológico de vacas gestantes de la región centro de Santa Fe (Analysis of hematologic profile in pregnant cows of a center region of Santa Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldán,V.P

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar parámetros hematológicos en vacas gestantes de dos zonas edáficas diferentes del Departamento "Las Colonias" (Región Centro de Santa Fe con diferentes concentraciones de cobre en suelo. Se trabajó con treinta vacas gestantes de las zonas de Pilar y de la Cuenca del Salado. Las determinaciones hematológicas que se realizaron en sangre anticoagulada con EDTA extraídas de vena yugular, fueron: Hematocrito(Hto, Volumen Corpuscular Medio(VCM, Glóbulos Rojos(GR/mm3, Glóbulos blancos (GB/mm3, concentración de Hemoglobina (Hb g/dl y la fórmula porcentual. Para el tratamiento de los datos se empleó el método estadístico ANOVA. Los valores promedio de las determinaciones hematológicas para las zonas de Pilar y de la Cuenca del Salado fueron: Glóbulos rojos: 6.999.000 ± 382.000; 6.541.000 ± 733.000 mm3; VCM: 44,43 ± 2,28; 44,13 ± 3,31 m3; Hto: 33,79 ± 1,84; 31,6 ± 3,54 %; Hb: 10,28 ± 0,62; 9,81 ± 0,86 g/dl; Glóbulos blancos: 10.600 ± 1.600; 10.400 ± 3.600 mm3, neutrófilos: 34,57 ± 8,46; 38,73 ± 4,71%; eosinófilos: 3,42 ± 3,11; 5,41 ± 2,58 %; basófilos: 0,072 ± 0,267; 0,133 ± 0,351%; linfocitos: 60,57 ± 7,57; 58,40 ± 6,54%; monocitos: 1,35 ± 0,49; 1,33 ± 0,49% respectivamente. Los valores obtenidos para los distintos parámetros hematológicos se encuentran dentro de los rangos normales citados en la bibliografía; sin embargo se hallaron diferencias significativas (p< 0,05 entre los dos grupos, para los valores de glóbulos rojos y hematocrito, siendo menor en los animales de la región de baja concentración de cobre edáfico. Si bien, comparativamente, los valores de Hto y GR fueron más bajos para la zona de la Cuenca del Salado respecto de Pilar; no tendrían correspondencia con una anemia por hipocuprosis subclínica The object of this work was to study hematologic parameters in pregnant cows of two differents edaphics areas from the Departmet "Las Colonias" (Santa Fe

  1. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,the electrical resistance of the cervical mucus in cows in different physiologicalstages (pregnant, no pregnant was measured. The ovulation detector DRAMINSKIwas used. This equipment allows to obtained a quickly and precise rapport on thephysiological stage of the cow. It can be detected the cow with atypical ovulation,irregular ovulation. This method improve the insemination efficiency, allowsdetecting early gestation period or the moment of ovulation. All these have a positiveinfluence on the development strategy of the farm and improve the economicperformances.

  2. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  3. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  4. Association between prepartum feeding behaviour and periparturient health disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luchterhand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behaviour, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group four weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score > 3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-hour periods 2 to 4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf, primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf and multiparous (lactation > 2. Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behaviour monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behaviour or that of specific cohorts.

  5. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts.

  6. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Everts, R. R.; Houweling, M.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Stegeman, J. A.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n = 5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n =3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L beta-hydroxyb

  7. 牛轮状病毒基因重配二价减毒疫苗接种怀孕母牛的免疫原性评价%Evaluating the immunogenicity of bovine rotavirus reassortant bivalent attenuated vaccine in pregnant cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常继涛; 于力

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the immunogenicity of a candidate reassortant bivalent attenuated bovine rotavirus (BRV)vaccine (strains LLR-85 and R191),the cows pregnant for 7 to 8 months were immunized with the bivalent attenuated vaccine which was combined with LLR-85 (G10) and R191 (G6) strains in equal proportions and emulsified with adjuvant.The IgG,IgA and viral neutralizing (VN) antibodies against BRV in bovine serum were detected by using indirect ELISA and VN test.The results showed that the highest titers of the serum antibodies were induced in all inoculated cows at 2 weeks post immunization,and the antibody titers were up to 4 to 32 times of the original antibody titer,which lasted about 2 months.In addition,the vaccine had no side effects on the pregnant cows,such as abortion and other clinical reactions.Moreover,calves acquired the highest levels of serum and intestinal mucosal antibodies after birth by feeding the colostrum.The results suggested that the bivalent attenuated vaccine was safe for the pregnant cows and able to efficiently induce specific antibodies for protecting of calf through the colostrum.These results provided experimental basis for the clinical application of the bivalent attenuated reassortant BRV vaccine (LLR-85 and R191).%为评价牛轮状病毒(BRV)基因重组二价减毒疫苗(LLR-85和R191株)对怀孕母牛的免疫反应,本研究将RV LLR-85(G10)和R191(G6)株等比例混合后进行乳化,肌肉途径接种怀孕7个~8个月的母牛.采用间接ELISA和病毒中和(VN)试验对接种牛血清抗BRV的IgG、IgA以及VN抗体进行检测.结果显示,接种2周后抗体水平达到峰值,可以使原有的抗体滴度升高4倍~32倍,高滴度抗体可持续约2个月,接种母牛均未发生流产等副反应.犊牛通过饲喂初乳,可以在出生后1d内获得最高水平的血清和肠道粘膜抗体.结果表明,BRV基因重组二价减毒疫苗对孕牛不但具有良好的安全性、而且其高滴度抗体可以

  8. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;

    2007-01-01

    Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....

  9. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  10. Long-term survival of a cow with cervical ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Sugiyama, Masanori; Niho, Keeko; Sato, Reiichiro; Arai, Sachiko; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Ito, Seigo; Muto, Makoto; Suganuma, Tsunenori; Wakao, Yoshito; Wada, Yasunori

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the long-term survival of a calf with cervical ectopia cordis that grew normally, became pregnant, and calved normally. The cow showed normal cardiac function and absence of peripheral circulation abnormalities. This paper documents antemortem characteristics of the affected cow.

  11. Hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Everts, H.; Vlaeminck, B.; Doekes, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) to reduce the concentrations of free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid of cows was investigated. Six, rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry cows were randomly assigned to three experimental rations in a study with

  12. Altered progesterone concentrations by hormonal manipulations before a fixed-time artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program in suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S L; Perry, G A; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Jaeger, J R; Olson, K C; Stevenson, J S

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that pregnancy outcomes may be improved by inducing luteal regression, ovulation, or both (i.e., altering progesterone status) before initiating a timed-artificial insemination (TAI) program in suckled beef cows. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments in which cows were treated with either PGF2α (PG) or PG + GnRH before initiating a TAI program to increase the proportion of cows starting the program in a theoretical marginal (<1 ng/mL; experiment 1) or elevated (≥1 ng/mL; experiment 2) progesterone environment, respectively. The control was a standard CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) program employed in suckled beef cows (100 μg GnRH intramuscularly [IM] [GnRH-1] and insertion of a progesterone-impregnated intravaginal CIDR insert on study Day -10, 25 mg PG and CIDR insert removal on study Day -3, and 100 μg GnRH IM [GnRH-2] and TAI on study Day 0). In both experiments, blood was collected before each injection for later progesterone analyses. In experiment 1, cows at nine locations (n = 1537) were assigned to either: (1) control or (2) PrePG (same as control with a PG injection on study Day -13). The PrePG cows had larger (P < 0.05) follicles on study Day -10 and more (P < 0.05) ovulated after GnRH-1 compared with control cows (60.6% vs. 36.5%), but pregnancy per TAI was not altered (55.5% vs. 52.2%, respectively). In experiment 2, cows (n = 803) at four locations were assigned to: (1) control or (2) PrePGG (same as control with PG injection on study Day -20 and GnRH injection on study Day -17). Although pregnancy per TAI did not differ between control and PrePGG cows (44.0% vs. 44.4%, respectively), cows with body condition score greater than 5.0 or 77 or more days postpartum at TAI were more (P < 0.05) likely to become pregnant than thinner cows or those with fewer days postpartum. Presynchronized cows in both experiments were more (P < 0.05) likely than controls to have luteolysis after initial

  13. [Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Girschewski, H

    1977-12-01

    In an experiment using 24 high-yielding cows (3rd and 6th lactations), group II was fed sugar beet as carbohydrate source (2 kg DM per animal and day) for 4 weeks before and for 4 weeks after parturition, whilst group I was given the equivalent amount of dried spent beet pulp. Sugar beet feeding during the dry period caused the glucose level in the blood to rise significantly from 48 to 55 mg/100 ml. On the 21st day of lactation the glucose concentration in group II (27 mg) had declined more strongly than in group I (37 mg). Feeding large amounts of easily soluble carbohydrates during the dry period obviously inhibits gluconeogenesis during early lactation. The ketone body level of group II was found to rise to 14 mg/100 ml by the 21st day of lactation (group I--4 mg), a level indicative of ketosis. The ketogenous action (strong formation of butyric acid in the rumen) of sugar beet enhances this effect, too. The daily milk yield did not vary much coming to 26.8 and 27.8 kg in the control and in the experimental group, respectively. The results allow to conclude that feeding fresh sugar beet to high-yielding cows just before and shortly after parturition is not advisable.

  14. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  15. Cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking in loose housing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this study of cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking, the emphasis was on implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) in cubicle houses in a way that suits cows and farmer. The starting points of the research were that the cows would visit the AMS voluntarily and that th

  16. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  17. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39

  18. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  19. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress.

  1. The reproductive performance of dairy cows with anovulatory anoestrus that were injected with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or oestradiol benzoate as part of a re-treatment process after insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe

    2007-05-01

    . Cows observed in oestrus were submitted for a 2nd insemination. Every enrolled cow still present in the herd was pregnancy tested by palpation of uterine contents per rectum about 6 weeks later and again at the end of a herd's seasonal breeding programme. The alternative use of GnRH instead of oestradiol benzoate did not affect the percentage of cows conceiving within 3 days of the mating start date (MSD (35.6 %vs 35.3 %, P=0.90, resubmission rates for a 2nd insemination among cows not pregnant to the 1st insemination (81.6 % vs 83.5 %, P=0.41, 6-week pregnancy rate (59.3 % vs 60.6 %, P=0.65, 21-week pregnancy rate (86.6 vs 85.0, P=0.36, mean interval from MSD to conception (32.5 + 1.8 days vs 29.9 + 1.8 days, P = 0.26 or conception rate of cows reinseminated by Day 28 (43.3 % vs 38.8 %, P=0.39. When GnRH conception rate of cows reinseminated by Day 28 (43.3% vs was compared with oestradiol benzoate, it did not increase conception rates to the 1st service; it was as effective as oestradiol benzoate in synchronising returns to service in previously treated anoestrous cows that did not conceive to the 1st service. Its use affected neither conception rates to the preceding 1st inseminations nor to the following 2nd inseminations.

  2. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  4. Low frequency of Y anomaly detected in Australian Brahman cow-herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Gregório M F; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Fortes, Marina R S; Bunch, Rowan J; Tonhati, Humberto; Reverter, Antonio; Moore, Stephen S; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2015-02-01

    Indicine cattle have lower reproductive performance in comparison to taurine. A chromosomal anomaly characterized by the presence Y markers in females was reported and associated with infertility in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of the anomaly in Brahman cows. Brahman cows (n = 929) were genotyped for a Y chromosome specific region using real time-PCR. Only six out of 929 cows had the anomaly (0.6%). The anomaly frequency was much lower in Brahman cows than in the crossbred population, in which it was first detected. It also seems that the anomaly doesn't affect pregnancy in the population. Due to the low frequency, association analyses couldn't be executed. Further, SNP signal of the pseudoautosomal boundary region of the Y chromosome was investigated using HD SNP chip. Pooled DNA of "non-pregnant" and "pregnant" cows were compared and no difference in SNP allele frequency was observed. Results suggest that the anomaly had a very low frequency in this Australian Brahman population and had no effect on reproduction. Further studies comparing pregnant cows and cows that failed to conceive should be executed after better assembly and annotation of the Y chromosome in cattle.

  5. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2007-01-01

    Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day....... A high level of dietary P prepartum significantly decreased the plasma Ca concentration before as well as immediately after calving (day 0-3). Conversely, the plasma inorganic phosphate concentration was higher among these cows than among cows receiving no supplemental P. The prepartum dietary Ca level...... significantly affected the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during zeolite supplementation, whereas the periparturient plasma Ca concentration was apparently not affected by the dietary Ca level. During zeolite A supplementation plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher among cows receiving...

  6. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  7. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  8. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  9. Investigation into omocysteine, vitamin E and malondialdehyde as indicators of successful artificial insemination in synchronized buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Olimpia; Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; Pierri, Francesca; de Sousa, Noelita Melo; Terracina, Luigi; Canali, Claudio; Avellini, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe modifications in plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin E (VitE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the first 56 days after artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo. Thirty-five buffalo cows were divided, ex post, into three groups on the basis of pregnancy diagnosis: pregnant, not pregnant, with embryonic mortality. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Our results showed that, in pregnant buffaloes, included those with embryonic mortality, MDA increased progressively while VitE decreased. In non-pregnant buffaloes, MDA and Vit E were unchanged. Hcy concentrations also remained unchanged within each group throughout the study period, but were lower in non-pregnant buffaloes than in the pregnant ones and in those with embryonic mortality. In conclusion, present data suggest that successful pregnancy in buffalo cows might be linked to Hcy metabolism and oxidative stress involvement.

  10. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Nuffel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its detrimental effect on cow welfare, health and production, lameness in dairy cows has received quite a lot of attention in the last few decades—not only in terms of prevention and treatment of lameness but also in terms of detection, as early treatment might decrease the number of severely lame cows in the herds as well as decrease the direct and indirect costs associated with lameness cases. Generally, lame cows are detected by the herdsman, hoof trimmer or veterinarian based on abnormal locomotion, abnormal behavior or the presence of hoof lesions during routine trimming. In the scientific literature, several guidelines are proposed to detect lame cows based on visual interpretation of the locomotion of individual cows (i.e., locomotion scoring systems. Researchers and the industry have focused on automating such observations to support the farmer in finding the lame cows in their herds, but until now, such automated systems have rarely been used in commercial herds. This review starts with the description of normal locomotion of cows in order to define ‘abnormal’ locomotion caused by lameness. Cow locomotion (gait and posture and behavioral features that change when a cow becomes lame are described and linked to the existing visual scoring systems. In addition, the lack of information of normal cow gait and a clear description of ‘abnormal’ gait are discussed. Finally, the different set-ups used during locomotion scoring and their influence on the resulting locomotion scores are evaluated.

  11. New surgical technique to correct urovagina improves the fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, J V; Astiz, S; Elvira, L; López-Gatius, F

    2008-02-01

    Several surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of urovagina as a major cause of infertility in cows. However, so far no technique seems to be successful in all cases. Given that an incompetent or damaged constrictor vestibuli muscle is a feature of cows with urovagina, we hypothesized that surgical correction of urovagina by cerclage of the vestibulovaginal junction under the vaginal wall cranial to the urethral opening would prevent cranial flow of urine and improve fertility. Our study was performed on 39 non-pregnant lactating Holstein-Friesian cows suffering urovagina, with a vaginal content of urine exceeding 100mL and with evident incompetence of the constrictor vestibuli muscle. Cows were randomly assigned to a Control (untreated cows, n=20) or Experimental (n=19) group. An encircling polydioxanone suture was placed in the vaginal wall at the vestibulovaginal junction to create a vestibulovaginal cerclage in the Experimental cows. Surgery was observed to resolve urovagina in 17 (89.5%) of the 19 treated cows. Pregnancy was recorded in 7/20 (35%) and 14/19 (74%) cows in the Control and Experimental groups, respectively. Using logistic regression procedures and based on the odds ratio, we determined that cows undergoing surgical correction of urovagina were 5.2 times more likely to become pregnant than untreated cows (P=0.015). Our results suggest that vestibulovaginal junction cerclage prevents the cranial flow of urine and improves the function of the constrictor vestibuli muscle in cows suffering urovagina. They also indicate that, under these conditions, urovagina correction may dramatically increase fertility.

  12. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  13. Agreement between different sleep states and behaviour indicators in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternman, Emma; Pastell, Matti; Agenäs, Sigrid;

    2014-01-01

    , so this study examined whether these behavioural estimates also apply for adult cows.Behaviour observations and electrophysiological readings were recorded for a total of 13 cows during one recording session per cow lasting on average 4. h 22. min. Recording started when the cow was fully awake...... that the behavioural estimates for assessing total sleep time in calves could not be applied to adult cows as they markedly overestimated NREM and REM sleep time. Behavioural estimates for NREM and REM sleep time were on average 124 ± 17 and 14 ± 4. min per cow, respectively, while the electrophysiological estimate......Conclusive data regarding behavioural indicators of different sleep states in adult dairy cows are lacking, i.e. agreement between behavioural indicators of sleep and corresponding electrophysiological measures. Behavioural estimates for quantifying total sleep time in calves have been developed...

  14. STUDIES REGARDING THE CONCEPTION RATES AT DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. PACALA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conception rate is defined as the aptitude of a female to romaine pregnant after the first A.I. and represents the proportion between the number of pregnant cows at first A.I and the number of cows inseminated in that period. In our experiments of estrus induction and synchronization, in order to increase the pregnancy rates, we used the Ovsynch protocol and other protocols for PgF2α and GnRH. In order to establish the pregnancy rates, the number of females that have not return in heats after A.I. were taken in consideration. The conception rates were 45.5 – 52.6%. The estrus synchronization offers the possibility to increase the pregnancy rates at first service after calving and creates the possibility to inseminate at certain time without heat detection.

  15. Serum Calcium Response Following Oral Zinc Oxide Administrations in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen RJ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12–24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation to resistance towards parturient hypocalcaemia.

  16. Combined use of progesterone inserts, ultrasongraphy, and GnRH to identify and resynchronize nonpregnant cows and heifers 21 days after timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D E; Ibarbia, L; Daetz, R; Bittar, J H; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Galvão, K N

    2016-01-15

    The objective was to decrease the reinsemination interval (RI) when dairy cows and heifers are inseminated using all timed artificial insemination (TAI) programs. Holstein cows (n = 211) and heifers (n = 153) were randomly assigned to a control or 21-day Resynch (21dRES) at 13 days after TAI. Animals in 21dRES (n = 109 cows and 77 heifers) had a progesterone device inserted on Day 13 and removed on Day 20 after TAI and ovaries scanned by ultrasonography. Animals found not to have an active CL (<15 mm) or a CL that decreased 10 mm or greater from Days 13 to 20, and to have a follicle of 12 mm or greater received GnRH and TAI on Day 21. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 32. Nonpregnant control cows (n = 102) were resynchronized immediately using Ovsynch-56, and control heifers (n = 76) were resynchronized using 5-day Cosynch starting on Day 34; therefore, cows and heifers were reinseminated on Day 42. Nonpregnant 21dRES animals that had not been reinseminated on Day 21 were resynchronized concurrently with the control animals. Pregnancy per AI (PAI) for the initial TAI was similar (P = 0.80) for 21dRES and control cows (30.3% vs. 29.4%) and heifers (49.4% vs. 51.3%). Of the nonpregnant 21dRES animals, 33 of 76 cows (43.4%) and 22 of 39 heifers (56.4%) had been reinseminated on Day 21. Therefore, the RI was decreased by 9.9 days (33.3 ± 1.0 vs. 43.2 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.001) in 21dRES cows and by 12.2 days in 21dRES heifers (30.1 ± 1.3 vs. 42.3 ± 1.3 days; P < 0.001) compared with controls. The overall resynchronized PAI was similar for 21dRES cows compared with controls (31.6% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.23). The PAI was 24.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 21 and 37.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 42. The overall resynchronized PAI was increased for 21dRES heifers compared with controls (57.5% vs. 32.4%; P = 0.03) because 21dRES heifers reinseminated on Day 21 had similar PAI compared with controls (43.5% vs. 32

  17. Nutritional status of high yielding crossbred cow around parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methods: Nutritional status of cows around the peri-parturient period was investigated for six months in dairy farm. Seven to eight months' pregnant cows were selected for this study. Blood samples from 24 randomly selected cows were collected at stage-1, -2 and -3. The serum was stored at -20C until analyzing glucose, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, triglycerides (Tg, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and phosphorus (P. Results: An increasing trend of glucose level was evidenced (P=0.07 during stage-1. Instead, higher levels of TP were found during stage-3 as compared to the stage-1 and -2. The Alb levels differed significantly (P<0.01 among different stages. A significantly increased (P<0.01 cholesterol, Tg, and HDL were found after parturition (stage-2 and -3 than before parturition (stage-1. LDL was significantly (P=0.02 increased during stage-2 and -3. A significantly higher level of Ca (P<0.01, Mg (P<0.01 and P (P=0.03 were present during stage-1. Glucose, TP, cholesterol and Tg were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cows two months after parturition, while Alb was found to be the highest (P<0.01 in cows immediately after parturition. An increasing trend of LDL (P=0.07 and HDL (P=0.07 were found in the cows two months after parturition. However, Ca levels were significantly (P=0.04 higher in cows two months after parturition. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is alteration of biochemical levels among the study population at three different stages, and these data may be helpful in using the necessary nutrients to the the high yielding cows around their parturition. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 68-74

  18. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  19. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  20. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  1. Evaluation of Pre and Post Artificial Insemination effect of GnRH Hormone on conception of repeat breeder Deoni Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Awati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four Deoni repeat breeder cows were randomly allocated into 4 groups of six each. The animals of groups I, II and III were injected with 250 µg of buserelin acetate (Receptal® on two occasions i.e. once on day of estrus and second dose on days 10 or 12 or14 respectively in I, II and III groups following breeding, while the animals of group IV served as control. Among the physical characters of estrual cervico-vaginal mucous, typical arborization pattern (80.95 % in pregnant vs. 55.56 % in non-pregnant cows and marginally high spinnbarkeit readings (24.67+2.7cms in pregnant and 22.21+1.32 cms in non-pregnant cows favored better fertility, although the differences between the groups were statistically insignificant. However, the pH of estrual cervico-vaginal mucous did not indicate any effect on fertility and it ranged between 8.00 to 9.00. The cows of treatment groups I, II and III registered a considerably higher conception rate of 83.33 percent each, while in control group cows had only 33.33 percent. To conclude GnRH therapy irrespective of days of administration resulted in an overall enhancement in conception rate of 83.33 as against 33.33 percent in control groups of cows. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 209-211

  2. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  3. Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Newbold, J.R.; Hulshof, R.B.A.; Perdok, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Feeding nitrate to dairy cows may lower ruminal methane production by competing for reducing equivalents with methanogenesis. Twenty lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (33.2±6.0 kg of milk/d; 104±58 d in milk at the start of the experiment) were fed a total mixed ration (corn silage-based; forag

  4. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2006-08-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  5. Serum calcium response following oral zinc oxide administrations in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Thilsing, Trine

    2001-01-01

    Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly...... intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12-24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium...... of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth...

  6. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  7. Evaluating two different evaporative cooling management systems for dairy cows in a hot, dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D P; Boland, M P; Kopel, E; Armstrong, D; Munyakazi, L; Godke, R A; Ingraham, R H

    1992-04-01

    Milk production, rectal temperature, live weight gain, reproductive performance, and weather data were obtained on 150 Holstein cows managed under two cooling systems on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia during the summer months. Cows were paired at the onset of the trial according to days postpartum, lactation number, and current milk production. Females were then allocated either to a system that forced air, precooled by evaporative cooling, over the cows or to a system that alternately showered a fine mist onto the surface of the cows and then forced air at ambient temperature over them. The cows receiving evaporative cooling and those with spray and fan cooling were on sand and on slatted concrete floor, respectively, during the periods of cooling. The onset of estrus was observed during the night when the cows preferred the unshaded corral. For the 120-d trial period, 84% (62 of 75) of the cows receiving evaporative cooling and 60% (44 of 75) of the cows receiving spray and fan cooling became pregnant. In the evaporative cooling system, the pregnancy rate per insemination was 35.2% (179 inseminations) versus 23.2% (194 inseminations) for spray and fan cooling. The mean postpartum interval to pregnancy was 117.6 d for the evaporative cooling cows and 146.7 d for spray and fan cooling cows. The evaporative cooling system, with its open shades and sand bedding, enhanced reproductive performance and milk production compared with that of cows cooled with a spray and fan system with slatted flooring in this hot climate.

  8. Efficacy of a combined protocol for re-insemination of open cows after early pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography and its effect on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Gaja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present field study was to establish the beneficial effects of re-insemination of non-pregnant cows using ultrasonography 20 to 23 days after the artificial insemination. A total of 245 Japanese Black cows were artificially inseminated and early pregnancy diagnosis (EPD was performed on 92 cows 20 days after insemination, using ultrasonography. The remaining 153 cows were considered as negative controls in which routine rectal palpation was performed for pregnancy diagnosis 45-50 days post-insemination. EPD revealed that eleven of the 92 cows (12% were infertile due to ovarian abnormalities and were thus excluded from the rest of the study. Forty-eight (59% of the remaining 81 cows were diagnosed as pregnant, while the other 33 (41% were diagnosed as non-pregnant. Of these non-pregnant cows, 17 of them received a dose of an analogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue and were then timed-inseminated, while the other 16 were observed for estrus signs, and 13 of them (81% were artificially inseminated. Rates of conception were 35% and 38% in the GnRH and the artificially inseminated groups, respectively (P>0.05. Total pregnancy rate for the EPD group increased significantly (74% (P<0.01 when compared to the control cows (54% within the same period. In conclusion, our field study demonstrated that re-insemination of non-pregnant cows following EPD is highly efficacious not only in improving the rate of fertility via reducing inter-insemination and inter-calving intervals, but also aids in the early detection of ovarian disorders.

  9. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  10. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  11. Early Head Start: Research Findings. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 1, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early Head Start is a federally funded community-based program for low-income families with infants and toddlers and for low-income pregnant women. Created in 1995, Early Head Start strives to promote healthy prenatal outcomes for pregnant women, to enhance the development of children ages birth to three, and to promote healthy family functioning.…

  12. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  13. Gamma interferon production and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in gestating dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pérez, B; Garcia-Ispierto, I; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2014-04-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and cross-breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with Neospora caninum against abortion. Plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins-1 (PAG-1) are a marker of placental/foetal well-being and of PAG-2 is an abortion risk indicator in chronically N. caninum-infected animals. The present study examines, in cross-breed pregnancies, interactions between IFN-γ production and levels of PAG-1 and PAG-2 in non-aborting naturally Neospora-infected dairy cows. Data were obtained from 60 pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows: 44 Neospora-seropositive and 16 Neospora-seronegative; 12 became pregnant using Holstein-Friesian semen and 48 using Limousin semen. Blood samples were collected on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. Gamma interferon was only detected in the plasma of nine of the 44 Neospora-seropositive cows, all of them became pregnant using Limousin semen. Through GLM procedures, in cows inseminated with Limousin semen and Neospora-seropositive cows showing no IFN-γ production, PAG-1 concentrations were high and increased throughout gestation compared to the levels detected in cows inseminated with Holstein-Friesian semen and Neospora-seropositive cows producing IFN-γ, respectively. In Neospora-seronegative cows and in Neospora-seropositive cows showing no IFN-γ production, significantly increased PAG-2 concentrations were observed on gestation Day 120. Our findings indicate that IFN-γ production correlates negatively and the production of antibodies against N. caninum is uncorrelated with plasma PAG concentrations during gestation in Neospora-infected dairy cows. Accordingly, IFN-γ production could be linked to the transplacental migration of tachyzoites, which may cause a reduction in PAG levels.

  14. Cool Cow Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  15. HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN EXOTIC COWS DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION UNDER SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SATTAR AND R. H. MIRZA1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seventy Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows of different ages kept at the Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki, district Kasur, Pakistan were used for this study. These cows were divided into seven groups having 10 animals in each group. Group numbers 1 to 7 were named as pregnant heifers, pregnant lactating cows, non-pregnant dry cows, non-pregnant heifers, parturient cows, pregnant dry cows and non-pregnant lactating cows, respectively. Blood samples from all the animals were collected and haematological values were recorded, using routine haematological procedures. The highest Hb concentration (11.32 ± 0.32 gm/dl was recorded in group-4, while the lowest (9.24 ± 0.35 gm/dl was observed in group-7. The highest RBCs count and PCV (6.18 ± 0.47 x 106/µl and 35.51 ± 1.51% were recorded in group-4 and the lowest (4.55 ± 0.26 x 106/µl and 29.23 ± 1.09% values were observed in group-6. The highest MCV, MCH and MCHC (65.26 ± 1.96 fl, 23.50 ± 1.31 pg and 35.75 ± 0.99 gm/dl were noted in group-5 and the lowest (55.16 ± 1.72 fl, 16.77 ± 1.14 pg and 30.09 ± 1.15 gm/dl were noted in group-2. The highest ESR (7.60 ± 1.15 mm/24 hours was recorded in group-6 and the lowest (4.89 ± 0.40 mm/24 hours values were observed in group-5. The highest WBCs count (9.43 ± 1.15 x 103/µl was observed in group-1 and the lowest (6.35 ± 0.72 x 103/µl was recorded in group-5. Amongst DLC, highest (P<0.05 lymphocyte count (69.10 ± 2.55% was observed in group-4, while lowest count (56.70 ± 5.16% was in group-5. The differences between monocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil counts in all the groups were statistically non-significant.

  16. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  17. Infants and children with cow milk allergy/intolerance. Investigation of the uptake of cow milk protein and activation of the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Høst, A; Teisner, B

    1990-01-01

    and up to 24 h after the start of the challenge. The cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was determined in serum with ELISA (lower detection limit 0.3 micrograms/l). BLG was detectable in five children at low levels (below 2 micrograms/l). Analysis of the size distribution of the BLG by size......Seventeen children with challenge-verified cow milk allergy/intolerance (CMAI), age 3-78 months, median 12 months, were re-challenged with cow milk in increasing doses. All subjects developed symptoms, such as bronchospasm, rhinitis, diarrhoea, erythema or eczema. Blood samples were taken before...

  18. Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio.

  19. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  20. Efficacy of in vitro embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows using fresh or vitrified embryos produced in a novel embryo culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Bonilla, L; Hansen, P J

    2010-11-01

    Objectives were to determine whether pregnancy success could be improved in lactating cows with timed embryo transfer when embryos were produced in vitro using a medium designed to enhance embryo development and survival after cryopreservation. In experiment 1, embryos (n=569 to 922) were cultured in either modified synthetic oviduct fluid or a serum-free medium, Block-Bonilla-Hansen-7 (BBH7). Development to the blastocyst stage was recorded at d 7, and selected blastocysts (n=79 to 114) were vitrified using open pulled straws. Culture of embryos in BBH7 increased development to the blastocyst stage (41.9±2.0 vs. 14.7±2.0%) and advanced blastocyst stages (expanded, hatching, hatched; 31.1±1.3 vs. 6.4±1.3%) at d 7 and resulted in higher hatching rates at 24h postwarming compared with embryos cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (59.0±0.5 vs. 26.7±0.5%). In experiment 2, embryos were produced using X-sorted semen and cultured in BBH7. At d 7 after insemination, embryos were transferred fresh or following vitrification. Lactating Holstein cows were either subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the day of presumptive ovulation or used as embryo recipients 7 d later. Embryo recipients received an embryo if a corpus luteum was present. The percentage of cows pregnant at d 32, 46, and 76 of gestation was higher among cows that received fresh embryos compared with TAI cows or cows that received vitrified embryos. At d 76, for example, the proportion and percentage pregnant was 47/150 (31.3%) for cows subjected to TAI, 48/95 (50.5%) for cows receiving fresh embryos, and 39/141 (27.7%) for cows receiving a vitrified embryo. No difference was observed in the percentage of cows pregnant among TAI cows and those that received vitrified embryos. There was a service or transfer number × treatment interaction because differences in pregnancy rate between embryo transfer recipients and cows bred by TAI were greater for cows with more than 3 services or

  1. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone in adult dairy cows and associations with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, E S; Bisinotto, R S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Morrison, A; Kumar, A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in plasma of dairy cows and to investigate the relationships between plasma AMH and fertility responses during a 100-d breeding season. Lactating cows, 1,237 in 2 seasonally calving herds, had estrous cycles presynchronized and were enrolled in a timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. All cows were inseminated on the first day of breeding season, considered study d 0. Blood was sampled on d -8 and analyzed for concentrations of AMH and progesterone. From d 19 to 35, detection of estrus was performed daily and cows detected in estrus were reinseminated. On d 36, bulls were placed with cows for 65 d of natural service breeding. Factors identified to be associated with concentrations of AMH in plasma were breed of the cow and lactation number. Concentrations of AMH were greater for Jerseys, followed by crossbreds, and then Holsteins. Cows on lactations 2 and 3 had greater concentrations of AMH than those on lactations 1 and ≥ 4. Although pregnancy per AI at the timed AI was not associated with concentrations of AMH, cows with low AMH had greater detection of estrus at timed AI, and the latter benefited pregnancy per AI, particularly in cows that had low progesterone at the beginning of the synchronization protocol. Pregnancy loss between gestation d 30 and 65 was greater in cows with low AMH compared with those with intermediate or high AMH. Return to estrus in cows that failed to become pregnant from the timed AI was not associated with AMH, but pregnancy rate in cows bred on estrus (reinsemination + natural service) was associated positively with AMH. In conclusion, breed and lactation number were identified to be associated with concentrations of AMH in plasma. Concentration of AMH was associated positively with maintenance of pregnancy at the first postpartum AI and with pregnancy rate in cows inseminated after detection of spontaneous

  2. Investigation on leukocyte profile of periparturient cows with or without postpartum reproductive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafiqul Islam; HarendraKumar; BinsilaB. Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the leukocyte profile in periparturient cows and their relation with the development of postpartum reproductive diseases(PRD).Methods:Forty one advanced pregnant cows at240 days of gestation were selected and critically observed daily during the periparturient period.Blood sampling was done for each experimental animal on15 days prepartum(-15 d), calving day(0 d),15 days(15 d) and30 days(30 d) post partum(pp) for determination of total leukocyte(TLC) and differential leukocyte count(DLC) and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on0 d,15 d,30 d and45 d pp for diagnosis ofPRD like retained placenta(ROP), clinical metritis(CM), clinical endometritis(CE), cervicitis(CT) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU).Results:The percentage of cows suffered from various post partum reproductive diseases was41.46%(17/41).In normal cows, a significant increase inTLC from -15 d to0 d followed by significant decline has been observed at15 d and30 d.The cows suffering fromROP(25.52±2.49), CM(26.57±3.17) andCE(25.09±2.95) showed significantly(P<0.01) higher neutrophil% than normal cows(15.05±1.25) on day15 pp.The normal cows showed significant higher lymphocyte% during the periparturient period than the cows withPRD on post partum days(15 d and30 d).The neutrophil% and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased from -15 d to the0 d in all the groups of cows followed by a general decrease during the post partum days.Conclusions:The neutrophil% and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio was higher in the cows withPRD during periparturient period. Thus, theincreased neutrophil percentage and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio observed at day15 postpartum is an indication ofPRD in cows.The significant rise inTLC on the day of calving than prepartum and post partum days only in normal cows is physiological.It is also clear that cows suffering fromROP most likely to suffer from other post partum reproductive diseases.

  3. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  4. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  5. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  6. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus.

  7. Detection of bacterial biofilm in uterine of repeat breeder dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the possibility of presence of bacterial biofilm in the uterus of repeat breeder cows and to evaluate the effect of mucolytic agent in cleanup of uterus from biofilm. Methods: Twenty repeat breeder cows were selected from a large commercial dairy farm near Shiraz, Fars province, southern Iran. Uterine secretion samples were collected before and after uterine lavage with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 10% solution and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining was used to detect bacterial biofilm in uterine samples. After sampling, all cows were treated with two doses of PGF2α and intrauterine infusion of Cefquinome sulphate. Artificial insemination (AI was performed after that. Results: Bacterial biofilms were found in 12 out of 20 animals (60% in the first sampling with sterile saline lavage (before DMSO and in 7 cows (35% after DMSO lavage. Fourteen cows (70% became pregnant after AI. This evidence showed the presence of bacterial biofilm in the uterus of dairy cows for the first time. Although non significant, decrease in biofilm detection after DMSO lavage may suggest the potential ability of mucolytic agent for cleaning the uterus from bacterial biofilm. Also, high pregnancy rate after antibiotic treatment in the present study might be attributed to improved effect of antibiotic following lavage of uterine by DMSO. Conclusions: These findings should be investigated in future researches with more sample size.

  8. Xinjiang Dushanzi Project Started Construction Started Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum refining and chemical integrated project,is the largest one so far in China, with a capacity of ten-million-ton petroleum refinery and onemillion-ton ethylene complex, directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), was started construction along with laying a foundation on August 22, 2005.

  9. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how the ...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  10. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...

  11. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  12. Effects of acclimation to human interaction on performance, temperament, physiological responses, and pregnancy rates of Brahman-crossbred cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Araujo, D B; Lamb, G C

    2009-12-01

    decreased the probability of pregnancy linearly (P < 0.05) during yr 1 (only Braford cows for cortisol analysis) and affected the probability of pregnancy quadratically (P < 0.05) during yr 2. Results from this study indicate that acclimation did not affect cow temperament and physiological responses but did increase pregnancy rates of Braford cows during yr 1. Further, measurements and physiological responses associated with temperament influenced the probability of cows becoming pregnant during the breeding season.

  13. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  14. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  15. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( < 0.01) in WLF vs. CON cows. Within cows from group B, expression of hippocampal mRNA and expression of c m

  16. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  17. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  18. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  19. Effect of thermal stress on expression profile of apoptosis related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somal, A; Aggarwal, A; Upadhyay, R.C

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of thermal stress on expression profile of genes related to apoptosis in peripartum Sahiwal cows. For this, twelve pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were selected from Livestock Research Centre at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The cows were divided into two groups consisting of six Sahiwal cows each. Cows of group I calved during thermoneutral temperature conditions (THI=67.3) and cows of group II calved in summer season (THI=79.9). Blood samples were collected on -15, 0 and +15 days with respect to calving where day ‘0’ represents the day of calving. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and total RNA was isolated for the BCL-2 (B-Cell Lymphoma-2), BAX (BCL-2 antagonist killer-1), BAK (Bcl-2-associated X protein), CASP-3 (cysteine-aspartic proteases-3) and P53 (tumour protien-53) mRNAs expression. It was found that there was up regulation of CASP-3 on the day of calving during both temperature conditions. Comparison between the two temperature conditions showed that expression of CASP-3, BCL-2, BAK, P53 and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in PBMC increased during summer as compared to thermoneutral condition suggesting the susceptibility of these cells to apoptosis. Based on the above findings it can be concluded that during calving PBMC are more susceptible to apoptosis, and summer being more stressful potentiates the apoptosis of PBMC in Sahiwal cows. PMID:27175165

  20. Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite A on total blood calcium in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R J; Hansen, T; Jensen, M L

    2001-01-01

    Danish Holstein dairy cows in late lactation and milked in the morning only were used as a model for dry pregnant cows to determine the effect of oral drenching with zeolite A and zinc oxide, respectively, on total serum calcium. Ten cows were assigned randomly to two groups of five cows each...... values. Oral drenching with a single dose of zinc oxide of 100 mg/kg of body weight as well as with zeolite in doses of 500 g of zeolite/cow twice a day for 2.5 d was reflected in serum calcium levels. In the group given zeolite A, there was a depression in evening values of total serum calcium although...... was not followed by overshooting, indicating that the single treatment with zinc oxide did not stimulate the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. The perspective of this first attempt to reduce dry cow ration calcium availability may be seen in relation to difficulties in formulating dry cows rations from home grown...

  1. What State Leaders Should Know about Early Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Early Head Start (EHS) is a federally-funded, community-based program that provides comprehensive child and family development services to low-income pregnant women and families with children under the age of 3. The mission of EHS is to support healthy prenatal outcomes and enhance the intellectual, social, and emotional development of infants and…

  2. Effect of feeding yeast culture on reproduction and lameness in dairy cows under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, R G S; Rutigliano, H; Cerri, R L; Robinson, P H; Santos, J E P

    2009-07-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=717) from two dairy farms were blocked at calving by parity and previous lactation milk yield and, within each block, randomly assigned to one of two treatments: a diet containing no yeast culture (Control; n=359) or 30 g/d of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YC; n=358) from 20 to 140 d postpartum. Only cows calving during months of heat stress, May-August were enrolled. Lameness score (1-5 scale) was evaluated at study enrollment and again at 100 d postpartum. The body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) was evaluated at calving, 28, 58 and 140 d postpartum. Cows received two injections of PGF(2alpha) at 37 and 51 d postpartum, and those observed in estrus were inseminated. Cows not in estrus were enrolled in a timed AI protocol at 65 d postpartum and inseminated at 75 d postpartum. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography at 37 and 51 d postpartum to determine whether estrous cycling had been initiated by the presence of a corpus lutem (CL) in at least one of the two examinations. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 31, 38 and 66 d after the first AI and at 38 and 66 d after the second and third AI. Diet did not affect time of onset of estrous cycles postpartum, and 8.2% of the cows were anovular. Detection of estrus in the 7d after the second injection of PGF(2alpha) was similar for control and YC. For control and YC, conception rates 38 d after AI at first (30.8% and 31.4%), second (39.3% and 35.1%) and third (25.8% and 30.6%) inseminations, and pregnancy losses did not differ, which resulted in similar median days to pregnancy and proportion of pregnant cows at 140 d postpartum. Yeast culture did not affect incidence of lameness, but tended to reduce lameness score. Lame cows and anovular cows had lesser conception rates at first AI, and extended interval from calving to conception. A THI of 71 was identified as the critical point in which fertility was reduced in lactating dairy cows, although the sensitivity and specificity were

  3. [Detection of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women with different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis J O; Cruz, Thomaz; Daltro, Carla; França, Caroline S; Nascimento, Avelina O S

    2005-12-01

    To detect subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Seventy-five pregnant women who resided in the town of Itabuna, state of Bahia, were voluntarily studied. Inclusion criteria were age pregnant women. In 5.4% of them, thyroid ultrasonographic changes were documented. Based on finding of a 4% prevalence of elevated TSH during pregnancy, the authors consider important the inclusion of thyroid function laboratory evaluation in the routine prenatal examination. Further studies appear necessary to establish at what gestational age thyroid function evaluation should be started in pregnant women and how frequently it should be repeated during the course of gestation.

  4. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, R.; Sengar, G. S.; Singh, U.; Kumar, S.; Raja, T. V.; Alex, R.; Alyethodi, R. R.; Prakash, B.

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer’s food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies. PMID:28775755

  5. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  6. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  7. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  8. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  9. Short communication: Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3. From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods.

  10. Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, M.; Vigo, M.; Quintela, L.A.; Becerra, J.J.; García-Herradón, P.J.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Fernandez-Sanchez, F.I.; Prieto, A.; Cainzos, J.; Peña, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3). From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods. (Author)

  11. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  12. The use of test day information to predict energy intake of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to validate a previously developed model for the estimation of energy balance in high producing dairy cows from test day information during the first 12 wk of lactation. Monensin (an ionophor) increases the energy status of dairy cows. Gold standard for the validation was a higher energy status, indicated by lower blood ketone body concentrations, lower percent milk fat, and higher milk-yield of monensin-supplemented than control cows in 8 randomized block design feeding trials. Estimated energy intake (eE(intake)) was calculated as estimated energy balance (eEB) plus energy in actual milk produced (in units of MJ(nel)) plus a constant or variable amount of energy required for maintenance. The variable amount was based on BW, while the constant was the average BW in each parity group (1, 2, 3, 4+). Both eEB and eE(intake) were compared between groups of cows with and without monensin supplementation (n = 600 lactations). The trials started with a presupplement period during lactation wk 2 to 5 followed by a supplementation period during lactation wk 6 to 12. During the presupplement period, both eEB and eE(intake) were similar for all cows. At 2, 3, and 8 wk after starting the monensin supplementation, the eEB of the supplemented cows was significantly higher, while eE(intake) was significantly higher throughout the supplementation period. The results were similar for the 2 methods of calculating energy for maintenance, variable or constant. The feed conversion efficiency, calculated as kg of fat-protein corrected milk per MJ(nel) of eE(intake), was highest in first calving cows compared with cows having more lactations, and correlated with standard milk production at trial group level. It was concluded that eE(intake) was a valid measure of net energy absorption.

  13. THE PREGNANT MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet‟ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age”

  14. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on uterine health, resolution of purulent vaginal discharge, and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João G N; Silva, Paula R B; Mendonça, Luís G D; Scanavez, Alexandre A; Silva, Joseane C C; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2017-06-01

    infusion. Cows without PVD and LPS150 cows were more likely to be pregnant after the first postpartum AI than PBS cows. After the second postpartum AI, cows without PVD were more likely to be pregnant than PBS and LPS300 cows. Hazard of pregnancy up to 200 d postpartum was decreased for PBS and LPS300 cows compared with cows without PVD, and it tended to be decreased for LPS150 cows compared with cows without PVD. Intrauterine treatment with 150 µg of E. coli LPS of cows diagnosed with PVD improved likelihood of pregnancy after the first postpartum AI, but further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which LPS treatment improved fertility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  16. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  17. Monitoring of the declining trend of Polychlorobifenyls concentration in milk of contaminated dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pregnant heifers, coming from a herd with a history of high concentration of polychlorobifenyls (PCB into the milk, were fed with a very low-PCB diet starting from the 6th month of pregnancy. After parturition cows were milked for at least 190 d with a maximum of 270 d. Diet was made of: corn silage (31.7% of DMI, dehydrated alfalfa (13.3% of DMI, grass hay (3.7% of DMI and concentrate (51.3% of DMI. The average DMI was 23.12 kg/d. Milk production was recorded and samples of milk and blood were taken and analyzed for PCB (18, 28, 31, 52, 44, 101, 149, 118, 153, 138, 180 and 194 congeners content using a GC-MS technique. The average milk yield (kg/d of the 6 cows was 26.0, 22.5, 23.2, 24.5, 28.9, 29.3. The maximum PCB concentration of 100 ng/g of fat allowed by the Italian law was reached after 144-209 d of lactation. One animal after 204 days had a PCB concentration of 102 ng/g fat. If log10 of PCB concentration (ppb in milk fat is regressed against days in milking (DIM the following significant equation was obtained: log10 PCB (ng/g of milk fat= 2.796 -0.00474 DIM; r2 0.72; P<0.01 The initial level of contamination is not the main factor affecting the time required in order for PCB to return to below the legal threshold of 100 ng/g fat, while daily milk yield significantly affects PCB excretion. Body condition and energy balance could be important factors affecting PCB excretion. In the presence of high contamination, about 6 months of lactation are required in order to obtain milk with a sufficiently low PCB content. Among the seven congeners considered by Italian legislation, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 constitute almost all the PCBs found in tissues and milk, with a much smaller presence of PCB 180, and the numbers of the congeners PCB 28 and PCB 52 are almost insignificant, probably because they accumulate little in the body. The congeners PCB 138 and PCB 153 are those most frequently found. For PCB 138 the liver is the principal

  18. Effect of a killed whole Neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine on the crube abortion rate of Costa Rican dairy cows under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Frankena, K.

    2004-01-01

    A standard field trial was carried out to assess the effect of a commercial Neospora-vaccine based on whole killed tachyzoites (Bovilis–Neoguard, Intervet®) on the abortion rate. Eight hundred and seventy-six cows, over 2.5 months pregnant, belonging to 25 Costa Rican dairy herds, were used in the a

  19. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  20. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  1. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  2. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  3. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( productivity in beef production systems.

  4. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  5. Depressed polymorphonuclear cell functions in periparturient cows that develop postpartum reproductive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiqul; Kumar, Harendra; Singh, Gyanendra; Krishnan, Binsila B; Dey, Sahadeb

    2017-09-01

    The study was planned to see if there is any important and significant changes in the PMN function in cows suffering from postpartum reproductive diseases (PRD). Blood sampling was done from 41 pregnant cows on 15 days prepartum (-15d), calving day (0d), 15 days (15d) and 30 days (30d) postpartum and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on 0d, 15d, 30d and 45d for diagnosis of PRD like retained placenta (RP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis (CE) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU). The heparinised blood was used for isolation of PMN leukocytes for estimation of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in each group of cows. The SO production (ΔOD) was greater for normal (0.19 ± 0.05) than cows suffering from RP (-0.12 ± 0.09), CM (-0.15 ± 0.13) and CE (-0.07 ± 0.05) at -15d. The mean value was greater for normal cows (0.12) than the cows with PRD (0.05 to 0.9) at 30d. The H2O2 production was greater for normal than cows with PRD at all sampling days and significantly greater than cows with RP and CE at 15d (p < 0.01) and 30d (P < 0.05). The MPO activity (μmol/1 × 10(7)) was greater for normal (18.77 ± 1.27) than for RP (12.52 ± 2.57) and CM (11.31 ± 3.30) cows on 0d. The depressed capability of the PMN from the cows with PRD to produce SO, H2O2 and MPO during the periparturient period indicated their association with the development of RP, CM and CE.

  6. Dry period length of dairy cows :

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative ene

  7. Dry period length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative

  8. Effects of long-term feeding dairy cows on a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite on certain serum trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Roubies, N; Panousis, N; Karatzias, H

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) supplementation in the ration of dairy cows on serum copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations. Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (group A) comprised 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 1.25% clinoptilolite, the second group (group B) comprised also 17 cows was given a ration with 2.5% clinoptilolite, and the third group (group C, the control), comprised 18 cows fed the basal ration that did not contain any clinoptilolite. The experiment started when the cows entered the fourth week before the expected parturition and lasted until the end of lactation. All cows were fed the above concentrates during the entire experimental period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the starting day of the experiment, at the day of calving, and at monthly intervals thereafter. All samples were tested for serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations. The results showed that the 1.25 and 2.5% supplementation of clinoptilolite did not have any adverse effects on serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Fe.

  9. The locomotion of dairy cows on concrete floors that are dry, wet, or covered with a slurry of excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J; Morris, I D

    2000-08-01

    Six dairy cows were trained to individually walk down a concrete aisle for a food reward. Their locomotion was then examined in a switchback experiment as the floor surface of the aisle was changed from dry to wetted concrete or concrete covered by shallow (5 cm) or deep (12.5 cm) slurry from cattle excreta. The static and dynamic frictional coefficients were measured by a tribometer, but did not give a clear indication of the risk of slipping. Cow locomotion was measured over the second half of the aisle, and limb angles recorded as the cow passed a video camera. Wetting the floor did not affect the walking or stepping rate, but it reduced the arc made by the joints of the hindlimb during the supporting phase. Slurry caused the cows to keep their legs more vertical at the end of the support phase, probably to aid lifting the limb out of the slurry. It also caused the cows to place their forelimbs down less vertically at the start of the support phase, probably because of the reduced risk of slip in the slurry. When the floor was covered with either the deep or, to a lesser extent, the shallow slurry, the cows' walking and stepping rates were reduced, and on the floor covered with deep slurry their step length was increased. Therefore slurry reduces the cow's walking speed and alters limb angles during the support phase, producing a different walking pattern from cows on dry or wetted concrete.

  10. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  11. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  12. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  13. Modelling the Kinetics of Biogas Production from Mesophilic Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Plantain Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo; Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of plantain peels as co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of cow dung for efficient and high biogas production. The biogas experiments were carried out in two different 5 L anaerobic digesters and incubated for 40 days at ambient mesophilic temperatures (28 oC to 34 °C). The results showed that co-digestion of cow dung with plantain peels as co-substrate reduced start-up time for biogas generation and increased biogas yield by 18% as compared to cow dung a...

  14. Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin L Sciascia; David Pacheco; McCoard, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solut...

  15. Technology for the fully automated milking of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Since dairy farming is a very labour intensive, seven-days-per-week activity, increasing emphasis is being placed on the use of advanced technology in dairying throughout the world. Dairy mechanisation has been well established for many years, whereas dairy automation has only started to gain momentum fairly recently. An important milestone was the introduction of systems for automatic animal identification in the 1970’s. That paved the way for all further dairy automation activities. An analysis of the current status of the fully automated milking of cows shows that the automated attachment of a milking machine’s teat cups to a cow ’s teats is the most important task in dairying that remains to be automated.

  16. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  17. A New Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Goodwill to the Islamic world and willingness to mend ties highlight Barack Obama’s new Middle East policy u.S. President Barack Obama started to implement his new Middle East policy soon after he assumed office. He paid a

  18. Getting started with UDOO

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  19. Start-Up Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  20. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  1. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. Pregnancy rate (the amount of pregnant cows out of the eligible cows in the herd) calculated for 90, 120 and 150 days after calving differed significantly between the groups, (44, 59 and 73% vs., 5, 11 and 11%), in cooled and non-cooled cows, respectively. CR and pregnancy rates obtained in intensively cooled herds in this experiment were similar to those obtained during the winter of that year, in commercial dairy farms in Israel. Differently from the results described above, when cows in summer were intensively cooled, only for a period of 2 days before and 8 days after A.I, CR failed to improve (31 and 36%), in cooled and non-cooled cows, respectively. These results offer a conclusion that cows must be intensively cooled and must maintain normal body temperatures during the entire day and during the whole summer. i.e. the entire reproductive process from follicular development until implantation of the embryo in the uterus, in order to express cow's full reproductive potential in Israeli summer conditions. The effect of cooling intensity on cow's productive and reproductive traits was studied in a wide survey, during four consecutive years (1998-2001), on 14 farms, averaging 300 milking cows each, all located in the coastal plain of Israel. Farms were categorized into three different groups according to the intensity of summer cooling. "Intensive" (7.5 cumulative cooling hours per day), "Moderate" (4.5 cumulative hours per day) and "No-cooling" at all. CR was 56, 53 and 54%, and 40, 34 and 15%, for primiparous (P drop in CR, even in very high yielding herds. The Ministry of Agriculture extension service, in cooperation with the Israel Cattle Breeders Association (ICBA), developed a computerized report called "Summer to Winter (S:W) Performance Ratio", based on the "Israeli Herd book" data from more than 300 herds. The higher the ratio is for productive and reproductive traits, the better a farm handles summer negative effects on cow's performance. Based on the

  2. Auramine-o (Synthetic Yellow Cow Dung Powder) Poisoning: Rare but Fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadke, Shubhangi; Dhadke, Vitthal; Giram, Abhijit

    2017-07-01

    Cow dung known since long ago for its germicidal properties, used by Indian villagers to clean the house premises. As cow dung is not available easily, nowadays people have started using synthetic yellow coloured powder (Auramine-o) available easily in grocery shops locally known as "Morechap powder" in districts of Maharashtra. As the poisoning is rare, very few literatures are available mentioning the detailed mechanism of action, clinical presentation and complications. To study the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning. 25 patients presenting with confirmed H/O consumption of (Auramine-o) synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning were studied. Patient's routine investigations BSL, RFT, LFT were done. CT brain was done whenever indicated. Synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning was common in young age group and females. Vomiting, respiratory depression were common symptoms. Synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning was needed only symptomatic treatment. It was very rare and mortality is low when treated promptly.

  3. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan

    2009-01-01

    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  4. Strong Start Wraparound: Addressing the Complex Needs of Mothers in Early Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, M. Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…

  5. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  6. Short communication: Metritis affects milk production and cull rate of Holstein multiparous and primiparous dairy cows differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittrock, J M; Proudfoot, K L; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-05-01

    Metritis, a common transition disease in dairy cows, reduces milk production during the duration of the disease. To our knowledge, no work has investigated the short-term effects of metritis on feed intake and the long-term consequences on milk yield and risk of culling. The objectives were to determine the effect of metritis on 305-d lactation curves, dry matter intake (DMI), reproduction, and the probability of being culled. Identifying differences in response to metritis between primiparous and multiparous cows was of interest. Milk records were collected twice daily from Holstein cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis (11 primiparous and 16 multiparous) or classified as healthy (14 primiparous and 43 multiparous) during the first 3 wk after calving. Metritic cows were treated at the discretion of the herd veterinarian. Lactation curves of healthy and metritic cows were compared using a mixed model with a Wilmink function. Differences in DMI, days open, and the number of services per conception were assessed using mixed models. The probabilities that cows with and without metritis were not bred, were bred but never confirmed pregnant, or were culled were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Primiparous and multiparous animals were assessed separately. Multiparous cows with metritis produced less milk (35.1±1.5 vs. 39.2±1.0 kg/d), ate less during the 3 wk after calving (12.2±1.2 vs.14.0±0.8 kg/d), and were more likely to be culled (50.0%) than healthy cows (20.9%). The decision to cull was likely influenced by the lower milk yield in early lactation as a result of metritis; the decision to cull was made early, as 7 of the 8 culled metritic cows were not bred. No differences were found in any measurement between primiparous cows with and without metritis. These results indicate that metritis in early lactation has long-term effects on multiparous cows but not primiparous cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Getting started with JUCE

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  8. Getting started with Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  9. Getting started with Hazelcast

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Mat

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  10. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689

  11. Analysis of daily body weight of dairy cows in early lactation and associations withproductive and reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Karina Poncheki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe daily body weight (BW changes in the first 100 days of lactation in confined dairy cows and to associate BW loss with productive and reproductive performance. Data included 26,344 daily BW measurements of 372 Holsteins calving between June 2011 and June 2012 in a commercial herd in the South of Brazil. Cows were automatically weighed and were assigned according to parity. Individual measurements were smoothed using cubic splines, generating nadir BW, days to nadir BW and the BW loss (absolute and relative values. This approach used days in milk (DIM as a single smoothing variable. Body weight at calving differed across parities: 570.5, 653.5, and 699.9 kg, for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd and subsequent parities, respectively. Body weight at nadir also differed across parities: 521.5, 608.8, and 647.3 kg, respectively. Mean days from calving BW to nadir BW and mean loss of BW (kg from calving to nadir BW did not differ across parities, but relative BW change (kg/100 kg was larger in animals in first parity (-8.4 kg/100 kg than second parity (-6.6 kg/100 kg. However, cows in first parity had more chances for good reproduction than cows in third and subsequent parities (44.0% vs. 30.7%, respectively. There was no difference in the probability of adequate reproduction (pregnant until 180 DIM among cows with low, medium, or high milk yield. Furthermore, cows with low and medium BW loss (below 60 kg of BW change showed more likelihood to adequate reproduction than cows with high BW loss (above 60 kg of BW: 45.5 and 45.8% vs. 24.4%, respectively. Improvements in fertility of dairy cows should be achieved by minimizing body weight loss in early lactation.

  12. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  13. Coping strategies in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.In Chapter 1, current concepts of adaptation and stress a

  14. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current concept

  15. Pregnant Woman's Custom in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Foods are one of the important things in order to keep the life of pregnant women in good condition, because they must bring up a new life in their bodies In early Showa Age, the life of Japanese common people was in difficult circumstances. At that time the food life of pregnant women were restricted by various food taboos. For instance, if the pregnant women ate Tororo, brayed yam, she was considered to deliver a baby who had no tooth. They kept many taboos and prayed to their guardian deit...

  16. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  17. Validation of a screening questionnaire for atopy with serum IgE tests in a population of pregnant Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwijk, N; Van Strien, RT; Doekes, G; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Background We have started a large birth cohort study in which pregnant women with and without atopy are differentially included. In view of the large number of subjects to be screened (12000), a simple questionnaire was developed for the assessment of atopy in pregnant women. Objective. The objecti

  18. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  19. Effect of unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on digestion, metabolism and nutrient balance in dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of unsaturated fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on intake, digestion and nutrient balance. Thirty-six multiparous and pregnant Holstein cows were randomly distributed to receive one of the experimental diets in the period from 35 days before the expected date of parturition to 84 days post-partum. Diets were fed as a total mixed ration and were as follows: control (C; soybean oil (SO, based on inclusion of 30 g/kg (DM basis; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CS, based on inclusion of 30 g/kg (DM basis. Pre-partum dry matter intakes (DMI of cows fed C, SO and CS were 11.9, 9.5 and 9.6 kg/d, respectively. Post-partum DMI was affected by experimental diets (18.5, 15.0 and 17.4 kg/d for C, SO and CS, respectively. The energy balance in the transition period of animals fed CS was 4.41 Mcal/d higher than cows fed SO and 1.3 Mcal/d higher than cows fed C. Supplementing cows with unsaturated fatty acid sources is a strategy for dairy cows in the transition period.

  20. Getting Started with Netduino

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  1. Getting started with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Banzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  2. Getting Started with Roo

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Spring Roo goes a step beyond the Spring Framework by bringing true Rapid Application Development to Java-just as Grails has done with Groovy. This concise introduction shows you how to build applications with Roo, using the framework's shell as an intelligent and timesaving code-completion tool. It's an ideal RAD tool because Roo does much of the tedious code maintenance. You'll get started by building a simple customer relationship management application, complete with step-by-step instructions and code examples. Learn how to control any part of the application with Roo's opt-in feature, w

  3. En god start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  4. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  5. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  6. Pregnant? Don't Smoke!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer, heart disease, and stroke. But women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their developing babies ...

  7. Strip-dried whole milk sampling technique for progesterone detection in cows by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonova, J V; Osipov, A P; Kondakov, S E

    2017-12-01

    New sampling format of whole cows' milk in strip-dried form was proposed. Few methodological issues of whole milk progesterone ELISA using samples dried on a membrane carrier in a form of strip were investigated and optimized: width of a strip, shape of punched/cut-off part of membrane, sample application method. It was shown that distribution of the hormone along narrow strip was even except the initial part of a strip (the first 0.5 × 0.5cm piece) where recovered concentration of progesterone was higher. Storage stability of progesterone in strip-dried whole cows' milk samples at 4°C, ambient temperature, 37°C and 60°C was investigated. Rising of the detected progesterone concentration over storage period at elevated temperatures was observed predominantly in milk samples with low hormone concentration (from non-pregnant cows). Strip-dried whole milk samples can be used for collection, transportation, storage and ELISA analysis of progesterone level which is correlated with reproductive status of cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  9. Rates of passage of digesta and water absorption along the larg intestines of sheep, cows and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, J F; Grovum, W L

    1975-04-01

    In 5 cows, the mean length of the large intestine was only slightly greater than that of 21 sheep and 3 pigs. At about one-fifth of the way along the large intestine of the sheep and cows, corresponding to the end of the proximal colon and start of the spiral colon, there were marked reductions in the amount of digesta present and in the lumen diameter. In pigs these parameters decreased gradually along the large intestine. In all parts of the large intestine, the cows had more water in the digesta than did the sheep or the pigs. Nevertheless, the decrease in water content between the caecum and the rectum was similar for the cows and the sheep but less in the pigs. The rate of passage of digesta increased gradually along the large intestine of the pigs, but in the cows and sheep the rate was least in the caecum and proximal colon and greatest in the spiral colon. The total retention time for digesta in the large intestine was approximately 30, 20, and 9 h in the pigs, sheep, and cows respectively. The rate of water absorption from the large intestine was most rapid in the cows and slowest in the pigs. Differences in faecal water content between the species were not due to differences in retention times in the large intestine.

  10. Effects of Fishmeal or Urea Supplementation on Ruminal Fibre Digestion and Passage Kinetics in Bali Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I.G.N, Jelantik; C., Leo-Penu; J., Jeremias;

    2010-01-01

    libitum access to grass hay or supplemented daily with two levels of urea, i.e. 38 and 74 g, or two levels of fishmeal, i.e. 156 and 312 g. The measured parameters included were intake and apparent digestibility of DM and NDF, in sacco ruminal fibre degradation, and in vivo ruminal NDF digestion...... and passage kinetics. Intakes of DM and NDF were significantly improved by supplementation of both urea and fishmeal with fishmeal exerted a better effect at low level of supplementation. The increase of intake was mainly associated with the significant increase of rumen in sacco degradation of NDF. However......Five non-pregnant Bali cows were used in a 5x5 latin square experimental design with the objective to study the effects of supplementation of graded levels of urea or fishmeal on fibre intake and digestion kinetics in Bali cows consuming low quality tropical grass hay. The animals were given ad...

  11. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  12. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  13. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  14. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    cleanliness was explored but no effect was found. In the second study, potential herd and cow level risk factors for poor hind leg cleanliness were evaluated. Data were obtained from a cross sectional study in 42 commercial dairy herds conducted by senior scientist Peter T. Thomsen. Here, no access to pasture......-sociated with a change in the risk hind leg cleanliness with the data available in the pre-sent study. However, a positive effect of the automatic hoof was found by demonstrating that washed feet were affected by DD lesions in fewer weeks in comparison to unwashed feet. Also, the last study demonstrated that the cows......’ risk of DD occurrence and it prospects of cure might depend on lactation stage and age. Furthermore, the study brings forward evidence that challenge the assumptions of DD as a disease with generally slow healing lesions and rare occurrence of spontaneous healing. Further research is needed to find out...

  15. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  16. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo;

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim...... of scoring, age at first calving, lactation stage, and parity in addition to additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. The heritability of the loser cow score was 0.08 and for the underlying traits the heritability ranged from 0.05 to 0.12. The genetic correlations between various pairs...

  17. Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappritz, Julia; Meyer, Ulrich; Kramer, Ronny; Weber, Eva-Maria; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rehage, Jürgen; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-04-01

    The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the

  18. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... cleanliness. More knowledge on these aspects will increase our understanding of the disease epidemiology and is essential to improve the success of controlling DD at the herd level. Therefore, the objectives of the present PhD thesis were 1) To investigate the relationship between cow leg cleanliness and DD......; 2) To identify potential risk factors for poor cow leg cleanliness; and 3) To gain more knowledge about potential means of controlling DD. Data was obtained from three studies conducted in commercial Danish dairy herds and the results are presented in four scientific papers. In the first study, cow...

  19. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... and therefore has a major impact on economics and cow welfare. Moist and unhygienic conditions in the cows’ surroundings are considered as important risk factors for DD partly because this can disturb the skin barrier and make the animals more susceptible to infection and partly because the environment might...... act as an infection reservoir. Measures of cow leg cleanliness can be used as a proxy of the hygienic conditions on the floors. Nonetheless, only few studies have used direct measures of cleanliness in association with the risk of DD. Also, little is known about what factors can influence the cow leg...

  20. Hormonal induction of estrous cycles in anestrous Bos taurus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M L

    2004-07-01

    A significant proportion of postpartum beef cows are anestrus at the onset of the breeding season. Much progress has been made in understanding anestrus and the changes that lead to spontaneous resumption of reproductive function. Likewise, knowledge regarding the impact of hormonal interventions on the endocrine and ovarian changes normally associated with spontaneous resumption of estrous cycles continue to accumulate. A wide range of hormonal treatment programs designed to induce estrous cycles in anestrous cows to coincide with the start of the breeding season have been developed. Programs structured to provide for increased progesterone, estradiol and LH concentrations at the appropriate times during the period leading to the first ovulation, and an induced preovulatory gonadotropin surge when the dominant ovarian follicle is of appropriate maturity have been demonstrated to induce estrous cycles of normal duration and acceptable fertility in a majority of anestrous, Bos taurus beef cows.

  1. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C;

    2011-01-01

    profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... and the length of follicular and luteal phase and (2) from the estrous cycle following insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone and days from estrus to post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone. A discriminant analysis did not reveal clear...

  2. An impressive start

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  3. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  4. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  5. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  6. Luteal versus placental progesterone: the situation in the cow, pig and bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H H

    1994-01-01

    Placenta and corpus luteum (CL) have acquired different functions for progesterone synthesis and maintenance of pregnancy in the course of placentalia evolution. In the cow and pig, progesterone is produced by the same CL during the entire gestation period with minor or no contribution from the placenta. In the case of an infertile cycle, CL survival is terminated by PGF2 alpha produced by the endometrium. PGF2 alpha secretion is inhibited by the trophoblast in order to guarantee continuous progesterone production. Also in the dog, only the CL synthesizes progesterone and the secretion pattern is similar in pseudopregnant and pregnant animals. The dog CL seems to have an internally programmed life span.

  7. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pbalanced metabolic profile.

  8. Effects of physiological and/or disease status on the response of postpartum dairy cows to synchronization of estrus using an intravaginal progesterone device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Julie C; Crowe, Mark A; Roche, James F; Beltman, Marijke E

    2014-12-01

    Progesterone treatments are used to increase submission rates in postpartum dairy cows; however, in many cases the protocol is used as a blanket therapy for all cows without regard for physiological or disease state. The objective of this study was to identify the physiological or disease classes of cows that respond well (or not) to synchronization of estrus via progesterone. Dairy cows (n = 402) were monitored peri and postpartum to establish their physiological or disease status. Animals were classified as having negative energy balance, clinical lameness, uterine infection (UI), anovulatory anestrus, high somatic cell counts, and healthy (H). Blood samples were collected at five different time points and analyzed for metabolites. All animals received an 8-day controlled internal drug release protocol, which included GnRH at insertion and PGF2α the day before removal. Response to the protocol was determined by visual observation of estrus synchronization. Conception rate was determined by ultrasonography between Days 32 and 35 after artificial insemination. Animals without UI were 1.9 times more likely to respond and two times more likely to be confirmed pregnant than those with UI. There was no relationship between negative energy balance and clinical lameness in the visual estrous response, but both conditions were associated with reduced conception rates. Dairy cows in anovulatory anestrus responded successfully to the protocol in both estrous response and conception rates. High glutathione peroxidase concentrations had a positive effect on conception rates, whereas high non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate had a negative effect on the estrous response. In conclusion, disease and physiological states of dairy cows determined the response to progesterone-based synchronization. The more disease or physiological problems the cows had, the lower the estrous response and conception rates; cows with these problems were not ideal candidates for

  9. Subclinical endometritis in Zebu x Friesian crossbred dairy cows: its risk factors, association with subclinical mastitis and effect on reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Belachew; Regassa, Fekadu Gudeta

    2010-03-01

    A study was carried out on 59 clinically healthy Zebu x Friesian crossbred cows to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis, associated factors and its effect on the reproductive performance. Subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by endometrial cytology using uterine lavege technique and subclinical mastitis using CMT. The clinical, management and reproductive data were obtained from a weekly follow up visit of each cow for a period of 6 months after calving. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis, with > or =5% neutrophil count, was 47.5% and 30.5% at week 4 and 8, significantly decreasing (P = 0.002) as postpartum period advanced. Body condition score at week 4 postpartum (OR = 4.5, P = 0.017) and regular cow exercise (OR = 4.8, P = 0.026) were the significant risk factors while post-calving hygiene (P = 0.06) was poorly associated. Subclinical endometritis was also directly associated with subclinical mastitis at both week 4 (OR = 4.5, P = 0.012) and 8 (OR = 3.6, P = 0.031) postpartum. The risk of first service pregnancy (OR = 5.1, P = 0.004) was higher in cows negative for subclinical endometritis at week 8 postpartum and the proportion of cows that required more than 3 services was higher in cows with uterine inflammation. Also the proportion of cows diagnosed pregnant within 180 DIM was higher in cows with normal uterus at both week 4 (OR = 10.3, P = 0.001) and week 8(OR = 21.8, P = 0.001). These results indicated that subclinical endometritis was directly associated with poor body condition and subclinical mastitis and that it had negative effect on reproductive traits of dairy cows. This association may also reflect the possibility of translocation of bacteria/bacterial products from the uterus to the udder or vic-versa or else the presence of common cause for both endometritis and mastitis.

  10. Factors affecting spontaneous reduction of corpora lutea and twin embryos during the late embryonic/early fetal period in multiple-ovulating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Hunter, R H F

    2010-02-01

    Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos has been described in high-producing, Holstein-Fresian (Bos taurus) dairy herds. The first objective of the current study was to determine whether management and cow factors could have an effect on such a reduction in twin pregnancies during the early fetal period. Because loss of a corpus luteum was noted in cows suffering twin reduction, we expanded our study to include multiple-ovulating cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy was diagnosed and confirmed from Days 28 to 34 and 56 to 62 postinsemination. Sixty-nine (23.5%) of 293 pregnant cows with two corpora lutea carrying singletons and 132 (28.4%) of 464 twin pregnancies recorded on first pregnancy diagnosis subsequently lost one of the corpora lutea or one of the embryos, respectively. Thirty-four (25.8%) of the 132 twin pregnancies suffering embryo reduction lost one corpus luteum along with the embryo. Corpus luteum reduction always occurred in the ovary ipsilateral to the gravid horn suffering embryo reduction. Binary logistic regressions were performed considering corpus luteum and embryo reduction as dependent variables in single and twin pregnancies, respectively, and several management- and cow-related factors as independent variables. In cows carrying singletons, the risk of corpus luteum reduction was 14.3 (1/0.07) times lower for a given herd, whereas the interaction season by laterality significantly affected corpus luteum reduction such that in cows with two corpora lutea ipsilateral to the horn of pregnancy, the risk of reduction decreased during the winter period. In cows carrying twins, ipsilateral twin pregnancies were 3.45 (1/0.29) times more likely to undergo the loss of one embryo than bilateral twin pregnancies. As an overall conclusion, both corpora lutea and embryos were vulnerable to the effects of stress factors during the early fetal period in cows maintaining their pregnancies. A strong unilateral relationship between the corpus luteum and

  11. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  12. Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer

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    M. C. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0 were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4 and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7, cows received no treatment (control; n=16, a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; n=16, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; n=15, or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; n=15. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM. Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater (P≤0.05 in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined (P≤0.05 from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (P≤0.05. Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows.

  13. Factors affecting conception rates following artificial insemination or embryo transfer in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Demetrio, C G B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that may affect conception rates (CR) following artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET) in lactating Holstein cows. Estrous cycling cows producing 33.1 +/- 7.2 kg of milk/d received PGF2alpha injections and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups (AI or ET). Cows detected in estrus (n = 387) between 48 and 96 h after the PGF2alpha injection received AI (n = 227) 12 h after detection of estrus or ET (n = 160) 6 to 8 d later (1 fresh embryo, grade 1 or 2, produced from nonlactating cows). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 28 and 42 d after estrus, and embryonic loss occurred when a cow was pregnant on d 28 but not pregnant on d 42. Ovulation, conception, and embryonic loss were analyzed by a logistic model to evaluate the effects of covariates [days in milk (DIM), milk yield, body temperature (BT) at d 7 and 14 post-AI, and serum concentration of progesterone (P4) at d 7 and 14 post-AI] on the probability of success. The first analysis included all cows that were detected in estrus. The CR of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 32.6% vs. ET, 49.4%) and 42 (AI, 29.1% vs. ET, 38.8%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7) and DIM. The second analysis included only cows with a corpus luteum on d 7. Ovulation rate was 84.8% and was only negatively affected by DIM. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.9% vs. ET, 59.4%) and 42 (AI, 33.8% vs. ET, 46.6%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). The third analysis included only ovulating cows that were 7 d postestrus. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.5% vs. ET, 63.2%) and 42 (AI, 31.7% vs. ET, 51.7%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). There was a positive effect of serum concentration of P4 and a negative effect of milk production on the probability of conception for the AI group but not for the ET group. The fourth analysis was embryonic loss (AI, 10.8% vs. ET, 21.5%). The transfer

  14. Balanced Anaesthetic Approach in a Late-Term Gravid Cow Undergoing Metacarpal Fracture Repair

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    Olga Martin Jurado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was started. During anaesthesia, slight hypercapnia and hypoxaemia developed. Total time of xylazine and ketamine infusion was 3.5 hours. Total anaesthesia time was 4.5 hours. For recovery of anaesthesia, isoflurane was discontinued, and in sternal recumbency, the trachea was extubated when the cow swallowed. Paralysis of the left radial nerve occurred, and the cow was supported to stand up after 2 hours. The radial nerve paralysis resolved within three days. A healthy calf was born at term. This is the first paper that describes the successful use of adjunctive xylazine and ketamine infusion to isoflurane anaesthesia in a late-term gravid cow undergoing fracture repair during 4.5 hours.

  15. Phenotypic association between energy balance indicators and reproductive performance in primiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

    2011-02-19

    Energy balance was assessed during the first 13 weeks postpartum in 497 primiparous Holstein cows and the relationship with reproductive performance was investigated. A significant association was observed between body condition score (BCS) and a number of reproductive traits, including conception at first artificial insemination (AI), number of inseminations per conception, calving to conception and calving intervals, percentage pregnant by the end of a 305-day lactation and incidence of metritis. The BCS from calving to week 9 (before the first AI) appeared to adequately predict future reproductive performance as it was correlated with calving interval, conception at first AI, metritis and percentage pregnant by the end of a 305-day lactation. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were correlated with the latter trait only, whereas non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were not associated with reproductive performance.

  16. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  17. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P Flunixin meglumine treatment suppressed serum PGFM concentrations in control and ACTH-treated cows.

  18. Effects of long-term feeding of a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite to dairy cows on the incidence of ketosis, milk yield and liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Panousis, N; Roubies, N; Christaki, E; Arsenos, G; Karatzias, H

    2006-09-23

    Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (A) consisted of 17 cows that were fed a concentrate ration supplemented with 1.25 per cent clinoptilolite, the second group (B) consisted of 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 2.5 per cent clinoptilolite, and the third group (C) consisted of 18 cows, which were fed the basal ration containing no clinoptilolite. The rations were fed from four weeks before the cows' expected parturition dates until the beginning of the next dry period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the start of the experiment, on the day of calving and then monthly, and analysed for serum glucose, ketone bodies, liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total proteins. The milk yield of each cow was recorded monthly. The cows in group B had significantly fewer cases of clinical ketosis during the first month after calving and a higher total milk yield. Feeding the cows with clinoptilolite for a long period had no apparent adverse effects on their liver function, and did not significantly affect the concentrations of glucose, ketone bodies, BUN and total proteins in their serum.

  19. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  20. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Shahbazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector.Results: Free E1 (554.1±77.0 ng/L and deconjugated E1 (701.6±44.7 ng/L was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit (10 ng/L. The lowest E1: 554.1±77.0 and E2: 28.1±4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7±123.8 and E2: 108.2±9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant (P>0.05 differences with those in raw milk.Conclusion: As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis.

  1. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  2. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

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    Tauck Shaun A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8 or steers (ES, n = 8 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8. Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P 0.10 between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09 and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05 in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06 in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows

  3. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  4. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  5. Neospora caninum NC-6 Argentina induces fetopathy in both serologically positive and negative experimentally inoculated pregnant dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupe, D; Basso, W; Caspe, S G; Moré, G; Lischinsky, L; Gos, M L; Leunda, M; Campero, L; Moore, D P; Schares, G; Campero, C M; Venturini, M C

    2013-07-01

    Neospora caninum infection is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The objectives of this study were to genetically characterize the N. caninum NC-6 Argentina isolate using a multilocus microsatellite analysis approach and to study its biological behavior by experimental inoculations into seronegative and seropositive pregnant cattle, evaluating the humoral and cellular immune response elicited and the occurrence of transplacental transmission and fetopathy. Pregnant cows (65 days of gestation) seropositive and seronegative to N. caninum were intravenously inoculated with tachyzoites of the NC-6 Argentina N. caninum strain and slaughtered at 108 ± 2 days of gestation. Serum samples were analyzed for N. caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test. The cellular immune response was analyzed by detection of gamma interferon (γIFN) production in blood cells. Tissue samples from dams, fetuses, and placental cotyledons were processed by histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques and examined for N. caninum DNA by PCR. Positive DNA samples were further analyzed by multilocus microsatellite typing for N. caninum. Inoculated animals had significantly higher N. caninum antibody titers and γIFN production than control animals. One seropositive inoculated cow aborted, one seronegative cow had a non-viable fetus, and the remaining fetuses from the experimentally inoculated dams had histopathologic lesions. The PCR was positive in 3/4 fetuses from seronegative inoculated cows and in 2/3 fetuses from seropositive inoculated cows. Multilocus microsatellite analysis revealed that the N. caninum DNA present in fetuses and placentas had an identical pattern to NC-6 Argentina strain. The NC-6 Argentina strain proved to be able to cross the placenta and to induce fetopathy in both the seropositive and seronegative dams.

  6. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  8. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  9. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  10. Effect of delayed breeding during the summer on profitability of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this retrospective observational cohort study, combined with simulation, was to evaluate the effect of extending the voluntary waiting period (VWP) during the summer on profitability on a Florida dairy farm. Data from Holstein cows (n=1,416) that calved between June and September of 2007 and 2008 were used. Cows that calved between June 1 and July 21 (regular group; REG; n=719) were artificially inseminated (AI) for the first time upon estrus detection (ED) after the second PGF₂α of the Presynch protocol administered between 57 and 63 d in milk (DIM), or underwent timed AI using the Ovsynch protocol (TAI) if not detected in estrus. Cows that calved between July 22 and September 18 (extended group; EXT; n=697) underwent AI for the first time after the first or second PGF₂α starting November 14 or November 21 or underwent TAI if not detected in estrus. For second and subsequent AI, all cows underwent AI upon ED or enrolled on TAI after nonpregnancy diagnosis. Following these schemes, average VWP in the REG group and EXT group were 60 and 83 d, respectively. Overall profitability for both experimental and subsequent parities were calculated by subtracting the costs existing of feeding costs ($0.30/kg lactating cow diet; $0.25/kg dry cow diet), breeding costs ($2.65/dose PGF₂α; $2.40/dose GnRH; $0.25/injection administration; $10/semen straw; $5/AI; $3/pregnancy diagnosis), and other costs ($3/d) from the daily revenues with milk sales ($0.44/kg of milk), cow sales ($1.76/kg of live weight), and calf sales ($140/calf). A herd budget simulation was used to predict future cash flow after culling or end of subsequent parity until 6 yr after the start of the study to account for all cash flow consequences of extended VWP. Cows in the EXT group had greater first-service pregnancy per AI (PAI1) but still had greater days open and calving interval. Delaying breeding did not affect total cash flow because the EXT group had greater combined

  11. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  12. Biogas Production from Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Artanti Putri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from livestock waste manure in particular is one of the alternative utilization of organic wastes that can be implemented in Indonesia since there is a huge potential of bio-energy in Indonesia. This study utilizes cow manure as the raw material for making biogas and it is coupled with a cow rumen fluid and water. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of manure, rumen, and water composition in biogas production. The research was conducted in anaerobic for 60 days. The composition of manure, water, and the rumen were vary following the variable and ratio; variable A (manure and water; variable B (manure and rumen. The results indicate that the variable A (manure and water with a 1:3 ratio, and the variable B (manure and rumen with a 1:2 ratio produced the highest volume of biogas compared to other ratios. The highest biogas production occurred on average at day 23.

  13. COW DUNG- A BOON FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

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    SUSHMITA SHRIVASTAVA*, ALKA MISHRA ARTI PAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is an agricultural country having variety of plants and animals. Among the animals, cattle like cow has a prominent place in our country. It is considered as go-mata and worshipped by every hindu of India. The five products of cow called “Panchgavya” is a precious gift of this holy animal to our society, which consist of milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Among these, cow dung also called cow pad, is a component having crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose and minerals. It is an efficient organic manure used to increase plant yield in fields. Cow dung slurry is also used by people of our country for plastering the floors and walls of their houses. Considering this custom of our society, a study had been done to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal properties of cow dung extract in distil water, ethanol and n- hexane against Candida, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus and found it highly effective against these microbes. The study revealed that cow dung extract possess antimicrobial properties, which can be used to fight against certain pathogenic diseases and other ailments.

  14. Optimization of dry period in Karan Fries cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japheth, K. Puhle; Mehla, R. K.; Singh, Mahendra; Gupta, A. K.; Das, Ramendra; Bharti, Pranay; Chandrasekar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to optimize dry period (DP) length that can maximize the production across adjacent lactations and overall lifetime yield. Materials and Methods: Performance records with respect to DP spread over a period of 15-year in Karan Fries (KF) cattle maintained at Livestock Research Centre (National Dairy Research Institute), were collected for the study. Data of 681 KF cows were analyzed by least square technique to examine the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Season of calving was classified into four seasons: Winter season (December-March), summer season (April-June), rainy season (July-September), and autumn season (October-November); period of calving into five periods: 1998-2000 (1-period), 2001-2003 (II-period), 2004-2006 (III-period), 2007-2009 (IV-period), and 2010-2012 (V-period), and parity into six parities, i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and >6th parities to see the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Results: Period of calving, season of calving, and parity did not affect the DP significantly (p156 days), and optimum level was obtained at 46-67 days (3rd class) with the following respective milk yield (MY) of 305 daily MY (4016.44±43.68 kg), total MY (4704.21±61.51 kg), MY per day of lactation length (13.03±0.13 kg), and MY per day of calving interval (11.68±0.41 kg). Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that this optimal DP length (46-67 days) is suitable for maximizing the production. Hence, one should aim to dry off pregnant cows to achieve a DP of appropriate length to enhance productivity in the next lactation, as very short and very long DP reduces the economic profitability in dairy animals. PMID:27397990

  15. Differentiation of the endometrial macrophage during pregnancy in the cow.

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    Lilian J Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of conceptus alloantigens necessitates changes in maternal immune function. One player in this process may be the macrophage. In the cow, there is large-scale recruitment of macrophages expressing CD68 and CD14 to the uterine endometrium during pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the function of endometrial macrophages during pregnancy was inferred by comparison of the transcriptome of endometrial CD14(+ cells isolated from pregnant cows as compared to that of blood CD14(+ cells. The pattern of gene expression was largely similar for CD14(+ cells from both sources, suggesting that cells from both tissues are from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. A total of 1,364 unique genes were differentially expressed, with 680 genes upregulated in endometrial CD14(+ cells as compared to blood CD14(+ cells and with 674 genes downregulated in endometrial CD14(+ cells as compared to blood CD14(+ cells. Twelve genes characteristic of M2 activated macrophages (SLCO2B1, GATM, MRC1, ALDH1A1, PTGS1, RNASE6, CLEC7A, DPEP2, CD163, CCL22, CCL24, and CDH1 were upregulated in endometrial CD14(+ cells. M2 macrophages play roles in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Consistent with a role in tissue remodeling, there was over-representation of differentially expressed genes in endometrium for three ontologies related to proteolysis. A role in apoptosis is suggested by the observation that the most overrepresented gene in endometrial CD14(+ cells was GZMA. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that at least a subpopulation of endometrial macrophages cells differentiates along an M2 activation pathway during pregnancy and that the cells are likely to play roles in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  16. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  17. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed silage and grain from a maize hybrid with the cry1F trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Owens, F; Hinds, M; Dana, G; Hunst, P

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding grain and maize silage from a non-Bt maize and a variety of Bt maize that contains cry1F (event TC1507, event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1), a gene that provides maize with insect resistance, on the health and performance of dairy cows were evaluated. In a crossover trial, 20 lactating Holstein cows were assigned to each of 2 dietary treatment groups and fed diets containing whole-plant maize silage plus maize grain from TC1507 or its near-isoline counterpart (control). Each period of the crossover trial lasted 28 d and was preceded by a 7-d adjustment period. To minimize variability due to stage of lactation, 2 blocks of 10 cows at 90 to 130 d of lactation at the start of the trial were used. Within each dietary treatment, 10 cows were from each of 2 genetic selection lines (high and average fat plus protein predicted transmitting ability). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Dry matter intake and daily production of milk, fat, protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids did not differ between cows fed the TC1507 diet and cows fed the control diet. Furthermore, milk from cows in different dietary treatment groups did not differ in milk urea nitrogen concentration or somatic cell count. For milk fat percentage, a significant dietary treatment by genetic group interaction was detected although overall yield of milk and solids-corrected milk did not differ with diet. Physical measures of cow health including body weight, body condition score, temperature, pulse, and respiration rate were collected weekly; dietary treatment group means for these measures were not different. Blood chemistry and hematological analyses were conducted using blood samples collected from cows before the start of the trial and at the end of each period. Overall, the TC1507 and control groups did not differ in any of these indices of health status. Further, hematological profiles for cows in the dietary treatment groups were not different. In summary, no

  18. Type of cottonseed and level of gossypol in diets of lactating dairy cows: plasma gossypol, health, and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Villasenor, M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Holmberg, C A

    2003-03-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of altering gossypol intake by feeding whole linted Upland (WUP) or a 1:2 blend of WUP and cracked Pima (BUPCP) cottonseed on plasma gossypol (PG) concentrations, reproduction, and health of Holstein cows. Cows, 813, on three dairy farms were assigned to one of two diets starting at 13 +/- 11 d in milk for a 170-d experiment. Diets contained 717 and 951 mg of free gossypol/kg of dry matter from WUP and BUPCP, respectively. Concentrations of PG, as well as the proportion of total gossypol (TG) as the minus isomer were higher for cows fed BUPCP vs cows fed WUP. Conception rate at the first postpartum artificial insemination did not differ between treatments. However, cows consuming the higher gossypol diet had reduced subsequent conception rates and a lower pregnancy rate. Incidence of abortions increased in the higher gossypol diet, and cows that aborted or remained open had higher PG concentrations. Increasing PG concentrations resulted in reduced conception rates and extended days open. The probability of conception after the first artificial insemination declined at a decreasing rate as the plasma TG increased. Incidence of health disorders were unaffected by gossypol intake and PG concentrations. Similarly, gossypol intake and PG concentrations had no effect on culling or mortality. Six cows died in each diet, and none had postmortem signs compatible with gossypol toxicity. Consumption of a high gossypol diet for 170 d had no effect on health of lactating dairy cows, but it increased PG concentrations and impaired reproductive performance.

  19. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  20. Use of herbal product among pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıssal, Aygül; Çevik Güner, Ümran; Batkın Ertürk, Döndü

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (pginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical note: Validation of a chemical pregnancy test in dairy cows that uses whole blood, shortened incubation times, and visual readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L M; Moore, S G; Poock, S E; Silvia, W J; Lucy, M C

    2016-09-01

    Chemical pregnancy testing is an alternative to traditional methods of pregnancy diagnosis (either manual palpation or ultrasound) in postpartum dairy cows and heifers. The objective was to validate a chemical pregnancy test that confers the advantages of using whole blood, rapid incubation times, and visual readout. Blood and milk samples were collected from Holstein dairy cows [n=320; 162±62 (mean ± SD) d in milk] on a confinement farm in northeast Missouri at 28 d after artificial insemination (AI). The samples were assayed for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) by using a rapid visual test as well as traditional plasma- and milk-based tests. Transrectal ultrasonography diagnosis for pregnancy at 35 to 38 d after AI was the reference (gold) standard for all PAG tests. One hundred fifty-nine cows were diagnosed as pregnant by the reference standard (pregnancies per AI=49.7%). The tests were ELISA and either optical density (OD; measured with a microtiter plate reader; plasma, milk, and rapid visual tests) or visual readout (rapid visual test) were used to diagnose pregnancy. When OD was used, the percentage of pregnant cows classified correctly (sensitivity) for the plasma, milk, and rapid visual tests were 97±1, 96±2, and 95±1% (±SE), respectively. The sensitivity of the rapid visual test when assessed visually was 98±1%. The specificity (proportion of nonpregnant cows classified correctly) for the plasma, milk, and rapid visual was 94±2%, 94±2%, and 93±2% when an OD was used. When read visually, the specificity of the rapid visual test was lesser (85±3%) because some cows with faint visual signals yielded false positive diagnosis. The overall accuracy (proportion of pregnant and nonpregnant cows diagnosed correctly) was similar for all tests (plasma, milk, rapid visual OD, and rapid visual; 96±1, 95±1, 94±1, and 92±2%, respectively). In a second experiment, lactating Holstein cows (n=291) from 4 commercial confinement dairy farms in western

  2. Effect of levels of concentrate on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance of Thai Native Cow in mid-pregnancy

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    Vichurungsai, A.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of levels of concentrate supplementation on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance of Thai native cows in mid-pregnancy was studied. Four mid-pregnant (4-6 months Thai native cows, 4-4.5 years old with average body weight (BW of 238±23 kg were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The cows were fed plicatulum hay ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate (13.74% crude protein, CP at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1% of BW, respectively. The highest total dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and CP intake (80.28, 73.19 and 6.30 g/kgBW0.75/d, respectively was obtained for cows supplemented with con- centrate at 1% of BW and these values were linearly increased (P0.05 but these values were significantly different (P0.05 for digestion coefficients of crude fiber. Digestible CP and TDN intake for cows supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of BW (62.34 g/%BW/d and 1.06 kg/%BW/d, respectively and 1% of BW (86.91 g/%BW/d and 1.19 kg/%BW/d, respectively were optimal when compared with the digestible CP and TDN requirement of cows in mid pregnancy. Increasing levels of concentrate supplementation linearly (P<0.001 increased nitrogen balance of the cows and significant differences (P<0.05 were found among the levels of supplementation (0.00, 0.09, 0.22 and 0.33 g/kgBW0.75/d at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1% of BW, respectively. The highest metabolizable energy (ME intake was found for cows supplemented with concentrate at 1% of BW (3.74 Mcal/%BW/d and this value was linearly increased (P<0.01 as the levels of concentrate increased. The findings of this study suggested that Thai native cows in mid-pregnancy fed plicatulum hay as basal roughage obtained the optimal CP and energy when they were supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of BW.

  3. Marketing start- upů

    OpenAIRE

    Vatulya, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is dedicated to marketing of start-ups and the most frequent mistakes they make in this field. The goal of this thesis is to propose recommendations for start-up founders which could help them avoid mistakes while building their business. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part defines the concept of start-ups, explores their history and introduces the main issues start-ups have to deal with in the field of marketing. The second part contains interviews with...

  4. Effects of different polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations during the postpartum periods of early lactating dairy cows on milk yield, metabolic responses, and reproductive performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Fouladi-Nashta, A

    2013-02-01

    In spite of the difficulties in delivering PUFA to ruminants, studies have generally indicated that the PUFA of the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [α-linolenic acid; eicosapentaenoic (EPA), C20:5 omega-3; docosahexaenoic (DHA), C22:6 omega-3] families are the most beneficial to improving reproduction in cows. The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in α-linolenic acid (omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6) would influence milk production and composition, metabolic status, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. High-yielding multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 120) with no overt clinical illnesses were blocked according to calving date and parity. Cows were assigned randomly to be fed 1) soybean whole roast (Soy, omega-6, n = 40) or 2) linseed (Lin, omega-3, n = 40) or 3) palm oil as a source of SFA (PO, n = 40) from calving until first heat after 40 d postpartum (dpp), and then half of the cows in each treatment group were switched to receive either Lin or SFA (PO) from first heat after d 40 to 120 dpp. Blood was collected from a subsample of cows. Blood was collected at 14 d intervals for 12 wk, starting on the day of calving. Results showed milk yield and DMI were not affected. Milk compositions were similar (P > 0.08) among diets, except concentration and yield of milk fat percentage, which was less in cows fed Lin (P cows fed Soy occurred earlier (P cows (P heat detection, percent pregnancy per first insemination, and percent conception per AI at estrus. Also, there is a trend of pregnancy by 120 d, which is 66.7% for the Lin group vs. 50.91% for the PO group (P dairy cows.

  5. Effect of zeolite A on rumen fermentation and phosphorus metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Hilde; Spolders, Markus; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Fürll, Manfred; Grün, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zeolite A on several physiological parameters and on mineral metabolism in the rumino-intestinal-tract of cows. Eight double fistulated (rumen and proximal duodenum) cows were fed maize silage, grass silage and concentrate. Zeolite A was added to the ration over a period of three weeks at 0, 10 and 20 g/kg dry matter (DM). The daily feed amounts were adjusted to the current performance and varied between 3.9 and 15.5 kg/d. Rumen fluid, duodenal chyme and faeces were sampled to characterise the nutrient digestibility. Blood samples were taken to analyse the concentration of inorganic phosphate. Zeolite A supplementation led to a significantly reduced ruminal DM digestibility and fermentation of organic matter. The molar proportion of acetate in the rumen increased, and propionate as well as valerate decreased significantly after zeolite A supplementation. The concentration of the total fatty acids and ruminal pH were not affected. No effect on faecal digestion of DM, organic matter nor on calcium and magnesium digestion was observed. Otherwise the phosphorus (P) concentration in rumen fluid correlated negatively with the mean zeolite A intake (r (2) = 0.75; p = 0.0003). Further, the faecal excretion of P increased significantly for cows with the highest zeolite A dosage (36.9 g P/d) compared to the control group (29.9 g P/d). The lower digestibility of P resulted in a significantly decreased concentration of inorganic P in serum from a basal value of 2.05-1.16 mmol/l six days after starting zeolite A supplementation. The zeolite A treated cows showed a significantly higher Al concentration already in rumen fluid (14.31 and 13.84 mmol/l) compared to the control cows (6.33 mmol/l). The Al flow in the duodenum was also higher for zeolite A treated cows.

  6. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yvonne; Ametaj, Burim N; Ambrose, Divakar J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-01-29

    Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT) I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.); Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  7. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici

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    Wang Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. Results In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.; Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. Conclusions In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  8. Influence of lipolysis and ketogenesis to metabolic and hematological parameters in dairy cows during periparturient period

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    Cincović R.M.

    2012-01-01

    with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, decreased hemoglobin concentration and/or red blood cell count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio >1 showed significantly higher concentrations of NEFA and BHB compared to cows with parameters within normal ranges. Complete ROC (receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that NEFA and BHB are important diagnostic indicators that allow the separation of cows with parameters out of the reference values from cows with normal values of parameters in the metabolic profile and blood count (0.5cows with parameters that are out of the reference value increases with increasing concentrations of NEFA and BHB, which confirms that intense lipolysis and ketogenesis start a series of compensatory processes in the metabolism in cows. The results confirm that NEFA and BHB significantly affect the value of numerous metabolic and hematological parameters in the periparturient period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31062

  9. Utilization Patterns of Antenatal Services Among Pregnant Women: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Area of North Karnataka.

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    C.S.Metgud

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To study the profile of antenatal care received 2. To know the factors influencing the utilization Study Design: Longitudinal study.Setting: Shindolli village of Belgaum District Participants: All women (n =130 in this village who were pregnant at the start of the study and who became pregnant during the study. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square Test Results: Most of the pregnant women (92.31% were registered for antenatal care, but only 30.00% of them were registered in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. As regards to TT immunization, 70.77% of the pregnant women had received 2 doses or 1 booster dose. Iron and Folic Acid supplementation was taken by 59.68% of the pregnant women. Nearly 39.52 % of pregnant women were provided with full antenatal care. The main antenatal care provider for pregnant women was doctor (64.52%. The provision of full antenatal care package was found to be significantly higher among the pregnant women belonging to social classes I and II and in those who have studied above SSLC. Conclusion: The study shows early and wide spread use of antenatal care, but it also reveals that the antenatal visits occur late in the pregnancy. The literacy of women has significant bearing on utilization of antenatal care by the pregnant women.

  10. Supplementation of grazing beef cows during gestation as a strategy to improve skeletal muscle development of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, D C; Paulino, M F; Rennó, L N; Villadiego, F C; Ortega, R M; Moreno, D S; Martins, L S; de Almeida, D M; Gionbelli, M P; Manso, M R; Melo, L P; Moura, F H; Duarte, M S

    2017-06-02

    The appropriate supply of nutrients in pregnant cows has been associated with the optimal development of foetal tissues, performance of their progeny and their meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate supplementation effects of grazing cows in different stages of gestation on skeletal muscle development and performance of the progeny. Thereby, 27 Nellore cows were divided into three groups (n=9 for each group) and their progeny as follows: UNS, unsupplemented during gestation; MID, supplemented from 30 to 180 days of gestation; LATE, supplemented from 181 to 281 days of gestation. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the matrices was the following: ground corn (26.25%), wheat bran (26.25%) and soya bean meal (47.5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 30% CP. Supplemented matrices received 150 kg of supplement (1 and 1.5 kg/day for cows in the MID and LATE groups, respectively). After birth, a biopsy was performed to obtain samples of skeletal muscle tissue from calves to determine number and size of muscle fibres and for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression analysis. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the progeny was the following: ground corn grain (30%), wheat bran (30%), soya bean meal (35%) and molasses (5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 25% CP and offered in an amount of 6 g/kg BW. Performance of the progeny was monitored throughout the suckling period. Means were submitted to ANOVA and regression, and UNS, MID and LATE periods of supplementation were compared. Differences were considered at P0.10). Similarly, no differences were observed between calves for nutrient intake (P>0.10). However, greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P=0.006) was observed in the calves of LATE group. The ribeye area (P=0.077) was greater in calves born from supplemented compared with UNS cows. The supplementation of pregnant cows did not affect the muscle fibre size of their progeny (P=0.208). On the other hand

  11. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

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    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  13. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  14. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  19. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  20. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  1. Neospora caninum tachyzoites inoculated by the conjunctival route are not vertically transmitted in pregnant cattle: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P; Alvarez-García, G; Chiapparrone, M L; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Lischinsky, L H; de Yaniz, M G; Odeón, A C; Ortega-Mora, L M; Campero, C M

    2014-01-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Neospora caninum tachyzoites (Nc-1) inoculated by the conjunctival route in pregnant cows were able to generate infection in their fetuses. Group 1 contained 2 naturally infected cows; group 2 contained two cows inoculated intravenously with 2.5 × 10(8) tachyzoites, group 3 contained two cows inoculated with 2.5 × 10(8) tachyzoites by the conjunctival route, and group 4 contained two uninfected control cows. The four inoculated cows from groups 2 and 3 were challenged at 23 weeks of gestation. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), recombinant NcGRA7-based ELISA, ELISA for IgG subisotypes and Western blot analysis were assessed to characterize the humoral immune response in dams. Sera from their fetuses were tested also using Western blot analysis. Routine microscopic evaluation of H&E stained fetal tissues was made and any fetal tissues and placentas with lesions compatible with Neospora-infection were processed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). DNA extraction from fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal tissues were tested by nested PCR. All dams from groups 1, 2 and 3 were seropositive by IFAT, rNcGRA7-based-ELISA and Western blot. IgG1/IgG2 ratios were ≤ 1 at weeks 27 and 29 of gestation. Only fetuses from groups 1 and 2 developed N. caninum specific antibodies by Western blot. Histopathological lesions compatible with those caused by N. caninum were observed in fetuses from groups 1 and 2. N. caninum cysts and tachyzoites were observed by IHC on fetal tissues from groups 1 and 2. Only fetal samples from group 2 were positive by PCR. Further work is needed not only to characterize the cellular immune response but also to clarify the consequences on the dam after conjunctival inoculation of N. caninum tachyzoites. This study shows that N. caninum tachyzoites inoculated by the conjunctival route were not vertically transmitted in pregnant cows.

  2. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  3. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  4. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  6. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  7. Cows aboveground, protons down below

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On display at Fort l'Écluse from 19 June to 18 September, the works of Augenblick combine photography, sound and video to create a striking instant parallel between the "real world" and the world of particle physics.   The cows are grazing quietly, blissfully unaware of the mini-Big Bang occurring silently 100 metres beneath them. Curious to compare these two worlds - the visible and the invisible, day-to-day life and particle physics - Laurent Mulot, a multi-disciplinary artist whose work delves into some of the planet's more unusual places, has come up with a unique artistic concept. Called Augenblick (German for "instant"), to emphasise that the images relate to the same point in time, his project uses photography, video and sound to superimpose scenes from everyday life and scenes from science. "The idea came to me in June 2008," says Laurent Mulot, "when Jean-Paul Martin, a research scientist at the Institute of Nuclear...

  8. Carbon balances for in vitro digestion an fermentation of potential roughages for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Gelder, van A.H.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Cone, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ad libitum feeding of pregnant sows requires satiating, intake-restricting feed components to prevent sows from getting excessively fat. Because hindgut fermentation starts only after and proceeds much slower than enzymatic digestion in the small intestine, fermentation products might, as nutrients,

  9. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  10. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  11. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  12. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  13. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  14. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  15. The START III bargaining space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  16. Uterine disease and its effect on subsequent reproductive performance of dairy cattle: a comparison of two cow-side diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Duane, Mary; O'Grady, Luke E; Somers, Joris R; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-11-01

    .010], respectively). There was a significant effect of days in milk at PBE in relation to the subsequent PS (P = 0.04). Cows in lactation number 5 or more were less likely (r = 0.69) to get in calf before the end of the breeding season than cows in their first lactation. Cows that calved later in the season were less likely to become pregnant before the end of the breeding season (P < 0.03). Younger cows (lactation <5) and cows with MS and UTS scores of 0 and -1 had significantly better reproductive performance (P < 0.04). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that MS did not always reflect UTS, but cows with positive UTS were 7.75 times more likely to have a positive MS (P < 0.01) and a high UTS had a larger negative effect on time to PS than a high MS (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both prebreeding vaginal mucus evaluation with the Metricheck device and an ultrasound scan of the uterus serve as a good predictor of the subsequent PS. There is overlap between the two systems, but the best predictor for future reproductive outcome of the cow is a combination of both.

  17. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  18. Efficacy of ozone and other treatment modalities for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, R; Tkalčić, S

    2013-02-01

    Retained placenta is a worldwide recognized clinical condition in puerperal cows, which can significantly affect their health and fertility. Available treatment modalities are often of questionable efficacy or associated with time constraints, practicality or monetary considerations for their wide application in a routine dairy practice. The objective of this study was to compare and assess the efficacy of different treatment options, including a novel ozone treatment, for the retained placenta. Two hundred cows diagnosed with retained placenta were divided into five treatment groups, each receiving a different treatment option. Group A (n = 40) was given a combination treatment of intrauterine ozone and parenteral cephalexin; group B (n = 40) was given intrauterine ozone; group C (n = 40) was given a combination of parenteral cephalexin and intrauterine antibiotic tablets; group D (n = 40) was given only parenteral cephalexin and group E (n = 40) was given parenteral prostaglandins in 11-day intervals. The control group (group Z, n = 200) included cows that gave birth without assistance and were not diagnosed with a retained placenta. The ozone treatment (groups A and B) was found to be the most effective modality resulting in the shortest period of days open, the smallest number of artificial inseminations until pregnancy, the smallest number of animals diagnosed with fever within 10 days post-calving, the highest percentage of animals pregnant within 200 days after calving and the smallest number of animals culled because of infertility, when compared to the other treatment groups. The intrauterine ozone flush therefore has a potential as an efficacious and cost-effective treatment option for retained placenta, with an overall positive effect on puerperal health and fertility in cows.

  19. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  20. Somatic cell count determination in cow's milk by near-infrared spectroscopy: a new diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, R; Atanassova, S; Kawano, S; Toyoda, K

    2001-10-01

    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in the region from 1,100 to 2,500 nm to measure somatic cell count (SCC) content of cow's milk was investigated. A total of 196 milk samples from seven Holstein cows were collected for 28, consecutive days, starting from 7th d after calving, and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and SCC. Three of the cows were healthy, and the remainder had periods of mastitis during the experiment. Near-infrared transflectance milk spectra were obtained using an InfraAlyzer 500 spectrophotometer. The calibration for logSCC was performed using partial least square (PLS) regression and different spectral data pretreatment. The best accuracy of determination was found for an equation that was obtained using smoothed absorbance data and 10 PLS factors. The standard error of calibration was 0.361, the calibration coefficient of multiple correlation was 0.868, the standard error of prediction for independent validation set of samples was 0.382, the correlation coefficient was 0.854, and the coefficient of variation was 7.63%. The accuracy of logSCC determination by NIR spectroscopy would allow health screening of cows and differentiation between healthy and mastitic milk samples. It has been found that SCC determination by NIR milk spectra is based on the related changes in milk composition. The most significant factors that simultaneously influenced milk spectra with the elevation of SCC were alteration of milk proteins and changes in ionic concentration of milk.

  1. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from 1

  2. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  3. [Obliteration of all teat cisterns in a cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, L

    1982-01-01

    A rare case of agalactia in a 7 year old cow is described. At the start of the 5th lactation all the teat cisterns were obliterated. Post mortem x-ray examination, with bariumsulfate contrast deposition in the glandular--and the teat cisterns, showed horizontal membranes in the proximal half of the teat cisterns. The membranes were 13--20 mm thick and consisted of fibrous tissue. Glandular tissue, distal parts of teat cisterns and teat canals were normal, and there was no sign of mastitis Obliteration of the teat cisterns, which had developed during the dry period, between the 4th and 5th lactation periods, were assumed to be a result of improper machine milking. The importance of overmilking is discussed.

  4. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  5. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  6. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  7. Experimental neonatal colibacillosis in cows: immunoglobin classes involved in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R A; Jutila, J W

    1976-01-01

    Pregnant cows were vaccinated with one of four vaccine preparations to induce passive immunity in their offspring against a homologous oral challenge with Escherichia coli strain B-44. Quantitative assays of specific antibody in colostral whey from both immunized and nonimmunized dams revealed that immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) with anti-O (somatic) activity were present in whey of all dams tested, whereas a marked deficiency of IgA and IgM anti-K immunoglobulin was noted in the whey from control dams only. The degree of scours (neonatal colibacillosis) induced by oral challenge was evaluated clinically and reported by a semiquantitative scour index as 0 to 4+. Calf scour indexes showed an inverse relationship to the frequency of occurrence and to the levels of IgA and IgM in whey of dams vaccinated with killed vaccine, live vaccine, and culture supernatant, and from nonvaccinated controls. The data strongly suggested that IgA and colostral IgM anti-K immunoglobulins were important in passive immunity in experimental neonatal bovine colibacillosis.

  8. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2014-01-01

    indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...... days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days...... associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing...

  9. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  10. Implication of Agathic Acid from Utah Juniper Bark as an Abortifacient Compound in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshly ground Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) bark was given via gavage at a dosage of 2.3 kg/cow twice daily to three pregnant cows starting on day 255 of gestation. All three cows aborted the calves after four, five and six days of treatment. A fourth cow was dosed Utah juni...

  11. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  12. Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language, cognitive and ... The parents of first group were instructed to eliminate cow milk (CM) from the diet of their ... Autistic patients underwent a Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) test.

  13. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  14. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  15. Modelling the Kinetics of Biogas Production from Mesophilic Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Plantain Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of plantain peels as co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of cow dung for efficient and high biogas production. The biogas experiments were carried out in two different 5 L anaerobic digesters and incubated for 40 days at ambient mesophilic temperatures (28 oC to 34 °C. The results showed that co-digestion of cow dung with plantain peels as co-substrate reduced start-up time for biogas generation and increased biogas yield by 18% as compared to cow dung alone. Peak biogas production was obtained for both digesters at pH of 6.7 and 6.9 as well as temperature of 29 and 30oC, respectively. Modelling study revealed that exponential plot simulated better in both ascending and descending limb than the linear plot the biogas production rates in biogas production from cow dung co-digested with plantain peels and cow dung alone, respectively. Logistic growth model and modified Gompertz plot showed better correlation of cumulative biogas production than exponential rise to maximum plot. These results show that biogas production can be enhanced efficiently through co-digestion process.

  16. Dental considerations in pregnant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khedmat S.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available During the human gestation period, various systemic alterations occur in the mother"nsecondary to endocrine changes. These changes, combined with the presence of the gravid uterus, result"nin conditions affecting the various systems of the mother which must be considered by the dentist."nFetal development is divided into three stages:"n1 The fertilization and implantation period"n2 The embryonic period and"n3 The fetal period."nThe second period characterized by organogenesis which taratogens may result in functional and"nmorphogenic malformations."nThe ideal dental treatment schedule for the pregnant patient is twice during first trimester, at least once"nduring second trimester and once during third trimester."nThe second trimester is an ideal time for performing dental treatment."nEmergency problem should be alleviated immediately during pregnancy."nIndicated medications should not be with held because of pregnancy but patients must be informed of"nbenefits and risks."nWith careful attention to the special needs of the pregnant patient, the dentist can provide high quality"ndental care while minimizing potential risks to mother and fetus."nEmphasis should be on preventive strategies and meticulous oral hygiene to manage common oral"nproblems associated with pregnancy.

  17. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, de, Rudi

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows, that need the farmer's attention, because of a possible case of oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables, wh...

  18. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  19. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  20. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  1. Association among gestation length and health, production, and reproduction in Holstein cows and implications for their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2017-02-01

    multiparous cows was also greater for AGL than LGL. Heifers from dams with GL that deviated from AGL had greater mortality postweaning (AGL = 3.2 vs. SGL = 6.5 vs. LGL = 5.4%). The rate of removal from the herd was greater for SGL (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.52) and LGL (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.45 to 2.76) than for AGL heifers. Pregnancy at first AI was lowest for LGL and by 500 d of age a larger proportion of AGL heifers were pregnant than LGL (AGL = 82.3 vs. SGL = 79.2 vs. LGL = 74.0%). Cows with GL within 1 SD of the population mean (270 to 282 d) had improved health, production, and reproduction. Heifers from cows with GL within 1 SD of the population mean had improved health and reproduction. Gestation length affects performance of both dams and their offspring.

  2. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  3. Clinical practice. Diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven diagnosi

  4. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realize...

  5. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various conditions,

  6. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in infants during cow's milk food challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Carmelo; Hol, Jeroen; Kerkhof, Evelien; Elink Schuurman, Beatrix E E; Samsom, Janneke N; Hop, Wim; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; de Jongste, Johan C

    2008-08-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood. The golden standard for the diagnosis of CMA is a food challenge after a period of elimination. Increased levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) have been shown after bronchial allergen provocation. We evaluated whether FE(NO) may also be a predictor of a positive reaction during cow's milk challenge in infants. Forty-four infants [mean age (range): 4.2 (3.7-4.6) months] suspected of CMA underwent an open food challenge with cow's milk formula administered in ascending quantities, starting with 2 ml and then 6, 20, 60 and 200 ml until a clinical reaction occurred. Off-line FE(NO) samples were obtained during tidal breathing by means of a facemask covering infants' nose and mouth. FE(NO) was measured twice before the challenge (baseline), immediately before each new dose of milk and after a positive reaction or after the last dose of milk. Eleven children showed immediate positive clinical responses to cow's milk, whereas 13 infants presented only a late-type reaction. FE(NO) values before or after a positive reaction (either immediate or late) were not different from FE(NO) values at baseline. Baseline FE(NO) in infants with a positive reaction did not differ from FE(NO) in infants without a reaction at any time point. We conclude that FE(NO) values are not predictive and not related to the occurrence of a positive reaction during a cow's milk challenge in infants, suggesting that a positive reaction may not result from eosinophilic activation.

  7. Using hormones to manage dairy cow fertility: the clinical and ethical beliefs of veterinary practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional

  8. Using hormones to manage dairy cow fertility: the clinical and ethical beliefs of veterinary practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Higgins

    Full Text Available In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate. Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6% never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80% that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80% that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01, but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01 and overall cow welfare (p<0.01. On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90% that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of

  9. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitri Astuti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is generated from biological process of organic material by bacterial engaged. Biogas can be derived from manure, municipal waste, agricultural waste and other biomass resources. In addition to the use of cow manure as raw material for biogas production, it can also be derived from biomass containing cellulose which one is water hyacinth as an organic material that contains quite large cellulose. The abundance of water hyacinth found in Rawapening causing several negative impacts. The purpose of this study is to observe  temperature and pH on the biogas production generated from water hyacinth of Rawapening and cow manure. Biogas production process begins by chopping the leaves and stems of water hyacinth, and then mixed with cow manure and water. The results of substrate variation of water hyacinth, cow manure and water reaches optimally at 40:80:480 respectively, which produce the highest point of  biogas amounted 176.33 ml on the day 20 in 1L sized digester, the temperature of the biogas production is at 32°C.  At the initial fermentation, digester temperature of 30°C has increased over the course of the fermentation process, a peak at day 20 and then decreased to 27°C at the end of fermentation. There is a decrease in pH starting from initial fermentation at pH 6-7 and then the pH began to decline until the end of fermentation as amount of pH 5.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25Citation:  Nurfitri Astuti, N., Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, T.R., and  Budiyono. 2013. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25

  10. Determination of the phospholipid content of human milk, cow's milk and various infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynast, G; Schmitz, C

    1988-12-01

    The phospholipid (PL) content of human milk, cow's milk, and various infant formulas was determined by recently developed high performance liquid chromatography (6). As the examinations promised, the content of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SP) was not changed by homogenization and pasteurization of cow's milk. Levels of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were below the detection limit. Furthermore it has been proved that human milk and cow's milk are more or less identical in PL content. Some of the PL in human milk varies during the course of pregnancy and postpartum. PI, PC, and SP content in the prepartum mammarial secretion lies above the average content of mature human milk after delivery. Before the contractions start, all the PL examined show a more or less considerable decrease. PC drops to 30% of the value at the beginning of the examination six weeks before delivery. PG contents are very low throughout the whole period. Contrary to the others, PC content recovers three weeks after delivery, which may be the result of the endogenous surfactant replacement system. To compare PL content with human milk and cow's milk, 13 different infant formulas have been examined. There are considerable differences to be found in and among adapted milk, partially adapted milk, and special formulas. None of the PL examined could be found in all the infant formulas, where PG content was usually low, except in some Milupa formulas. PE and PI were not to be found in some special formulas. Most of the formulas contain high amounts of SP, in some cases higher than the amount of PC. To a certain extent infant formulas contain a considerably greater amount of other PL concentrations than human milk and cow's milk. In most of the formulas examined the PL content is generally so high, that it can be used as a source of PL for the newborn.

  11. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Melanie K.; Hess, Andrew S.; Garrick, Dorian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1–3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33–1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood’s lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  12. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  13. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  14. The COW1 locus of arabidopsis acts after RHD2, and in parallel with RHD3 and TIP1, to determine the shape, rate of elongation, and number of root hairs produced from each site of hair formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, C S; Roberts, K; Feldmann, K A; Dolan, L

    1997-11-01

    Two recessive mutant alleles at CAN OF WORMS1 (COW1), a new locus involved in root hair morphogenesis, have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Root hairs on Cow1- mutants are short and wide and occasionally formed as pairs at a single site of hair formation. The COW1 locus maps to chromosome 4. Root hairs on Cow1- plants form in the usual positions, suggesting that the phenotype is not the result of abnormal positional signals. Root hairs on Cow1- roots begin hair formation normally, forming a small bulge, or root hair initiation site, of normal size and shape and in the usual position on the hair-forming cell. However, when Cow1- root hairs start to elongate by tip growth, abnormalities in the shape and elongation rate of the hairs become apparent. Genetic evidence from double-mutant analysis of cow1-1 and other loci involved in root hair development supports our conclusion that COW1 is required during root hair elongation.

  15. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  16. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  17. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  18. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  19. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women.

  20. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be based on your overall health and how active you are before you get pregnant. Talk to your doctor or midwife about what kind of exercise, and how much, is good for you. Stress, Rest, and Relaxation While you are trying to get pregnant, try ...

  1. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (Ppregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open to maximize lifetime productivity in dairy cows.

  2. Comparison of two oestrus synchronisation protocols administered to dairy cows during routine reproduction services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viora, L; Denwood, M; Ellis, K

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone-based oestrus synchronisation protocols are frequently used for treatment of cows presented for examination during routine reproduction management service. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the start of a progesterone......-based oestrus synchronisation protocol for cows presented for examination during routine veterinary service on a commercial dairy farm over 10 months. Overall 139 animals were retained in the study, of which 78 received a standard progesterone-based treatment (STD) and 61 received the same treatment...... (CR). In the final SR model lameness had a significant negative association (p=0.01) and STD+ had a non-significant positive association (p=0.12) with submission. In the final CR model only presence of a new CL at day 7 had a significant positive association (p=0.04) while previous reproductive...

  3. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  4. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  5. Double Star Mission Starts Countdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As of July, scientists at the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) have been busy modulating and testing the payloads that will be onboard a space exploration satellite, marking the start of the countdown for China's Double Star Project.

  6. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  7. Effects of the precalving administration of omega-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, P; Bertoni, G; Cappelli, F Piccioli; Trevisi, E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of the administration of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on inflammation, performance, and fertility in periparturient dairy cows. Five weeks before calving, 26 multiparous dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: ω-3 FA (n = 9; OME), ω-3 FA and ASA (n = 9; OMAS), or palm oil (n = 8; CTR). During the last 3 wk of pregnancy, OME and OMAS groups received daily 12.0 g of fish-derived ω-3 FA, whereas CTR cows received only SFA. In addition, OMAS cows received daily 6.0 mg ASA/kg BW starting at 7 d before calving. Only a few cows had health problems after calving, but those in OMAS were most affected (n = 3 vs. 1 in CTR). Inflammatory status around calving did not improve in OME cows, as confirmed by the patterns of concentration of acute-phase proteins (APP), which were similar to CTR. Compared with CTR and OME, the increase of the positive APP and the decrease of the negative APP (e.g., albumin; P < 0.01) observed in OMAS cows suggested a severe inflammatory status after calving. Compared with OMAS, postcalving energy metabolism was better in OME cows as shown by a lower degree of lipomobilization (smaller BCS drop, greater glucose) and milder ketogenesis (less β-hydroxybutyrate; P < 0.01). Cows in CTR had optimal fertility indices, whereas OMAS was the worst group. The severe inflammation and the more negative energy balance likely contributed to the poor fertility parameters in those cows. It is known that ASA exerts an inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenases, causing a possible decrease in the synthesis of PGF2α. A decreased concentration of PGF2α is connected with alterations in the physiologic processes related to labor and to uterine motility. Cows in OMAS had a longer pregnancy (P < 0.10 vs.OME) and a greater frequency of retained placenta, which may be attributed to decreased synthesis of PGF2α. The administration of ω-3 FA alone did not delay calving or the

  8. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  9. Expression of key lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue is not altered by once-daily milking during a feed restriction of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grala, T M; Roche, J R; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Boyle, R H; Snell, R G; Kay, J K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced milking frequency, at 2 feeding levels, on gene expression in adipose tissue of grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) were grazed on pasture and milked twice daily (2×) from calving to 34±6d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 milking frequencies (2× or once daily; 1×) and 2 feeding levels for 3 wk: adequately fed (AF), consuming 14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day, or underfed (UF), consuming 8.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day. After the treatment period, all cows were fed to target grazing residuals ≥1,600 kg of DM/cow per day and milked 2× for 20 wk. Adipose tissue was collected from 12 cows per treatment by subcutaneous biopsy at -1, 3, and 5 wk relative to treatment start, RNA was extracted, and transcript abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism was quantified using a linear mixed model. At the end of the 3-wk treatment period, transcript abundance of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) uptake into adipose tissue (LPL), FA synthesis [FA synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD)], FA oxidation [acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2)], glyceroneogenesis [glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC)], and triacylglyceride synthesis [diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2)] were greater in AF1× cows compared with all other treatments. However, when cows were underfed, no effects of milking frequency were observed on transcript abundance of genes involved in adipose lipid metabolism. Despite increases in plasma NEFA concentrations in UF cows, no effects of underfeeding were observed on the transcription of lipolytic genes. At 5 wk, after cows were returned to 2× milking and standard feed

  10. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  11. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  12. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; Rashid, M H; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  13. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  14. Optimization of dry period in Karan Fries cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Puhle Japheth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to optimize dry period (DP length that can maximize the production across adjacent lactations and overall lifetime yield. Materials and Methods: Performance records with respect to DP spread over a period of 15-year in Karan Fries (KF cattle maintained at Livestock Research Centre (National Dairy Research Institute, were collected for the study. Data of 681 KF cows were analyzed by least square technique to examine the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Season of calving was classified into four seasons: Winter season (December-March, summer season (April-June, rainy season (July-September, and autumn season (October-November; period of calving into five periods: 1998-2000 (1-period, 2001-2003 (II-period, 2004-2006 (III-period, 2007-2009 (IV-period, and 2010-2012 (V-period, and parity into six parities, i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and ˃6th parities to see the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Results: Period of calving, season of calving, and parity did not affect the DP significantly (p<0.05. The overall least square mean of DP was 67.93±2.12 days. For the optimization of DP with regard to milk productivity, analysis was carried out by class interval method. DP was classified into eight classes (˂22, 23-45, 46-67, 68-89, 90-111, 112-133, 134-155, and ˃156 days, and optimum level was obtained at 46-67 days (3rd class with the following respective milk yield (MY of 305 daily MY (4016.44±43.68 kg, total MY (4704.21±61.51 kg, MY per day of lactation length (13.03±0.13 kg, and MY per day of calving interval (11.68±0.41 kg. Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that this optimal DP length (46-67 days is suitable for maximizing the production. Hence, one should aim to dry off pregnant cows to achieve a DP of appropriate length to enhance productivity in the next lactation, as very short and very long DP reduces the economic profitability in dairy animals.

  15. Dietary effects of linseed on fatty acid composition of milk and on liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Zom, R.L.G.; Widjaja-Greefkes, H.C.A.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Weurding, R.E.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the transition period in dairy cows, drastic adaptations within and between key tissues and cell types occur in a coordinated manner to support late gestation, the synthesis of large quantities of milk and metabolic homoeostasis. The start of lactation coincides with an increase of triacylgly

  16. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2. Effect of mating and stimulation of the genital tract in bulls, cows and heifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schams, D.; Baumann, G. (Institut fuer Physiologie der Sueddeutschen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Milchwirtschaft der TU Muenchen); Leidl, W. (Gynaekologische und Ambulatorische Tierklinik der Universitaet Muenchen, Germany)

    1982-01-01

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus.

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from Clinical Healthy Cows and Mastitic Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-xin; ZHAO Xing-xu; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    The current research presents the protein changes in plasma from healthy dairy cows and clinical mastitic cows using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After staining with silver nitrate and Coomassie Blue, differential expression proteins were detected by PDQuest 7.4 software, and then subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a Surveyor HPLC System, differential spots of protein were identified. Three protein spots that originated from preparation gels were identified to be two proteins. Overall, haptoglobin precursor was up-regulated in cows infected with clinical mastitis and could be a mastitis-associated diagnostic marker, whereas SCGB 2A1 (secretoglobin, family 2A, member 1) was down-regulated protein. Plasma protein expression patterns were changed when cows were infected with mammary gland inflammation; it suggests that analysis of differential expression protein might be useful to clarify the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology, and find new diagnostic markers of mastitis and potential protein targets for treatment.

  18. Electrocardiogram assessment using the Einthoven and base-apex lead systems in healthy Holstein cows and neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Cedeno

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective aimed to describe the electrocardiographic behavior of parameters in Holstein pregnant cows and neonates during the perinatal period. The electrocardiograms were performed using a computerized electrocardiogram. The animals selected for the study were 23 cows and 18 neonates. Maternal electrocardiographic examinations were conducted in the 35, 28, 21, 14, 7 days and one-day pre -partum and the neonates were evaluated in six moments; at the time of birth, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after delivery. The evaluations were done in pre and post-delivery cows and into the group of neonates between female and male. For each electrocardiographic recording P-wave duration and amplitude, PR interval and the QRS complex duration, R, S-wave amplitude and polarity, QT and RR interval duration were examined. Changes in heart rate, ST segment and T wave polarity were recorded in leads of Einthoven and base-apex planes. The mean electrical axis of the QRS complex was calculated. In cows the results when comparing the two leads system, there are significant changes in the amplitude of the waves P, R, S, and T and the duration of the intervals PR, ST and QRS complex. The difference between primiparous and multiparous dairy cows was in the amplitude of the Twave. It was concluded that the base-apex system is a suitable lead for monitoring heart rhythm in Holstein cows and Einthoven in neonates. During the first month of life, no differences in P, Q, S and T waves, in PR, QRS, and ST intervals and in axis orientation was observed in neonates. There was a significant difference in duration of the QT interval. Among sexes, the difference was in the Q amplitude. This study incorporated the calves and Holstein cows in a single study in search of baseline information regarding the duration and morphology of the ECG parameters. In conclusion, it was proved that, with increasing age, there are changes in ECG components associated with variations in

  19. Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Grandgirard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.

  20. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  1. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  2. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Friggens, Nicolas; Andersen, Jens; Larsen,Torben; Aaes, Ole; Dewhurst, Richard

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews important aspects of dry cow feeding with emphasis placed on the preparation of the cow for the subsequent lactation. A number of feeding strategies, which have been proposed in recent years, are examined, alongside considerations of the effects of dry period length, levels of body reserves at calving and parity. A number of studies have reported the effect of varying the length of the dry period (in the range 0 to 70 days) on subsequent production a...

  3. Effect of Se on selenoprotein activity and thyroid hormone metabolism in beef and dairy cows and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, J E; Hill, G M; Hawkins, D R; Link, J E; Rincker, M J; Bednar, G W; Kreft, R A

    2004-10-01

    Although Se is essential for antioxidant and thyroid hormone function, factors influencing its requirement are not well understood. A survey and two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of cattle breed and age on selenoprotein activity and the effect of maternal Se supplementation on cow and calf selenoprotein activity and neonatal thyroid hormone production. In our survey, four cowherds of different ages representing three breeds were bled to determine the influence of breed and age on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (RBC GPX-1). All females were nonlactating, pregnant, and consumed total mixed diets (Holstein) or grazed pasture (Angus and Hereford). In our survey of beef breeds, yearlings had greater average RBC GPX-1 activity than mature cows. In Exp. 1, neonatal Holstein heifers (n = 8) were bled daily from 0 to 6 d of age to determine thyroid hormone profile. An injection of Se and vitamin E (BO-SE) was given after the initial bleeding. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were greatest on d 0 and decreased (P < 0.05) continuously until d 5 postpartum (156.13 to 65.88 and 6.69 to 1.95 nmol/L, d 0 to 5 for T4 and T3, respectively). Reverse T3 concentrations were 3.1 nmol/L on d 0 and decreased (P < 0.05) to 0.52 nmol/ L by d 5. In Exp. 2, multiparous Hereford cows were drenched weekly with either a placebo containing 10 mL of double-deionized H2O (n = 14) or 20 mg of Se as sodium selenite (n = 13). After 2 mo of treatment, Se-drenched cows had greater (P < 0.01) plasma concentrations than control cows (84.92 vs. 67.08 ng/mL), and at parturition, they had plasma Se concentrations twofold greater than (P < 0.05) control cows (95.51 vs. 47.14 ng Se/mL). After 4 mo, cows receiving Se had greater (P < 0.05) RBC GPX-1 activity than controls; this trend continued until parturition. Colostrum Se concentration was twofold greater (P < 0.05) in Se-drenched cows than control cows (169.97 vs. 87.00 ng/mL). Calves born to cows

  4. Biomechanics of the sprint start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, M J; Steele, J R

    1997-01-01

    Many variables have been studied pertaining to the block sprint start. Research suggests that the adoption of a medium block spacing is preferred, with front and rear knee angles in the set position approximating 90 and 130 degrees, respectively, with the hips held moderately high. The sprinter must be capable of developing a high force rate combined with a high maximum force, especially in the horizontal direction. This ability to create high force underlies other important indicators of starting performance such as minimum block clearance time, maximum block leaving velocity and maximum block leaving acceleration. Once the sprinter has projected him/herself from the blocks at a low angle (40 to 45 degrees) relative to the ground, the following 2 post-block steps should occur with the total body centre of gravity ahead of the contacting foot at foot strike to minimise potential horizontal braking forces.

  5. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  6. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  7. Studies of some correlations of ovaries with corpora lutea and fetal development in female Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbieri Trevisan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the right and left ovaries of 30 pregnant Nelore cows. The reproductive tracts were collected at slaughterhouses in the western region of the state of São Paulo, and the study was conducted at the Laboratório de Anatomia Animal at UNESP (in Araçatuba. The size (occipitosacral length, height and weight of the fetuses were analyzed. The length, width and thickness (using calipers of the ovaries and corpora lutea, and weight and volume of the gonads were also measured. The data related to the ovaries and corpora lutea were correlated with fetal development, using a SAS program to analyze the Pearson correlation coefficient, and adjusted using a simple linear regression model. There was a significant correlation between the right ovary variables and fetal development; positive for width and negative for thickness. For the corpora lutea and fetal development, there was a significant negative correlation with the volume.

  8. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  9. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  10. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Thomsen, Peter; Burow, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing...... dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic...... cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing...

  11. Hepatitis in growth promotor treated cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adult female beef cattle found positive for stanozolol in the urine were investigated for liver pathology. In all the animals toxic hepatitis was found, including cholestasis, periportal fibrosis and inflammation, focal necrosis and blood filled lacunae. As no clinical data of the cows were availabl

  12. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, comi...

  13. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-02-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment.

  14. Assessment of skin damages in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Skin damages were assessed at 48 conventional and organic farms with mainly cubicle houses. Scores from 1 – 9 were given depending on type and size of the damaged skin at 9 locations of the cow: outer hock, inner hock, knee and body all left and right hand side and the neck. Only the highest score p

  15. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  16. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  17. Influence of close-up dry period protein supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows in their subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Moorby, J M; Arana, M; Hinders, R; Graham, T; Castelanelli, L; Barney, N

    2001-10-01

    Holstein cows on a commercial dairy were assigned to close-up dry groups and offered an 11.7% crude protein (CP) ration based on corn silage, alfalfa cubes, oat hay, corn, and barley grain without (Control; C) or with (Supplemented; S) 0.8 kg/d per cow of a high CP supplement of SoyPass, distillers dried grains, ring dried blood meal, feather meal, and corn gluten meal. Heifers (C: 37, S: 44) and mature cows (C: 96, S: 81) were allocated to one of four groups based upon their time in the close-up groups (i.e., 1 to 4, 5 to 8, 9 to 12, and 13 to 19 d) within parity (i.e., heifers or mature) for statistical analysis. Full lactation means of all response parameters for cows confirmed to be pregnant that completed a lactation (i.e., lactating at 305 d in milk or dried off before 305 d in milk but not culled; C: 28, S: 23 for heifers and C: 48, S: 43 for mature cows) were analyzed by ANOVA. Lactation curves were evaluated by parallel curve analysis to assess differences in lactation curve shape, and curve separation, due to treatments. Protein supplementation had no impact on full-lactation milk or milk component yields of heifers, determined by ANOVA, although parallel curve analysis showed higher milk and milk protein yield with protein supplementation. As the number of days cows spent consuming their assigned close-up dry rations increased, heifers produced more milk, milk fat and milk protein, although the maximum yield for milk and milk protein occurred for those fed close-up rations for 9 to 12 d. For mature cows, neither time close up or close-up period protein supplementation influenced any mean response parameter, by ANOVA, although parallel curve analysis showed higher milk and protein yield for supplemented cows as time close up increased. Overall, results suggest the optimum close-up period length was 9 to 12 d, with a protein content intermediate between 11.7 and 14.4% of DM, for heifers. In contrast, results do not support any substantive benefit of a

  18. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP: hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA. Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF, which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P0.05. The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required.

  19. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  20. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation.

  1. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  2. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  3. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open.

  4. Mammary transcriptome analysis of lactating dairy cows following administration of bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoard, S A; Hayashi, A A; Sciascia, Q; Rounce, J; Sinclair, B; McNabb, W C; Roy, N C

    2016-12-01

    The galactopoietic effect of growth hormone (GH) in lactating ruminants is well established; however the mechanisms that mediate these effects are not well understood. The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of GH on the synthesis of the major casein and whey proteins. The second objective was to identify the genes and pathways that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk synthesis. A single subcutaneous injection of a commercially available slow release formulation of GH (Lactatropin®), or physiological saline solution (control) was administered to non-pregnant dairy cows (n=4/group) in mid-late lactation. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis and mammary lobulo-alveolar tissue was collected postmortem 6 days post injection. Gene expression profiles were evaluated using either a 22 000 bovine complementary DNA microarray or quantitative PCR (qPCR), and microarrays were validated by qPCR. The yield of all the major casein and whey proteins was increased 32% to 41% in GH-treated cows, with the exception of α-lactalbumin yield which was elevated by 70% relative to controls. Treatment with GH treatment tended to increase the concentration of α-lactalbumin but had no effect on the concentration of any of the major milk proteins. Messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the major whey and casein genes, with the exception of α-s2-casein, was increased in response to GH compared with controls, which is consistent with the positive effect of GH on milk production. Treatment with GH treatment influenced the mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, transcriptional and translational regulation, actin cytoskeleton signalling, lipid metabolism and cell death. This study has provided new insights into the cell signalling that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk production in the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.

  5. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  6. Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Azawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3% of cases. Twenty two (5.4% were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405 were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%, ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4% and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%. Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

  7. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  8. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  9. Influence of sire and sire breed (Gyr versus Holstein) on establishment of pregnancy and embryonic loss in lactating Holstein cows during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorer, Marcelo F; Vasconcelos, José L M; Trinca, Luzia A; Hansen, Peter J; Barros, Ciro M

    2007-03-01

    Heat stress has negative effects on pregnancy rates of lactating dairy cattle. There are genetic differences in tolerance to heat stress; Bos taurus indicus (B. t. indicus) cattle and embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus taurus (B. t. taurus). In the present study, the effects of sire and sire breed on conception and embryonic/fetal loss rates of lactating Holstein cows during the Brazilian summer were determined. In Experiment 1, cows (n=302) were AI after estrus detection or at a fixed-time with semen from one Gyr (B. t. indicus) or one Holstein sire (B. t. taurus). Pregnancy was diagnosed 80 days after AI. In Experiment 2, cows (n=811) were AI with semen from three Gyr and two Holstein sires. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 30-40 and at 60-80 days after AI. Cows diagnosed pregnant at the first examination but non-pregnant at the second were considered as having lost their embryo or fetus. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. The model considered the effect of sire within breed, sire breed, days postpartum, period of lactation, and AI type (AI after estrus versus fixed-time). There was no effect of the AI type, days postpartum or milk production on conception or embryonic loss rates. The use of Gyr bulls increased pregnancy rate when compared to Holstein bulls [9.1% (60/657) versus 5.0% (23/456), respectively, P=0.008; data from Experiments 1 and 2 combined]. Additionally, in Experiment 2, cows inseminated using semen from sire #4 (Gyr) had lower embryonic loss (10%) when compared with other B. t. indicus (35.3% and 40%) or B. t. taurus sires (18.2% and 38.5%, P=0.03). In conclusion, the use of B. t. indicus sires may result in higher conception rates in lactating Holstein cows during summer heat stress. Moreover, sire can affect embryonic loss and selection of bulls according to this criterion may result in higher parturition rates in lactating Holstein cows.

  10. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  12. New Start,New Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Daniel Arbenz was bom and educated in Switzerland. In 1978, he entered the hotel indastry as a chef and worked his way up through all segments of the business. After graduating from the famous Swiss Hotel Management School in Luceme and obtaining management exposure in the finest hotels in Switzerland, he moved to Hong Kong in 1989, starting his career in Asia. Arbenz moved to Singapore, then to Bali, for Resort Hotels and has been with the Intercontinental Hotels Group for almost 10 years in general man...

  13. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  14. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  15. Getting started with electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuren, D D; Johnson, D E

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives suggestions to librarians on how to get started with electronic mail. It discusses the cost- and time-saving advantages of using electronic mail rather than TWX, United States mail, or telephones for communicating ILL requests and messages. For instance, preliminary cost data show that electronic mail is often half as expensive as TWX and costs no more than a 22 stamp. Key management concerns that must be considered when setting up electronic mail are discussed, including the need for subscribers to agree on one system. Also covered are the types of equipment that can be used with electronic mail, including print terminals. PMID:4027444

  16. Using simulation to interpret a discrete time survival model in a complex biological system: fertility and lameness in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher D; Huxley, Jonathan N; Green, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds) were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd's incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance) using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period), PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd's lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd) rather than individual level.

  17. Using simulation to interpret a discrete time survival model in a complex biological system: fertility and lameness in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Hudson

    Full Text Available The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd's incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period, PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd's lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd rather than individual level.

  18. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  19. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  20. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  1. Contraception knowledge and practices in pregnant adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villanueva, L A; Campos, R; del Milagro Pérez-Fajardo, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the knowledge and the background in the use of contraceptive methods in 100 pregnant adolescents in the prenatal care of the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González...

  2. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  3. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  4. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  5. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg) compared with LIT (11.3 ± 0.19 kg) BW cows. Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was

  6. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  7. Anesthetic Management of Pregnant Patients with Appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Feyzi; Oguz, Abdullah; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Dogan, Erdal; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker Onguc

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to present our anesthesia procedure of pre-diagnosis and laparotomy on pregnant patients with acute appendicitis. After approval Ethics Committee, 77 pregnant patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were evaluated. Patients were separated into two groups: group G (general anesthesia) and Group S (spinal anesthesia), according to the method of anesthesia applied. The patients' age, gestational age, method of anesthesia applied, duration of hospital stay, duration of a...

  8. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  9. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  10. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  11. Effect of a killed whole Neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine on the crude abortion rate of Costa Rican dairy cows under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Frankena, K

    2004-09-02

    A standard field trial was carried out to assess the effect of a commercial Neospora-vaccine based on whole killed tachyzoites (Bovilis-Neoguard, Intervet) on the abortion rate. Eight hundred and seventy-six cows, over 2.5 months pregnant, belonging to 25 Costa Rican dairy herds, were used in the analysis. For each cow vaccinated, a cow of the same herd, breed and age category, was selected as control. The period of administration of treatments extended from June to November of 2000. The treatments were administered in two, 5-ml doses 1 month apart, the first dose given between day 75 and 90 of gestation. The incidence of abortion among all treated cows was of 16.0% (140/876). The treatment specific incidence was 11.2% (49/438) and 20.8% (91/438) for the vaccinated and the placebo group, respectively. The prevented fraction by vaccination amounted to 0.46 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.61), and the cumulative incidence ratio for the vaccinated group was 0.54. The Cox hazard ratio was 0.51(95% CI: 0.37, 0.72), meaning that the force of abortion is reduced twice in the vaccinated group. The results of this study, the first one following this type of design, shows that the killed whole Neospora caninum tachyzoite preparation had a reasonable effect on the abortion rate in Costa Rican dairy cattle.

  12. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  13. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  14. IgG1 variations in the colostrum of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cozler, Y; Guatteo, R; Le Dréan, E; Turban, H; Leboeuf, F; Pecceu, K; Guinard-Flament, J

    2016-02-01

    High-immune quality colostrum (IgG1 concentration ⩾50 g/l) is crucial for the health and development of the young calf. Studies on colostrum quality tend to focus on external factors such as breed, parity or dry period length, but few have focused on within-cow variations. Here we ran experiments to gain a deeper insight into within-cow variation in IgG1 concentrations in dairy cow colostrum. Trials were performed in an experimental farm, located in the Western part of France. Colostrum from each quarter and a composite sample (mix of four quarters) were concomitantly collected on 77 Holstein dairy cows just after calving to assess the influence of sample type on IgG1 concentrations. Variation in IgG1 concentrations during the first milking was studied on samples from nine cows collected every minute from the start of milking. Repeatability of colostral IgG1 concentration was estimated from 2009 and 2010 data on 16 healthy cows. IgG1 concentrations were tested using a radial immunodiffusion method. Sensitivity and specificity were similar regardless of sample type tested (individual quarter or composite milk). Mean average IgG1 concentration was 54.1 g/l in composite colostrum, and was significantly higher in hind quarter teats (56.2 g/l) than front quarter teats (53.1 g/l). Average IgG1 concentration did not change significantly during colostrum milking, and the variations observed (15% or less) were likely due to the laboratory method (CV 15%). IgG1 concentrations in dam colostrum increased slightly from 2009 to 2010 due to BW and parity effects. In 56% of cases, colostrum quality could have been assessed on either individual or composite colostrum samples collected at any time during the first milking without affecting the reliability of the measurement. However, in other cases, differences were significant enough to mean that estimates of average IgG1 concentration in colostrum from any one quarter would not be reliable. It is concluded that colostrum quality

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  16. Treatment of cystic ovaries with controlled vaginal drug release in combination with gonadotropins and prostaglandins in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Amer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of oestrus synchronization developed over the past 60 years have involved controlling estrous cycle length by luteolytic drugs. The use of controlled internal drug release (CIDR devices is now well accepted throughout the world to treat some diseases. This study aimed to: a investigate the ovarian and endocrine responses associated with the treatment of cystic ovarian follicles with gonadotropin (GnRH and prostaglandin (PGF2α +/- Progesterone-CIDR placement; b determine pregnancy establishment following synchronization and timed artificial insemination in cows suffering from cystic ovarian follicles. The ovarian cysts were typed based on the rectal and ultrasonic examination (B-mode System; Pie-Medical Scanner-240 with 6-8 MHz linear probe into follicular, luteinized and persistent cysts. Two schedules of treatment were designed, in schedule-A, 15 cows with follicular (n=7, luteinized (n=3 and persistent (n=5 cysts were used. The cows received 2 injections of 100 ug GnRH (9 days interval with 25 mg PGF2α administered 7 days after 1st GnRH dose. In schedule-B, 14 cows with follicular (n=6, luteinized (n=3 and persistent (n=5 cysts were used. The cows administered GnRH and CIDR concurrently, then 25 mg PGF2α 7 days later. The CIDR was removed 2 days after PGF2α. The cows were inseminated 16 hours after 2nd GnRH dose. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein during the course of 2 schedules to assay the progesterone and estradiol. In schedule-A, 57.1 %, 33.3 % and 40 % of follicular, luteinized and persistent cysts were ovulated after the 1st GnRH injection, while a total of 100 %, 66.7 % and 100 % were ovulated after the 2nd GnRH dose. The cows with follicular cysts appeared the highest rate of pregnancy (57.1 % followed by the luteinized and persistent cysts (33.3 % and 40 %. Of a total 15 cystictreated cows, 7 were confirmed pregnant (46.7 %. The concentration of progesterone was significantly higher at 1st Gn

  17. Effects of maternal exposure to cow´s milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig; Warri, A

    2011-01-01

    . No differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than......We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis...... to LIM in utero, did not exhibit increased breast cancer risk, despite having higher estradiol and IGF-1 environment and consequently earlier puberty onset. These results indicate that the phytochemical content in the cow's milk, consumed by a pregnant dam, determines how milk affects the offspring....

  18. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  20. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  1. Glomerular filtration rate in cows estimated by a prediction formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Isao; Miyano, Anna; Sato, Tsubasa; Iwama, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijyo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    To testify the relevance of Jacobsson's equation for estimating bovine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we prepared an integrated formula based on its equation using clinically healthy dairy (n=99) and beef (n=63) cows, and cows with reduced renal function (n=15). The isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol was utilized as a test tracer. The GFR values estimated from the integrated formula were well consistent with those from the standard multisample method in each cow strain, and the Holstein equation prepared by a single blood sample in Holstein dairy cows. The basal reference GFR value in healthy dairy cows was significantly higher than that in healthy beef cows, presumably due to a breed difference or physiological state difference. It is concluded that the validity for the application of Jacobsson's equation to estimate bovine GFR is proven and it can be used in bovine practices.

  2. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  3. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  4. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  5. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds.

  6. Use of endometrial cytology and metabolic profiles for selection of embryo donor cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ismael Fernandez-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of endometrial cytology and metabolic profiles for selection of donor cows in embryo transfer programmes. For this purpose, 69 clinically healthy Holstein cows were enrolled in the study. At the start of the superovulation procedure (Day 0, blood and endometrial samples were obtained to determine metabolic and uterine status, respectively. The cows were then subjected to porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH superovulation treatment, and embryos were recovered after 7 days. The mean number of embryos obtained per flush was 9.89±8.21 (4.63±5.34 viable embryos, 0.82±2.01 degenerated embryos and 4.57±6.44 unfertilized ova. The following statistically significant variables were entered in a regression model: beta-hydroxybutyrate, serum cholesterol, body condition, number of calvings and percentage of neutrophils. In almost all cases, the model explained some percentage of the variance: total number of embryos, 4.8% (p<0.05; number of degenerate embryos, 4.2% (p=0.051; and number of unfertilized ova, 14.2% (p<0.01. Statistical models for the percentage of viable embryos and unfertilized ova accounted for 24.0% and 29.4% of the variance, respectively, and both were statistically significant (p<0.01. The model for the percentage of degenerated embryos was statistically significant (p<0.05 and explained 4.4% of the variance. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that positive energy balance and healthy uterus can improve ovarian response and the proportion of viable embryos in cows. Efficient tools for monitoring the metabolic and uterine status should therefore be used in bovine embryo transfer programmes.

  7. Factors affecting pregnancy loss from gestation Day 38 to 90 in lactating dairy cows from a single herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Rutllant, J; López-Béjar, M

    2002-03-01

    The present study was designed to establish whether factors such as previous estrus synchronization, corpus luteum and embryo number at the time of pregnancy diagnosis, changes in body condition score, milk production, clinical disease (mastitis or lameness) and the inseminating bull affect pregnancy loss from 38 to 90 days of gestation. We derived data from 601 pregnant lactating dairy cows from a single herd. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography between Day 38 and 44 following insemination. We also recorded corpus luteum and embryo number at this time. Pregnancy loss was defined as a negative pregnancy diagnosis on the second palpation per rectum undertaken between 90 and 96 days after insemination. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods. Cows that had an additional corpus luteum were eight times less likely to miscarry. The risk of pregnancy loss was 3.1 times higher in cows bearing twins. A one unit reduction in body condition score from previous partum to 30 days postpartum resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in pregnancy loss. We noted a higher incidence of pregnancy loss in cows inseminated using semen from one of the six bulls used. This particular bull led to a 3.4-fold increase in the rate of pregnancy loss. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant effects of previous estrus synchronization, milk production, clinical disease, body condition at previous partum or at pregnancy diagnosis, or body condition change between previous partum and pregnancy diagnosis. Our findings indicate a positive relationship between the presence of an additional corpus luteum and the maintenance of gestation. Risk factors for pregnancy loss were twin pregnancy, reduced body condition after previous parturition and the inseminating bull.

  8. The Effect of Rumen Acid Load on Postpartum Performance and Blood Metabolic Responses in Transition Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Mesgaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The transition period is the most stressful time in the production cycle of a dairy cow because of depressed feed intake, endocrine and metabolic changes at parturition. The aim was to determine the effect of rumen acid load on postpartum performance and metabolic parameters in transition Holstein cows. Approach: The Acidogenicity Values (AV of the diets were determined using an In-vitro essay. Thirty late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows with the average yielding of 9800 Kg/year were housed. Three weeks before the expected date of calving, cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (a High AV (AV11.9 diet (n = 16 (b Low AV (AV10.7 diet (n=14. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein once a week at a consistent time after morning feeding from d 10 till d 42 postpartum and were analysed for Beta Hydroxybutyrate (BHB, Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFAs, glucose and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN. Milk samples were collected from each milking once per week and composited for subsequent analysis of milk composition. Results: Overall subsequent milk yield of animals in high AV was higher compared to the other group (41.9 and 37.8 kg. Although milk fat percentage of the low AV group was higher than the other group (3.7 and 3.5%, however there was no significant effect of the diets on milk protein. Plasma NEFA and BHBA was reduced significantly in animals receiving the high AV diet. Although the concentration of glucose was markedly higher in high AV animals, however the BUN concentration was lower compare to the low AV group. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that high grain prepartum diets have dramatic impact on postpartum performance and blood metabolic parameters.

  9. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

  10. Effect of flooring system on locomotion comfort in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Telezhenko, Evgenij

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study influence of different flooring systems on several aspects of locomotion of dairy cows. To assess the gait on different floors, trackway analysis was used. Cows walking on a hard, slippery surface had shorter strides, wider posture and asymmetric steps. A hard, slippery surface resulted in stride shortening, wider posture and asymmetric gait. Using soft rubber mats made gait patterns more similar to those on a natural yielding surface such as sand. When cows...

  11. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  12. The administration of Sheng Hua Tang immediately after delivery to reduce the incidence of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongan; Wang, Xuezhi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Qin, Zhe; Li, Jianxi; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-15

    Sheng Hua Tang, a classical herbal formula consisting of Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustici rhizoma, Semen persicae, Zingiberis rhizoma, and Radix glycyrrhizae, is known to be beneficial in alleviating postpartum diseases and facilitating a return to normal reproductive function. This study investigated whether the administration of Sheng Hua Tang within 2 to 4 hours after delivery was effective as a preventive treatment for reducing the risk of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows. A total of 357 cows, each of which had delivered its calf spontaneously, were randomly allocated to one of two groups. In the treatment group, the cows (n = 175) received Sheng Hua Tang with an oral dose of 0.36 g crude herb per kg·body weight once daily for three consecutive days. The controls (n = 182) received no treatment. The placental retention proportion was 4.0% and 17.0% within 12 hours after delivery in the treated and control animals, respectively (P < 0.01). We found decreases in the calving-to-first-service interval (73.2 ± 25.1 vs. 81.9 ± 32.8 days; P < 0.01), calving-to-conception interval (93.4 ± 38.8 vs. 114.6 ± 42.9 days; P < 0.01), and service per conception (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.01) in the treatment group compared with the control group. The first artificial insemination conception proportion was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (60.4% vs. 41.1%; P = 0.01). Moreover, the between-group difference in the proportion of cows that were pregnant within 180 days postpartum approached statistical significance (88.2% vs. 80.6%; P = 0.07). Sheng Hua Tang showed beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and improving subsequent reproductive performance in cows. This preventive treatment strategy would be effective in improving the management of puerperal health. The potential benefits of Sheng Hua Tang warrant further investigation to determine whether this preventive treatment strategy can be endorsed as

  13. The impact of cow's milk-mediated mTORC1-signaling in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik Bodo C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa is dependent on androgen receptor signaling and aberrations of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway mediating excessive and sustained growth signaling. The nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1 is upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human PCas. Oncogenic mTORC1 signaling activates key subsets of mRNAs that cooperate in distinct steps of PCa initiation and progression. Epidemiological evidence points to increased dairy protein consumption as a major dietary risk factor for the development of PCa. mTORC1 is a master regulator of protein synthesis, lipid synthesis and autophagy pathways that couple nutrient sensing to cell growth and cancer. This review provides evidence that PCa initiation and progression are promoted by cow´s milk, but not human milk, stimulation of mTORC1 signaling. Mammalian milk is presented as an endocrine signaling system, which activates mTORC1, promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses autophagy. Naturally, milk-mediated mTORC1 signaling is restricted only to the postnatal growth phase of mammals. However, persistent consumption of cow´s milk proteins in humans provide highly insulinotropic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs provided by milk´s fast hydrolysable whey proteins, which elevate postprandial plasma insulin levels, and increase hepatic IGF-1 plasma concentrations by casein-derived amino acids. BCAAs, insulin and IGF-1 are pivotal activating signals of mTORC1. Increased cow´s milk protein-mediated mTORC1 signaling along with constant exposure to commercial cow´s milk estrogens derived from pregnant cows may explain the observed association between high dairy consumption and increased risk of PCa in Westernized societies. As well-balanced mTORC1-signaling plays an important role in appropriate prostate morphogenesis and differentiation, exaggerated mTORC1-signaling by high cow´s milk consumption predominantly during critical growth phases of prostate development and

  14. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  16. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of CMP-based formula. The majority has two or more symptoms from two or more organ systems. Approximately 50 to 60% have cutaneous symptoms, 50 to 60% have gastrointestinal symptoms, and approximately 20 to 30% respiratory......OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine...... to select the relevant data for this review. RESULTS: The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP), ie, CMPA, has to be confirmed by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. The incidence of CMPA in infancy seems to be approximately 2 to 3% in developed countries...

  17. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  18. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  19. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  20. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video......). The cows subjected to biopsies showed an overall decreased lying time during the entire observation period (36.3 ± 1.5 vs. 46.1 ± 2.2% of time) but not directly related to the period after the biopsies. Dairy cows show classic signs of illness behavior in the hours after intramammary challenge with E. coli...

  1. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  2. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  3. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  4. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  5. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  6. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Portes de Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected bythe HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breastfeedingcrossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impedimentfrom the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to theaffectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, theywere interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a PublicHospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy wasnot planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectationsregarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood outthat the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnantreact to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnantsoroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize thespecific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV.

  7. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined.

  8. Ovarian characteristics and timed artificial insemination pregnancy risk after presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 7 days before PGF2α in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to determine the benefit of including GnRH and PGF2α (PG) as a part of a presynchronization option before enrolling cows in a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows in one herd were assigned weekly at calving from January 2012 to August 2014 to a completely randomized design consisting of two presynchronization treatments. Cows in the Presynch-11 (n = 290) control were administered two PGF2α injections (Presynch PG-1 and Presynch PG-2) 14 days apart starting at 39 ± 4 days postpartum (study Days 0 and 14). Cows receiving the experimental presynchronization treatment (Gsynch-11, n = 287) were treated with GnRH (pre-GnRH) on study Day 7 and PG (pre-PG) on study Day 14. On study Day 25, all cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch-56 timed AI program: GnRH-1 on study Day 25, PG on study Day 32, GnRH-2 on study Day 34, 56 hours after PG, and timed AI on study Day 35, 16 hours after GnRH-2. In a subsample of 255 cows, ovarian structures were monitored for size and ovulation, and blood samples were collected on study Days 7, 14, 25, 32, 34, and 41 to measure progesterone. Concentrations of progesterone were greater (P 96%), ovulation to GnRH-2 (>90%), and synchronization risk (>88%) did not differ between treatments, but incidence of multiple ovulation after GnRH-2 was larger (P = 0.036) in Presynch-11 than Gsynch-11 cows (28.4% vs. 15.9%), respectively. Pregnancy per AI at 32 days (36.4% vs. 35.1%) and 60 days (30.0% vs. 29.0%) after AI did not differ between Gsynch-11 and Presynch-11 cows, respectively, but was suppressed during summer months in both treatments to less than 70% of the pregnancy per AI of nonsummer months. Because more than 90% of the cows were ovular as treatments were applied, the GnRH treatment of Gsynch-11 could not be assessed for its benefit in anovular cows. The Gsynch-11 presynchronization treatment performed comparably with the standard Presynch-11 program and provides a viable presynchronization option for use

  9. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from late gestation cows have an impaired ability to mature in response to E. coli stimulation in a receptor and cytokine-mediated fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Brianna; Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2015-09-15

    During late gestation the bovine immune system is less capable of eliciting inflammatory responses and eliminating invading pathogens. The maternal immune system is directed toward tolerance in order to prevent fetal rejection due to recognition of paternal antigens. In humans and mice, dendritic cell (DC) populations maintain a tolerogenic phenotype essential in the generation and preservation of maternal immune tolerance throughout pregnancy. However, the primary mechanisms which facilitate maternal immune tolerance involved in bovine gestation remain poorly understood. In order to determine if DC phenotype and function were regulated toward tolerance during bovine gestation, we compared in vitro generated monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) from monocytes isolated from cows in late gestation (LG) to those from non-pregnant (NP) cows in their ability to mature following stimulation with UV irradiated Escherichia coli. Our results show mo-DC from LG cows have an impaired ability to mature in response to E. coli stimulation in a receptor and cytokine-mediated fashion in comparison to those from NP cows. Specifically, mo-DC from LG cows were unable to upregulate MHC II and maintained high expression of CD14, both indicative of an immature phenotype following E. coli-stimulation. Only mo-DC from LG showed significant increase in IL-10 production and had a significantly lower ratio of production of the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 to regulatory cytokine IL-10 following E. coli stimulation compared to mo-DC from NP cows. Our findings demonstrate mo-DC from LG cows have a stifled capacity to develop a mature phenotype and drive pro-inflammatory Th1-type responses to E. coli stimulation. Results from this study provide insight into DC immune modulation in bovine pregnancy and elucidate host factors which may contribute to the heightened susceptibility to infection in late gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  11. The effect of an acidified, ionized copper sulphate solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Menno; Bartels, Chris J; Bergsten, Christer; van Riet, Miriam M J; Frankena, Klaas; Lam, T J G M

    2012-09-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disorder in dairy cattle and herd-based foot bathing with antibacterials, such as 4% formalin, is often used to prevent it. However, there is a lack of long-term studies of the effectiveness of such regimes and in this study the preventive and curative effect of 4% formalin was compared with that of an acidified, ionized copper sulphate solution over a 4-month period on a commercial 120-cow dairy farm. The cows were walked through a split-leg footbath where left claws were treated with an acidified copper solution twice daily for 5 days/week, while right claws were treated with 4% formalin twice daily for 1 day/every second week. Hind claws were scored for the presence and severity of DD in a trimming chute at the start of the study and every 4 weeks throughout the study period. At the start of the study 21/110 cows had ulcerative DD lesions with 10 on the left hind foot, 8 on the right and 3 on both. These lesions, as well as any new lesions which arose during the study, were treated with chlortetracycline spray. During the study 440 observations were made and seven new DD lesions were recorded on left feet (copper treated) and 20 on right feet (formalin treated). Based on survival analysis, the risk of developing a new ulcerative DD lesion on copper-treated (left hind) feet was almost three times less (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.91) than formalin-treated (right hind) feet. Cure rates of DD lesions were not different between copper and formalin.

  12. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  13. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  14. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  15. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  16. Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: maternal repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I de Mattos Paranhos; Aguilar, R; Rudge, M V Cunha

    2004-02-01

    Bauhinia forficata, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazil folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. The purposes of present study were to determine the repercussions of diabetes on the defense system against oxidative stress in pregnant female rats and to characterize the influence of the treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract on the antioxidant system, glycemic control, hepatic glycogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and lipids. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats in 3 doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. All the females were killed on the day 21 of pregnancy. A maternal blood sample was collected by venous puncture and the maternal liver was removed for biochemical measurement. The diabetic pregnant rats presented hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased determinations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with B. forficata extract did not interfere in the albumin, total protein and lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD determinations. Increased hepatic glycogen, decreased uric acid concentration and increased GSH activity was observed. This last fact suggests that the plant may have some action on antioxidant defense system. However, the demonstration of the active component present in B. forficata responsible for its antioxidant effect and the increase in hepatic glycogen deserve further investigation.

  17. The role of the placenta in the initiation of spiral artery remodelling in an early pregnant chimpanzee uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercruysse, L; Carter, A. M.; Pijnenborg, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In this study we evaluated the full extent of placental bed changes (centre to periphery) in a pregnant chimpanzee uterus, kept at the Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. According to placental size the specimen was equivalent to an 8 weeks pregnant human uterus. Methods...... changes within the maternal vasculature in decidua and adjacent inner myometrium. Results While interstitially invading trophoblasts were present, endovascular trophoblast invasion seemed about to start into one spiral artery outlet at the centre of the placental bed, confirming our previous impression...

  18. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  19. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  20. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of two energy supplements based on propylene glycol in dairy cows diet on ovarian and follicular morphology, conception, insemination index and length of service period. A total number of 60 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, parity between 2-8, with an average milk production of 7000 kg/305 days of lactation were divided into three experimental groups (20 dairy cows per group. The first group of dairy cows was supplemented daily with "Energy-plus" (O1 group; 200 mL propylene-glycol supplement and the second group was supplemented with "Ketal" (O2 group; 160 mL propylene-glycol supplement, two weeks before partus until 30 days post partum. The third experimental group were non supplemented dairy cows (O3, control group. Ultrasound examination of the reproductive system using real time echo camera Falco VET 100 (ESAOTE PieMedical, Holland, B-shaped scan with linear-array endorectal 5-8 MHz probe was conducted on every animal starting from day 40 postpartum. The diameters of the ovaries (left and right and of the dominant follicle(s were recorded. Ultrasound testing was repeated on day 50 and 60 postpartum only in cows which in the meantime were not inseminated. Reproduction efficiency parameters (conception rate, number of inseminations and length of service period were recorded individually. The statistical significance of the differences between groups was tested using ANOVA with LSD test at the level of significance p<0.05, chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (the length of service period. There was no significant impact of the propylene glycol supplementation on the ovarian and follicular morphology at the first ultrasound examination. At the second ultrasound examination there was a significant difference between left ovarian dominant follicle diameter in the control and supplemented dairy cows (1.67±0.53 vs 1.12±0.29 and 1.11±0.35 cm, p<0.05, O3 vs O1 and O2, respectively. The

  1. Pseudomembranous colitis in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, T; Pai, R R; Mathai, A M; Tantry, B V; Adhikari, P

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis in association with pregnancy has not been well described in English literature. Recent studies show a drastic increase in the incidence and severity of Pseudomembranous colitis in pregnant women, who were once thought to be at low risk. We report here a case of Pseudomembranous colitis in a young healthy immunocompetent pregnant lady. An early suspicion of this entity with the characteristic appearance of pseudomembranes on colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis enabling prompt treatment and complete recovery without any serious consequences.

  2. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  3. Tingzikou key water control project started construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Tingzikou key water control project on Jialing River, one of 18 newly started key projects in 2009 for China's western part development program, formally started construction at the end of November last year.

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids and dietary concentrate proportion on performance, milk composition, milk yield and metabolic parameters of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Spilke, Joachim; Kramer, Ronny; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to periparturient cows receiving different concentrate proportions ante partum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on lipid mobilisation and metabolism. Compared to adapted feeding, a high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation post partum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. Sixty-four pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations 3 weeks prior to calving until day 60 p.p. Ante partum, cows received control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement at 100 g/d, either in a low-concentrate (CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (CON-60, CLA-60). Post partum, concentrate proportion was adjusted, while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic situation p.p. was not achieved and therefore impacts of CLA could not be examined. Live weight, milk yield and composition, blood parameters remained unaffected by the treatments. Only a slightly reduced milk fat yield (not significant) was recorded for Group CLA-20. The proportion of trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA in milk fat was significantly increased in CLA-groups compared to CON-groups. With the exception of a reversible CLA effect on milk fat in Group CLA-20, no post-treatment effects occurred. Dry matter intake (DMI) of Group CLA-60 was highest before calving, resulting in a significantly improved estimated energy balance after calving. Ante partum, net energy intakes were significantly increased in high-concentrate groups. Overall, supplemented CLA preparation did not relieve metabolism and lipid mobilisation of early lactating cows. But feeding CLA in a high-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase DMI and thereby improve the energy balance of cows immediately after calving.

  5. Short communication: Concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in preovulatory follicles and the correlation with intrafollicular estradiol in dairy cows fed extruded flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of lignans that can be metabolized to the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL), which may elicit weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feeding an extruded flaxseed supplement to dairy cows on concentrations of EL in plasma and preovulatory follicles and the association with intrafollicular estradiol (E2). Twenty-four multiparous 256-d-pregnant Israeli Holstein cows were fed either a standard diet both pre- and postpartum (control; n=12) or provided with an extruded flaxseed supplement (n=12), at 7.9 and 9.2% of dry matter, pre- and postpartum, respectively. Follicular fluid (FF) aspirations were conducted at 84±16 d in lactation as follows: 7 to 8 d following behavioral estrus, cows were injected with prostaglandin F2α and 48h later follicles >7mm were aspirated. Follicles were regarded as preovulatory when the E2-to-progesterone ratio was >1. Plasma EL concentrations were not different between treatment groups; however, concentrations of EL in FF of preovulatory follicles were 1.7 times higher in extruded flaxseed-supplemented cows than in control. Across-treatment analysis revealed a positive correlation between concentrations of EL in plasma and in FF. In addition, intrafollicular EL concentrations were positively correlated with E2 concentrations (r=0.50), and with the intrafollicular E2-to-progesterone ratio. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with extruded flaxseed increased EL concentrations in preovulatory follicles. Intrafollicular EL was correlated with E2 concentrations; therefore, the possible effects of EL from flaxseed on follicular steroidogenesis should be considered.

  6. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  7. Low protein silage associated with rumen impaction in suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-23

    Rumen impaction associated with low protein diets in a suckler cowCampylobacteriosis in suckler cowsPlant toxicity in ewesListerial encephalitis in ewes ITALIC! Chorioptes bovis-associated infertility in ramsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  8. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics, alter

  9. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...

  10. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  11. Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C.G.; Huppertz, T.

    2012-01-01

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences i

  12. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a

  13. Focal sampling of cow lying behaviour for automated welfare assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattachini, G.; Riva, E.; Bisaglia, C.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Provolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    the objective of the current study was to determine the number of focal animals required to represent the daily lying behaviour of a herd of lactating dairy cows. the study was carried out at 3 commercial dairy farms. the lying time (h/d) and number of lying bouts (n/d) of 15 ± 3 focal dairy cows,

  14. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw m

  15. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  16. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under ... At the same ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the ..... selected factors on the milk yield, somatic cells content and chemical.

  17. Dairy cow performance on silage from semi-natural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Struik, P.C.; Valk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of including forage from semi-natural grassland in the diet of dairy cows were studied in a feeding trial with cows in mid-lactation. Diets were compared in which part of the silage from intensively managed grassland was replaced with 0% (100IM), 20% (20SPP), 40% (40SPP) or 60% (60SPP)

  18. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure... one portable drive unit available on board the vessel for every three COW machines that use portable... members does not have to meet paragraph (e) of this section if the following areas of each cargo tank...

  19. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  20. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    Namibia experienced a large measles outbreak starting in 2009, with 38% of reported cases in adults, including women of reproductive age. Population immunity was assessed among pregnant women to determine whether immunization activities were needed in adults to achieve measles elimination in Namibia. A total of 1708 and 2040 specimens sampled from Namibian pregnant women aged 15-44 years who were included in the 2008 and 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey, respectively, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G antibody. The proportion of women seropositive overall and by 5-year age strata was determined, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, facility type, gravidity, HIV status, and urban/rural setting. Seropositivity in 2008 versus 2010 was compared. In both analysis years, measles seropositivity was lower in 15-19-year-olds (77%) and 20-24-year-olds (85-87%) and higher in 25-44-year-olds (90-94%) (2008, pmeasles seropositivity did not differ between 2008 (87%) and 2010 (87%) (p=0.7). HIV status did not affect seropositivity. Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15-19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cows and cow-slaughter in India : religious, political and social aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Batra (Swaraj)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIndia is a land of sacred cows. They are abundant in the fields, are present with gods in every temple, figure prominently in Parliament and Assemblies, are the deciding factor in elections, and are the subject of judgement in the highest court of India. The sacredness has attained such

  2. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C. G M; Den Uijl, I. E M; Van Schaik, G.; Olde Riekerink, R. G M; Keurentjes, J. M.; Lam, T. J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This st

  3. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  4. Effects of amino acids infused into the vein on ghrelin-induced GH, insulin and glucagon secretion in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Rika; Yokotani, Akinori; Sugino, Toshihisa; Itoh, Fumiaki; Kushibiki, Shiro; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Moriya, Naoko; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kojima, Masayasu; Kangawa, Kenji; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of amino acids on ghrelin-induced growth hormone (GH), insulin and glucagon secretion in lactating dairy cattle, six Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two infusion treatments in a cross-over design. Mixture solution of amino acids (AMI) or saline (CON) was continuously infused into the left side jugular vein via catheter for 4 h. At 2 h after the start of infusion, synthetic bovine ghrelin was single injected into the right side jugular vein through the catheter. Ghrelin injection immediately increased plasma GH, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (Pghrelin injection in both treatments. The peak value of plasma insulin concentration was greater in AMI compared with CON (Pghrelin action which in turn enhances insulin and glucagon secretions in lactating cows.

  5. Rumen fermentation and microbial population in lactating dairy cows receiving diets containing oilseeds rich in C-18 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M; Petit, H V; Chiquette, J; Wright, A-D G

    2013-04-14

    Sixteen Holstein rumen-cannulated primiparous milking dairy cows were fed a control diet (CN) based on maize silage and soyabean meal during a 4-week period before the start of a 21-d experiment with oilseeds containing high concentration of linoleic acid (Linola™) or linolenic acid (NuLin™). Thereafter, four cows received ad libitum one of each of four dietary treatments comprising of CN, Linola (LN), NuLin (NL) and LN/NL (50/50 % combination). Each LN, NL and LN/NL treatment contained 6 % oil of DM. Rumen digesta samples were collected on days 6, 11, 16 and 21 and milk samples on days 13, 15 and 17. There were no effects (P>0.05) of the oilseeds on pH and concentrations of NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids, while the acetate:propionate ratio was decreased (Pdigestion of dietary fibre and increased quality of milk.

  6. Small intestinal mucosa IgE plasma cells and specific anti-cow milk IgE in children with cow milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrander, J J; Dellevoet, J J; Arends, J W; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R

    1993-05-01

    In a prospective study we looked for the presence of both IgE plasma cells in small bowel mucosa and specific serum IgE antibodies to cow milk in children suspected of cow milk protein intolerance. Thirty-one children with complaints possibly due to cow milk intolerance were submitted to two consecutive cow milk elimination/challenge tests. The diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance was confirmed in 16 of our 31 patients on the basis of two positive elimination/challenge tests. IgE plasma cells were found in nine of 16 patients with proven cow milk protein intolerance and in only one of the 15 patients without cow milk protein intolerance (p < .01). The RAST for cow milk was positive in six of 16 infants with cow milk protein intolerance and in two of the 15 other infants. Serum IgE level was of no value for the diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance. Neither of these diagnostic procedures was sensitive enough to be used as a screening test for cow milk protein intolerance. Furthermore, the relationship between specific IgE antibodies for cow milk and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells was poor: five of nine infants with cow milk protein intolerance and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells had negative RASTs for cow milk.

  7. The natural history of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Jacobsen, H P; Halken, S

    1995-01-01

    In prospective studies th incidence of cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) in infancy in western industrialized countries has been estimated to be about 2-3% based on strict diagnostic criteria. A significant association between early neonatal exposure to cow's milk formula...... feeding and subsequent development of CMPA/CMPI has been documented. The small amounts of 'foreign' protein in human milk may rather induce tolerance than allergic sensitization. The findings of specific IgE to individual cow's milk proteins in cord blood of the majority of infants who later develop CMPA...... with an early increased IgE response to cow's milk protein have an increased risk of persisting CMPA, development of persistent adverse reactions to other foods and development of allergy against environmental inhalant allergens. Cow's milk protein/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), meaning reproducible adverse reactions...

  8. Reduction of Slaughter Value of Paratuberculosis-Infected Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    ) recordings from 36,455 cows from herds participating in the Danish MAP control program. Carcass weight and meat quality data were obtained from all cows and the effect of stage of MAP infection was assessed by analysis of variance. MAP infection stage was based on repeated milk antibody ELISA in both...... negative cows only had reduced slaughter results if they were ELISA-positive in the last two tests. Losses at slaughter caused by MAP were much more severe than has previously been estimated, and these losses could be predicted by repeated milk-ELISA tests with or without confirmation with fecal culture.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Two datasets were analyzed: 1) recordings from 1,031 cows in herds in a pilot-study to control MAP infections; and 2...

  9. Casein micelles: size distribution in milks from individual cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Huppertz, Thom

    2012-05-09

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive lactations periods. Modal radii varied from 55 to 70 nm, whereas hydrodynamic radii at a scattering angle of 73° (Q² = 350 μm⁻²) varied from 77 to 115 nm and polydispersity varied from 0.27 to 0.41, in a log-normal distribution. Casein micelle size in the milks of individual cows was not correlated with age, milk production, or lactation stage of the cows or fat or protein content of the milk.

  10. Response of lactating dairy cows to degree of steam-flaked barley grain in low-forage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Kh; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Yang, W Z

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of processing method (grinding vs. steam flaking) and increasing densities of steam-flaked barley grain on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen pH and fermentation characteristics, digestibility of dry matter in the total digestive tract (DDTT), and milk production of dairy cows. Eight multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows averaging 103 ± 24 DIM, 44.5 ± 4.7 kg milk/day and weighing 611 ± 43 kg at the start of the experiment were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Cows were fed diets consisting of (DM basis) 23.8% corn silage, 13.5% chopped alfalfa hay and 62.7% concentrate. The dietary treatments were either ground barley (GB) using a hammer mill or steam-flaked barley (SFB) - varying density at 390, 340 or 290 g/l. Processing method (GB vs. SFB) did not affect DMI (23.6 kg/day on average), DDTT (71.0% on average), milk yield (43.4 kg/day on average), milk components, rumen pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate and sorting activity. Ruminal isovalerate concentration tended (p = 0.06) to be higher for cows fed GB than those fed SFB-based diets. Decreasing the density of SFB from 390, 340 to 290 g/l tended to linearly increase DMI (p = 0.09), decrease total solids percentage of milk (p = 0.10) and linearly decreased milk urea nitrogen (12.8, 12.4 and 12.1 mg/dl; p = 0.04); also, the sorting index (SI) of the particles retained on the 19.0-mm sieve without affecting the SI of the particles retained on 8.0-mm, 1.18-mm or passed through 1.18-mm sieve (p = 0.05). These results indicated the limited effects of processing method (grinding vs. steam flaking) and densities of SFB (390, 290 or 290 g/l) on cows' performance and feed utilization for dairy cows fed low-forage diets. Therefore, both processing methods could be recommended under current feeding conditions of dairy cows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell

  11. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  12. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  13. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  14. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  15. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  16. The effects of calving to first service interval on reproductive performance in normal cows and cows with postpartal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R

    1983-11-01

    The relationships between the calving to first service interval and several measures of reproductive performance were evaluated in 1738 lactation records from cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Lactation records were divided into three mutually exclusive health categories based on the cows' postpartal disease histories.Relationships between the calving to first service interval and the first service conception rate, number of services per conception and open interval were similar for all three health categories. The first service conception rate was lower and the average number of services per conception higher in cows first bred before 60 days when compared to cows first bred after 60 days. The relationship between the calving to first service interval and the open interval indicated that for each day that breeding was delayed the open interval was extended by 0.86 days.It appeared that overall conception rates may be lower for cows first bred very early or very late, but differences in the overall conception rate were only significant for cows experiencing a reproductive tract infection. Unless very expensive semen is being used, it is suggested that disease free cows be bred at the first heat occurring after 40 days postpartum, and that cows experiencing postpartal disease be bred at the first heat occurring after 60 days postpartum.

  17. Interlaboratory evaluation of a cow's milk allergy mouse model to assess the allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, B.C.A.M. van; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Jeurink, P.V.; Garssen, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes two phases of a multi-phase project aiming to validate a mouse model for cow's milk allergy to assess the potential allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas (claim support EC-directive 2006/141/E). The transferability and the discriminatory power of this mode

  18. STUDY ON STARTING VELOCITY OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  20. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  1. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  2. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  3. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  4. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  5. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  6. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Pregnancy amongst secondary school learners is a public health concern ... of high risk pregnancies, which require appropriate care during the antenatal, labour and .... ous sizes. According to the Department of Basic. Education (2012), in ... scribes what he or she has observed in order to as- ... pregnant learner in class;.

  7. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  8. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  9. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  10. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  11. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying-balance...

  12. A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behaviour, health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, C.J.C.; Beerda, B.; Knierim, U.; Waiblinger, S.; Lidfors, L.; Krohn, C.C.; Canali, E.; Valk, H.; Veissier, I.; Hopster, H.

    2013-01-01

    Housing dairy cows offers the possibility to control many aspects of their lives, including accurate rationing, which is especially important for high yielding cows, and rapid health care. In addition, some parasitic diseases are largely controlled by removing cows from pasture. However, housing cow

  13. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Hosseini

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets

  14. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  15. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  16. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  17. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  18. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    concentrations of alcohols like propanol and alcohol related esters will increase. If the rumen capacity for alcohol metabolism inadequate this will lead to high portal uptakes of alcohols and as a mammalian hepati alcohol dehydrogenase in general is saturated at relative low alcohol concentrations high portal...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  19. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  20. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Zheng ZHENG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated.This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice.Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests.Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controis, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome.