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Sample records for pregnant adolescents moralistic

  1. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it.

  2. Guided Imagery and Stress in Pregnant Adolescents.

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    Flynn, Theresa A; Jones, Brittney A; Ausderau, Karla K

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of a guided imagery intervention on perceived stress in pregnant adolescents. Thirty-five pregnant adolescents recruited from a local alternative education program participated in a guided imagery intervention. Participants listened to a pregnancy-specific guided imagery recording on four separate occasions during their pregnancies. Perceived stress was measured immediately before and after each session using the Perceived Stress Measure-9 (PSM-9). Participants' pre- and postsession PSM-9 scores for three of the four sessions demonstrated a significant reduction in stress. Participants' baseline stress levels also decreased significantly across the four listening sessions. The greatest reductions in stress within and between sessions occurred in the early sessions, with effects diminishing over time. Pregnant teens experienced initial short- and long-term stress reduction during a guided imagery intervention, supporting the use of guided imagery to reduce stress in pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient.

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    Hornberger, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    Each year, more than 500 000 girls and young women younger than 20 years become pregnant. It is important for pediatricians to have the ability and the resources in their offices to make a timely pregnancy diagnosis in their adolescent patients and provide them with nonjudgmental pregnancy options counseling. Counseling includes an unbiased discussion of the adolescent's legal options to either continue or terminate her pregnancy, supporting the adolescent in the decision-making process, and referring the adolescent to appropriate resources and services. Pediatricians who choose not to provide such discussions should promptly refer pregnant adolescent patients to a health care professional who will offer developmentally appropriate pregnancy options counseling. This approach to pregnancy options counseling has not changed since the original 1989 American Academy of Pediatrics statement on this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

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    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  5. Profile of pregnant adolescents with history of domestic violence

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    Rosana Santos Mota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study aims to evaluate pregnant adolescents in relation to socio demographic, gynecological and obstetric aspects and the experience of domestic violence. The subjects were 34 pregnant adolescents who got prenatal care in the city of São Francisco do Conde (Bahia, Brazil. Interviews were conducted. The majority of pregnant adolescents was between 16 and 19 years old and was single, black, non-educated, and financially dependent on parents or husband/partner, having initiated a sexual relationship before the age of 15. More than 40% declared a history of domestic violence. Some of them revealed the experience of domestic violence during pregnancy. In face of this reality, a professional look is necessary in order to recognize domestic violence as an aggravating factor to the health of these adolescents, a fact which has not been perceived in health care.

  6. Pregnant Adolescents Admitted to an Inpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit: An Eight-Year Review.

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    Fletcher, Teresa M; Markley, Laura A; Nelson, Dana; Crane, Stephen S; Fitzgibbon, James J

    2015-12-01

    To assess patient outcomes and describe demographic data of pregnant adolescents admitted to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit, as well as to determine if it is safe to continue to admit pregnant adolescents to such a unit. A descriptive retrospective chart review conducted at a free-standing pediatric hospital in northeast Ohio of all pregnant adolescents aged 13 to 17 years admitted to the inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit from July 2005 to April 2013. Data collection included details on demographic, pregnancy status, and psychiatric diagnoses. Eighteen pregnant adolescents were admitted to the psychiatric unit during the time frame. Sixteen of those were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy was found to be a contributing factor to the adolescent's suicidal ideation and admission in 11 of the cases. Admission to an inpatient psychiatric facility did not lead to adverse effects in pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents did not have negative pregnancy outcomes related to admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results of this study suggest that it is safe to continue to admit uncomplicated pregnant adolescents in their first trimester to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit for an acute stay. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens.

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    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C

    1994-10-01

    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age.

  8. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

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    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  9. Prenatal Care for Pregnant Adolescents in a Public High School.

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    Berg, Marjorie; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of pregnant adolescents were studied using a retrospective analysis of obstetrical summary to demonstrate the relationship of the availability of a comprehensive, program of prenatal care in a public school setting to the achievement of early and continuous prenatal care, and to the minimizing of obstetrical complications. (JMF)

  10. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

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    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  11. Implementation of a journal prototype for pregnant and parenting adolescents.

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    Bute, Jennifer J; Comer, Karen; Lauten, Kathryn M; Sanematsu, Helen Y; Moore, Courtney M; Lynch, Dustin; Chumbler, Neale R

    2014-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy and childbearing remain pressing public health issues that have garnered attention from public health officials and social services agencies. This paper reports on the initial implementation and formative evaluation of a journaling program used as a means of communicating health information to pregnant and parenting adolescents (young women age 15-19) while also providing participants with a means of self-expression. The journaling prototype was implemented in a community-based agency in the Midwest by Family Support Specialists (FSSs) who made home visits on a monthly basis to assist pregnant and parenting adolescents (n=52) with successful family planning and public health education. A mixed method approach of qualitative (analysis of journals, field notes, and responses of semi-structured interviews with FSSs) and quantitative (questionnaires from pregnant and parenting adolescent respondents) data with purposive sampling was employed to evaluate the implementation of the journaling intervention. Twenty of the 52 study participants were pregnant when the journaling intervention was implemented, while 32 were not pregnant, but recently had a child and were currently parenting. Two core themes emerged from analysis of the data after the implementation of the journals: (1) usefulness of the journal and responsiveness to participants' information needs and (2) functionality challenges. The results offer practical starting points to tailor the implementation of journaling in other contexts. Further, areas for improvement emerged regarding the distribution timeline for the journal and the content of the journal itself. As such, we discuss the lessons learned through this collaborative project and suggest opportunities for future phases of the journal intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnant adolescents in the City of Bucaramanga, Colombia. A

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    Ricardo Ortiz Serrano

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Many social, cultural and family factors, deeply affect all pregnantadolescents. Therefore a strong support from their families, isurgently needed. Objective: To establish among pregnant adolescents,their demographic, social and family characteristics. Theseteenagers attend a primary care clinic at the City of Bucaramanga.Methods: Cross-sectional study using a self-applied questionnaire.Results: We analyze 336 pregnant adolescents, mean age 17 years(range 13 to 19. Most of them were having their first pregnancy.The mean age for their first sexual relations was at 15 years of age.65.5% of them said they had only one sexual partner. 62.2% werelife partners. 52.15% had or were attending high school. 61.6% hadsome information about pregnancy planning. 31.44 had informationfrom their school. 66.2% followed no planning at all. 59.0% washoping to get pregnant. 26.1% of them had experienced interfamilyviolence and 33.8% said they had a sister with pregnancy duringadolescence. Discussion: an important number of adolescentswant to get pregnant and establish a new home with their partners.Basically they try to get away from their violent original homes. Their partners are usually, older than the adolescent pregnant is. Most of the partners accept, worry, support and have stable relations during the girl’s pregnancy. A good and sound control for preventing teenage-pregnancy should be implemented in family programs for pregnancy planning, including prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology

  13. Online discussions with pregnant and parenting adolescents: perspectives and possibilities.

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    Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A

    2005-10-01

    The Internet is an innovative strategy to increase public participation. It is important to include pregnant and parenting teens' perspectives when planning programs to meet their needs. This qualitative study explored online discussions as a strategy to enhance participation by this population. Findings showed that online communication was preferred over face-to-face group discussions. Being anonymous online encouraged open and honest feedback. Participants experienced various forms of social support, however, there was an overall lack of teen involvement online. Strategies to engage adolescents in online discussions and reduce barriers are discussed. Strategies included the use of teen moderators, home computer access, technical support, and engagement in naturally flowing online discussions to meet social support needs. Blending researchers' with teens' needs for social support in an online environment is encouraged. With careful planning and design, online communications can result in mutual benefits for researchers, service providers, and pregnant and parenting adolescents.

  14. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

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    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  15. Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women

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    Ara, G.; Boonstra, A.; Roy, S.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh.F.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly

  16. [Food habits and culture factors in pregnant adolescents].

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    Herrera-Suárez, Claudia Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Romo-Huerta, Hiliana P; García De Alba García, Javier E; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the food habits of pregnant adolescents and their perception about which, of her cultural concepts, have higher influence. 54 subjects between 12 and 19 years old from Guadalajara City were included and socioeconomic, dietetic data, as food frequency consumption and cultural concepts about feeding were also explored. Chi square was used for identifying association between variables. The fat intake was lower in late vs. Early and middle stage of adolescence (57 vs. 71 g/d, p = 0.05). The iron, calcium and zinc intake was also deficient in the early/middle stage; meanwhile, the folic acid consumption was very low in the late stage of adolescence. Corn tortillas were the most consumed cereal and food (93-96%); junk food and sodas (62 and 55%) prevailed in the early/middle stage. About local costumes, "tacos", "pozole" and burgers were the most referred (74.1%). They also mentioned that fat (36.7%), junk food (30%), chili (26.7%), sodas (23.3%), processed meals (26.7%) and salt (10%) were harmful. They also believed that vegetables (77%), fruits (60 %), milk (21%), broths (17%), and meat (12.5%) were beneficial; and, 96% considered that chicken and bean broths were nutritious (myth). There were some prohibited foods (taboos) during pregnancy: chili (48%), junk food (20%), and salt (16%). Prejudices were more common among later adolescents (60.9%) (p = 0.03). The erratic food habits and the conceptual confusion of these adolescents cause a low intake of nutrients and place them in a nutritional risk.

  17. Pregnant Adolescents, Beliefs About Healthy Eating, Factors that Influence Food Choices, and Nutrition Education Preferences.

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    Wise, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential

  18. Perceived social support in pregnant adolescents in Mersin area in Turkey.

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    Yurdakul, Mine

    2018-01-01

    The study examines the level and source of perceived social support in pregnant adolescents and the factors related to their perception of social support. This descriptive study was conducted with the voluntary participation of 127 adolescent pregnant females who visited the Gynecology and Pediatric Hospital in Mersin, Turkey. The data were collected based on the participants' self-expression, using the Socio-demographic Information Form and Multidimensional Scale of the Perceived Social Support. The average age of the pregnant adolescents was 18 years. Approximately one-fifth of all participant females were either illiterate or had dropped out of the primary school. All pregnant adolescents were housewives with a low economic status. Findings pertaining to the participants'fertility showed that 69.3% were primiparous, 24.4% had at least one living child. The mean score for pregnant adolescents' perception of social support was 50.79±8.72. The mean score on the subscales was 23.32±3.23 for family support; 16.17±4.35 for friend support; and 12.29 ± 5.54 for special person support. Pregnant adolescents had a low perception of social support. Families were found to be the most common source of social support available to pregnant adolescents, and they lacked the support from their friends and other special people.

  19. Contraceptive practices and pregnancy intendedness among pregnant adolescents

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    Lanjakornsiripan W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wakul Lanjakornsiripan, Siriruthai Amnatbuddee, Kanok Seejorn, Yuthapong Werawatakul, Pilaiwan Kleebkaow, Ratana Komwilaisak, Sanguanchoke Luanratanakorn Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a major health problem in many developing countries.Objective: To assess contraceptive practices and pregnancy intendedness in pregnant adolescents.Materials and methods: This study was prospectively conducted from September 2013 to June 2014. All consecutively pregnant women between 15 and 19 years old attending the Antenatal Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital and the Khon Kaen Branch of the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand were invited for participation. Face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using standardized questionnaires were carried out. Logistic regression was used to determine an adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI of independent predictors.Results: Two hundred participants were enrolled. Mean age was 17.2 years. One hundred and eighteen (59.0% were currently in school. Seventy-five (37.5% participants had never used any contraceptive methods. Of the 125 participants who had ever used contraception, regular use of contraceptives was reported in only 21 participants (16.8%. Only two participants (1.0% had ever used an intrauterine device or implant. Participants’ age was a significant independent factor associated with non-use of contraceptives (aOR, 6.42; 95% CI, 2.94–14.04. Of the 200 participants, 132 (66.0% declared that the pregnancy was unintended. Significant independent factors predicting unintended pregnancy were educational status (aOR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.27–13.75 and participants’ age (aOR, 5.76; 95% CI, 2.42–13.70.Conclusion: Non-use and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates were major reasons leading to adolescent pregnancies. Participants’ age was an independent factor

  20. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

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    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (Padolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  1. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

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    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.

  2. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

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    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...

  3. Society, self, and mind in moral philosophy: the Scottish moralists as precursors of symbolic interactionism.

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    Shott, S

    1976-01-01

    Many of the concepts central to symbolic interactionism were anticipated by the eighteenth century Scottish moralists. The symbolic-interactionist and Scottish moralist orientations both hold that society alone engenders uniquely human qualities, self-arises through sympathetic interaction, and mind and self reconstruct their environments. George H. Mead's conception of though as internal dialogue between the "I" and "me" aspects of the self and his notion of the "generalized other" were foreshadowed by some of the Scottish moralists, particularly Adam Smith. These schools differ, though in their treatments of emotion, communication, political structures, and the origin of sympathy.

  4. Coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents: integrative review

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    Cibele Monteiro Macedo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate and analyze in the scientific literature coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents. Method: This is an integrative literature review, conducted from July to August 2017 on LILACS, SciELO and PubMed, using the descriptors and the MeSH terms: confrontation, violence, adolescent, pregnant women, prenatal care. Result: The sample comprised 9 articles that were organized and characterized according to year, country of study and coping strategy used. The main forms of coping involved the active search for cases and the primary care approach with all family members. Conclusion: Individualized prenatal care, the change in professional training and networking activities were pointed out as important components of the strategies for coping with violence against pregnant adolescents.

  5. Coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents: integrative review.

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    Macedo, Cibele Monteiro; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo; Lopes, Gisele Almeida; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2018-01-01

    To investigate and analyze in the scientific literature coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents. This is an integrative literature review, conducted from July to August 2017 on LILACS, SciELO and PubMed, using the descriptors and the MeSH terms: confrontation, violence, adolescent, pregnant women, prenatal care. The sample comprised 9 articles that were organized and characterized according to year, country of study and coping strategy used. The main forms of coping involved the active search for cases and the primary care approach with all family members. Individualized prenatal care, the change in professional training and networking activities were pointed out as important components of the strategies for coping with violence against pregnant adolescents.

  6. Pregnant adolescent victims of intrafamilial violence in Brazil: Psychological and social consequences

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    Paula Orchiucci Miura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence pregnancy is a complex issue that must be studied, considering the social, economic, family and the psychological aspects of each adolescent. There is more complexity when these adolescents have suffered domestic violence. Domestic violence is a serious public health problem because affects the physical and psychological integrity of the victims. Many women who become pregnant have been victims of some form of domestic violence by their partners along the married life. This paper paper presents data of research as is part of a larger project entitled ´Domestic Violence Study against Adolescents Pregnant Attended at the University Hospital of São Paulo: Basis for Intervention´. The objectives are to identify the accumulated incidence and the experience of pregnant adolescents in face of domestic violence, in special he psychosocial vulnerability, understanding and comparing the lived experience on the pregnant adolescents victims and not victims of domestic violence. Forty pregnant adolescents have participated in this study, being 20 victims of domestic violence (Group 1 and 20 non-victims (Group 2 attending the University Hospital of São Paulo and another institutions partner of Psychology Institute of USP. This is an exploratory and descriptive research, quantitative and qualitative. The instruments used were: a form to characterize the profile of production and social reproduction, semi-structured interview. The qualitative data analysis was performed according to Bardin proposal (2013. How results were found: In the group 1 drug use during pregnancy, and lack of trust in health professionals. The showed lack of confidence and support of family, partner abandonment and violence, insecurity, low self esteem and hopelessness. In the group 2 were found: high self-esteem; confidence and family support; security in the relationship with the partner; good prospects for the future; some unfavorable aspects were found in group 2 that

  7. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

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    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  8. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

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    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  9. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnant adolescents: proinflammatory cytokine and bacterial sialidase profile. Cross-sectional study

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    Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI. Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991 as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6% were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68 or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52. Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05. RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05. Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2% with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.

  10. Psychological health and life experiences of pregnant adolescent mothers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain

    2014-04-30

    A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13-15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%-20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a 'Teen Pregnancy Clinic' and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.

  11. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Wilson-Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.

  12. A Comparison of Unwed Pregnant Teenagers and Nulligravid Sexually Active Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAmicis, Lyn A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant adolescent students were less likely than nulligravid students to employ or plan to use contraceptives. They more often expressed a desire for a pregnancy and described their boyfriends as happy about the pregnancy. Nulligravid youngsters described their parents as more disapproving of their premarital sexual activity. (Author/RH)

  13. Facial Likability and Smiling Enhance Cooperation, but Have No Direct Effect on Moralistic Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-09-01

    The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over trials, participants spent more money for punishing the defection of likable-looking and smiling partners compared to punishing the defection of unlikable-looking and nonsmiling partners, but only because participants were more likely to cooperate with likable-looking and smiling partners, which provided the participants with more opportunities for moralistic punishment. When expressed as a conditional probability, moralistic punishment did not differ as a function of the partners' facial likability. Smiling had no effect on the probability of moralistic punishment, but punishment was milder for smiling in comparison to nonsmiling partners.

  14. Birth rates and pregnancy complications in adolescent pregnant women giving birth in the hospitals of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchon, Rukmanee; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Suchonwanich, Yolsilp

    2014-08-01

    To determine the rates of births in adolescent pregnant women in diferent regions of Thailand and assess the rates of complications occurring at pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in women admitted in the hospitals ofThailand. The secondary analysis of data from pregnant women aged 10 to 49 years, who were admitted to hospitals and recorded in the National Health Security Office database between October 2010 and September 2011 was carried out. Adolescent birth rate by the regions and rate of complications ofpregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by age groups were analyzed. Highest birth rate was found among women aged 19 years (58.3 per 1, 000 population). The distribution of adolescent births varied across regions of Thailand, which was high in central region. Rate of preterm delivery was highest (10%) in adolescent aged 10 to 14 years. Rate of diabetes mellitus (6%), preeclampsia (4%), and postpartum hemorrhage (3%) among women aged 35 to 49 years were substantially higher than those among women aged 34 years or less. Adolescent birth rate varied across regions of Thailand. Complications occurred differently by ages of women. Holistic policy and planning strategies for proper prevention and management among pregnant women in different age groups are needed

  15. Detection of human papillomavirus in dental biofilm and the uterine cervix of a pregnant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Édila Figuerêdo Feitosa; Silva, Célia Regina; Ferreira, Dennis Carvalho; Ferreira, Mariana Vasconcellos Martins; Vanderborght, Patrícia Rosa; Torres, Maria Cynésia Medeiros Barros; Torres, Sandra Regina

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and pregnancy are considered to be risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The relationship between this infection in the uterine cervix and oral HPV infection is controversial. This report describes a case of a pregnant 16-year-old adolescent who presented HPV infection in the uterine cervix and the mouth. Smears were collected from the cervix and the tongue/palate. Dental biofilm samples were also collected. The microarray technique was used to detect HPV. The HPV 56 subtype was observed in the cervical smear and HPV 6 in dental biofilm. In this pregnant adolescent, HPV infection was present in both the cervix and the mouth, but the HPV subtypes infecting these two areas were different.

  16. Pregnant adolescent women's perceptions of depression and psychiatric services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Sarah E; Rizo, Cynthia F; Wike, Traci L; Killian-Farrell, Candace; Wessel, Julia; Bellows, Anne-Marie O; Doernberg, Alison

    2017-10-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at high-risk for depression and the associated negative educational, social, health, and economic outcomes. However, few pregnant adolescent women with depression receive psychiatric services, especially low-income or racial/ethnic minority adolescent women. This qualitative study explores perceptions of depression, psychiatric services, and barriers to accessing services in a sample of low-income, pregnant racial/ethnic minority adolescent women. Our goal was to better understand the experiences of depression during pregnancy for these vulnerable adolescent women, and thereby improve their engagement and retention in services for perinatal depression. We recruited 20 pregnant adolescent women who screened positive for depression from 2 public health prenatal clinics in the southeastern United States. Participants were low-income and primarily racial/ethnic minority women between 14 and 20 years old. Data were collected through individual in-depth, ethnographically informed interviews. Generally, participants lacked experience with psychiatric services and did not recognize their symptoms as depression. However, participants perceived a need for mood improvement and were interested in engaging in services that incorporated their perspective and openly addressed stigma. Participants reported practical and psychological barriers to service engagement, but identified few cultural barriers. Family perceptions of psychiatric services served as both a barrier and support. Adolescent women are more likely to engage in psychiatric services if those services reduce practical and psychological barriers, promise relief from the symptoms perceived as most meaningful, and address underlying causes of depression. Culture may affect Latina adolescent women's perceptions of depression and services. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS WITH A HISTORY OF SEXUAL ABUSE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  19. Pregnant adolescents living with HIV: what we know, what we need to know, where we need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Tegan; Modi, Surbhi; Swanson, Jennifer; Ng'eno, Bernadette; Broyles, Laura N

    2017-08-04

    HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding adolescents are a particularly vulnerable group that require special attention and enhanced support to achieve optimal maternal and infant outcomes. The objective of this paper is to review published evidence about antenatal care (ANC) service delivery and outcomes for HIV-infected pregnant adolescents in low-income country settings, identify gaps in knowledge and programme services and highlight the way forward to improve clinical outcomes of this vulnerable group. Emerging data from programmes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight that HIV-infected pregnant adolescents have poorer prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) service outcomes, including lower PMTCT service uptake, compared to HIV-infected pregnant adults. In addition, the limited evidence available suggests that there may be higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission among infants of HIV-infected pregnant adolescents. While the reasons for the inferior outcomes among adolescents in ANC need to be further explored and addressed, there is sufficient evidence that immediate operational changes are needed to address the unique needs of this population. Such changes could include integration of adolescent-friendly services into PMTCT settings or targeting HIV-infected pregnant adolescents with enhanced retention and follow-up activities.

  20. Discourses of Plagiarism: Moralist, Proceduralist, Developmental and Inter-Textual Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, David; Dell, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs prevalent academic discourses of student plagiarism: moralism, proceduralism, development, and writing/inter-textuality. It approaches the discourses from three aspects: intention, interpretation and the nature of the academic community. It argues that the assumptions of the moralistic approach regarding suspect intention,…

  1. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  2. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of th...

  3. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  4. The adolescent family life program: a multisite evaluation of federally funded projects serving pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Marni L; Ashley, Olivia Silber; LeTourneau, Kathryn L; Williams, Julia Cassie; Jones, Sarah B; Hampton, Joel; Scott, Alicia Richmond

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of care demonstration projects supported by the Title XX Adolescent Family Life (AFL) program, which serves pregnant and parenting adolescents in an effort to mitigate the risks associated with adolescent childbearing. This cross-site evaluation involved 12 projects and 1038 adolescents who received either enhanced services funded by the AFL program or usual care. We examined the effects of enhanced services on health, educational, and child care outcomes approximately 6 months to 2 years after intake and explored moderation of program effects by time since intake and project characteristics associated with outcomes. The odds of using long-acting reversible contraception (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58) and receiving regular child care (OR = 1.50) in the past month were higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group. Odds of a repeat pregnancy were lower (OR = 0.39) among intervention group adolescents than among comparison group adolescents within 12 months of intake. Several project characteristics were associated with adolescent health outcomes. These projects show promise in improving effective contraceptive use, increasing routine child care, and yielding short-term decreases in repeat pregnancy.

  5. Perinatal characteristics among early (10–14 years old and late (15–19 years old pregnant adolescents

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    Alves João

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescents is a worldwide health problem and has been mostly common in poor populations. It is not clear if socioeconomic or biological factors are the main determinants of perinatal adverse outcomes in pregnant adolescents. Adolescents under 15 years old may present a high growth rate which may contribute to impair fetal growth. Our aim is to compare perinatal characteristics among early (aged 10 to 14 years and late (aged 15 to 19 years pregnant adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Pernambuco State 2009, obtained from DATASUS/SISNAC, a Brazilian Government, open-access public health database. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between early (aged 10–14 years and late (aged 15–19 years pregnant adolescents. Family income was compared between early and late pregnant adolescents using a sample of 412 subjects evaluated at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP during 2011. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test was used with a significant level of 0.05; bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. This project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Results Data from 31,209 pregnant adolescents were analyzed. 29,733 (95.2% were aged 15 to 19 years and 1,476 (4.7% were aged 10 to 14 years. There were significant differences with respect to marital status, education level and number of prenatal visits of mothers aged 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years. Of importance, early adolescents had a greater rate of neonates born premature and with low birth weight. Prematurity and low birth weight remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusions Early aged adolescents may have an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight. These findings highlight the potential role of biological factors in newborn outcomes in pregnant adolescents.

  6. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.

  7. Effectiveness of a comprehensive psychoeducational intervention with pregnant and parenting adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deborah V; Looney, Stephen W

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of a comprehensive psychoeducational intervention on depression, self-esteem, and parenting attitudes/beliefs of at-risk pregnant and parenting adolescents. Adolescents (N = 41) attending either a residential treatment facility (RTF) or a rural alternative school (RAS) participated in a psychoeducational parenting group using Bavolek's Nurturing Program during Phase I. Phase II included health promotion issues, infant massage, and CPR. Using the Parenting Semantic Differential and the AAPI-2, there was significant improvement in parenting attitudes and beliefs. No significant change was found in self-esteem. A comprehensive psychoeducational parenting group can be effective in changing parenting attitudes and beliefs, which suggests an ultimate improvement in health promotion and disease prevention in adolescent women and their children.

  8. “Love Hurts”: Romantic Attachment and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Adolescent and Young Adult Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Method Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Conclusion Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. PMID:23794358

  9. Psychological and relational correlates of intimate partner violence profiles among pregnant adolescent couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica B; Sullivan, Tami P; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M; Kershaw, Trace S

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P Couple-level interventions focused on relational issues might protect young families from developing IPV behaviors. Aggr. Behav. 43:26-36, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P profile (all P profile by sex interaction (all P families from developing IPV behaviors. PMID:27135634

  11. Latent growth trajectories of substance use among pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Gwendolyn V; Stein, Judith A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    We examine changes among adolescent girls in substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Three separate latent growth curve analyses assessed the impact of psychosocial, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors on resumption of or change in use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. The Vulnerable Populations Model for Research and Clinical Practice (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This is a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 305 ethnic minority females (245 Latina, 60 African American), aged 13-18 years, who were pregnant at baseline and were participating in an HIV prevention study conducted in inner-city alternative schools in Los Angeles County. Data collected at 4 time points captured changes in substance use from pregnancy through the postpartum period. Baseline predictors included ethnicity/race, partner substance use, childhood abuse history, religiosity, acculturation, depressive symptoms, length of gestation at baseline, and previous substance use. Common predictors of greater resumption and/or greater level of use included greater history of use before pregnancy, partner substance use, childhood abuse, and a longer time since childbirth. African Americans were more likely to be smoking at baseline when they were still pregnant and to use marijuana postpartum; Latinas were more likely to use alcohol over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. Other variables exerted an influence on specific substances. For instance, religiosity impacted cigarette and alcohol use. Findings may assist prenatal care providers to identify and counsel pregnant adolescents at risk for perinatal substance use and to prevent resumption or initiation of substance use after childbirth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross-cultural examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T.; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recently proposed that “moralistic” religions—those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual—emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with “slow life history” strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with “fast life history” strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies. Our sample includes individuals from a wide range of traditions, including world religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, but also local traditions rooted in beliefs in animism, ancestor worship, and worship of spirits associated with nature. We first test for the presence of associations between material security, years of formal education, and reproductive success. Consistent with popular life history predictions, we find evidence that material security and education are associated with reduced reproduction. Building on this, we then test whether or not these demographic factors predict the moral concern, punitiveness, attributed knowledge-breadth, and frequency of ritual devotions towards two deities in each society. Here, we find no reliable evidence of a relationship between number of children, material security, or formal education and the individual-level religious beliefs and behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of why life-history theory is an inadequate interpretation for the emergence of factors typifying the moralistic traditions. PMID:29513766

  13. [Sociodemographic characteristics of the pregnant adolescent in a high specialty hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquet-García, Jaime; Montoya-Cázarez, Aminta; Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    The adolescents' pregnancy is a public health problem related to sociocultural and economic factors which compromise the mother-son binomial. The aim of this paper is to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant adolescents from the hospital. Retrospective, descriptive and observational study, in which all pregnant patients between 10 and 19 years from the Hospital, during June 2012 and January 2014, were studied. The following data were collected: age, scholarship, occupation, marital status, age at beginning of sexual relations, number of sexual partners, contraceptive use and type of contraceptive method, pregnancies, parturition, cesarean section and abortions. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistic was used, consistent in central tendency and dispersion measures. 608 adolescent were studied, age was 16.7 ± 1.2 years, 50.2% were students, 35.1% unemployed, 29.5% were single and 25.2% married. In 79% was its first pregnancy. The age at beginning of sexual relations was at 15.0 ± 1.3 years; 39% didn't use contraceptive method and 24.5% hadn't addictions. The pregnancy wasn't planned nor wished in 78.1%. Gestational age was between 8 and 44 weeks, this latter due to no confident amenorrhea and 56.7% had associated pathology. The mean age of the couple was 20.6 ± 3.8 years, 84.1% worked and 64.2% hadn't addictions. The opportune detection of risk factors will allow the prevention and attention of the teenage pregnancy.

  14. Domestic violence in pregnant adolescents: Characterization of the partners and prevalence of the different forms of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy in adolescents and domestic violence (DV are worldwide problems. Their prevalence is influenced by cultural factors. Objectives: To characterize pregnant adolescents and their sexual partners, and to determine the prevalence of psychological, physical and sexual DV. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of 406 Colombian pregnant teenagers. Socio-demographic data were collected, and the scales “Are you being abused?” and “Abuse Assessment Screen” were applied. The former identifies domestic violence by the partner, and the latter, DV at any moment, the last year or during pregnancy. Results: Age: 16.5 ± 1.5 years, 92.9 % were in late adolescence, average years of schooling: nine; 50 % dropped out from school when they became pregnant; 70 % depended on their parents, both before and after pregnancy. DV by the partner: 7.1 %; physical DV: 6.7 %; psychological DV: 3.7 %; sexual DV: 2.2 %. DV by partner/husband/other person: 12.4 %; physical or emotional abuse by partner/another person: 21.7 %; fear from the partner: 3.4 %. There was significant association between alcohol consumption by the partner every weekend and DV. Conclusion: Frequency of DV against pregnant adolescents is high and alcohol consumption by the partner is an important risk factor for it.

  15. A STUDY ON PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS RESIDING IN A GOVERNMENT HOME: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR VIEWS ON THE PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Tan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent pregnancy has emerged to be a significant public health and social issue in Malaysia as itsprevalence is increasing in our population.Objectives: This study aimed to identify the common characteristics of pregnant adolescents residing in a governmentshelter home. Their reasons for pregnancy, sources of information on contraception, and views on abortion and future careof the baby were explored.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 26 universally sampled pregnant adolescents in the centre. Theadolescents responded to a set of self-administered questionnaire on their socio-demographic profiles, reasons of theirpregnancy, contraception and future plans including abortion as well as care of the newborn.Results: Almost all (92% of the adolescents were unmarried. Majority of them were in late adolescence, age between 16to 19 years (73.1%, from urban areas (73.1% and of low income families (53.8%. There were 69.3% of the adolescentswho were school dropouts. The reasons for pregnancy were consensual sexual activity (63.0%, coercion by boyfriend(18.5%, and rape (11.5%. The main sources of information on contraception were friends (50%, partners (50% andthe internet or mass media (42.3%. 54% had considered abortion earlier, but majority (92.0% disagreed that abortionshould be legalised in Malaysia. Most of the adolescents planned to parent their child with or without help from significantothers and only 42.3% planned to relinquish their child for adoption.Conclusion: To curb teenage pregnancy-related problems, efforts on educating the adolescents about sexual reproductivehealth and assertive communication skills should be implemented, especially to the late adolescents, school dropouts andthose from poor urban families. Parenthood support may be necessary to the pregnant adolescents who opted to care fortheir own child.

  16. [Levels of anemia and hemoglobin in pregnant adolescents who attended health care facilities of Ministry of Health of Peru, 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munares-García, Oscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To determine hemoglobin levels and anemia in pregnant adolescents who attended the health care facilities of the Ministry of Health of Peru between the years 2009 and 2012. Cross-sectional study of secondary data analysis using the Information System of the Nutritional Status of Children and Pregnant Women (SIEN). 265,788 records of pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years were reviewed. Hemoglobin levels (g/dL) and the percentage of anemia in the first, second and third trimesters were measured. Descriptive statistics with confidence intervals at 95% were applied. 3.4% of pregnant women were aged 10 to 14 years (early adolescence), 21.6% between 15 to 16 years (middle adolescence) and 75% between 17 to 19 years (late adolescence). Hemoglobin levels in pregnant adolescents were 11.6 ± 1.3 g/dL in 2009 and 11.5 ± 1.3 g/dL during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. The overall incidence of anemia for 2009 was 25.1% (95% CI 24.4-25.8); for 2010 was 26.0% (95% CI 25.3-26.6) for 2011 was 26.4% (95% CI 25.8-27.1) and 25.2% for 2012 (95% CI 24.6-25.9). Hemoglobin levels were on average lower for pregnant residents in high Andean areas. About a quarter of pregnant adolescents in our sample had anemia.

  17. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

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    Reyna Sámano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI. Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads. An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497. Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011. Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with

  18. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-09-27

    Introduction : Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective : To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods : A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26-28 to three months postpartum ( n = 168 mother-child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results : Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions : Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  19. Micronutrient Dietary Intake in Latina Pregnant Adolescents and Its Association with Level of Depression, Stress, and Social Support

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    Angelie Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnant women are at greater risk for nutritional deficits, stress, and depression than their adult counterparts, and these risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely interrelated. This study evaluated the prevalence of nutritional deficits in pregnant teenagers and assessed the associations among micronutrient dietary intake, stress, and depression. One hundred and eight pregnant Latina adolescents completed an Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24 in the 2nd trimester. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Social support satisfaction was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire. More than 50% of pregnant teenagers had an inadequate intake (excluding dietary supplement of folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. Additionally, >20% of participants had an inadequate intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, copper, and selenium. Prenatal supplement inclusion improved dietary intake for most micronutrients except for calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous, (>50% below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and for copper and selenium (>20% below the EAR. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher energy, carbohydrates, and fats, and lower magnesium intake. Higher social support satisfaction was positively associated with dietary intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and zinc. The findings suggest that mood and dietary factors are associated and should be considered together for health interventions during adolescent pregnancy for the young woman and her future child.

  20. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  1. James Watson's most inconvenient truth: race realism and the moralistic fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R

    2008-11-01

    Recent editorials in this journal have defended the right of eminent biologist James Watson to raise the unpopular hypothesis that people of sub-Saharan African descent score lower, on average, than people of European or East Asian descent on tests of general intelligence. As those editorials imply, the scientific evidence is substantial in showing a genetic contribution to these differences. The unjustified ill treatment meted out to Watson therefore requires setting the record straight about the current state of the evidence on intelligence, race, and genetics. In this paper, we summarize our own previous reviews based on 10 categories of evidence: The worldwide distribution of test scores; the g factor of mental ability; heritability differences; brain size differences; trans-racial adoption studies; racial admixture studies; regression-to-the-mean effects; related life-history traits; human origins research; and the poverty of predictions from culture-only explanations. The preponderance of evidence demonstrates that in intelligence, brain size, and other life-history variables, East Asians average a higher IQ and larger brain than Europeans who average a higher IQ and larger brain than Africans. Further, these group differences are 50-80% heritable. These are facts, not opinions and science must be governed by data. There is no place for the "moralistic fallacy" that reality must conform to our social, political, or ethical desires.

  2. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights.

  4. To evaluate the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal and perinatal outcomes among adolescent pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Kisa Karakaya, Burcu; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Tasci, Yasemin; Erkaya, Salim

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal and perinatal outcomes among adolescent pregnant women. We conducted this prospective cross-sectional study on 365 singleton adolescent pregnancies (aged between 16 and 20 years) at a Maternity Hospital, between December 2014 and March 2015. We divided participants into two groups based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): overweight and obese adolescent (BMI at or above 25.0 kg/m) and normal weight (BMI between 18.5 and 24.99 kg/m) adolescent. We used multivariate analysis to evaluate the association of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pre-pregnancy BMI. The prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and normal weight was 34.6% (n = 80) and 65.4% (n = 261) in the study population, respectively. Compared with normal-weight teens (n = 234), overweight/obese teens (n = 71) were at higher risk for cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-1.4), preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.9) and small of gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.9). BMI increased during pre-pregnancy could be an important preventable risk factor for poor obstetric complications in adolescent pregnancies, and for these patients prevention strategies (e.g., nutritional counseling, weight-loss, regular physical activity) for obesity are recommended before getting pregnant.

  5. Nutritional status and birth outcomes of adolescent pregnant girls in Morogoro, Coast, and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Candida P; Kinabo, Joyce L

    2005-01-01

    Studies that link adolescence pregnancies, nutritional status, and birth outcomes in Tanzania are scarce. We examined the nutritional status and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescent girls from rural and urban areas of three regions in Tanzania. The study was carried out in the regions of Dar es Salaam (Chamazi and Gezaulole dispensaries and Round Table Maternity Home), Coast (Tumbi Regional Hospital and Mlandizi Health Center), and Morogoro (Regional Hospital, Uhuru Clinic, and Mlali Health Center). One hundred eighty pregnant adolescent girls ages 15 to 19 y were recruited and interviewed, and their nutritional status measurements were taken at the seven health facilities. Information concerning date of birth, marital status, educational status, sex education, and income status was collected with a structured questionnaire. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured according to standard techniques. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a hemoglobinometer and the HemoCue technique. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by cutoff points of the World Health Organization. Suitable statistical analysis was done with SPSS 9.0. Weekly weight gain during pregnancy was measured in 123 subjects who kept their appointments and reported back after 2 wk. Fifty-seven subjects did not keep their appointments and were lost to follow-up. Records of infants' birth weights and mode of delivery were obtained from 50 subjects who delivered at the study sites. The height of about 54% of the subjects was shorter than 151 cm, suggestive of short maternal height. Severe wasting was observed in 27% of subjects. Mean weekly weight gain during pregnancy was 317 +/-110 g (-500 to 500 g). No significant differences were observed between rural and urban settings. Mean infant birth weight was 2600 +/- 480 g. About 48% of infants had low birth weight (hemoglobin concentration below 7 g/dL was observed in 5% of

  6. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation ( p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status ( p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester ( p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  7. Anemia e deficiência de ferro em gestantes adolescentes Anemia and iron deficiency in pregnant adolescents

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    Elizabeth FUJIMORI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de dosagem de ferritina sérica, transferrina sérica, hemoglobina e hematócrito, caracterizou-se o estado nutricional de ferro de 79 gestantes adolescentes de primeira consulta pré-natal (£ 20 semanas de gestação, atendidas na Rede Básica de Saúde de um Município da Grande São Paulo. Todos os valores hematológicos estudados foram menores entre as gestantes do segundo trimestre gestacional em relação às do primeiro, sendo as diferenças estatisticamente significativas (pThe objective of this study was to characterize iron nutritional status of 79 pregnant adolescents, at first prenatal consultation (<= 20 weeks of gestation, in the Primary Health System of a district of Great São Paulo, through the serum ferritin, serum transferrin, hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations. All the hematologic values studied were smaller for the pregnant adolescents in the second gestational trimester than for the ones in the first. Statistically significant differences (p.<.0.05 were found just for hemoglobin. It was verified that 64.3% and 32.1% had, respectively, less than 500.mg and 300.mg of organic iron reservations, and 5.4% presented serious lack of this mineral. By World Health Organization criterion 19.0% of the pregnant women were iron-deficient (Saturation of Transferrin <.16% and 13.9% were anemic (Hemoglobin.<.11 g/dl.

  8. Choice of Postpartum Contraception: Factors Predisposing Pregnant Adolescents to Choose Less Effective Methods Over Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R; Wiemann, Constance M; Buzi, Ruth S; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-06-01

    The purposes were to determine contraceptive methods pregnant adolescents intend to use postpartum and to understand factors that predispose intention to use less effective birth control than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Participants were 247 pregnant minority adolescents in a prenatal program. Intention was assessed by asking "Which of the following methods of preventing pregnancy do you intend to use after you deliver?" Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with intent to use nonhormonal (NH) contraception (male/female condoms, abstinence, withdrawal and no method) or short-/medium-acting hormonal (SMH) contraception (birth control pill, patch, vaginal ring, injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate) compared with LARC (implant and intrauterine device) postpartum. Twenty-three percent intended to use LARC, 53% an SMH method, and 24% an NH method. Participants who intended to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC were significantly more likely to believe that LARC is not effective at preventing pregnancy, to report that they do not make decisions to help reach their goals and that partners are not important when making contraceptive decisions. Other important factors were having a mother who was aged >19 years at first birth and had not graduated from high school, not having experienced a prior pregnancy or talked with parents about birth control options, and the perception of having limited financial resources. Distinct profiles of factors associated with intending to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC postpartum were identified and may inform future interventions to promote the use of LARC to prevent repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. When Both Parents May Be a Source of Support and Problems: An Analysis of Pregnant and Parenting Female African American Adolescents' Relationships with Their Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anita A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied influence of maternal versus paternal support for pregnant and parenting African American adolescents who reported supportive or problematic interactions, or both, with their parents. Found more support from mothers despite equal relationship problem levels with both parents; support of both parents was associated with lower depression…

  10. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  11. Depressive symptoms and gestational length among pregnant adolescents: Cluster randomized control trial of CenteringPregnancy® plus group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa; Lewis, Jessica B; Cunningham, Shayna D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Thomas, Melanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-06-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with preterm birth among adults. Pregnant adolescents have high rates of depressive symptoms and low rates of treatment; however, few interventions have targeted this vulnerable group. Objectives are to: (a) examine impact of CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care on perinatal depressive symptoms compared to individual prenatal care; and (b) determine effects of depressive symptoms on gestational age and preterm birth among pregnant adolescents. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 community health centers and hospitals in New York City. Clinical sites were randomized to receive standard individual prenatal care (n = 7) or CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care (n = 7). Pregnant adolescents (ages 14-21, N = 1,135) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (second and third trimesters) and postpartum (6 and 12 months). Gestational age was obtained from medical records, based on ultrasound dating. Intention to treat analyses were used to examine objectives. Adolescents at clinical sites randomized to CenteringPregnancy® Plus experienced greater reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms compared to those at clinical sites randomized to individual care (p = .003). Increased depressive symptoms from second to third pregnancy trimester were associated with shorter gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation). Third trimester depressive symptoms were also associated with shorter gestational age and preterm birth. All p < .05. Pregnant adolescents should be screened for depressive symptoms prior to third trimester. Group prenatal care may be an effective nonpharmacological option for reducing depressive symptoms among perinatal adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Decisions of Pregnant Adolescents as They Affect Later Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Myra

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of family life presently experienced by women who were premaritally pregnant as teenagers. Self-esteem and general life satisfaction were measured in order to evaluate the results of pregnancy decisions made five to 10 years earlier. A survey design was used to (1) obtain demographic data, (2) analyze the relationships between these women and their parents, (3) determine the level and type of education completed by the women, (4) compare mo...

  13. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikoff, Daniele; Welsh, Brian T; Henderson, Rayetta; Brorby, Gregory P; Britt, Janice; Myers, Esther; Goldberger, Jeffrey; Lieberman, Harris R; O'Brien, Charles; Peck, Jennifer; Tenenbein, Milton; Weaver, Connie; Harvey, Seneca; Urban, Jonathan; Doepker, Candace

    2017-11-01

    To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015. Subject matter experts and research team participants developed five PECO (population, exposure, comparator, and outcome) questions to address five types of outcomes (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone and calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in four healthy populations (adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children) relative to caffeine intake doses determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (comparators: 400 mg/day for adults [10 g for lethality], 300 mg/day for pregnant women, and 2.5 mg/kg/day for children and adolescents). The a priori search strategy identified >5000 articles that were screened, with 381 meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for the five outcomes (pharmacokinetics was addressed contextually, adding 46 more studies). Data were extracted by the research team and rated for risk of bias and indirectness (internal and external validity). Selected no- and low-effect intakes were assessed relative to the population-specific comparator. Conclusions were drawn for the body of evidence for each outcome, as well as endpoints within an outcome, using a weight of evidence approach. When the total body of evidence was evaluated and when study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response were considered, the evidence generally supports that consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine/day in healthy adults is not associated

  14. Teenage pregnancy: impact of the integral attention given to the pregnant teenager and adolescent mother as a protective factor for repeat pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Melhado, Amanda; Coates, Verônica; Omar, Hatim A

    2007-02-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the integral attention to the health of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, having follow-up from the Integral Support Program for the Pregnant Teen (ISPPT), with the intention to determine quality of life and prevent repeat pregnancy. A prospective study comprised 85 adolescents attended by the ISPPT between January 2002 and June 2006 who participated in meetings during pregnancy with a multidisciplinary team that provided orientation concerning family planning, self-esteem, pregnancy prevention, motivation to continue education and/or work, and evaluate the postpartum mother-child relationship. The following were analyzed: education level, marital status, contraceptive use, thoughts and attempts at abortion, repeat pregnancy. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee. The Epi-Info v6.0b software was used for data and result evaluation using the means and the chi-squared test. The mean age of the adolescents was 15.7 years, 3.52% had repeat pregnancy within a mean follow-up of 23 months after childbirth, the mean education level was 8.1 years, 30.5% dropped out of school, with 79.4% occurring before pregnancy, 64.6% used no contraceptives, 68.3% were single, and 81.3% had a positive role model. One year after birth, 67.5% studied, 50% worked, 55.1% lived with the partner, 77% correctly used contraceptives, every child lived with their mothers and their vaccinations were up to date. The results demonstrate that the global attention given to the health of adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents is a protective factor for pregnancy relapse and quality of life.

  15. Teenage Pregnancy: Impact of the Integral Attention Given to the Pregnant Teenager and Adolescent Mother as a Protective Factor for Repeat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the integral attention to the health of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, having follow-up from the Integral Support Program for the Pregnant Teen (ISPPT, with the intention to determine quality of life and prevent repeat pregnancy. A prospective study comprised 85 adolescents attended by the ISPPT between January 2002 and June 2006 who participated in meetings during pregnancy with a multidisciplinary team that provided orientation concerning family planning, self-esteem, pregnancy prevention, motivation to continue education and/or work, and evaluate the postpartum mother-child relationship. The following were analyzed: education level, marital status, contraceptive use, thoughts and attempts at abortion, repeat pregnancy. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee. The Epi-Info v6.0b software was used for data and result evaluation using the means and the chi-squared test. The mean age of the adolescents was 15.7 years, 3.52% had repeat pregnancy within a mean follow-up of 23 months after childbirth, the mean education level was 8.1 years, 30.5% dropped out of school, with 79.4% occurring before pregnancy, 64.6% used no contraceptives, 68.3% were single, and 81.3% had a positive role model. One year after birth, 67.5% studied, 50% worked, 55.1% lived with the partner, 77% correctly used contraceptives, every child lived with their mothers and their vaccinations were up to date. The results demonstrate that the global attention given to the health of adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents is a protective factor for pregnancy relapse and quality of life.

  16. Domestic Violence in Pregnant Women: A Study Conducted in the Postpartum Period of Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lucia Helena Mello de; Mattar, Rosiane; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in adolescent and adult mothers who were admitted to obstetrics services centers in Brazil and to identify risk factors of domestic violence and any adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Researchers used standardized interviews, the questionnaire Abuse Assessment Screen, and a review of patients' medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were also used. The prevalence of domestic violence among all participants totaled 40.1% (38.5% of adolescents, 41.7% of adults). Factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy were as follows: a history of family violence, a greater number of sexual partners, and being a smoker. No statistically significant association was found for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Results showed that, in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, pregnancy did not protect a woman from suffering domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Pregnant adolescent self-care in the prevention of risk factors of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy (HDP - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p173

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnancy is considered a problem for public health, due to the high mortality related to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy – HDP. This was a descriptive study with the aim of analyzing the pregnant adolescent self-care in the prevention of HDP risk factors. It was carried out in the Nucleus of Integrated Medical Attention – NAMI, in Fortaleza – Ceará, with twenty women from the Dendê Community, taken care of in the prenatal ambulatory of that institution, during the months of September and October, 2005. The data were collected by means of interview. The pregnant adolescents informed precarious socio-economic conditions, low schooling and other risk factors for HDP, beyond the age: black color, familiar history, arterial hypertension (AH, diabetes mellitus, renal illness and emotional conflicts. The knowledge on the prevention of risk factors was restricted to five (25% pregnant adolescents; however it was reduced to fragmented information, and the preventive behaviors related to feeding habit, smoke and alcoholism cessation, and physical exercise. Therefore, it was evidenced among the adolescents the unsatisfactory exercise of self-care activities, aiming at preventing HDP risk factors; that beyond the age, they presented other predisposing factors to this disorders; that they were susceptible to preventive behaviors and/or control, as in the case of chronic-degenerative illnesses – AH and diabetes mellitus. Probably, this behavior was associated to the elementary and fragmented knowledge, and the absence or the deficiency of family participation in health promotion actions, mainly in those inherent to the prenatal follow-up.

  18. Caracterización psicosocial de un grupo de adolescentes embarazadas del municipio Campechuela. Psychological characterization of pregnant adolescents in the municipality of Campechuela

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    Elsa Pérez Rosabal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de enfoque cuantitativo y corte transversal, en el periodo comprendido entre enero y marzo de 2012, con adolescentes embarazadas de los Consejos Populares 1 y 2 del municipio Campechuela, con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista psicosocial a estas adolescentes. El universo quedó constituido por las 50 adolescentes embarazadas de dichos consejos populares, la muestra quedó conformada por 25 adolescentes, seleccionadas de forma aleatoria. Se aplicó un cuestionario de diecisiete preguntas que permite obtener información acerca de las siguientes variables: edad, escolaridad, ocupación, estado civil, factores del ámbito familiar, opinión de las adolescentes acerca de la comunicación con sus padres en cuestiones de sexualidad, amigas con comportamiento de riesgo, conocimientos relacionados con el embarazo, comportamiento sexual y razones para continuar el embarazo. Se utilizó además el inventario de autoestima diseñado por Stanley Coopersmith. Los datos se analizaron mediante números absolutos y porcentajes. Los resultados se presentan resumidos en tablas. En este estudio predominan las adolescentes menores de 17 años, que son hijas de madres adolescentes, no conviven con ambos padres, y tienen amigas con comportamientos de riesgo. La mayoría de las encuestadas tienen un nivel de conocimientos bajo, un comportamiento sexual de riesgo y no deseaba el embarazo. descriptive observational study of quantitative and transversal character was carried out, in the period between January - March of 2012. The subjects were pregnant adolescents from the districts 1 and 2 in the municipality of Campechuela. The objective was characterizing these adolescents from the psychosocial point of view. The universe was composed of 50 pregnant adolescents. The sample comprised 25 pregnant adolescents selected randomly. The subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire of seventeen questions

  19. A Adolescente Grávida: Alguns Indicadores Sociais The Pregnant Adolescent: Some Social Indicators

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    Marta Edna Holanda Diógenes Yazlle

    2002-10-01

    üentes foram: problemas do feto ou placenta que afetam a conduta materna (7,9%, desproporção feto-pélvica (6,0%, problemas com cavidade amniótica e membranas (5,0%, hipertensão complicando o parto e puerpério (3,5% e trabalho de parto prematuro ou falso (3,4%. Conclusão: a maioria dos partos foi normal, ocorrendo com mais freqüência no final da adolescência, principalmente entre aquelas pertencentes à categoria de internação SUS. Houve predomínio de adolescentes não inseridas na população economicamente ativa. Por ocasião da resolução da gestação foram diagnosticadas algumas complicações obstétricas.Purpose: the objective of the present study was to determine the number and type of deliveries, category of admission to the hospital, occupation and obstetrical diagnosis for adolescents from the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, from January 1992 to December 1996. Methods: the information obtained from hospital discharge forms was analyzed at the Hospital Data Processing Center. The 6.04a-text processor Epi-Info System, a data bank and statistics for epidemiology produced by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA, and Dbase IV were used to process the information. The association between variables was tested by the chi² test, with the level of significance set at 5%. The analyzed parameters were: number and type of delivery, category of hospital admission, occupation and obstetric diagnosis. Results: a total of 42,969 deliveries occurred during the study period, among which 7,134 (16.6% corresponded to adolescent deliveries. An increase in the number of deliveries by girls in this age range occurred over the years, from 1,225 in 1992 to 1,538 in 1996. Deliveries were reported starting from 12 years of age, with a gradual increase in this number, especially after 14 years of age, when a 104.2% increase occurred for deliveries at this age, followed by 48.8% at 15 years, 36.1% at 16 years, 14.0% at 17 years, 52.8% at 18 years, and

  20. Examining the Effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Health: The Implications of Character Affinity, Pregnancy Risk Factors, and Health Literacy on Message Effectiveness.

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    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Pennell, Hillary; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2017-11-10

    Health communication strategies to decrease teen pregnancies include the employment of entertainment-education (E-E), which involves embedding health messages in an entertainment media vehicle that is relatable and attractive to the intended audience. MTV's 16 and Pregnant is an example of such an effort as an E-E documentary-style reality show that aimed to reduce the U.S. teen pregnancy rate. A pretest-posttest experiment was conducted with 147 adolescent girls (ages 14-18) to investigate the effectiveness of 16 and Pregnant on beliefs, attitudes, and intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Among participants who reported the lowest levels of identification, parasocial relationship, and homophily, viewing 16 and Pregnant resulted in more negative attitudes toward teen pregnancy. Among participants who reported the highest level of homophily, viewing 16 and Pregnant resulted in more positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy. Levels of pregnancy risk and health literacy were examined but were not significant moderators. Results are discussed in light of E-E theory and research.

  1. "We Don't Want to be Judged": Perceptions about Professional Help and Attitudes Towards Help-Seeking among Pregnant and Postpartum Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2018-04-27

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand how depression is recognized, as well as perceptions of professional help and attitudes concerning perinatal depression among pregnant and postpartum (perinatal) Mexican-American adolescents. This qualitative descriptive study used deductive and inductive content analysis to analyze data. Categories and subcategories describing the mental health literacy of perinatal Mexican-American adolescents concerning perinatal depression are presented. A convenience sample of 20 perinatal Mexican-American adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years were interviewed. Participants were recruited from parenting classes across urban high-schools in Southwestern United States. Adolescents expressed difficulties in recognizing perinatal depression. Depressive symptoms were identified through self-appraisals or the appraisal of others. Establishing rapport with empathetic health care providers facilitated trust among adolescents. Fear of judgement was the most common response and prevented help-seeking. Lack of trust, normalization of depression, and reluctance with disclosing symptoms were also indicated by participants. Stigma concerning perinatal depression was identified as a barrier for help-seeking among participants who were already experiencing criticism due to their pregnancy status. The quality of interactions with health providers may hinder or facilitate adolescents from professional help-seeking. Active engagement and collaboration with Mexican-American adolescents are indicated in identification and treatment of perinatal depression. Integration of mental health services in primary care settings is suggested to facilitate help-seeking for perinatal depression. Mental Health First Aid may be utilized to improve knowledge and decrease stigma concerning perinatal depression among Mexican-American adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Life-style themes of unwed pregnant adolescents who chose to keep their babies.

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    Jorgensen, J A; Newlon, B J

    1988-12-01

    through means other than adolescent pregnancy.

  3. A feasibility study of an educational program on obstetric danger signs among pregnant adolescents in Tanzania: A mixed-methods study

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    Beatrice Mwilike

    Full Text Available Background: In Tanzania, adolescents have a high lifetime risk of dying from pregnancy and childbirth complications. Objective: To determine the feasibility of an education program in improving knowledge of obstetric danger signs and promoting appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior, as well as encouraging the development of a peer network support group. Methods: An embedded mixed-methods design was used. This research was a pilot study conducted in a health facility in rural Tanzania. Quantitative data was collected before and after the education program using questionnaires. Focus group discussion was used to collect qualitative data. Results: 15 pregnant adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age participated. Their median age was 18.0 years (SD ± 1.19, and 66.7% were ≤18 years. There was a significant increase in the scores of knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy between the pre-test (M = 7.20, SD = 2.83 and the post-test (M = 9.07, SD = 1.67; t = 2.168, p = 0.048. There was a significant strong positive correlation between the healthcare-seeking behavior score and social support score variables [r = 0.654, p = 0.008]. The education program was feasible in terms of implementation, acceptability, and demand as indicated by its >84% score. Four categories were identified from the qualitative data: “supportive family”, “rejection and abortion”, “support from peers”, and “potential barriers to seek care”. Conclusion: The development of an education program particularly on obstetric danger signs was feasible and helpful for pregnant adolescents in Tanzania. Keywords: Pregnancy, Adolescent, Obstetric danger signs, Social support, Healthcare-seeking behavior, Antenatal care

  4. Conversas, em família, sobre sexualidade e gravidez na adolescência: percepção das jovens gestantes Family talking about sexuality and pregnancy during adolescence: perceptions of pregnant adolescents

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    Ana Cristina Garcia Dias

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma análise fenomenológica da ambigüidade na tomada de decisão em comportamento sexual de meninas adolescentes que vieram a engravidar. A análise foi contextualizada nas relações informativas e comunicativas entre filhas e pais sobre temas de sexualidade e cuidados contraceptivos. As considerações analíticas foram baseadas em entrevistas com onze adolescentes gestantes e uma jovem mãe, todos de nível sócio-econômico médio baixo, com idade entre 12 e 19 anos. A informação sobre prevenção foi percebida, pelas jovens, como parcial e incompleta e a comunicação mostrou-se prejudicada por falta de confiança no interlocutor preferencial (no caso, a mãe. A rede de apoio, constituída por tias e amigas, mostrou-se falha em apresentar esclarecimentos ou reduzir incertezas. Além de despreparados, os interlocutores apresentaram dificuldades associadas à falta de informação e a não aceitação da sexualidade adolescente. A interpretação destacou três aspectos relacionados com a gravidez na adolescência: 1 reafirmou a liberdade e iniciativa da mulher em relação à sua sexualidade; 2 confirmou a ausência da discussão franca e informada sobre sexualidade; e, 3 mostrou a substituição do mito do amor romântico pela expectativa clara do sexo prazeroso.This study presents a phenomenological analysis of the decision making ambiguity on sexual behavior by adolescent girls who become pregnant. The analysis was grounded in the informative and communicative relationships between daughters and their parents regarding sexuality and contraception care. The analytical considerations were based on 11 interviews with low middle class pregnant adolescents and one young mother, 12 to 19 years old. The analysis showed that the information the adolescents received about sexuality was incomplete, and that the communication process was hindered by lack of trust in those who tried to establish a dialogue with the girls, usually the

  5. Exploring Experiences of Pregnant Adolescents and Their Utilization of Reproductive Health Services in Ho West District, Ghana: A Salutogenic Approach

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    Lotse, Comfort Worna

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy (AP) is a significant public health problem across Africa. In the Volta Region of Ghana, 32% of adolescents were exposed to unintended pregnancies in 2011 due to lack of knowledge and use of available methods of contraceptives. In addition to the health consequences, adolescent pregnancy also contributes to the perpetuation of poverty cycle among populations. Although several studies have investigated problems associated with adolescent pregnancy, its risk factors and pre...

  6. "Students Getting Pregnant Are Not Gonna Go Nowhere": Manifestations of Stigma in Adolescent Mothers' Educational Environment

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    Bermea, Autumn M.; Toews, Michelle L.; Wood, Leila G.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent mothers' perceptions of how individuals within the schools viewed them and how those views shaped their educational experiences. The sample consisted of 83 primarily Hispanic adolescent mothers who participated in one of 19 semi-structured focus group interviews during the 2014-2015 school year.…

  7. Integralidade e cuidado a grávidas adolescentes na Atenção Básica Comprehensive care of pregnant adolescents in Primary Care

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    Mônica Cecília Pimentel de Melo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O pré-natal em adolescentes tem se caracterizado por ações técnicas buscando-se na atualidade qualificar o cuidado na perspectiva da integralidade. O Programa de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/Programa Saúde da Família (PACS/PSF constitui estratégia para avançar nas mudanças requeridas, o que motivou esta investigação científica, que teve como objetivos conhecer o processo de cuidado pré-natal a adolescentes grávidas por profissionais de saúde do PACS/PSF e analisá-lo na perspectiva da integralidade. É um estudo qualitativo, tendo a integralidade como enfoque teórico. Foi desenvolvido em unidades de PACS/PSF em um município da Bahia, sendo sujeitos do estudo profissionais que cuidam de gestantes adolescentes. O material empírico foi produzido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e observação não participante, em consultas e visitas domiciliárias e analisado pela técnica de análise de discurso. A análise revelou que o cuidado pré-natal à adolescente se concretiza sob o modelo biomédico, e o cumprimento de rotinas e protocolos institucionais sobrepõe-se à singularidade da adolescente. Assim, distancia-se da integralidade, na medida em que as práticas são orientadas por sujeições ideológicas a um modelo que nega às adolescentes grávidas a oportunidade de serem sujeitos.Prenatal adolescent care is characterized by technical actions seeking to provide assistance from the perspective of comprehensive care. The Community Health Agent Program/Family Health Program (PACS/PSF is a strategy for implementing the changes envisaged, which motivated this scientific investigation. The scope of the research was to assess prenatal care to pregnant adolescents by health professionals of PACS/PSF and analyze it from the standpoint of comprehensive care. It is a qualitative study, with comprehensive care as its theoretical focus. It was conducted in PACS/PSF units in a city in the State of Bahia, and the subjects of study

  8. Investigating How MTV's "16 & Pregnant" May Be Used as Media Literacy Education with High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy Marie; Ortiz, Rebecca; Shafer, Autumn; Brown, Jane; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Suellentrop, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Reality television shows featuring teen pregnancy may be used as media literacy education tools to positively affect youth sexual health outcomes. Concerns, however, exist that such programming may glamorize teen pregnancy. The present study examined how viewing and discussing episodes of MTV's "16 and Pregnant", a reality television…

  9. Impacto do estado nutricional no peso ao nascer de recém-nascidos de gestantes adolescentes Nutritional status impact on the birth weight of newborns pregnant adolescents

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    Alessandra Fontes Ferreira da Silva Guerra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto do estado nutricional de gestantes adolescentes no peso do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: EM Estudo de coorte histórica foram avaliadas 97 gestantes adolescentes atendidas no período de maio a junho de 2004 e seus recém-nascidos. Foram incluídas gestantes entre 10 e 19 anos, internadas em trabalho de parto, e excluídas aquelas com gravidez múltipla, complicações gestacionais, idade gestacional menor do que 37 semanas e dados incompletos no prontuário. A avaliação do estado nutricional materno incluiu altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional (GPG e consumo calórico e protéico, obtidos por relatórios de consumo alimentar habitual no final do terceiro trimestre gestacional. A associação entre as variáveis maternas (altura, IMC pré-gestacional, GPG e consumo e o peso do recém-nascido foi analisada pelo teste de correlação de Spearman. O nível de significância de erro alfa foi de 5% (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents on the birth weight. METHODS: a cohort study including 97 adolescents and their respective newborns, evaluated from May to June, 2004. Pregnant women from 10 to 19 years old in labor were included in the study, and those with multiple pregnancies, complications, less than 37 weeks gestation, and incomplete data records were excluded. Maternal nutritional status evaluation included height, body mass index (BMI before pregnancy, gestational weight gain (GWG and caloric-proteic intake, obtained by habitual food intake recordatory by the end of the third gestational trimester. The association between maternal variables (height, pre-gestational BMI, GWG and intake and the newborn weight was analyzed by Spearman's correlation test. Statistical significance was assumed when p<0.05. RESULTS: the mean age was 17.8±1.12 years old. Most adolescents (66% started pregnancy with adequate weight, 29% had low weight

  10. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

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    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  11. Building an Evidence Base to Inform Interventions for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Call for Rigorous Evaluation

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    Burrus, Barri B.; Scott, Alicia Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent parents and their children are at increased risk for adverse short- and long-term health and social outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to support these young families. We studied the evidence base and found a dearth of rigorously evaluated programs. Strategies from successful interventions are needed to inform both intervention design and policies affecting these adolescents. The lack of rigorous evaluations may be attributable to inadequate emphasis on and sufficient funding for evaluation, as well as to challenges encountered by program evaluators working with this population. More rigorous program evaluations are urgently needed to provide scientifically sound guidance for programming and policy decisions. Evaluation lessons learned have implications for other vulnerable populations. PMID:22897541

  12. Indicadores sociais de grávidas adolescentes: estudo caso-controle Social indicators of pregnant adolescents: a case control study

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    Daniela Michelazzo

    2004-09-01

    ção de partos pelo SUS quanto a proporção de partos vaginais foi maior entre a população de adolescentes. Houve predomínio de adolescentes com atividades no lar e sem remuneração. Assim, recomendamos medidas para prevenção de gestação na adolescência, com ênfase à população mais carente.PURPOSE: to check whether there were differences in some social indicators between adolescent and adult pregnant women in the city of Ribeirão Preto, from January 1992 to December 1996. METHODS: the information was obtained from hospital discharge forms and was analyzed at the Hospital Data Processing Center of the FMRP-USP. The analyzed parameters were: number and types of deliveries, category of hospital admission, occupation, and obstetric diagnosis. The 6.04a text processor Epi-Info System, a data bank and statistics of epidemiology produced by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA, and Dbase IV were used to process the information. The association between variables was tested by the chi² test, with level of significance set at 5%, using the GraphPad Prism version 2.0, 1995 software. RESULTS: a total of 43,253 deliveries occurred during this period, among which 7,134 (16.5% corresponded to adolescent deliveries, while 36,119 (83.5% to adult deliveries. The number of deliveries by adolescent girls increased 25.5% along this period. The proportion of adolescent deliveries in the unified health system category of admission increased, and it was higher than that of the adults'. Only 14.1% of the adolescents belonged to the economically active population, comparing with 34.8% of the adults. Only 6.8% of the adolescents were students, while 79.0% were house-workers or had a nonpaid occupation. In the analyzed period, the ratio of vaginal delivery increased among the adolescents, as compared to that of the adults. The ratio of cesarean delivery persisted stable and higher among the adults. Premature delivery and false labor were significantly more

  13. O consumo alimentar de gestantes adolescentes no Município do Rio de Janeiro Food consumption by pregnant adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Denise Cavalcante de Barros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da gravidez na adolescência é visto com preocupação pela área de saúde pública. O consumo de alimentos que atendam a alta demanda de nutrientes durante a gestação tem sido identificado como um componente relevante. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer o consumo habitual dos alimentos e de energia e nutrientes entre gestantes adolescentes. Foram entrevistadas 1.180 mães adolescentes em maternidades do Município de Rio de Janeiro e aplicado um Questionário de Freqüência de Consumo Alimentar semiquantitativo simplificado. Os alimentos referidos por pelo menos 50% delas foram arroz, açúcar, manteiga, pão, feijão, leite, refrigerante, sucos, legumes e laranja. Observa-se um menor consumo de sucos, legumes e frutas entre as menores de 15 anos. No primeiro quartil de consumo, a ingestão mínima recomendada de energia, ferro, folato, vitamina C e cálcio não foi alcançada. Encontrou-se uma associação inversa entre o número de pessoas no domicílio e o consumo de energia e nutrientes. O relato de informação sobre alimentação no pré-natal e a informação de mudança de alimentação durante a gravidez esteve associado a um melhor consumo de energia e nutrientes. A atenção pré-natal mostrou-se como um cuidado fundamental para melhores resultados na gestação.The increase in teenage pregnancy has been viewed with concern by public health experts. Food consumption to help maintain high nutrient demands has been identified as one of the most relevant components. This study aims to present the habitual consumption of food and energy-specific nutrients by pregnant adolescents. A total of 1,180 adolescent mothers were interviewed in maternity hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro, and a simplified questionnaire on semi-quantitative frequency of food consumption was applied. Lower consumption of fruit juice, vegetables, and fruits was observed among adolescent mothers over 15. Adolescent mothers classified in the

  14. Adolescentes e grávidas: onde buscam apoio? Adolescentes embarazadas: donde buscan apoyo? Pregnant adolescents: where do they look for support?

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    Roselí Aparecida Godinho

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescência é época de crise, mudança, readaptação ao novo corpo e de novas atitudes frente a vida. Se somarmos a isso o significado da gravidez, dos pontos de vista pessoal, social e familiar, compreenderemos como a gestação pode ser um evento difícil para a adolescente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar onde as adolescentes grávidas buscam apoio. Evidenciou-se que as entrevistadas puderam contar com o apoio da família, principalmente dos pais e, com menos freqüência com o do pai do bebê, bem como a aceitação da gravidez, sua relação com o abandono escolar, a visão idealizada dessas garotas acerca da gestação e expectativas futuras, a preocupação com aspectos biológicos e a despreocupação com problemas concretos.La Adolescencia es una época de crisis, cambio, adaptación al nuevo cuerpo y de nuevos comportamientos frente a la vida. Si sumamos a esto el significado del embarazo, con sus aspectos personales, sociales y familiares, comprenderemos como el embarazo puede ser un evento difícil para la adolescente. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar donde las adolescentes embarazadas buscan apoyo. Evidenció que las entrevistadas tuvieron el apoyo de la familia, principalmente de los padres y con menor frecuencia el apoyo del padre de su bebé, así como la aceptación del embarazo, su relación con el abandono escolar, la visón idealizada de esas jóvenes acerca del embarazo y futuras expectativas, la preocupación con aspectos biológicos y la despreocupación con problemas concretos.Adolescence is the age of crises, changes, adaptation to the new body and new attitudes towards life. If we add to this the meaning of pregnancy from personal, social and family points of view, we will understand how difficult it can be for the adolescents. The purpose of this study was to identify where the pregnant teenagers look for support. Results showed that they had family support, mainly from parents, and

  15. What's love got to do with it: Relationship functioning and mental and physical quality of life among pregnant adolescent couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Niccolai, Linda; Gordon, Derrick

    2013-12-01

    The study objective was to describe relationship adjustment and its association with mental and physical quality of life for young couples expecting a baby. 296 young pregnant couples recruited from urban obstetric clinics reported on relationship strengths (e.g., equity, romantic love, and attractiveness), relationship risks (e.g., attachment, intimate partner violence), external family support, relationship adjustment, and mental and physical quality of life. Using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model we assessed both actor and partner effects of relationship variables on relationship adjustment and quality of life. Sixty-one percent of couples had at least one member with moderate or severe relationship distress. Lower attachment avoidance, lower attachment anxiety, higher relationship equity, lack of intimate partner violence, feelings of love, perceived partner attractiveness, and family support of the relationship related to better relationship adjustment. Associations were fairly consistent across gender. Better relationship adjustment related to more positive mental and physical quality of life for both young women and men. Our results highlight the potential importance of strong relationships on the well-being of expecting parents. Our results suggest that secure attachments, equitable relationships, feelings of love, and a lack of violence may be particularly important in having strong relationships and improved mental and physical health during pregnancy.

  16. "I just start crying for no reason": the experience of stress and depression in pregnant, urban, African-American adolescents and their perception of yoga as a management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal health disparities are of particular concern with pregnant, urban, African-American (AA) adolescents, who have high rates of stress and depression during pregnancy, higher rates of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and many barriers to effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant, urban, AA teenagers' experience of stress and depression and examine their perceptions of adjunctive nonpharmacologic management strategies, such as yoga. This community-based, qualitative study used nontherapeutic focus groups to allow for exploration of attitudes, concerns, beliefs, and values regarding stress and depression in pregnancy and nonpharmacologic management approaches, such as mind-body therapies and other prenatal activities. The sample consisted of pregnant, AA, low-income adolescents (n=17) who resided in a large urban area in the United States. The themes that arose in the focus group discussions were that 1) stress and depression symptoms are pervasive in daily life, 2) participants felt a generalized sense of isolation, 3) stress/depression management techniques should be group based, interactive, and focused on the specific needs of teenagers, and 4) yoga is an appealing stress management technique to this population. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant, urban, adolescents are highly stressed; they interpret depression-like symptoms to be signs of stress; they desire group-based, interactive activities; and they are interested in yoga classes for stress/depression management and relationship building. It is imperative that health care providers and researchers focus on these needs, particularly when designing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar en familias con adolescentes gestantes y adolescentes no gestantes Efetividade da funcionalidade familiar no caso de famílias de adolescentes grávidas e adolescentes não grávidas Effectiveness of family functionality in families with pregnant and non pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra García Rueda

    2011-07-01

    Bucaramanga (ESSE Isabu, durante o primeiro semestre de 2009. Através de um levantamento comparativo, transversal, quantitativo, no qual participaram 77 famílias de adolescentes grávidas, e 104 famílias de adolescentes não grávidas. Os participantes que forneceram os dados do estudo foram: a adolescente grávida ou a não grávida, e um familiar que viesse do mesmo lar que a adolescente que participa do estudo. Para reunir os dados, foi utilizado o instrumento ASF-E de María Friedemann (1, que mede o nível de funcionalidade familiar através das dimensões: mudança, manutenção, individuação, coerência; e as metas: espiritualidade, crescimento, controle, estabilidade do sistema familiar. O resultado obtido foi que as famílias de adolescentes grávidas apresentam um alto nível de efetividade de funcionalidade familiar, segundo as próprias adolescentes (49,4% e familiares dela (54,5%; por outro lado as famílias de adolescentes não grávidas apresentam um nível intermédio de efetividade, segundo as próprias adolescentes não grávidas e os familiares dela, que obtiveram a mesma percentagem: 57,7%. Em conclusão, existem significativas diferenças estadísticas entre ambos os grupos de famílias no referente à efetividade da funcionalidade familiar, identificada na prova T com p: 0,012. Igualmente, existem diferenças nas metas de estabilidade (p 0,009 e de controle (p 0,007; e nas dimensões de coerência (p 0,013 e manutenção do sistema familiar (p 0,033.The purpose of the research is to compare the evaluation of the effectiveness of family functionality of families with pregnant and non pregnant adolescents attended in the Social State Company (Instituto de Salud in Bucaramanga (ESE Isabu, during the first semester of 2009. It is a comparative, cross-cutting, quantitative study carried out with the participation of77 families with pregnant adolescents and 104 families with non pregnant adolescents; being the informant in each family, either: the

  18. Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV, CMV, HBV and rubella virus infections in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Aubaneide Batista; Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão; Laurentino, Rogério Valois; Feitosa, Rosimar Neris Martins; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Ricardo; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida

    2018-05-16

    Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010. After the interview and blood collection, the patients were screened for antibodies and/or antigens against HIV-1/2, HTLV-1/2, CMV, rubella virus and HBV. The epidemiological variables were demonstrated using descriptive statistics with the G, χ 2 and Fisher exact tests. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years, and the majority (65.4%) had less than 6 years of education. The mean age at first intercourse was 14.4 years, and 60.8% reported having a partner aged between 12 and 14 years. The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.3%, and of HTLV infection was 0.6%. Regarding HBV, 0.6% of the participants had acute infection, 9.9% had a previous infection, 16.7% had vaccine immunity and 72.8% were susceptible to infection. The presence of anti-HBs was greater in adolescent between 12 and 14 years old (28.8%) while the anti-HBc was greater in adolescent between 15 and 18 years old (10.3%). Most of the adolescents presented the IgG antibody to CMV (96.3%) and rubella (92.3%). None of the participants had acute rubella infection, and 2.2% had anti-CMV IgM. This study is the first report of the seroepidemiology of infectious agents in a population of pregnant adolescents in the Northern region of Brazil. Most of the adolescents had low levels of education, were susceptible to HBV infection and had IgG antibodies to CMV and rubella virus. The prevalence of HBV, HIV and HTLV was similar to that reported in other regions of Brazil. However, the presence of these agents in this

  19. Salud familiar en familias con adolescente gestante Saúde familiar em famílias com adolescentes gestantes Family health in families with pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha cecilia Veloza Morales

    2012-01-01

    instrumento ISF GES 19 desenhado, implementado e testado pela Doutora Pilar Amaya de Peña. Obteve-se uma visão global sobre a saú-de familiar e se comparou o grau de saúde familiar de acordo com as características achadas em cada um dos grupos. Conclui-se que as famílias não sentem ou não percebem o risco de sofrer ou não uma patologia durante a gravidez, e por tanto, não afeta seu grau de saúde familiar, que consideram saudável e satisfatório. Faz-se um apelo para criar estratégias voltados a diminuir os riscos de saúde aos quais a família e a mãe adolescente estão expostas.The research was based on Marie Louise Friedemann's theory of systemic organization. This paper is purported to describe the level of family health of families with pregnant teenage daughters. Comparative cross-sectional descriptive study with a quantitative approach that assesses the level of family health of 100 families treated in two Health Provider Institutions (IPS in Bogotá, Colombia. They were divided into two groups: the frst group was made up by the families with pregnant adolescents that showed signs of morbidity in the third quarter of the pregnancy and the second group was formed by the families with pregnant adolescents that showed no signs of morbidity. The ISF GES 19 instrument was used to gather data. This instrument was designed, implemented and tested by Dr. Pilar Amaya de Peña. An overview of family health levels was obtained and compared against the characteristics found in each group. In conclusion, families do not feel or perceive the risk to suffer or not from a pathology during the pregnancy, so therefore, it affects family health levels in no way, thus, considering family health as both healthy and satisfactory. An urge is made to create strategies aimed at decreasing health-related risks to which the families and teenage mothers are exposed.

  20. Pregnant Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Børve , Hege Eggen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the impact that the interplay between workplace, the welfare state and global working life has on female workers when they become pregnant. By focusing on two highly educated Norwegian female workers, it explores how this change process takes place in two companies operating in the global market located in different countries: Norway and the US. Pregnancy contributes to transforming the neutralized bodiless female worker into an embodied worker with g...

  1. [Prevalence of Hepatitis B infection and risk factors in two groups of pregnant adolescents related to the number of sexual partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildózola, Herman; Bazul, Víctor; Cambillo, Emma; Torres, Juan; Flores, María Elena; Ramos, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B has different routes of transmission and it is maintained in human populations mainly via transmission from person to person during intense physical contact, such as perinatal contact, contact during hetero and homosexual intercourse and non-sexual physical contact between children, their mothers and siblings.Migration from the provinces to the big cities of the country, added to changes in social behavior, specially among young people, have led to an increase in unprotected sexual encounters, with the resulting greater risk of contracting hepatitis B. We included 1048 adolescent women between the ages of 14 and 19, pregnant and apparently healthy, who came to the Perinatal Maternal Institute (IMP) between August 2003 and February 2004. The sample included 52 promiscuous pregnant young women with 3 or more sexual partners or contacts. After informed consent, they all filled a clinical epidemiological chart and a 5mL blood sample was taken to determine antiHBc IgG, HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe using the third generation ELISA method. Sixty eight point seven percent (68.7%) were older than 16 years, 29.7% had not been born in Lima, 6.1% had been born in the jungle and 10.4% had lived in the jungle, 30.1% were from San Juan de Lurigancho. Fourteen point three percent (14.3%) referred having had two partners and 4.3% three or more, 5.4% had three or more sexual contacts and 61.5% said that their partner never used a condom. Over 98% referred that they had not had jaundice or Hepatitis A, B or C. Twelve point four percent (12.4%) of the partners were womanizers, 3.1% visited prostitutes, 8.4% had another partner, 23.3% said that they liked anal sex, 3% were alcoholics, 9% used drugs, 2% had been in jail and 5.7% had received blood transfusions. The prevalence of anti-HBc IgG was 3.53% and for HBsAg it was 0.67%. A statistically significant association (pjungle (p<0.001) and, surprisingly, with a history of hepatitis A (p<0.074). The application of the partner

  2. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  3. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  4. Gravidez na adolescência: percepções das mães de gestantes jovens Embarazo en la adolescencia: percepciones de las madres de gestantes jóvenes Adolescent pregnancy: perceptions of mothers of young pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Oliveira Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    perceptions of mothers whose daughters became pregnant during adolescence. METHODS: Research of a qualitative approach, conducted in a teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, with ten mothers of adolescents. RESULTS: Before pregnancy, mothers guided daughters about sexuality, which led to feelings of surprise when they learned of the pregnancy. Nevertheless, the mothers were present throughout the pregnancy and childbirth process. Significant changes in family relationships were not identified as a result of early pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The maternal figure emerges as a representative, both during and after adolescent pregnancy, a fact that provides support in a safer teen pregnancy, and the return to projects of their lives.

  5. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A

    2014-12-01

    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  6. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  7. Policy commitments vs. lived realities of young pregnant women and mothers in school, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive rights in South Africa continue to be undermined for young women who fall pregnant and become mothers while still at school. Before 1994, exclusionary practices were common and the majority of those who fell pregnant failed to resume their education. With the adoption of new policies in 2007, young pregnant women and mothers are supposed to be supported to complete school successfully. Notwithstanding these new policies, there are incongruities between policy implementation and young women's lived experience in school. This paper explores the experiences of pregnancy and parenting among a group of 15 young women who fell pregnant and became mothers while attending three high schools in Khayelitsha township, a working-class community in the Western Cape of South Africa. Qualitative, in-depth interviews, conducted between 2007 and 2008, highlighted two key areas of concern: continuing exclusionary practices on the part of schools, based on conservative interpretations of policy, and negative and moralistic responses from teachers and peers. Such practices resulted in secrecy and shame about being pregnant, affecting the young women's emotional and physical well-being and their decisions whether to remain in school during pregnancy and return after having the baby. Further attention is required to ensure appropriate implementation of policies aimed at supporting pregnant and parenting young women to complete their education successfully. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patrón de riesgo en la gestante adolescente primípara: un problema latente Risk pattern in primiparous pregnant adolescent: a latent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Pascual López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar en la adolescente primípara y su hijo un eventual patrón de riesgo, considerando las características de atención médica integral que recibe esta población en el país. Se realizó un estudio transversal y retrospectivo, de tipo casos y controles, integrado por una muestra de 207 unidades de análisis (69 casos y 138 controles, de 1 290 embarazadas en total. Entre las variables evaluadas figuraron: abortos provocados previos (= 2; afecciones diagnosticadas, asociadas con el embarazo; eventos dependientes de la gestación y otras. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la razón de productos cruzados (RPC u odds ratio (OR, con un intervalo de confianza (IC de 95 %, así como la prueba de Ji al cuadrado, con p = 0,05 o menor. Las variables de asociación significativa y carácter causal fueron: anemias deficitarias en segundo y tercer trimestres, infección genital en primer trimestre y amenaza de parto pretérmino, en tanto los abortos (= 2 y las enfermedades del feto mostraron significación en sus asociaciones y carácter protector. Se identificó un patrón de riesgo de limitada complejidad para su manejo, con amplias opciones de modificación antes y después de la concepción y sin impacto negativo sobre la mortalidad maternoperinatal.The objective of this research was to identify a possible risk pattern in the primiparous adolescent and her child, taking into account the characteristics of comprehensive health care that this population receives in the country. A cross-sectional and retrospective case-control study was conducted in a sample of 207 analysis units (69 cases and 138 controls, of 1 290 pregnant women in total. Among the evaluated variables were earlier induced abortions (± 2; diagnosed conditions associated with pregnancy; pregnancy-dependent events and others. In the statistical analysis the odds ratio (OR was used with a 95 % confidence interval (CI, as well as the chi

  9. Being the mother of a pregnant adolescent: experiences and expectations Ser madre de adolescente embarazada: vivencia y expectativas Ser mãe de adolescente grávida: vivência e expectativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the typical actions of the mother during the pregnancy of her teenage daughter. METHODS: Qualitative study, based on the theoretical-methodological framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. The data were collected in 2009, and the subjects were nine mothers of adolescent primigravidae. RESULTS: The mother of the pregnant adolescent is typified as one that reacts with surprise and disappointment to being notified of the pregnancy and who, subsequently, conforms to the new reality. In reflecting on her own experience of an adolescent mother, she has expectations to support her daughter during the pregnancy and to offer support, so that the course of her life is not impaired as a result of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Considering the experience and expectations of the mother of the pregnant adolescent, this study could give subsidies to the planning and execution of the care for this binomial, decreasing the distance between the demands made by it and the practice of health professionals.OBJETIVO: Comprender la típica actitud de la madre frente al embarazo de su hija adolescente. MÉTODOS: Investigación de abordaje cualitativo, fundamentada en el referencial teórico-metodológico de la fenomenología social de Alfred Schütz. Los datos fueron recolectados, en el 2009, y los sujetos fueron nueve madres de adolescentes primigestas. RESULTADOS: La madre de adolescente embarazada es tipificada como aquella que reacciona con sorpresa y decepción frente a la noticia del embarazo y que, posteriormente, se conforma con la nueva realidad. Al reflexionar sobre su propia experiencia de madre en la adolescencia, tiene expectativas de apoyar a su hija en la gestación y ofrecerle soporte, para que el curso de su vida no se perjudique como consecuencia de su embarazo. CONCLUSIÓN: Considerando la vivencia y las expectativas de la madre de adolescente embarazada, este estudio puede conferir subsidios a la planificación y

  10. Linking Moral Emotion Attributions with Behavior: Why "(Un)happy Victimizers" and "(Un)happy Moralists" Act the Way They Feel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the question of why the emotions children and adolescents anticipate in the context of hypothetical scenarios have been repeatedly found to predict actual (im)moral behavior. It argues that a common motivational account of this relationship is insufficient. Instead, three links are proposed that connect cognitive…

  11. Effects of dietary selenium supply and timing of nutrient restriction during gestation on maternal growth and body composition of pregnant adolescent ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D B; Reed, J J; Borowicz, P P; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to examine effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptations to pregnancy in primigravid sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Western Whiteface ewe lambs were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design. Treatments were dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe; 3.05 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 70.4 microg/kg of BW)] fed as Se-enriched yeast, and plane of nutrition [control (C; 100% of NRC requirements) vs. restricted (R; 60% of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments were fed throughout gestation. Plane of nutrition treatments were applied during mid (d 50 to 90) and late gestation (d 90 to 130), which resulted in 4 distinct plane of nutrition treatments [treatment: CC (control from d 50 to 130), RC (restricted from d 50 to 90, and control d 90 to 130), CR (control from d 50 to 90, and restricted from d 90 to 130), and RR (restricted from d 50 to 130)]. All of the pregnant ewes were necropsied on d 132 +/- 0.9 of gestation (length of gestation approximately 145 d). Nutrient restriction treatments decreased ewe ADG and G:F, as a result, RC and CR ewes had similar BW and maternal BW (MBW) at necropsy, whereas RR ewes were lighter than RC and CR ewes. From d 90 to 130, the HSe-CC ewes had greater ADG (Se x nutrition; P = 0.05) than did ASe-CC ewes, whereas ADG and G:F (Se x nutrition; P = 0.08) were less for HSe-RR ewes compared with ASe-RR ewes. The CR and RR treatments decreased total gravid uterus weight (P = 0.01) as well as fetal weight (P = 0.02) compared with RC and CC. High Se decreased total (g; P = 0.09) and relative heart mass (g/kg of MBW; P = 0.10), but increased total and relative mass of liver (P RC. Total small intestine mass was similar between RC and CC ewes, but was markedly reduced (P RC than for CR ewes. Increased Se decreased jejunal DNA concentration (P = 0.07), total jejunal cell number (P = 0.03), and total proliferating jejunal cell number (P = 0.05) compared

  12. La alimentación de la gestante adolescente: el cambio favorable Diet of the pregnant adolescent: the favorable change A alimentação da gestante adolescente: o câmbio favorável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNAL ROLDÁN MARÍA CARMEN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio de tipo cualitativo y etnográfico de pequeño alcance, tiene como objetivo describir el significado del cuidado de sí de un grupo de gestantes adolescentes y su hijo por nacer, con relación a la alimentación, a partir de sus prácticas, creencias y valores culturales, quienes asistieron a control prenatal a la Unidad de Atención Primaria (UPA de Candelaria la Nueva, Hospital Vista Hermosa, Ciudad Bolívar, Localidad 19 de Bogotá, en 2007. La información fue aportada por ocho adolescentes primigestantes de entre 17 y 19 años de edad, que estaban entre el cuarto y séptimo meses de gestación, sin patologías asociadas, que asistieron al primer control prenatal, seleccionadas intencionalmente y que estuvieron dispuestas a participar de la investigación (previo consentimiento informado. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de la entrevista etnográfica no estructurada; se obtuvo como resultado el significado del cuidado en las gestantes adolescentes y se aportaron tres grandes beneficios positivos del cuidado de la alimentación materna: cambio de hábito alimentario, alimentarse para proteger la salud del bebé y para que nazca sano, y alimentarse para proteger la salud de la madre adolescente. Dichos resultados, conjugados en el escenario cultural de las gestantes adolescentes, permiten explorar y conocer cómo se cuidan ellas a través de las prácticas soportadas en el saber como conocimiento y razón, y el uso como los artefactos que utiliza.The purpose of this limited scope, qualitative and ethnographic study is to describe the meaning of self-care for a group of pregnant adolescents and their unborn child, in relation to their diet, based on their practices, beliefs and cultural values, and who attended a prenatal checkup at the Primary Care Unit (UPA of Candelaria la Nueva, Vista Hermosa Hospital, Ciudad Bolívar, District number 19 de Bogotá, in 2007. The information contributed by eight first

  13. La alimentación de la gestante adolescente: el cambio favorable A alimentação da gestante adolescente: o câmbiofavorável Diet of the pregnant adolescent: the favorable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2010-06-01

    por oito adolescentes primigestantes entre 17 e 19 anos de idade que estavam entre o quarto e o sétimo mês de gestação, sem patologias associadas, que foram ao primeiro controle pré-natal, escolhidas intencionalmente e que estiveram dispostas a participarem da pesquisa (prévio consentimento informado. A coleta de dados foi realizada através da entrevista etnográfica não estruturada; obteve-se como resultado o significado do cuidado nas gestantes adolescentes e se verificaram três grandes benefícios positivos do cuidado da alimentação materna: câmbio de hábito alimentar, alimentação para proteger a saúde do bebê e para ele nascer são, e alimentação para proteger a saúde da mai adolescente. Esses resultados, conjugados no cenário cultural das gestantes adolescentes, permitem abranger e conhecer como elas se cuidam através de práticas baseadas no saber como conhecimento e razão, e os artefatos utilizados.The purpose of this limited scope, qualitative and ethnographic study is to describe the meaning of self-care for a group of pregnant adolescents and their unborn child, in relation to their diet, based on their practices, beliefs and cultural values, and who attended a prenatal checkup at the Primary Care Unit (UPA of Candelaria la Nueva, Vista Hermosa Hospital, Ciudad Bolívar, District number 19 de Bogotá, in 2007. The information contributed by eight first time pregnant adolescents between 17 and 19 years of age, who were between their fourth and sixth month of gestation, with no associated pathologies, who attended the first prenatal checkup, selected intentionally and that were willing to participate in the research (prior informed consent. The data collection was carried out through a non-structured ethnographic interview;. The result obtained was the meaning of care in pregnant adolescents. Three large positive benefits of maternal nutrition care were contributed namely: change of food habits, feed herself to protect the health of the

  14. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...

  15. The homeless pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Umo I

    2017-09-01

    Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.

  16. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe dehydration, chronic malabsorption resulting in fetal growth restriction, and in the case of E. histolytica , invasive disease, including amebic liver abscess and colitis. Pregnant women should avoid swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, ...

  18. Pregnancy resolutions among pregnant teens: termination, parenting or adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling

    2014-12-19

    Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.

  19. Adolescent Parenting: Contrasts in Self-Esteem and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ann; Troike, Roger

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents represent a unique and challenging problem for educational systems. Of the 17,051 women who become pregnant every day in America, 2,795 or 16% of them are adolescents. The self-esteem and locus of control of 85 pregnant and parenting teens enrolled in the Ohio Graduation, Reality, Dual Role Skills (GRADS) Program…

  20. Feasibility and effect of life skills building education and multiple micronutrient supplements versus the standard of care on anemia among non-pregnant adolescent and young Pakistani women (15-24 years): a prospective, population-based cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jo-Anna B; Wasan, Yaqub; Soofi, Sajid B; Suhag, Zamir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2018-05-30

    Adolescence is a critical period for physical and psychological growth and development, and vitamin and mineral requirements are correspondingly increased. Health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence to adulthood. Developing a preconception care package for adolescent and young women in resource-limited settings could serve to empower them to make informed decisions about their nutrition, health, and well-being, as well as function as a platform for the delivery of basic nutrition-related interventions to address undernutrition. In this population-based two-arm, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of life skills building education (provided bi-monthly) and multiple micronutrient supplementation (provided twice-weekly; UNIMMAP composition), we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on the prevention of anemia (hemoglobin concentration nutrition (anthropometry [height, weight, middle upper arm circumference (MUAC)], nutritional status [iron, vitamin A, vitamin D]); general health (morbidity, mortality); and empowerment (age at marriage, completion of the 10th grade, use of personal hygienic materials during menstruation) will also be assessed. Participants will be enrolled in the study for a maximum of 2 years. Empowering adolescent and young women with the appropriate knowledge to make informed and healthy decisions will be key to sustained behavioural change throughout the life-course. Although multiple micronutrient deficiencies are known to exist among adolescent and young women in low-resource settings, recommendations on preconception multiple micronutrient supplementation do not exist at this time. This study is expected to offer insight into providing an intervention that includes both education and supplements to non-pregnant adolescent and young women for a prolonged duration of time within the existing public health programmatic context. This study is part of the Matiari emPowerment and Preconception Supplementation

  1. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  2. Variables Related to Romanticism and Self-Esteem in Pregnant Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Dean Romanticism Scale and Bachman Self-Esteem Scale to 121 pregnant adolescents (ages 12-21). Found that two variables were significantly related to feelings of romanticism: adoption considerations and whether adolescent planned to have child with the baby's father. Two variables were significantly related to self-esteem: incidence…

  3. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  4. [Psychosocial aspects regarding pregnant university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-Aponte, María R; Rodríguez-Barreto, Lucía

    2009-12-01

    Determining the subjective construction of psychosocial factors affecting pregnancy in adolescents in a sample of students. 68 students who had become pregnant during their adolescence were selected after reviewing their files and sampling by logical criteria. The implications of pregnancy on personal, family and academic conditions were analysed by means of life stories and in-depth interviews. Crises and adjustments appeared in family and affective structure during the first trimester of pregnancy which culminated in them accepting motherhood as part of their life project, thereby reproducing the single-mother stereotype. Accompaniment of the pair occurred mainly during the first months, followed by abandonment. Although prejudiced, the university community's support had a bearing on interest in personal and academic development and in the baby. Specialised referents were consulted which scared the girls due to their pathological emphasis, thereby leading to them consulting family sources. The pregnant girls' mothers provided ongoing support for their daughters; this was not true of the fathers with whom constant conflict was presented. The services offered by the university were little used even though their importance was recognised. Forming integral students require programmes preparing students to be responsible for motherhood and fatherhood. Prevention was conveyed as promoting healthy affective links and strengthening family and social communication.

  5. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  6. Population study of depressive symptoms and risk factors in pregnant and parenting Mexican adolescents Estudio poblacional sobre los síntomas depresivos y los factores de riesgo en adolescentes mexicanas embarazadas o con hijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Asunción Lara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of, severity of, and risk factors for depressive symptoms in a probabilistic sample of Mexican adolescent mothers. METHODS: A sample of adolescents aged 13-19 years, drawn from a national survey, was interviewed in relation to severity of depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 16-23 and CES-D > 24] and pregnancy or parenting status. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms (CES-D 16-23 ranged from 2.3% in the first postpartum semester to 32.5% in the second trimester of pregnancy; high depressive symptoms (CES-D > 24 ranged from 3.0% in the second postpartum semester to 24.7% in mothers of an infant more than 1 year old. Significant differences between groups were in mothers in the second gestation trimester, who had significantly more symptoms than those who had never been pregnant and those in the first postpartum semester. In those with high symptomatology, no significant differences were observed between groups. A multinomial logistic regression model used to estimate the likelihood of depression found increased risk of depressive symptoms (CES-D 16-23 in those without a partner in the first, second, or third trimester of pregnancy; in the second postpartum semester; and with a child over the age of 1 year. Increased risk of high symptomatology (CES-D > 24 was found in those not in school or with a child over the age of 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms entail an enormous burden of disease for the mother and mental health risks to the infant; mothers should therefore be targeted in prevention and intervention actions.OBJETIVO: Estudiar la prevalencia, la gravedad y los factores de riesgo de los síntomas depresivos en una muestra probabilística de madres adolescentes de México. MÉTODOS: En una muestra de adolescentes de 13 a 19 años de edad tomadas de una encuesta nacional se efectuaron entrevistas relacionadas con la gravedad de los síntomas depresivos (Center for

  7. The Mental Health Needs of Low-Income Pregnant Teens: A Nursing-Social Work Partnership in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nancy A.; Anastas, Jeane W.

    2015-01-01

    While the rates of teen childbearing have declined in the United States, adolescents who become pregnant and decide to bear and rear their babies are often from low-income, highly stressed families and communities. This article will describe the psychosocial problems of pregnant urban teens and how exposure to interpersonal trauma and current…

  8. A relação interpessoal entre profissionais de saúde e adolescente gestante: distanciamentos e aproximações de uma prática integral e humanizada Interpersonal relations between health professional and pregnant adolescents: distances and approaches of integral and humanized care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta uma análise sobre as relações entre profissionais de saúde e adolescentes gestantes nos espaços do programa de pré-natal de uma maternidade pública do município do Rio de Janeiro. Trata-se de investigação de cunho qualitativo apoiada na vertente interpretativa, tendo como referencial teórico a integralidade e a humanização do cuidado em suas dimensões relacionais. Com base em duas temáticas previamente definidas - interação entre os sujeitos e dimensão educativa das práticas em saúde - foram observados 22 atendimentos individuais e em grupo, com a participação de 31 adolescentes gestantes, 5 profissionais de saúde e 2 estagiárias de nutrição. A interpretação dos dados, orientada pela análise de conteúdo fez emergir cinco categorias. Os resultados apontam a interferência negativa da predominância da dimensão biomédica na percepção dos profissionais de saúde sobre os aspectos psicossocioculturais da gestação na adolescência. Foi observado o não aproveitamento da consulta como espaço privilegiado de construção de significados coletivos e individuais sobre a gestação e a maternidade na adolescência, mas há no contexto estudado profissionais sensibilizados para uma ampliação da visão sobre as necessidades da adolescente gestante.This study presents an analysis of relations between health professionals and pregnant adolescents in the installations of the prenatal care program of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. It involves qualitative research based on an interpretive approach, with comprehensiveness and humanization of care in relationship dimensions as a theoretical benchmark. Based on two predefined themes - the interaction between subjects and educational dimension of health practices - 22 individual and group care sessions were observed, with the participation of 31 pregnant adolescents, 5 professionals and 2 nutrition interns. The interpretation of the data using

  9. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  10. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  11. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  12. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  13. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  14. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  15. Taking love seriously: the context of adolescent pregnancy in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cuesta, C

    2001-07-01

    Findings from a qualitative research study of the context of adolescent pregnancy are presented. Participants were 21 pregnant adolescents from Medellín, Colombia, and nearby villages in the region. Data were collected by means of 21 qualitative interviews, and analysis followed grounded theory procedures. The study reveals that adolescent pregnancy occurs in the context of a "genuine love affair" in which ideas of romantic love and gender rules guide young women's behaviour. Regarding an adolescent as immature or in a process of becoming might hinder adolescents' distinctive culture and circumstances. Ideas of romantic love and gender rules were powerful influences on those who unintentionally got pregnant.

  16. Family Functioning of Adolescents Who Parent and Place for Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Gayle; Resnick, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed family environments of 84 pregnant adolescents who recently made decision to parent or to place their babies for adoption. Results showed that adolescent parents or placers described their families as less functional than adolescent norms. Found no significant differences in family functioning between parents and placers. Vast majority of…

  17. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  18. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  19. Adolescent smoking in pregnancy and birth outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Attia, Eman; Drammond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking amongst pregnant adolescents is a preventable risk factor associated with low birthweight ( <2,500 g), preterm birth ( <37 weeks) and infant mortality. The aim of this study was to compare birth outcomes of adolescents who smoke during pregnancy with those who do not

  20. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  1. Life Brought at a Tender Age: The Lived Experiences of Filipino Teenage Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTOPHER R. PARUNGAO; LOWELL P. BAUTISTA; ROSLYN MARIANO; VILMA M. BONIFACIO; MARJORIE V. AGUINALDO

    2014-01-01

    Unintended teenage pregnancy is an ever-present issue in developing countries such as the Philippines. The impact of teenage pregnancy affects the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well being of the adolescents. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother and the baby. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of the teenage pregnant women. Six adolescent fe...

  2. The lesser spotted pregnant surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L C

    2017-10-19

    With more women entering surgical training, it will become more commonplace to encounter pregnant surgeons. This paper discusses the evidence for work-related risk factors as well as outlining the rights of a pregnant doctor. There are, in fact, very few real risks to pregnancy encountered as a surgeon, with the main risks involving standing or sitting for long periods and fatigue, which can be managed with support from the department. It is important for women in surgery to know that it is possible to continue their training while pregnant so they do not feel pressured into changing to a less demanding specialty or even leaving medicine entirely. It is also important for other professionals to understand the risks and choices faced by pregnant surgeons so that they can better support them in the workplace.

  3. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  4. Body image in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltzman, Alina; Falcon, Bani; Harrison, Megan E

    2015-04-01

    To review the existing literature on body image in adolescent pregnancy and explore concepts about the relationship between the two. A systematic review. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through MEDLINE (1946-present) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2013), conducted in any setting. Pregnant and postpartum adolescents ages 13-19 y. None. The outcome measures used in the studies reviewed varied: themes from focus groups, diary entry analysis, Pregnancy and weight gain attitude scale, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Parenting stress index, Eating disorder inventory, Tennessee self concept scale. The search yielded a total of 149 studies, of which 6 were relevant to the specific topic and age group. The very limited research shows a dichotomy in body image perception during pregnancy in adolescence; some studies show an increase in body image disturbance and dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescents, and other studies reviewed found that the majority of pregnant adolescents had positive body image and positive attitudes towards weight gain. A bidirectional link between depression and negative body image in adolescent pregnancy is suggested. The current research exploring the relationshp between body image and pregnancy in adolescence is limited, both in quality and quantity. Future research is needed to evaluate longitudinal models that will better inform about potential risk factors for body dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescence, including the possible role of depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-origin Pregnant Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers’ lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents’ cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes. PMID:26573862

  6. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  7. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  8. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Maly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  9. O acesso à assistência ao parto para parturientes adolescentes nas maternidades da rede SUS Accesibilidad a asistencia del parto para parturientes adolescentes en las maternidades del sistema de salud Accessibility to childbirth attendance for pregnant adolescents in health system's maternities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Barbastefano

    2010-12-01

    servicios de asistencia al parto.The study aimed at identifies the factors that interfere in the accessibility of pregnant woman to the attendance of childbirth in the Health System in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is quantitative study, with traverse and observational design, accomplished at maternities of Health System, through structured interview. The sample was constituted of 328 adolescent during post partum. Data were organized in a database, for subsequent analysis, done with the software EPI INFO version 6.03. The prevalence reason was used as association measure. The results evidenced that 40.5% of the adolescents were black; 54.9% had fundamental teaching; 91.5% had had prenatal attendance. The access was considered unsatisfactory for 36.6% of them, and 20.7% went to more than one maternity for giving birth. It was concluded that the attendance to the pregnant adolescent still needs some adjustments, in order to favor their access to the services of attendance to childbirth.

  10. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF MEANINGS ABOUT PREGNANCY-MOTHERHOOD AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Nayara Bueno de; Mandú, Edir Nei Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to comprehend the social construction of meanings about pregnancy-motherhood among pregnant adolescents. An explicative study, conducted in 2014, with 12 adolescents, using individual and group interview, local context observation, consultation of documents and precepts of Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis. The meaning of compatibility between pregnancy and adolescence was found, and the contraposition to the dominant discourse of adolescent pregnancy as a pro...

  11. A violência intra-familiar contra adolescentes grávidas Violencia dentro de la família contra la adolescente embarazada Intrafamiliar violence against pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Ferreira de Souza Monteiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever como as adolescentes se relacionavam com seus familiares antes e após a descoberta da gravidez. Participaram quinze adolescentes que se encontravam no puerpério, em uma maternidade pública. Utilizamos como instrumento de coleta de dados a entrevista semi-estruturada. Para a análise dos dados recorremos à abordagem qualitativa. Os resultados indicam que as adolescentes viviam uma relação boa, mas ao revelarem que estavam grávidas são vítimas de atos violentos por parte dos pais e que diálogo sobre sexualidade e contracepção ainda é distante entre pais e filhos.El objetivo de este trabajo es describir como los adolescentes ellos se unieron con sus parientes antes y después del descubrimiento del embarazo. Quince adolescentes que estaban en el puerpério participaron, en una maternidad pública. El instrumento de recolección de datos utilizado fué la entrevista semi-estructurada. Para el análisis de datos fue utilizado el abordaje cualitativo. Los resultados indican que los adolescentes vivieron una relación buena, pero cuando ellos revelaran el embarazo sufriran actos violentos por parte de los padres y ese diálogo sobre la sexualidad y el anticoncepcionismo todavía está distante entre los padres y niños.The objective of this work is to describe how the adolescents had relationship with their relatives before and after the discovery of the pregnancy. Fifteen adolescents from a public maternity that were in the post-partum period participated fo the research. A semi-structured interview was used as instrument of data collection. Qualitative approach was used for data analysis. Results indicated that the adolescents had a good relationship, but when the pregnancy was revealed they became victims of violent acts by their parents and that dialogue about sexuality and contraception is still distant between parents and children.

  12. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.

  13. Designing and Implementing a Parenting Resource Center for Pregnant Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Anne B; Broussard, Brenda S

    2009-01-01

    The Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be is a longstanding and successful grant-funded project that was initiated as a response to an identified community need. Senior-level baccalaureate nursing students and their maternity-nursing instructors are responsible for staffing the resource center's weekly sessions, which take place at a public school site for pregnant adolescents. Childbirth educators interested in working with this population could assist in replicating this exemplary clinical project in order to provide prenatal education to this vulnerable and hard-to-reach group. PMID:20190852

  14. Risk and the pregnant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Harris, Lisa H; Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it's time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don't work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence.

  15. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls...

  16. The Impact of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing Experiences on Adolescent Psychosocial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Kwisun

    1993-01-01

    Despite the number of teen pregnancy studies in the past, there is a dearth of empirical data relevant to the issue of psychosocial and/or developmental changes in adolescent mothers. Most previous studies have addressed the negative and devastating impact of teen pregnancy on adolescent development. The premise of these early studies was that adolescents have pathological reasons for becoming pregnant. Contrary to these studies, an underlying assumption of this study was that teen pregnancy ...

  17. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  18. Adolescents, pregnancy, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rebecca S; Brandon, Anna R

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence is a risk factor for adverse medical and psychosocial outcomes, including psychiatric illness. Psychiatric illness is linked with obstetric complications along with impaired maternal functioning in the postpartum period. This article provides a comprehensive review of the research examining the intersection of psychopathology and adolescent pregnancy and the postpartum period. A literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), PsycINFO, and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2013 that examined depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and psychosis during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescents age 21 years or younger. Articles were selected that covered the following topics: Prevalence or incidence, comorbidity, psychosocial correlates, birth outcomes, parenting, child outcomes, and psychosocial treatment. Forty articles were found and reviewed. There is a substantial research base examining self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Existing research suggests that pregnant and parenting adolescents are at greater risk for experiencing depressive symptoms than pregnant and postpartum adult women. Depression in the perinatal period is also a risk factor for substance and alcohol abuse and a harsher parenting style in adolescents. Areas for future research in this population include investigating the prevalence, psychosocial correlates, and outcomes of clinically diagnosed Major Depressive Disorder, developing and empirically validating psychotherapeutic treatments, and focusing upon other psychiatric diagnoses such as bipolar disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  20. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    To identify characteristics within the family that were associated with adolescent pregnancy in a group of adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador. Of 135 female adolescents (12-19 years of age), 47 were pregnant and seen at the adolescent prenatal care clinic at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were students from schools located within the same geographic area. Family variables were compared for pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents using chi-square, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance. More nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents when compared with their pregnant peers (p problems in or outside the family (p Parental education was lower in the families of pregnant adolescents (p parents worked outside the home (p parental separation or divorce, and poor parent-daughter communication were associated with adolescent pregnancy. Families of nonpregnant adolescents had a higher educational level, and both parents worked to provide financial support to the family in an environment where family authority is shared by both parents. There were also better problem-solving strategies and parent-daughter communication, higher levels of cohesion, connectedness, and life satisfaction in general, and higher future expectations.

  1. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  2. Fatores associados ao acesso anterior à gestação a serviços de saúde por adolescentes gestantes Factores asociados con el acceso anterior a la gestación a los servicios de salud por adolescentes gestantes Factors associated with access to health services prior to pregnancy by pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Espejo Carvacho

    2008-10-01

    ómico, administrativo, psicosocial y de información. Participaron 200 adolescentes primigestas (10 a 19 años atendidas en una unidad básica de salud del municipio de Indaiatuba (Sureste de Brasil, en 2003. Se aplicó a las participantes en el momento de su primera consulta pre-natal un cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y cerradas referentes al acceso al último servicio de salud utilizado, anterior a la gestación. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de la prueba de Chi cuadrado de Pearson o exacto de Fischer y por regresión logística múltiple, considerando las cinco dimensiones del acceso. RESULTADOS: Más de la mitad (63,7% de las adolescentes utilizó algún servicio de salud para consulta ginecológica. Entre las que nunca consultaron un ginecólogo, las justificativas dadas fueron falta de información (43,8% o sentimiento de miedo o vergüenza (37,0%. La principal dificultad de acceso al servicio estuvo relacionada con barreras psicosociales, identificadas por 77,0% de las adolescentes. CONCLUSIONES: Entre las barreras de acceso al servicio de salud, fueron significativas solo las psicosociales. Son necesarias nuevas estrategias para facilitar el acceso al servicio de salud a las adolescentes, incluyendo acciones que disminuyan las barreras de género y que se consideren sus características sociodemográficas y el vínculo con sus parejas.OBJECTIVE: To assess determinants of access to primary care services prior to pregnancy by pregnant adolescents. METHODS: Theory-based cross-sectional study conducted to examine access to heath services at five dimensions: geographic, economic, administrative, psychosocial and information. There were included in the study 200 first-time pregnant adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years who attended a primary care unit in the municipality of Indaiatuba, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire applied in face-to-face interviews conducted just before their first pre-natal care visit. Data analyses

  3. A influência do estado nutricional da adolescente grávida sobre o tipo de parto e o peso do recém-nascido The influence of the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents on parturition and the newborn's weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prestes Furlan

    2003-01-01

    baixo peso (PURPOSE: to evaluate the nutritional condition of pregnant adolescents using the pregestational body mass index (BMI and the BMI at the end of pregnancy and to establish a possible association with the type of delivery and weight of the newborn child. METHODS: in a descriptive retrospective observational study 558 pregnant teenagers as well as their newborns were evaluated in the Obstetrics outpatient clinic of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil (UNIFESP-EPM, from January 1998 to December 2000. The sample consisted of pregnant girls who were between 10 and 19 years old at the time of the first prenatal examination, excluding the teenagers who had preexistent disease and those with incomplete data in their records. Thus, the sample consisted of 300 pregnant teenagers. Qualitative variables are presented as absolute and relative frequency and quantitative variables as mean, standard deviation and range. The correlation between maternal variables (pre-pregnancy BMI and final BMI and parameters of the newborn (type of delivery and weight was determined by the c² test and the differences were identified by partitioning of the c² values, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05 (a = 0.05. RESULTS: nutritional deviation was detected in 34.7% of the girls, at the beginning of pregnancy. Of these adolescents, 27.7% presented malnutrition, 4% were overweight and 3% were obese. By the end of the gestational period, BMI of 54.3% of them was normal, 1.3% correponded to malnutrition, 27% to overweight and 17.3% to obesity. The mother's nutritional condition (malnutrition, normal, overweight and obesity did not affect the method of delivery, either vaginal (80.3% or cesarean section (19.7%. The patients who reached end of pregnancy with BMI corresponding to malnutrition had 75% of neonates under 2.500 g. CONCLUSIONS: the mother's nutritional status was not related to the type of delivery. BMI corresponding to malnutrition at the end of pregnancy was

  4. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  5. Descubriendo las prácticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes con infección vaginal Descobrindo as práticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes com infecção vaginal Discovering care practices of pregnant adolescents with vaginal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY LUZ MONROY RUBIANO

    qualitativo, de tipo etnográfico, baseado na etnoenfermagem da teoria transcultural de Leininger. A técnica de pesquisa esteve baseada no uso do questionário e analise etnográfica de Spradley, com uma média de três entrevistas a cada uma das sete participantes, até que houve suficiente informação. A amostra esteve caracterizada pela qualidade da informação fornecida. A partir da análise em profundidade se construíram três domínios e taxonomias: 1. Conhecimento da infecção vaginal, 2. Ações de proteção, 3. Conselhos recebidos. O estudo revelou que as adolescentes gestantes sabiam sobre a infecção vaginal, conheciam as causas e conseqüências relacionadas e estabeleciam medidas de proteção dirigidas a cuidar da infecção e evitar a reinfecção, tomando um tratamento baseado mais em conselhos informais que formais. O cuidado durante infecções vaginais entre adolescentes gestantes evidenciou a posta em prática dos conselhos recebidos das fontes informais e formais para o desaparecimento da infecção vaginal e a fim de evitar a reinfecção e as complicações para elas e para o filho. Verificaramse também as diferentes formas em que conheciam e estabeleciam práticas de cuidado durante a infecção vaginal e salientouse a ausência de conselhos formais do profissional em enfermagem.The study was aimed at discovering the meaning of care from the perspective of cultural beliefs and customs of pregnant adolescents with vaginal infection diagnosis who had prenatal control at the ESE Hospital San Rafael of the city of Girardot during the first quarter of 2007. Qualitative ethnographic design, based on ethnonursing of Leininger's transcultural theory. Interviews and Spradley's ethnographic analysis were used and an average of three interviews was applied to each one of the 7 participants, until saturation of information was achieved. The sample's representativeness was based on the quality of the information offered. From the in depth analysis, three

  6. Descubriendo las prácticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes con infección vaginal Discovering care practices of pregnant adolescents with vaginal infection Descobrindo as práticas de cuidado de adolescentes gestantes com infecção vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ DE RODRÍGUEZ LUCY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo descubrir el significado de cuidado a partir de prácticas y creencias culturales de las adolescentes gestantes con diagnóstico de infección vaginal que asistieron a control prenatal en la ESE Hospital SanRafael de Girardot en el primer trimestre de 2007. Diseño cualitativo de tipo etnográfico, basado en la etnoenfermería de la teoría transcultural de Leininger. Se empleó la entrevista y el análisis etnográfico de Spradley y se realizaron en promedio tres entrevistas a cada una de las 7 informantes, hasta que hubo saturación de información. La muestra estuvo representada por la calidad de la información brindada. A partir del análisis a profundidad se construyeron tres dominios y taxonomías: 1. conocimiento de la infección vaginal, 2. acciones de protección, 3. consejos recibidos. El estudio reveló que las adolescentes gestantes tenían conocimientos sobre la infección vaginal, sus causas y consecuencias. Cuidarse representó poner en práctica los consejos recibidos de las fuentes informales y formales para que desapareciera la infección vaginal, evitar la reinfección y las complicaciones para ellas y el hijo por nacer. Para las adolescentes gestantes, cuidarse durante la infección vaginal representó poner en práctica los consejos recibidos de las fuentes informales y formales para que desapareciera la infección vaginal y evitar la reinfección y las complicaciones para ellas y el hijo por nacer. Se evidenciaron las diferentes formas que tenían de conocer y establecer prácticas de cuidado durante la infección vaginal y se resaltó la ausencia de consejos formales del profesional de enfermería.The study was aimed at discovering the meaning of care from the perspective of cultural beliefs and customs of pregnant adolescents with vaginal infection diagnosis who had pre-natal control at the ESE Hospital San Rafael of the city of Girardot during the first quarter of 2007. Qualitative

  7. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  8. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  9. Validation and responsiveness of the AQuAA for measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, E.W.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van Poppel, M.N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and responsiveness of the self-report Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents for use in overweight and obese pregnant women. Design: Longitudinal study with measurements at 17, 24 and 32 weeks of pregnancy. Methods: Overweight

  10. Relationship between depression, stress and stressors in pregnant teenagers under different marital status conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on depression and stress has become important because of its high relevance especially in teenage pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the relationship between depression and stress levels and number of stressors faced by 82 first-time pregnant teenagers, who responded to the assessment instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Life Events Questionnaire. According to the results, adolescents who live with their own family are those with the highest means of stress and depression. Therefore, it can be concluded that adolescents who live with their own family are more prone to develop depression and stress during pregnancy, since this could be a contributing factor.

  11. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...

  12. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  13. Parental bonding and suicidality in pregnant teenagers: a population-based study in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; de Matos, Mariana Bonati; Castelli, Rochele Dias; Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares

    2014-08-01

    To assess the associations of the perceived quality of parental bonding with suicidality in a sample of pregnant adolescents. A cross-sectional study with a sample size of 828 pregnant teenagers receiving prenatal medical assistance in the national public health system in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was employed to measure the perceived quality of parental bonding. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, obstetric and other psychosocial data. Forty-three (4.94 %) teenagers from a consecutive sample of 871 refused to participate, resulting in 828 participants. Prevalence of suicidality was 13.3 %, lifetime suicide attempts were 7.4 % with 1.3 % reporting attempting suicide within the last month. Significant associations of suicidality with the 18-19-year-old subgroup, low education, prior abortion, physical abuse within the last 12 months were present, and most psychiatric disorders were associated with a higher suicidality prevalence. Additionally, after adjustment in the multivariate analysis, the style of parental bonding was independently associated with suicidality in the pregnant adolescent, with a PR of 2.53 (95 % CI 1.14-5.59) for the maternal 'affectionless control' and a PR of 2.91 (95 % CI 1.10-7.70) for the paternal 'neglectful parenting.' We found that maternal 'affectionless control' and paternal 'neglectful parenting' were independent predictors of suicidality in this sample of pregnant teenagers.

  14. A Typology of Substance Use Among Pregnant Teens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Ugalde, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that, in general, youth who become pregnant during their teenage years tend to report elevated levels of substance use prior to conception and substantial reductions in use during pregnancy. While such studies provide insight into aggregate patterns of adolescent substance use in relation to pregnancy, they may have the unintended effect of masking the behavioral heterogeneity of pregnant teens. The present study employs data from a large, population-based study of adolescents in the United States. We employ latent class analysis to identify subgroups of pregnant adolescents (ages 12-17; n = 810) on the basis of variables measuring the past 12-month and past 30-day use of an extensive array of substances. Results revealed a four class solution. Classes were identified as Class 1: Abstainers (n = 344, 42.47 %), Class 2: Drinkers (n = 303, 37.41 %), Class 3: Alcohol and Cannabis Users (n = 77, 9.51 %), and Class 4: Polydrug Users (n = 86, 10.62 %). The Abstainers class had the highest proportion of Hispanic youth (34.3 %) as well as the highest proportion of youth residing in households earning less than $20,000 per year (44.2 %). The Polydrug Users class had the highest proportion of youth who were in late adolescence (75.58 %), non-Hispanic white (54.65 %), high-income (13.95 %), and in their first trimester of pregnancy (58.33 %). Findings point to an important degree of heterogeneity among pregnant teens and may have implications for the development of interventions designed for youth exhibiting disconcerting patterns of substance use prior to pregnancy.

  15. [Pregnant diabetic patients: institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Héctor Israel; Carrillo Iñiguez, Mayra Judith; Pestaña Mendoza, Silvia; Santamaría Ferreira, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus complicates 3-5% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diet and insulin have revolutionized the care related with pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. To report the management experience in patients with diabetes and pregnancy at the Instituto Materno Infantil, Estado de Mexico. A descriptive, retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study of pregnant women with diabetes and pregnancy was conducted from 2003 to 2004. We included 55 pregnant women who had: gestational diabetes 30 (54.4%), pregestational diabetes 24 (43.6%), and carbohydrate intolerance 1 (1.8%); every one of them were controlled either with diet, insulin or both. The mean age was 30.6, 80% with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9% gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 33.3% by abnormal 50 g glucose screening and 46.6% with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The main complications among the patients were urinary disease (61.3%) and the major fetal malformation were those related with cardiovascular disease (9.09%). The most frequent mode of delivery was cesarean section (58%) and birth weight was of 3,146 g. The main risk factors identified among women in the study group were as follow: More than 25 years of age and family history of diabetes mellitus. We observed a progressive increase in the insulin dosage. The most consistent complications among the patients were urinary infection and the major fetal malformation was cardiovascular disease.

  16. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters (A, B, C), with each group having a control and a treated subgroup. The Control Groups (A1, B1, ... offspring of tobacco smokers. Keywords: Cortex, Histology, Prenatal nicotine, Adolescent rats, Neurological abnormalities ...

  17. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  18. [An innovative policy for supporting pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stéphanie

    2015-04-01

    Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  20. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...

  1. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  2. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  3. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    To describe the needs and evidence-based practice specific to care of the pregnant adolescent in Canada, including special populations. Healthy pregnancies for adolescent women in Canada, with culturally sensitive and age-appropriate care to ensure the best possible outcomes for these young women and their infants and young families, and to reduce repeat pregnancy rates. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on May 23, 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Pregnancy in Adolescence) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, teen, youth). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Results were limited to English or French language materials published in or after 1990. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 6, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, and clinical practice guideline collections. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). BENEFITS/HARMS/COSTS: These guidelines are designed to help practitioners caring for adolescent women during pregnancy in Canada and allow them to take the best care of these young women in a manner appropriate for their age, cultural backgrounds, and risk profiles. 1. Health care providers should adapt their prenatal care for adolescents and offer multidisciplinary care that is easily accessible to the adolescent early in the pregnancy, recognizing that adolescents often present to care later than their adult counterparts. A model that provides an opportunity to address all of these needs at one site may be the preferred model of care for pregnant adolescents. (II-1A) 2. Health

  4. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  5. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ol?via RC; Santana, Michelle G; Santos, Fl?via S; Concei??o, Felipe D; Sardinha, F?tima LC; Veiga, Gl?ria V; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the...

  6. Experiences of pregnant adolescents - voices from Wakiso district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a descriptive study that utilized qualitative methods for data ... interviews were conducted with leaders in-charge of health units and TBAs. ... and a note taker facilitated the FGDs, which were tape recorded with consent from ...

  7. Perceptions of pregnant adolescents on the antenatal care received ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-25

    Mar 25, 2018 ... women because of the low self-esteem and stigma associated .... School again will help you to look young because when you give birth to three or four babies .... and older women delay seeking antenatal care14,17,18,21,26.

  8. 66 A MORALIST DISCOURSE IN NIGERIAN DRAMA AND THEATRE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    the happenings in society and thus affect some positive changes in man and his environment. ... eclectic persuasion of the moral-sociological approach vis-à-vis the ..... Before this time we saw Dudu's attitude towards the death of. Jabulile's ...

  9. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Silva Vinhas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected by the HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breast-feeding crossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impediment from the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to the affectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, they were interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a Public Hospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy was not planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectations regarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood out that the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnant react to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnant soroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize the specific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV. KEY WORDS: Risk Prenatal; Nursing; HIV.

  10. Adolescent childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  11. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability.

  12. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  13. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  14. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  15. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  16. Intermediate filaments in smooth muscle from pregnant and non-pregnant human uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, P; Carli, F; Halliday, D

    1990-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle and smooth-muscle cells in culture were analysed using SDS/PAGE. The desmin content in uterine muscle increases dramatically during pregnancy, whereas vimentin remains unchanged or changes very little. When muscle cells are kept in culture, a considerable increase in vimentin content is observed as compared with vimentin in freshly isolated non-pregnant uterine tissue. Our results strengthen t...

  17. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Apr 27, 2018 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  18. pulmonary tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that TB infection is present in one- third of the world's ... tuberculosis among pregnant women would be as high as in .... previous two years appeared to confer an increased ... limited to the immediate neighborhood or workplace.

  19. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  20. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  1. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Summary: Genistein ... Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein precipitated hypothyroidism, altered some metabolic hormones with a ... consumption. Exposure to ...

  2. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  3. Adolescent Students and Their Experiences of Dealing with Pregnancy: A Mexican Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E.; Campero, Lourdes; Marín, Eréndira; González, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In impoverished communities in Mexico, most adolescent mothers do not attend school; but typically, they become pregnant once they dropped out. Understanding the experiences of adolescents who have had a pregnancy and continue in school is complicated since few manage to do it. The goal of this study is to describe experiences within the family…

  4. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations with Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult…

  5. Dentist's opinion toward treatment of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSadhan, Raed; AlManee, Abdullatif

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of dentists in Riyadh city about treatment alternatives available for pregnant patients. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 500 dentists practicing in Riyadh city. The questionnaire included data on dentists socio-demographic and practice characteristics in addition to management choices of the pregnant dental patient such as dental treatment practices and selected therapeutic choices. Out of the questionnaires distributed, 212 questionnaires were collected (42.5% response rate). Most of the participants were general practitioners, with less than 5 years clinical experience, who obtained their degree from local institutes and practiced in the government sectors. Over half of the participants stated that they would radiograph a pregnant patient who was suffering from pain from a tooth with doubtful diagnosis or would extract a non-restorable painful tooth. Two-thirds of the participating dentists would not replace a missing molar with a fixed partial denture during pregnancy. The majority of the participants (86%) would give oral hygiene instructions, prescribe a mouthwash and do scaling and/or root planing for a pregnant patient with gingival bleeding and calculus deposits. In respect to antibiotics, the majority of the dentists (96%) would prescribe amoxicillin to a pregnant patient. Of the four analgesic agents surveyed, paracetamol was the most popular analgesic agent (96.7%). On the use of local anesthetics, the majority of the dentists (75%) would use lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and would not use prilocaine with felypressin vasoconstrictor. The study showed that there was a lack of knowledge about the clinical management of the pregnant dental patients among the surveyed dentists regardless of their socio-demographic and practice characteristics necessitating continuous dental education programs on the dental management of pregnant dental patients. (author)

  6. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  7. A comparison of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant and non pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.

  8. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Selma Villas Boas; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; Silva, Leila Rangel da; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Souza, Kleyde Ventura de; Albuquerque, Leônidas Netto

    2015-12-01

    Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  9. Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Villas Boas Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. METHOD A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. RESULTS Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. CONCLUSION Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  10. Problemas de saúde mental entre jovens grávidas e não-grávidas Mental health problems among pregnant and non-pregnant youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Garcia Caputo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes primigestas e comparar seu perfil de saúde mental com o daquelas sexualmente ativas que nunca engravidaram. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, comparativo entre dois grupos de adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos, em Marília, Estado de São Paulo, 2003-2004. A amostra incluiu 207 primigestas atendidas em programas de pré-natal de serviços públicos municipais urbanos e 308 estudantes de escolas estaduais, sexualmente ativas, que nunca engravidaram. Foram aplicados um instrumento de rastreamento para problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes (versão brasileira do Youth Self-Report e um questionário sobre fatores de risco para gravidez na adolescência. A análise estatística incluiu testes de qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, U de Mann Whitney e modelos de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Adolescentes grávidas e não-grávidas não diferiram quanto à prevalência do total de problemas de saúde mental (24,6% vs. 27,3%; p=0,50. Comparado às adolescentes não-grávidas, o grupo das primigestas apresentou maior prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade/depressão (24,2% vs. 15,3%; p=0,01 e sintomas de retraimento/depressão (13,0% vs, 4,5%; pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of mental health problems in primiparous adolescents and to compare their mental health profile with the profile of sexually active adolescents who have never gotten pregnant. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that compared two groups of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from a city in Southern Brazil, 2003-2004. The sample included 207 primiparous who attended prenatal care programs in urban public services, and 308 sexually active students from state public schools who had never gotten pregnant. A screening instrument to identify mental health problems in adolescents (Brazilian version of the Youth Self-Report was applied to the participants together with a questionnaire on risk factors for

  11. The development of moral emotions and decision-making from adolescence to early adulthood: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Colasante, Tyler; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-04-01

    Adolescents' emotions in the context of moral decision-making repeatedly have been shown to predict actual behaviour. However, little systematic information on developmental change regarding these emotion expectancies has been available thus far. This longitudinal study investigated anticipated moral emotions and decision-making between the ages of 15 and 21 in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1,258; 54 % female; M = 15.30 years). Anticipated moral emotions and decision-making were assessed through a semi-structured interview procedure. Using Bernoulli hierarchical linear modeling, it was found that positive feelings after a moral transgression (i.e., "happy victimizer" responses) decreased over time, whereas positive feelings after a moral decision (i.e., "happy moralist" responses) increased. However, this pattern was contingent upon the moral scenario presented. Systematic relationships between anticipated moral emotions and moral personality characteristics of sympathy, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were found, even when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and cognitive ability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the development of anticipated moral emotions is not limited to childhood. Furthermore, our findings suggest that moral emotions serve as an important link between moral personality development and decision-making processes that are more proximal to everyday moral behavior.

  12. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  13. Contraceptive Choices Pre and Post Pregnancy in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, L; Martins, I; Oliveira, N; Antunes, I; Palma, F; Alves, MJ

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of adolescent pregnancy in the future contraceptive choices. A secondary aim is to verify whether these choices differ from those made after an abortion. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING:Adolescent Unit of a tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS:212 pregnant teenagers. INTERVENTIONS: Medical records review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Intended pregnancy rate and contraceptive methods used before and after pregnanc...

  14. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  15. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  16. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  17. Nursing intervention to enhance acceptance of pregnancy in first-time mothers: focusing on the comfortable experiences of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuka

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe effective nursing care through evaluation of a nursing intervention that enhanced acceptance of pregnancy and focused on a comfortable experience for pregnant women. Thirty-two subjects who were expected to have a normal pregnancy were assigned into either the intervention or the control group. The nursing intervention consisted of the use of a pregnancy diary and four interviews, two of which were held in the first trimester, one in the second and one in the third trimester. The nursing care given was recorded in tapes and field notes. The data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. As a result of analyzing the nursing care of 13 women pregnant for the first time who were provided with nursing intervention, the following seven categories of nursing care were extracted for the intervention: encouragement of women to record their experiences using a pregnancy diary; recognizing and acknowledging negative feelings; reducing the negative aspects of pregnancy and reframing; expression and reinforcement of positive feelings; clarification and reinforcement of positive meanings; awareness of own comfortable experiences; promotion of diverse comfortable aspects and continuation of comfortable experiences. The seven nursing care interventions were effective in increasing the comfortable experiences of pregnant women and enhancing a positive attitude towards pregnancy. Nursing intervention can aid in enhancing positivity and comfort in pregnant women. Furthermore, this nursing intervention can be applied to adolescents, socially disadvantaged pregnant women, and hospitalized women.

  18. [Frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) for pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.

  19. Assessment of lipid and protein peroxidation markers in non-pregnant and pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, M; Kankofer, M; Dąbrowski, R; Bochniarz, M; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress during normal pregnancy in female dogs based on an evaluation of plasma markers for lipid and protein peroxidation. Twenty clinically healthy female dogs (10 non-pregnant and 10 pregnant) were used in the study. Blood samples from the pregnant animals were collected at 19-21, 38-40, and 56-58 days of pregnancy. Blood samples from non-pregnant female dogs were obtained between 20 and 35 days after ineffective breeding. As indicators of oxidative stress, we measured the following using spectrophotometric and spectrof- luorimetric methods: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylparaphenylene diamine (RC-DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The mean plasma TBARS concentration in the pregnant dogs (0.486 ± 0.071-0.581 ± 0.191 μmol/g protein) was significantly higher (p pregnant animals (0.274 ± 0.111 μmol/g protein). A marked, although not significant, decrease in SH group content, as well as an increase in bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentration were concurrently observed in the pregnant dogs. No significant differences were found in terms of the studied markers in the pregnant animals when comparing the values obtained during the investigated periods of pregnancy, although there was a progressive decrease in TBARS concentration and a progressive increase in RC-DEPPD, bityrosine and formylkynurenine contents. Our findings suggest that normal pregnancy in female dogs is associated with oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to establish the physiological ranges of antioxidative/oxidative profiles in pregnant dogs and to explain if and how the intensity of oxidative stress might contribute to the risk of the complications of pregnancy.

  20. Beliefs of grade six learners’ regarding adolescent pregnancy and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grobler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.

  1. Geophagia among female adolescents as a culturally driven practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, is a culturally sanctioned practice common to the world's more tribally oriented people. Widely reported among pregnant and lactating women, geophagia is also practised by female adolescents (FA). This article presents preliminary findings on the incidence and reasons of ...

  2. Adolescent pregnancy and the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and anaemia-a pilot study from Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Aforakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2012-09-01

    The problem of malaria in adolescence has been surpassed by the immense burden of malaria in children, most especially less than 5. A substantial amount of work done on malaria in pregnancy in endemic regions has not properly considered the adolescence. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and anaemia infection in adolescent pregnant girls in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana. The study was carried out at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis of the western region of Ghana from January 2010 to October 2010. Structured questionnaires were administered to the consenting pregnant women during their antenatal care visits. Information on education, age, gravidae, occupation and socio-demographic characteristics were recorded. Venous bloods were screened for malaria using RAPID response antibody kit and Geimsa staining while haemoglobin estimations were done by cyanmethemoglobin method. The results revealed that adolescent pregnant girls were more likely to have malaria infection than the adult pregnant women (34.6% verses 21.3%, adjusted OR 1.65, 95% CI, 1.03-2.65, P=0.039). In addition, adolescent pregnant girls had higher odds of anaemia than their adult pregnant women equivalent (43.9% versus 33.2%; adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.01-2.62, P=0.046). Taken together, these data suggest that adolescent pregnant girls were more likely to have malaria and anaemia compared to their adult pregnant counterpart. Results from this study shows that proactive adolescent friendly policies and control programmes for malaria and anaemia are needed in this region in order to protect this vulnerable group of pregnant women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fasting guidelines for diabetic children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Kiswhar; Mohsin, Fauzia; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zabeen, Bedowra; Ahmad, Jamal; Raza, Syed Abbas; Tayyeb, Samin; Bajaj, Sarita; Ishtiaq, Osama; Kalra, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar). During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patien...

  4. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, ... Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and ... shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment.

  5. Compliance with iron-folic acid (IFA) therapy among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Anaemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women and iron ... Methodology: This study included 190 pregnant women seeking ante-natal care in tertiary health centres in the Mangalore ..... preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid.

  6. Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.

  7. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... 220 out of 733 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the health centres within the three communities.

  8. Anxiety during pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many women suffer psychological symptoms during pregnancy but few studies have examined anxiety among pregnant ladies in relation to the level of education, previous bad obstetrical history and female circumcision. Aims: To determine frequency of anxiety among Sudanese women as related to pregnancy and ...

  9. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus Antibodies among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that infects most people at some time during their lives. It becomes dormant for a while and may reactivate later. In pregnant women, intrauterine infection may be associated with congenital abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of the fetus as ...

  10. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 34, Number 4, November 2014. 1 ... 2010, the highest number of pregnant learners was recorded in Limpopo Province, followed by .... formation. We maintained privacy and confidentiality of the information that participants shared with us by ...... based cohorts in southern Brazil.

  11. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome. Key words: high risk pregnancy; learner pregnancy; school health services; teacher experiences; teenage pregnancy ...

  12. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  13. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant Women Attending the Three Levels of Health Facilities in Ife Central Local Government, Nigeria. ... Only 24 (6.0%) had adequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs without prompting. Three hundred and forty (84.8%) and 312 (78.3%) women respectively had ...

  14. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened in a qualitative study using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Results: Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive.

  15. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  17. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  18. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  19. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  20. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.

  1. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  2. Hematologic features among anemic Cameroonian pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. Methods: this cross ...

  3. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  4. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  5. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  6. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  7. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131...

  8. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Gordovskaya; I. V. Korotchaeva

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  9. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Gordovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  10. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  11. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...

  12. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  13. Socio-cultural and economic factors influencing adolescents' resilience against the threat of teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahorlu, Collins K; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit

    2015-12-23

    Adolescent pregnancy exposes female adolescents to medical, social and economic risks. In Ghana, adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and delivery as compared to older mothers. This study examined the competencies of adolescent girls to either proactively prevent teenage pregnancy or reactively cope effectively with it. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to interview 820 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Accra, Ghana. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (various kinds of valued relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources, mainly cash and assets), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits; knowledge and tradition stored in material forms and institutionalized) and symbolic capital (honour, recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of competencies of adolescents to deal with the threat of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Out of 820 adolescents interviewed, 128 (16%) were pregnant or mothers. Adolescents in both groups (62% never pregnant girls and 68% pregnant/young mothers) have access to social support, especially from their parents. Parents are taking the place of aunts and grandmothers in providing sexual education to their adolescent girls due to changing social structures where extended families no longer reside together in most cases. More (79%) pregnant girls and young mothers compared to never pregnant girls (38%) have access to economic support (P = pregnancy among adolescent girls. Findings showed that adolescent girls, especially those that get pregnant should not be viewed as weak and vulnerable because many of them have developed competencies to cope with pregnancy and childbirth effectively. Thus, focusing on developing the competencies of girls to access social, economic and cultural capitals may be an effective way of tackling the threat of teenage pregnancy than focusing only on their vulnerability and

  14. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  15. Seeing, mirroring, desiring: the impact of the analyst's pregnant body on the patient's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakeley, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    The paper explores the impact of the analyst's pregnant body on the course of two analyses, a young man, and a young woman, specifically focusing on how each patient's visual perception and affective experience of being with the analyst's pregnant body affected their own body image and subjective experience of their body. The pre-verbal or 'subsymbolic' material evoked in the analyses contributed to a greater understanding of the patients' developmental experiences in infancy and adolescence, which had resulted in both carrying a profoundly distorted body image into adulthood. The analyst's pregnancy offered a therapeutic window in which a shift in the patient's body image could be initiated. Clinical material is presented in detail with reference to the psychoanalytic literature on the pregnant analyst, and that of the development of the body image, particularly focusing on the role of visual communication and the face. The author proposes a theory of psychic change, drawing on Bucci's multiple code theory, in which the patients' unconscious or 'subsymbolic' awareness of her pregnancy, which were manifest in their bodily responses, feeling states and dreams, as well as in the analyst s countertransference, could gradually be verbalized and understood within the transference. Thus visual perception, or 'external seeing', could gradually become 'internal seeing', or insight into unconscious phantasies, leading to a shift in the patients internal object world towards a less persecutory state and more realistic appraisal of their body image. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Seroprevalence of Rubella antibodies among pregnant women with bad obstetric history in tertiary care hospital

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    Shashi Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection with rubella virus can be disastrous in early gestation. Rubella is a major cause of birth defects in infants and the risk of having congenital rubella in seronegative pregnant women is more in developing countries. Aim This study was carried to determine the seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in pregnant women. Setting and Design Three years retrospective study in the department of Microbiology, PIMS, Jalandhar. Material and method This study comprised of 250 pregnant women, whose blood samples were collected, sera were screened for rubella specific IgM and IgG antibodies by RecomLine ToRCH Result Out of 250 samples (Study group, 53% (n=132 were seropositive for IgG antibodies and 4.5% (n=9 were seropositive for IgM antibodies. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a strong association between rubella infection and BOH in women. Serosurveillance of Rubella among adolescent girls and women of child bearing age should be considered at a national level to prevent innumerable abortions, stillbirth and congenital anomalies due to rubella.

  17. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Ashman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete, median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05, and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05 and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05 supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women.

  18. Adolescence: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, A

    1995-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological growth between childhood and adulthood. The author is a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist in New Delhi. Over the course of her medical career, she has identified many myths and misconceptions about adolescents and adolescence. With regard to male adolescents, masturbation-related myths may be the most frequently harbored. Male adolescents have a hormone-driven need to have sexual intercourse, frequently. Masturbation is a healthy, no-cost way to relieve sexual tension. There is neither need to pay a prostitute nor fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. A young man can masturbate virtually whenever he wants. Despite the guilt and misinformation implanted by adults that masturbation causes weakness, boys masturbate rather frequently. Also contrary to popular myth, the nocturnal emissions which may result in growing boys as a result of sexual excitement during a dream are completely normal and no reason for concern. Further, boys should not worry about penis size, for, when erect, they all work just fine. People grow at different rates. Menstruation starts when 17% of a woman's body weight is fat. The onset of menstruation may therefore start earlier in well-fed girls compared to in girls who are more lean. The frequency and duration of menses are not constant. Menstrual irregularity therefore does not necessarily mean that a young woman is pregnant or that professional medical treatment is required. Breasts, like penises, serve their intended function irrespective of size. The hymen is a membrane at the opening of the vagina. It may have a hole in the center or the side for the escape of menstrual blood. There are myths that an intact hymen is indicative of virginity, the hymen should be intact until marriage, and the first sexual experience should be painful for a woman. The hymen is elastic and even some prostitutes have been found to have intact hymens. The hymen also may tear due to a

  19. Preliminary study on plasma proteins in pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, Marek; Wawrzykowski, Jacek; Dąbrowski, Roman; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Kankofer, Marta

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we used a combined approach based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the plasma protein composition in pregnant female dogs and compared it with non-pregnant female dogs. We used the plasma samples obtained from four female dogs during I, II, and III thirds of pregnancy, three days after parturition, as well as from four non-pregnant female dogs in diestrus phase. Analysis of 2-DE gel image exhibited of 249 protein spots. The intensity of staining of 35 spots differed significantly (P dogs. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify 47 spots corresponding to 52 different proteins. Five identified protein spots, including zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 5, hemoglobin subunit beta-2, integrator complex subunit 7, apolipoprotein A-I, and glutamyl aminopeptidase were differentially presented in the plasma of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the plasma protein profile of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. In this study, we identified proteins that have not been previously identified in dogs. Our findings showed that numerous protein spots were differentially presented in the plasma of female dogs during normal pregnancy. Although we identified only a limited number of differentially presented proteins, our study demonstrated that the plasma protein profile changed during pregnancy in female dogs, which suggests its importance in maintaining pregnancy. Further studies are necessary to define complete plasma protein profile of pregnant female dogs and to identify all proteins that are differentially presented in the pregnant animals compared with the non-pregnant ones. In addition, studies are warranted to explain the role of those proteins in maintaining the pregnancy and their usefulness in detection of early pregnancy

  20. How Does Heroin Use Affect Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... research findings for the educated lay public, legislators, educational groups, and practitioners. The series reports on research ...

  1. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  2. Life Brought at a Tender Age: The Lived Experiences of Filipino Teenage Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTOPHER R. PARUNGAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Unintended teenage pregnancy is an ever-present issue in developing countries such as the Philippines. The impact of teenage pregnancy affects the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well being of the adolescents. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother and the baby. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of the teenage pregnant women. Six adolescent female aged 12-19 years old who were pregnant with their first child agreed to participate. A qualitative inquiry, specifically Husserlian descriptive phenomenology was employed. Semi-structured in depth face-to-face interviews were undertaken, audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. The richness of the experiences shared by the selections provided the necessary information to understand and describe the essence of the phenomenon understudy. Cool and warm analyses captured the following emergent themes of Trends toward issues, Fortified faith, and Optimistic outlook. For the selections in this study, being pregnant at a young age did not mean that their life and future were all over. The women were optimistic about their futures. The findings of the study have vital implications in offering specific programs and services and in developing educational materials that focus on preventing teen pregnancy. While health nurse practitioners primarily provide services and education to teens and parents in various health care facilities, they also can be significant participants in prevention activities and coalitions that are based in a community. The outcomes of the study have possible contributions to the nursing practice, to policies that facilitate the promotion of the health of the teenage mothers and the prevention of teenage pregnancies, and in building future researches especially in the education of the teens about the consequences of

  3. Aplicação do processo de enfermagem baseado na teoria de OREM: estudo de caso com uma adolescente grávida Aplicación de lo proceso de enfermería basado en la teoría de OREM: estudio de caso en una adolescente embarazada Application of the nursing process based in OREM'S theory: a case study with a pregnant adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Vasconcelos Torres

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo do tipo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa, objetivando a aplicação do processo de enfermagem baseado na Teoria do Autocuidado de Orem, através de um estudo de caso em uma adolescente grávida, buscando identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem na referida cliente, baseado nos diagnósticos de enfermagem da NANDA. Diante dos resultados obtidos identificou-se três diagnósticos: adaptação prejudicada, distúrbio do padrão do sono e processo familiar alterado. Destacou-se a aplicabilidade do processo de enfermagem baseado em Orem e a importância dos diagnósticos de enfermagem na prestação dos cuidados de enfermagem à cliente.Estudio de tipo descriptivo con un enfoque cualitativo, cuyo objetivo fue aplicar el proceso de enfermería utilizando la Teoría del Autocuidado de OREM, a través de un estudio de caso en una adolescente embarazada, buscando identificar los diagnósticos de la cliente, en base a los diagnósticos de la NANDA. De acuerdo con los resultados encontrados, se identificaron tres diagnósticos: adaptación perjudicada, disturbio del sueño y alteración del proceso familiar, fue relevante la aplicación del proceso de enfermería de Orem y la importancia de los diagnósticos de enfermería para dar los cuidados de enfermería a la cliente.This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach that aimed at applying the nursing process based in Orem Self-Care Theory, through a case study with a pregnant adolescent in order to identify the nursing diagnosis in the above mentioned clients, based on NANDA'S nursing diagnoses. Results obtained identified three nursing diagnoses: prejudiced adaptation, sleep disturb and familiar change process. The application of the nursing process based in Orem and the importance of the diagnosis identified for clients nursing care were evidenced.

  4. Pregnant women's choice of birthing hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS: Women made their hospital choice decision independently......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized...

  5. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  6. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  7. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  8. Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M

    2017-08-01

    Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  10. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  11. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  12. Prevention and treatment strategy in pregnant women with group B streptococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevdorashvili, G; Tevdorashvili, D; Andghuladze, M; Tevdorashvili, M

    2015-04-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%). It also can cause focal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis, albeit rarely. Invasive maternal infection with GBS is associated with pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Prior to the widespread use of maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, maternal colonization with GBS conferred an increased risk of chorioamnionitis, and early postpartum infection. The serotype distribution of invasive GBS infection in pregnant women is similar to that of early-onset neonatal disease. The most common GBS serotypes causing invasive disease in adults and neonates are Ia, Ib, III, and V. Vaccination of adolescent women is considered an ideal solution. However, recent reports (April 2015) have shown that serotype IV GBS is emerging in pregnant carriers and causing infections in neonates and adults. This emergence is of concern because GBS conjugate vaccines that are being developed to prevent invasive disease may protect only against serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, or combinations thereof. Though research for the development of such a vaccine is underway, a good candidate vaccine has yet to surface.

  13. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  14. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Balzan, S.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Fruzzetti, F.; Bernardini, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3 H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p 3 Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  15. Comparison Of Blood Proteins And Some Hormonal Levels In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the changes in serum protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis in Holstein cows during different months of pregnancy in comparison with non-pregnant cows and to determine hormonal levels including T4, T3 and progesterone hormones. The samples were taken from 40 pregnant cows during deferent months and 10 non-pregnant cows. Significant decrease in the levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were observed in the third and late month of pregnancy than in mid pregnancy where the values were 6.5, 3.1 and 3.4 g/dl for early months and 6.5, 3.2 and 3.3 g/dl for late month as compared to the non-pregnant cows. Significant increase in α-1globulin was observed during months of pregnancy by about 33.3%. The decrease in the levels of α-2, β and γ-globulins were recorded by about 10%, 45.3% and 21.6%, respectively. A marked decrease in T4 hormone (5.0 μg/dl) was observed in pregnant cows than in non-pregnant ones (7.1 μg/dl). Also, a decreasing T3 level (169 ng/dl) was recorded as compared to non-pregnant cows (221 ng/dl). High significant increase in progesterone level was recorded in the mid pregnancy until reached the maximum value (49.94 ng/ml) at the 7 th month of pregnancy then declined (2.42 ng/ml) at the late month of pregnancy. In conclusion, during pregnancy of Holstein dairy cows, a decline in protein fractions and thyroid hormonal levels were recorded during different months as compared to non- pregnant cows. The opposite trend was observed in progesterone levels. The increasing progesterone level at the mid pregnancy indicated its importance in the continuation of pregnancy and maintenance of fetus against maternal rejection.

  16. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  17. Adolescent murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M

    1991-10-01

    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM PE AND PI BETWEEN PREGNANT AND NO-PROGNANT WOMEN AND PREGNANT OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Graziele Dias de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had how his objectives to investigate if there is difference between the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant women and no-pregnant women of period different of pregnancy. To get the informations necessary, we use the machine manuvacuômetro MVD 500 Mycrohard Globalmed , how the instrument to have the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant and no- pregnant women that have similar age. We use how criterion to select the informer this research to be pregnant in one group and not to be pregnant in another group. The women that participate of this research were choose aleatorialy through of the indications of the another persons. We went to their houses to collect data of the insp. and exp. maxim pressure and afterward, we organize, understand, pass to the category and, finely, to find the medium of the value. The value of the insp. and exp. maxim pressures that were found in the pregnant group was the follow: PE Max= 51,3 cm H20 and PIMax= 48,3 cm H20; the averages found in the not- pregnant were: PEMax= 73 cm H20, PIMax = 69,2 cm H20. The pregnants that were in the subgroup of the 1o to 5o month had a average of PE= 56 cm H20 and PI= 60 cm H20, while the pregnant of subgroup above the 6o month had the averages of PE and PI = 56 cm H20 and 43 cm H20, respective. Based in the results we conclude that have difference between the insp. and exp. pressures between pregnant and no-pregnant women, as well as in the pregnant of different period of pregnance.

  19. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  20. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

  1. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  2. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  3. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Griglio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  4. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  5. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed v,an dragtigheid en laktasie op die vrywillige inname en verteerbaarheid von voere deur Merinoooie. M. Sc. (Land) Tesis Univ. Stellenbosch. HADJIPIERES, G. & HOLMES, W., 1966. Studies on feed intake and feed utilization by sheep. I. The voluntary feed intake of dry, pregnant and lactating ewes. J. agric Sci.

  6. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  7. Risk factors for depressive symptoms in adolescent pregnancy in a late-teen subsample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.

  8. Standing working posture compared in pregnant and non-pregnant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; Frings-Dresen, M H

    1994-09-01

    During pregnancy, an increase in body weight occurs together with changes in body weight distribution and in fit between body dimensions and workplace layout. These changes may cause alterations in working posture which may, in turn, have adverse consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and so increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Using photographic posture registration, the standing working posture was studied in 27 women during the last stage of pregnancy and after delivery (the experimental group). The women performed an assembly task while standing at various workplace layouts. The postural differences between the pregnant condition and the non-pregnant condition were studied and the effect of the various workplace layouts assessed. Ten non-pregnant controls were also studied twice to establish the effect of the time interval between the measuring occasions. We found that the women of the experimental group stood further from the work surface in the pregnant condition compared to the non-pregnant condition, the hips were positioned more backwards, and, in order to reach the tesk, they increased the flexion of the trunk, increased the anteflexion of the upper arms, and extended the arms more. At the workplace layout in which the work surface height was self-selected, the postural differences due to pregnancy were smallest or even absent, compared to the postural differences in the other workplace layouts studied. Ergonomists and workers in occupational health services should be alert to the consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and the risk of development of health complaints caused by postural changes due to pregnancy. An adjustable workplace layout may prevent some problems.

  9. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  10. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  11. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same

  12. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  13. [Eating habits of pregnant and non-pregnant women: are there differences?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2015-07-01

    To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.

  14. Oral health Knowledge and behavior among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...

  15. Evaluation of oral health among pregnant women in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...

  16. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  17. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...

  18. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  19. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  20. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in relation to exposure to infection risk, age and pregnancy-related risk factors. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 294 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Accra who consented to participate. Personal and Toxoplasma ...

  1. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...

  2. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  3. Treatment of the Pregnant Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel; Nørgård, Bente M; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    a pregnant patient with a disease flare. The best way to manage women with IBD who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy is a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a gastroenterologist, a high-risk obstetrician, an infertility specialist, a colorectal surgeon, and a pediatrician...

  4. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  5. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 150 pregnant women who participated in the study, 95.3 % of the pregnant women were < 36 years old, 7.4 % had children with congenital malformations, 62 % indicated that they had heard about folic acid; however, only 16.6 % knew the significance of folic acid. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 94.7 % indicated ...

  6. Prevalence of malaria parasites and anaemia in pregnant and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of Malaria parasites in pregnant women attending pre - natal care in Government hospitals in two major towns (Aba and Okigwe) in Southeast Ngeria was carried out.Blood was collected by vein puncture rom 500 pregnant women in different trimesters (300 from Aba and 200 from Okigwe) and 200 ...

  7. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  8. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  9. Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant Women in Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... On ways of improving the condition/nutrition knowledge of pregnant mothers, the respondents accepted the building of more health

  10. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...

  11. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  12. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  13. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo...

  14. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Jung-Hyun Park,1 Yun-Jung Choi,1 Min-Hee Kang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim11Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice.Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc. At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions.Results: The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of

  15. What Can a Woman Do to Promote a Healthy Pregnancy Before She Gets Pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting pregnant? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Can you promote a healthy pregnancy before getting pregnant? ... getting pregnant, following a health care provider's advice can reduce the risk of problems during pregnancy and ...

  16. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Breastfeeding knowledge among working pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage pregnant women: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Derme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: teenage pregnancy is a worldwide social problem. The aim of this study is to provide more data for a better understanding of the possible maternal and foetal risks associated with teenage pregnancies.Methods: the hospital records of all pregnant women, aged between 14 and 19, from the obstetric registers of the Policlinico Umberto I Hospital in Rome, between 2000 and 2010, have been completely reviewed (n=184. For each pregnant woman socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy and birth outcomes were also determined. Our results were compared with a control group composed of 150 primigravida adult women aged 20-29 years who delivered at the Policlinico Umberto I Hospital in Rome in the same period.Results: the mean age ± SD of the study group was 17.9 ± 1.2, while that of the control group was 25.4 ± 2.4. The control group had a significantly lower risk of preterm delivery (p=0.000. The rate of low birth weight babies born to the young mothers was significantly higher than that of babies born to the adult mothers (p=0.036. The study group had a lower risk of instrumental delivery and a higher proportion of spontaneous delivery (p=0.000. Finally, we observed a statistically significant difference of the APGAR score at the fifth minute between the two groups (p=0.004.Conclusions: our results seemed to confirm the outcomes of previous studies for adolescent pregnant women, mainly regarding the increased risks of preterm deliveries and low birth weight babies, the higher incidence of spontaneous vaginal delivery and the lower incidence of instrumental delivery.

  19. Local treatment of chloasma in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shperling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the efficacy and safety of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration for the treatment of chloasma in pregnant women. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 pregnant women aged 18-36 (mean age: 24.7 with a normal course of pregnancy. The patients consulted a doctor in the spring, summer or fall complaining of focal skin hyperpigmentation on the face, chin and chest area. Ten patients (35.7% developed hyperpigmentation prior to their pregnancy and 18 women (64.3% - during the pregnancy. As of the consultation date, the pregnancy terms in all of the patients were 18-20 weeks. Chloasma was diagnosed by using dermatoscopy and skin examination with the Wood’s lamp. The patients were informed about the content and procedure of the study and gave their consent to take part in the study. Thin layers of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration were applied to the hyperpigmented skin of the patients and gently rubbed twice a day (in the morning and evening as topical treatment for four months. The treatment results were assessed taking into consideration the patient’s subjective assessment, study group structure depending on the clinical efficacy, percentage of adverse events, and survey results based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. To reveal any potential general toxicological effects of the treatment, hepatic samples, total blood count and coagulogram results were analyzed as a part of obstetrical and gynecologic care for pregnant women. Key findings. Positive dynamics of the following characteristics was revealed: subjective assessment of treatment results by the patients, clinical efficacy of treatment and life quality index. Therapeutic results were observed as early as after one month but not later than three months after the treatment began. The therapeutic efficacy was recorded in 92.9-96.4% of all cases after four months of treatment: pigment spots disappeared or

  20. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  1. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  2. Gender norms affect adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1997-01-01

    Gender roles of men and women are determined by the society they live in. Many organizations that work with adolescents and young adults are incorporating a gender perspective into sex education, service delivery, and provider training programs in order to improve the reproductive health of their target groups. Many societies place a higher value on males than females. In sub-Saharan African countries girls are expelled from school if they become pregnant. In Egypt 86% of 2300 women interviewed believed the beatings by husband are justified under some circumstances, and 31% reported being beaten during pregnancy. A study of 128 adolescents in Peru and 108 in Columbia found that 60% of them had been sexually abused within the previous year. Female circumcision jeopardizes reproductive health, yet some 2 million girls undergo the procedure annually. In Thailand, among more than 100 factory workers 15-24 years old, the majority of men said premarital intercourse was accepted, while young women said premarital intercourse was unacceptable. Many programs that incorporate gender have begun projects that empower girls. Better Life Options administered by the Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) provides information about sexuality, reproductive health, family planning and communication skills. The Young Men's Clinic, located in New York, aims to provide reproductive health services for men while also doing screening for tuberculosis or sickle-cell anemia. A report from the United Nations Population Fund states that men's services can be provided by minor adaptations to existing facilities. In Argentina the Foundation for Study and Research on Women offers education sessions on family planning and STDs to 50-100 secondary school students. In Gujarat, India, the Center for Health Education, Training and Nutrition Awareness incorporates gender into its health education workshops for young people ages 11-18. In these programs more equality in gender roles

  3. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  4. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  5. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  6. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yao

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  7. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Gan, Yu; Myers, Kristin M; Vink, Joy Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Hendon, Christine P

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  8. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Divasta, Amy D

    2017-06-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Although the majority of cases will resolve spontaneously, surgical correction may be an option for adolescents with persistent and problematic gynecomastia. Gynecomastia can have significant negative impact on one's self-esteem, and it is crucial that primary care providers screen adolescents with gynecomastia for mental health concerns. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the true incidence and prevalence of gynecomastia in adolescent males, and to further investigate the short-term and long-term physical and emotional effects of gynecomastia. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  10. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent Pregnancy among Ethnic Variants at Lumbini Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Shrestha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy is a common social phenomenon that results to both maternal and fetal related health consequences globally. Important factors affecting this high risk group of pregnancies are social, cultural, ethnic and racial disparities which may limit the care during pregnancy thereby affecting the perinatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to estimate the maternal and fetal outcome of adolescent pregnancies visiting Lumbini Medical college among ethnic variants of mid-western region. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital for one year duration. Data was retrieved from the medical records of the admitted adolescent pregnant mothers with hospital delivery after 20 weeks’ gestation. Variables of interest were the selective demographic characteristics like place of residence and ethnicity of women, parity, and obstetrical &fetal outcomes. Results: The total numbers of admission for deliveries during the study period were 1905, out of which 462 (24.3% were adolescent pregnancy. A total of 184 (39% adolescent mothers were at the age of 19 and 334 (72.2% of them were from Palpa district. The highest number of teenagers were from Janajati group i.e. 240 (52%. Among all, 38 (10% had preterm delivery and 7 (1.5% had intrauterine fetal death. While 407 (88.3% adolescent pregnancies had vaginal deliveries, 54 (11.7%of them had lower segment cesarean section (LSCS. Fifty-one (11.4% neonates had low birth weight (below 2500 gmand 11 (2.4% had stillbirths. Among the low birth weight, 32 (51% newborns were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Conclusions: Adolescent pregnancy is higher common in Palpa district of Nepal. Janajati adolescent girls are becoming pregnant early after marriage. Higher numbers of teenagers are 19 years of age and are primigravida. On reaching the tertiary center, obstetrical outcome is better with less maternal

  12. Public policy and adolescent pregnancy: a reexamination of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessoro, A C; Blixen, C E

    1996-01-01

    In the United States 45% of female adolescents engage in premarital sex; 40% will become pregnant before reaching the age of 20; and 4/5 of these pregnancies will be unintended. Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with increased health risks for both the mother and the child. Only 6 in 10 adolescents will graduate from high school compared with 9 in 10 of their peers who delayed parenthood. The increasing number of single-parent families has contributed significantly to the increase in child poverty rates from 15% in 1960 to 20.3% in 1988. Further, such families cost billions of dollars to taxpayers because of public assistance and medical care. From a historical viewpoint the number of teen childbearing reached a peak in 1957 with 97.3 births per 1000 women 15-17 years old; it declined to 52.8/1000 by 1977 and to 51.8/1000 by the 1980s. The legalization of abortion in 1973 had a major impact on the resolution of adolescent pregnancies. Since the 1960s there has been a faster increase in early sexual activity, pregnancy, and birth among White adolescents than among minority groups. The United States has higher rates than western European countries, while it is also more ambivalent on sexuality issues. Tremendous change did take place in the 1960s in American culture as regards the family, and social and sexual relationships. Yet there is still a double standard with respect to female morality, and adolescents get a conflicting message about sexuality. Teenage mothers and their infants face an uncertain economic future because the much maligned welfare system is undergoing an overhaul and the market is shrinking for unskilled workers. Although increasing numbers of pregnant adolescents remained in school after amendments were passed to the education act, adolescent pregnancy has not been tackled at its very footing, its socioeconomic causes.

  13. The Female Condom: Effectiveness and Convenience, Not "Female Control," Valued by U.S. Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-01-01

    Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…

  14. Adolescent Mothers in a Transitional Living Facility: An Exploratory Study of Support Networks and Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann E.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Downs, A. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Most of the research literature on attachment and adolescent transitions has addressed youth in family settings. This article explores these issues with a sample of 25 pregnant and parenting teens living in a transitional shelter. Using case records and interview data as well as results of standardized measures of depression, self-esteem, child…

  15. Marriage characteristics and reproductive health of adolescents in Turkey: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.

  16. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  17. A novel marker in pregnant with preeclampsia: renalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Yıldırım, Tolga; Yılmaz, Rahmi; Erdem, Yunus

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by an increase in high blood pressure and decrease in GFR and proteinuria, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Renalase is a recently discovered protein implicated in regulation of blood pressure in humans. Plasma concentrations of serum renalase were measured in healthy controls, healthy pregnant and pregnant with preeclampsia matched for age, gestational age, in the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum renalase levels were compared in pregnant with and without preeclampsia and non-pregnant controls. Factors associated with serum renalase levels in pregnancies were also evaluated. In healthy pregnant serum renalase levels were significantly higher than in controls. However, pregnant with preeclampsia had lower renalase levels than healthy controls. Serum renalase levels were inversely associated with blood pressure levels and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. The results indicated that the development of preeclampsia in pregnant is accompanied by altered serum renalase levels. High blood pressure and kidney damage that characterize this disorder are mediated at least in part by low renalase levels.

  18. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aguilar-Cordero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.

  19. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  20. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  1. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Use of the smartphone application "Pregnant with Diabetes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Nichum, Vibeke Ladefoged; Barfred, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to evaluate the awareness and use of the smartphone application (app) "Pregnant with Diabetes" locally, nationally and internationally. METHODS: In 2013, a patient initiated collaboration with the staff at Centre for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigs...... antenatal visit in early pregnancy at our centre. National and international data on numbers of downloads were obtained from Google Play, from the App Store and from Google Analytics. RESULTS: Among 139 pregnant women with diabetes (96 with Type 1 diabetes and 43 with Type 2 diabetes), 99% had a smartphone...

  3. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  4. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  5. Policies and attitudes toward the pregnant radiology resident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, S.; Freedman, M.T.; Arak, G.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate attitudes and policies toward pregnant radiology residents, a questionnaire was sent to the chiefs of radiology residency programs across the country. A return rate of 76.4% and a response rate of 75.4% were achieved. A large majority of the respondents indicated that schedule changes would be made to avoid excessive exposure of a pregnant resident to radiation. The accommodations they suggest are reviewed, and suggestions are made that would help alleviate some of the stress and conflicts that invariably arise when a resident becomes pregnant

  6. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  7. Mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara

    2018-03-21

    The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate:• the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and• the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs). We have presented all

  8. Adolescent pregnancy: intervention into the poverty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C L

    1974-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, irrespective of the marital status of the mother, seems to be a determining factor in the incidence of female headed households, divorce, excessive fertility, and poverty. In addition, the pregnant teenager is, obstetrically, a high risk patient, and her offspring, due to poor prenatal care and inadequate nutrition on the part of the mother, is likely to suffer in terms of physical and mental development. This in turn will lead to further poverty, which will continue the cycle. One way to interrupt the cycle may be by delaying the first birth to young adolescent girls. There are 3 stages at which prevention can take place: preventing intercourse, preventing conception, and terminating pregnancy. For the teenager, preventing conception seems the most feasible. Effforts to design family planning programs especially for teenager should be expanded. By this, 2 generation can benefit: the teenager herself and her potential offspring.

  9. Macroscopic morphometry of the corpus luteum of pregnant and non-pregnant zebu cows in the Colombian tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the volume, weight, measures, ovarian location and shape of the corpus luteum of pregnant and non - pregnant cows from zebu cows of the Colombian tropics. 528 reproductive tracts were collected; 264 pregnant and 264 non-pregnant of cows benefited at the local slaughterhouse in Monteria, Córdoba, Colombia. The period of collection of the samples was extended for three months. After collection of each reproductive tract, the ovaries were separated, identified as right and left, weighed and measured. Then the drawing of the location of the corpus luteum was performed on the ovary according to the anatomical planes previously established in the corresponding form. Subsequently the corpus luteum was removed to perform their measurements, weighings and visualization of their shape. There were statistical differences between the locations of the corpus luteum in the ovary: Anterior pole, posterior pole, free edge, upper face and lower face (p≤0.05. The weight and volume of gestational corpus luteum was greater by 30 and 27.9% than the corpus luteum of non-pregnant cows. The predominant form por shape of the corpus luteum in both pregnant and non-pregnant cows was oval, then pyramidal and finally rounded. No gestation was observed contralateral to the location of the corpus luteum.

  10. Comparative analysis between endometrial proteomes of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes during the peri-implantation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haichao; Sui, Linlin; Miao, Kai; An, Lei; Wang, Dong; Hou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Rui; Guo, Min; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jiqiang; Wu, Zhonghong; Tian, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure has a profound impact on both human reproductive health and animal production. 2/3 pregnancy failures occur during the peri-implantation period; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear. Well-organized modification of the endometrium to a receptive state is critical to establish pregnancy. Aberrant endometrial modification during implantation is thought to be largely responsible for early pregnancy loss. In this study, using well-managed recipient ewes that received embryo transfer as model, we compared the endometrial proteome between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes during implantation period. After embryo transfer, recipients were assigned as pregnant or non-pregnant ewes according to the presence or absence of an elongated conceptus at Day 17 of pregnancy. By comparing the endometrial proteomic profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes, we identified 94 and 257 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the endometrial caruncular and intercaruncular areas, respectively. Functional analysis showed that the DEPs were mainly associated with immune response, nutrient transport and utilization, as well as proteasome-mediated proteolysis. These analysis imply that dysfunction of these biological processes or pathways of DEP in the endometrium is highly associated with early pregnancy loss. In addition, many proteins that are essential for the establishment of pregnancy showed dysregulation in the endometrium of non-pregnant ewes. These proteins, as potential candidates, may contribute to early pregnancy loss.

  11. Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stek Alice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions

  12. [Social representations of Mexican pregnant teenagers about the puerperal care, lactation, and newborn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ramírez, Julieta A; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E; Zárate-Guerrero, Gabriel; Franco-Chávez, Sergio A; Covarrubias-Bermúdez, María Á; Zavala-González, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    Puerperal care and feeding of the newborn are guided by entrenched cultural meanings between women, so it is important to know and identify how they are acquired and perpetuated. Regarding this knowledge, the social representations that Mexican pregnant teenagers have about puerperium, lactation and newborn care were studied. An interpretative study was made based on principles of the theory of social representations. Interviews were conducted to obtain information from 30 Mexican adolescents who attended prenatal care at the gynecological obstetrics area in a second-level hospital during 2015. Classical content analysis strategies were applied to analyze the information; this process consisted of coding and categorizing information. A conceptual map was also developed to describe the social representations found. In this study, 190 codes and three social representations were identified: "breastfeeding is a practice based on myths", "newborns are fragile" and "mother and child must be synchronized". Three social representations were identified that explain the practices of adolescents towards breastfeeding and the care of them and their children, which were acquired through family communication and strengthened by the need for support due to the temporary or permanent absence of the couple, personal crises motivated by bodily changes, fear of new modifications due to breastfeeding and ignorance about how carry out breastfeeding and care during the puerperium. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  13. Prenatal diagnostic decision-making in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, Stacey L; Demarco, Kristin; Shulman, Lee P

    2005-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prenatal decision-making of pregnant adolescents identified at increased risk for identifiable fetal genetic abnormalities. A retrospective review of records of gravid women 19 years old or younger undergoing genetic counseling from 2001-2003 (inclusive) was undertaken. Hospital-based academic center. Thirty-seven women were identified; four cases did not meet inclusion criteria. None. Decision to undergo or forgo invasive prenatal testing. Of the 33 women included in this study, the average age was 17.6 years (range: 15-19). Eighteen were Latinas, eight were African-Americans, and seven were Caucasians. Sixteen women had positive maternal serum screening outcomes; nine women sought counseling because of personal/family histories of genetic abnormalities, seven sought counseling after fetal structural anomalies were detected by ultrasound, and one woman sought counseling because she and her partner were positive for Mendelian disorder screening (sickle cell disease). Sixteen of the women (48.5%) chose to undergo invasive testing (15 amniocenteses, one chorionic villus sampling) whereas 17 (51.5%) chose to forgo invasive testing. Adolescents offered invasive prenatal diagnosis will chose to undergo or forgo such testing based on diagnostic and personal criteria as do adult women. Nonetheless, unique adolescent issues may make the process by which information is obtained and communicated during counseling to be different from counseling provided to adults. The development of new genetic screening and diagnostic protocols has and will increase the number of pregnant adolescent women who will be offered genetic counseling during their pregnancies. Such an increase in numbers will place considerably more pressure on an already taxed genetic counseling system; accordingly, new counseling paradigms will need to be developed to provide service to an expanded patient population seeking information for an increasing number of genetic issues.

  14. Abnormal medical exposure in pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition to the ionizing radiations of women, during the gestational period constitutes, with some frequency, the reason for preoccupation for the future mother and the medical professionals in charge to take care of them. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionizing radiations is from singular importance, given its special vulnerability to this physical agent, whereas on the other hand the processing or diagnosis with ionizing radiations is beneficial for the mother, only is it indirectly for the embryo-fetus, that exposes itself to a risk in exchange for anything. This work gathers the experience obtained in the dosimetric clinical evaluation of twenty one pregnant patients submitted to diverse procedures of radiation diagnosis or nuclear medicine during years 1999-2000. The main results obtained demonstrate that 25% of the patients were put under nuclear medicine procedures with aims therapeutic or diagnoses. The gestational age of the patients oscillated between 4 and 12 weeks. It can be conclude that in all the case the dose receive by the patient in all the body not surpass the 2 mSv, reason why to, conjugated with the gestational age, not exist evidence of risk for the embryo-fetus paradoxically in all cases his doctors have indicated to the patients to make the interruption of his pregnancy, what demonstrate the ignorance of some of the professional of the health on the biological effect of the ionizing radiation during the prenatal exhibition

  15. Steroid metabolism in pregnant hamster. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchut, M.

    1980-01-01

    Quartered placentae from 12- and 15-day pregnant hamsters were incubated with 14 C labelled pregnenolone and progesterone and the products of their conversion were identified by chromatographic and isotope dilution methods. Pregnenolone was converted to progesterone, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, 7α-hydroxyprogesterone, 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione and 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione. Except for 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, the same metabolites were identified in the incubates of the placental tissue with progesterone. Thus, the activity of Δ 5 -3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δsup(5→4) isomerase, 7α-hydrΔ 4 -5β- and Δ 4 -5α-reductase enzyme systems was shown in the hamster placenta. The formation of androgens from pregnenolone, progesterone and their 17-hydroxy-derivatives was not observed. There was also no evidence of the formation of estrogens from the above C-21 steroid precursors. (author)

  16. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  17. 18FDG PET in a pregnant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, Barry

    2006-01-01

    A 26-year-old pregnant female presented with cervical adenopathy which was shown on biopsy to be Hodgkin's disease. As she had some systemic symptoms, It was decided to further stage her disease, with the options being allowing the pregnancy to continue, or terminating the pregnancy and treating immediately. To keep the radiation dose as low as possible, the administered dose of l8 FDG was reduced giving a total estimated dose to the fetus as 3.2 mGy and l37 Cs used as the source for attenuation correction rather than CT (dose estimated as 0.15mGy instead of 1.5 mGy) Total dose to the fetus was estimated as 3.4mGy. ICRP indicates that termination of pregnancy is not justified for radiation doses less than 100mGy. The findings confirm that an indicated PET scan may be performed in pregnancy at acceptable radiation dose. Relatively straightforward modification of the standard scanning protocol will reduce the estimated fetal dose. Copyright (2006) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine

  18. Immunisation Status Of Pregnant Women In Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav R. J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.

  19. Pregnant woman mode for absorbed fraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, R.J.; Snyder, W.S.; Watson, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most radiation-sensitive segment of our population is the developing fetus. Until recently, methods available for calculating the dose to the fetus were inadequate because a model for the pregnant woman was not available. Instead, the Snyder and Fisher model of Reference Man, which includes a uterus, was frequently used to calculate absorbed fractions when the source was in various organs of the body and the nongravid uterus was the target. These values would be representative of the dose to the embryo during the early stages of pregnancy. Unfortunately, Reference Man is considerable larger than Reference Woman. The authors recently reported on the design of a Reference Woman phantom that has dimensions quite similar to the ICRP Reference Woman. This phantom was suitable for calculating the dose to the embryo during early stages of pregnancy (0 to 3 mo.), but was not suitable for the later stages of pregnancy because of the changing shape of the mother and the displacement of several abdominal organs brought about by the growth of the uterus and fetus. The models of Reference Woman that were subsequently developed for each month of pregnancy are described. The models take into account the growth of the uterus and fetus and the repositioning of the various abdominal organs. These models have been used to calculate absorbed fractions for the fetus as a target and the gastrointestinal tract as a source of radiation for twelve photon energies ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV

  20. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  1. the unbooked pregnant woman: experience from a rural tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pregnant women who presented at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital over a five year period. Five ... of preventive medicine and an important component of maternal health. The range of activities covered by ANC includes nutrition,.

  2. Designing a Pregnancy Care Network for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Khanum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All pregnant women need easy access to pregnancy-related personalized information, on-time quality healthcare services and effective communication links with healthcare providers. Smartphone-based devices, communication systems and eHealth applications can play an important role in facilitating some of these services to pregnant women in a fast and efficient way and can thus prevent most of the pregnancy-related complications. The objective of this work is to propose and design a pregnancy care network for pregnant women and healthcare providers. The network model, an eHealth application based on smartphone-based devices and communication systems, is designed to strengthen communication links between health professionals and pregnant women and increase education, awareness and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

  3. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  4. CARDIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gaisin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of specialized management of pregnant women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the Udmurt Republic (UR of Russia.Material and methods. In prospective and retrospective study we investigated pregnancy outcomes in all 17948 women in management system created for pregnant patients with CVD in the UR from 2000 to 2007. The system comprises specialized outpatient and inpatient departments and an obstetric hospital within the regional cardiological centre. Pregnant women had different CVD including hypertension, congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, noncoronary myocardial disease, disorders and autoimmune diseases of connective tissue, etc.Results. Perinatal mortality decreased by 41,1% from 11,2‰ in 2000 to 6,6‰ in 2007. During 8 years, no one woman died.Conclusion. The management system for pregnant women with CVD within the regional cardiological clinic makes it possible to reduce of maternal and perinatal mortality rates significantly. 

  5. Perioperative care of a pregnant trauma victim: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-03

    May 3, 2004 ... (until proven otherwise) in any female trauma patient of child- ... The perioperative management of pregnant trauma victims re- ... trauma, abdominal trauma, head injury, cervical spine injury, fetal injury, gun shot wounds, blunt.

  6. prevalence of malarial parasites in pregnant women attending sir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keyword: Prevalence, Malarial Parasite, Pregnant Women, Kano. INTRODUCTION ... protective semi-immunity against plasmodium falciparum is acquired during the first 10-. 15 years of life and .... hiding place for the mosquito? It is therefore ...

  7. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... of pregnant women in General Hospital Kiru, Kiru. Local Government .... AACC, American Association for Clinical Chemistry,. 2012. ... Animal. Reproductive Science. 72: pp. 235. Das, S. C. and Isechei, U. P. (1996). Serum ...

  8. Accommodation and Occupational Safety for Pregnant Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuiston, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    ... (commonly referred to as Pregnant Women's Study or PWS) is a cooperative effort between the United States Air Force 74th Medical Group, Armstrong Laboratory's Computenzed Anthropomernc Research and Design (CARD...

  9. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is still a major health problem during pregnancy in Ihiala Local Government Area ... Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of pregnant women on malaria, ... Oral interviews and observations were used to retrieve information from the ...

  10. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    making, and practices among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at ... HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health challenge, as it directly and ..... Community groups conduct nutrition education for HIV- positive people.

  11. Falls among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... Key words: Enugu, falls, Nigeria, pregnant women, prevalence, risk factors .... in which someone is paid some wages (salary) at specific intervals, for example .... initiated the process of filling the existing gap on falls during.

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal ... Majigo Mtebe, Nyambura Moremi, Jeremiah Seni, Stephen E. Mshana. Abstract. In developing countries there is no routine screening of hepatitis B virus ...

  13. determinants of first antenatal care visit by pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... Subjects: Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care ... convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to ... identifying maternal education, employment, age,.

  14. Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women. ... Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress and anxiety, as well as the association that exists between stress/anxiety and ... from 32 Countries:.

  15. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  16. Pregnant women's attitudes toward influenza vaccination while breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Pregnant women and postpartum women who are breastfeeding could benefit from receiving information and recommendations specific to vaccination from their healthcare providers, with a focus on discussing known risks and benefits to the baby's health.

  17. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.

  18. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes at a ... Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2017) > ... in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the duration of hospital stay between the two groups.

  19. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women towards antenatal care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to explore pregnant women`s knowledge ... A qualitative, exploratory approach was used. ... Trustworthiness was ensured by considering the criteria of credibility, dependability, applicability and transferability.

  1. Medicinal Plants used during Antenatal Care by Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. ... Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Antenatal, Traditional Birth Attendants, Uganda. Résumé ..... phenomenon, possibly due to their availability and.

  2. Pain Management in the Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safley, Rebecca R; Swietlikowski, Jamie

    Opioid dependence is an epidemic in the United States, and the percentage of pregnant women who are opioid dependent has increased dramatically in the last decade. Pain management, already a concern for intrapartum and postpartum care, is complicated in the context of opioid dependence. This clinical review surveys the literature on pain management in opioid-dependent pregnant women to summarize current consensus and evidence to guide clinical practice. Points of consensus for pain management in opioid-dependent pregnant women include continual opioid maintenance therapy throughout the pregnancy and the postpartum period; adequate management of acute pain; the contraindication of opioid agonist-antagonists for pain management; and the need for interdisciplinary teams using a multimodal approach to provide optimal care to opioid-dependent pregnant women.

  3. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, Teratogens, Pregnant Yemeni women, Folic acid deficiency. Tropical Journal of ..... United Arab Emirates (UAE) have published rates of awareness .... emphasis on good hygiene in the American population.

  4. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Knowledge of folic acid deficiency among pregnant women in Mukalla District of Yemen is relatively low. ... low level of folate during pregnancy are at risk for poor pregnancy .... 5 pregnancies and only 0.7% had more than 10.

  5. Outcome of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ozdogan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to review the sociodemographic characteristics, maternal, natal and postnatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancy. Subjects and method: The records of all adolescent pregnancies (aged 13–19 years delivered at Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, over a period of two years were reviewed. Structured survey was conducted with adolescent mothers over the phone. Results: The incidence of adolescent pregnancy was 7.06%; 91.1% of the cases were reported to be married. Consanguineous marriage was found to be 27.6%. Maternal anaemia was detected in 43.1% of cases. Premature birth rate was 6.3%. The rate of Cesarean section was 31.8%. Adolescent mothers were categorized into two groups: 17 years and below and above 17 years. The maternal, natal and postnatal outcomes were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions: Health policies should be revised and improved to take the necessary steps for providing adequate health services for adolescents and for improving prenatal, natal and postnatal care of pregnant adolescents.

  6. Ambivalent messages: adolescents' perspectives on pregnancy and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda Elizabeth; Jelenewicz, Shameeka M; Ma, Alice; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Houston, Avril Melissa; Paluzzi, Pat

    2013-07-01

    To examine, from a youth's perspective, adolescent pregnancy and parenting in Baltimore, Maryland, a city with high rates of adolescent pregnancy. Six gender-stratified focus groups with 13- to 19-year-olds (4 female and 2 male groups; n = 47). We recorded focus groups, transcribed them verbatim, and analyzed them using the constant comparison method. Participants completed questionnaires to collect demographic and behavioral information. Results fit into a social-ecological framework. Individual (e.g., contraceptive use behaviors, religion), interpersonal (e.g., peer norms, maintaining male partners), and community (e.g., clinic factors, perceptions of community) level influences on adolescent pregnancy emerged. Participants discussed contradictory messages that were often gendered in their expectations; for instance, women were responsible for not getting pregnant and raising children. Adolescents expressed beliefs both against (e.g., challenging to complete school) and supporting early childrearing (e.g., religion). Recommendations for addressing the different influences included mentors, education, and community resources. Adolescents' perspectives and values regarding pregnancy and parenting may not mirror traditional and expected norms for pregnancy and requirements for raising a child. These findings challenge the framing of existing interventions as they may not accurately reflect adolescents' values regarding pregnancy and parenting, and thus may need to be modified to highlight positive attitudes toward contraception and postponing pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Access and use of interventions to prevent and treat malaria among pregnant women in Kenya and Mali: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hill

    Full Text Available Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage.Focus group discussions (FGDs were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15-49 years, pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data.Women and men's perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy.Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable

  8. Exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, S.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs

  9. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  10. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    María José Aguilar-Cordero; Tania Rivero-Blanco; Norma Mur-Villar; Raquel Rodríguez-Blanque; María Dolores Moraleda-Hurtado; Luis Emilio Fernández-Curbero; Antonio Manuel Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth...

  11. Use of the smartphone application "Pregnant with Diabetes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Nichum, Vibeke Ladefoged; Barfred, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to evaluate the awareness and use of the smartphone application (app) "Pregnant with Diabetes" locally, nationally and internationally. METHODS: In 2013, a patient initiated collaboration with the staff at Centre for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigs-hos...... by Novo Nordisk, Bayer A/S, Diabetes Care, Abbott, MSD Denmark, A.D.I.P.S and Rigshospitalet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  12. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...... consequently be punished less harshly. This article concerns the first part of the model: the relation between immaturity and diminished responsibility. It is argued that this relation faces three normative challenges which do not allow for easy answers and which are still widely ignored in the comprehensive...

  13. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, t...

  14. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  15. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  16. Pattern of vitamin D among Pakistani pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, J.A.; Zaidi, S.A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women. Five studies were included for the final analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was common and highly prevalent among Pakistani pregnant women and their neonates. The main reasons for this were found to be avoiding sun exposure, quality of diet, and lower intake of calcium. Maternal vitamin D supplementation was found to be a key intervention to improve the maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. These review findings can be emerging in ensuring the adequate vitamin D level for Pakistani pregnant women during pregnancy, ultimately to achieve positive maternal and neonate's health outcomes. (author)

  17. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  18. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  20. Antenatal services for pregnant teenagers in Mbarara Municipality, Southwestern Uganda: health workers and community leaders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Abaasa, Catherine; Natukunda, Peace Byamukama; Ashabahebwa, Bob Harold; Allain, Dominic

    2015-12-23

    Globally, about 11% of all annual births involve adolescents aged 15-19 years. Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stakeholders' views concerning factors affecting availability, accessibility and utilization of teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara Municipality, southwestern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). It was conducted in three divisions of Mbarara Municipality. The KIIs were held six Village Health Team (VHT) members, three gynecologists, six midwives, three Community leaders (LC 3 Secretaries for women affairs), one police officer from the Family and Child protection unit at Mbarara Police and three Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Data analysis was done manually by identifying emergent themes which were later coded and organized into concepts which were later developed into explanations. Reproductive health stakeholders generally considered teenage pregnancy to be among the high risk pregnancies that need to be handled with care. In addition, the reproductive health workers described their experience with teenagers as challenging due to their limited skills when it comes to addressing adolescent-specific needs. Adolescent-friendly services were defined as those that could provide privacy, enough time and patience when dealing with teenagers. With this description, there were no teenager-friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality at the time of the study. There is need for proactive steps to establish these services if the needs of this subgroup are to be met. There are no teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality and few teenagers access and utilise the available general antenatal services. There is need for specialized training for health workers who deal with pregnant teens in Mbarara Municipality in order for them to provide teenager friendly services.

  1. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  2. [Is it ethically acceptable to invite a pregnant woman to enroll in a clinical trial with Tdap if it could entail not being vaccinated with Tdap before delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Pertussis incidence has increased in recent years, especially among infants aged <2months. A number of Spanish regions have started a vaccination program with Tdap vaccine to all pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. An observational study has shown that this strategy reduces the number of cases of pertussis by 90% in infants aged <2months. Mathematical models showed that a cocooning strategy (i.e. vaccination of the mother at immediate postpartum, and other adults and adolescents who have close contact with the newborn and caregivers) will reduce the incidence of pertussis by 70% in infants aged <2months. It is intended to conduct a clinical trial in which 340 pregnant women will receive Tdap vaccine, whereas another 340 pregnant woman will be vaccinated soon after delivery. Vaccination with Tdap will be offered to all partners and caregivers of the newborn. After assessing both the ethical and scientific reasons supporting the trial, it is concluded that it is ethically and legally acceptable to invite pregnant women living in communities where Tdap vaccination has been implemented to participate in the trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS ‎molecular capsular serotype ‎and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier ‎women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.‎. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would ‎be ‎relevant ‎for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregna...

  5. Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A

    2017-09-01

    Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  7. Metabolism of whole body protein in pregnant and non-pregnant gilts using 15N-glycine single-dose end-product method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu De; Liu Huifang; Zhou Anguo; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng

    2007-01-01

    The metabolism of whole-body protein for pregnant and non-pregnant gilts was investigated using single-dose of 15 N-glycine end-product method. The results showed that there were no differences (P>0.05) in protein dynamic metabolism, amino acids utilization rate between pregnant and non-pregnant gilts at breeding. However, N flux, protein turnover rate, protein synthesis rate and breakdown rate of pregnant gilts were lower (P<0.05) than those of non-pregnant gilts at 30days after breeding, but the protein aggradiation's rate increased by 25% (P<0.05). During late gestation, N flux, protein turnover rate, protein synthesis rate and breakdown rate of pregnant sows were significantly increased (P<0.01), and protein aggradation's rate increased by 71.1%, compared with that of non-pregnant gilts. (authors)

  8. Adolescent Health, Global Guidelines Versus Local Realities: The Sub-Saharan Africa Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Van der Putten, Marc; Vajanapoom, Nitaya

    2013-12-03

    As the field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) evolves, further discussion and documentation of national policy and aspects of its implementation is needed to ensure effectiveness of interventions. Further research is required to foster beneficial shifts in policy advocacy, including resource allocation, and in the prioritization of adolescent programs in health and education systems, in communities and in workplaces. Adolescents are exposed to diverse interventions across all the countries under discussion; however there exist obstacles to realization of ASRH goals. In some countries, there exist a conflict of interest between national laws and global policy guidelines on ASRH; moreover national laws and policies are ambiguous and inconsistent. In addition, there have been strong negligence of vulnerable groups such as HIV positive adolescents, pregnant street youth; young sex workers; orphans; adolescents in conflict areas; adolescent refugees; adolescent girls working in the informal sectors and very young adolescents, likewise many adolescents in rural areas remain largely underserved. Furthermore there are consistently less disaggregated data available on adolescents' key indicators for comparative purposes signifying considerable knowledge gaps. There are multiple obstacles to the realization of ASRH and need for research combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to determine the extent to which factors are either conducive or impeding to consistency between global guidelines, national ASRH policies, and actual policy implementation.

  9. Adolescent homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  10. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  11. IMMUNOGENICITY OF ADJUVANT INFLUENZA VACCINE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Kostinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against

  12. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

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    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  13. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  14. Cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant women: obstetrical and therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidova Iu.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study the effectiveness and safety of the use of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy in pregnant women with cholestatic hepatosis. Patients and methods. A total of 42 pregnant women, who were under outpatient and inpatient treatment in the department of obstetric problems of extragenital pathology for the period of 2013–2015 years were comprehensively examined. All pregnant at the time of observation were at the end of the II and III trimester of pregnancy. All 42 pregnant were divided into three groups. Results. For the end of the treatment by Ursonost preparation in the first and second group of pregnant was marked a general improvement of well-being such as reduction of fatigue, weakness, dyspepsia and pruritus. Also, was noted a normalization of blood biochemical parameters. Conclusions. As a result of the inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy was observed a significant improvement in overall well-being and normalization of blood biochemical parameters in women of the first and second test groups. Application of the proposed medical complex in the present groups of pregnant women allowed to seize the results of the pregnancy outcomes and almost avoiding premature delivery. Effectiveness and safety of the use of preparation during the pregnancy allow recommend inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy to the treatment regimen of cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant.

  15. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, S.; Farasat, T.; Fazal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  16. Vitamin D levels among pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha

    2013-12-01

    To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.

  17. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  18. Associations among Adult Attachment Presentations, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant-Mother Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…

  19. Prevalence and severity of anemia and iron deficiency: cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, T.; Kariuki, S. K.; Kurtis, J. D.; Oloo, A. J.; Kager, P. A.; ter Kuile, F. O.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a major public health concern in preschool children and pregnant women in the developing world. While many studies have examined these two at-risk groups, there is a paucity of data on anemia in adolescents living in developing countries in the complex ecologic context of

  20. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sensitivity to ionizing radiation is greater during intrauterine stages of development than at other stages in the life of the mammalian organism. For this reason, the NCRP recommends special care in patient selection in certain cases of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. For women of child-bearing capacity, the physician requesting a radiological or nuclear medicine examination involving the lower abdominal or pelvic region should ascertain whether the patient is, or could be, pregnant. Further, the NCRP recommends that physicians tell their premenopausal patients that, if they are likely to have nuclear medicine studies or x-ray examinations of the lower abdomen, it is generally advisable that they not run a risk of pregnancy until two months after the studies are carried out. Modification of an examination for dose reduction is warranted only if it reasonably can be done without significant jeopardy to the medical care of the patient and/or her unborn child

  1. The elderly, the young and the pregnant traveler -- A retrospective data analysis from a large Swiss Travel Center with a special focus on malaria prophylaxis and yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Veronika K; Tschudi, Nadine; Rüegg, Rolanda; Hatz, Christoph; Bühler, Silja

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable individuals such as elderly, children/adolescents and pregnant/breastfeeding women increasingly travel overseas. We describe the travel and vaccination patterns of these groups at the largest Travel Clinic in Switzerland especially focusing on travel to yellow fever and malaria-endemic countries, and yellow fever vaccination (YFV) and malaria medications. An analysis of pre-travel visits between 2010 and 2012 at the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich, was performed assessing differences between the elderly, young and middle-aged travelers as well as between pregnant/breastfeeding and other female travelers. Overall, the vulnerable groups did not differ from other travelers regarding their travel patterns. YFV was the most often administered vaccine to elderly travelers; half of them received it for the first time. More than 30% of children/adolescents received YFV, but no child below six months was vaccinated. 80% of young travelers and a similar percentage of pregnant women went to malaria-endemic regions. Twenty-five pregnant/breastfeeding women traveled to YF endemic areas. Travel patterns of vulnerable travelers are comparable to those of other travelers. In view of the limited data on malaria medications and precautions against YFV during pregnancy and at the extreme ages of life, giving travel advice to these groups is challenging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  3. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  4. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  5. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  6. Tuberculosis care for pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.

  7. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  8. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  9. Serum markers thrombophilia in pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.

  10. Mental status in pregnant women with brain injury sequels

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    A. A. Volynkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473. 

  11. Health-related behaviors among pregnant women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The healthy and unhealthy behaviors of a pregnant woman influence both her own health and that of her unborn child, affecting its future development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension.   Material i method. The study was performed between November 2011 and February 2012 and included 80 hypertensive pregnant women hospitalized in a high risk pregnancy ward. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Results. Statistical analyses showed a correlation between the respondents’ health-related behaviors and their socio-demographic characteristics: exercise was correlated with age (p=0.01, and rest during the day was correlated with support in everyday responsibilities (p<0.00001, and with the respondents’ socio-economic standing (p=0.03. Correlations were also found between healthy eating habits and residence (0.006, education (p=0.05, and sodium intake (p=0.0003, as well as between education and substance use (p=0.0003. Conclusion. Health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension are influenced by their education, support they receive in daily responsibilities, and their socio-economic standing. The diagnosis of hypertension in pregnant women does not necessarily prompt them to discontinue all unhealthy behaviors.

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  13. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use.

  14. Reproductive health outcomes of insured adolescent and adult women who access oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W; Goler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    To assess the level of risk for adolescents and women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and women aged 15-44 years who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531 (67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127 (56.6%) adolescents and women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264 (10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for adolescents and women who accessed it through the call center-1,569 (10.8%) and office visits-695 (10.1%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056 (9.6%) adolescents and women became pregnant. Adolescents and women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however, they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.60). Among adolescents and women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689 (7.8%) and 928 (7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Protocols to routinely address unmet needs for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits, including visits with primary care providers, should be investigated.

  15. Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-18

    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  17. Office diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorsten, J P; Bannister, E R

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant patients can virtually eliminate pyelonephritis, the most common medical cause for antepartum hospitalization. However, the ever-increasing cost of the urine culture has led most clinicians away from routine urine screening. Uricult dip-slide paddles provide an inexpensive, efficient way to screen urine. Clean-catch urine specimens were obtained from 544 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant patients seen in the outpatient obstetric clinic at the Medical University of South Carolina. Specimens were analyzed by both traditional culture techniques and the Uricult dip-slide paddles. By comparison, the Uricult test detected 55 of the 56 significant gram-negative urinary pathogens found by culture. Detection of potential gram-positive pathogens is more difficult. A scheme is proposed that allows reliable, inexpensive surveillance in all pregnant patients. Hopefully, this algorithm will rekindle the obstetrician's interest in urine screening.

  18. Pilates workouts can reduce pain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviani, Ika

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises for a decreasing pain in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women were divided into two groups, a control group (followed a standard pregnancy exercise regimen) and a Pilates group (completed a Pilates exercise regimen). A pain assessment was carried out after exercise, using a visual analog scale. The Pilates group workout program lasted 70-80 min per day, once a week, for 8 weeks. The reduction in the level of pain was found to be significantly greater in the group of pregnant women who completed the Pilates workout (p Pilates is an effective, healthy, and feasible method of reducing pain in pregnancy, and is therefore a beneficial alternative workout for the suppression of pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

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    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  20. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  1. Differential endometrial gene expression in pregnant and nonpregnant sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    obtained from the endometrium of pregnant sows and sows inseminated with inactivated semen. Analysis of the microarray data revealed 263 genes to be significantly differentially expressed between the pregnant and nonpregnant sows. Most gene ontology terms significantly enriched at pregnancy had allocated...... more up-regulated genes than down-regulated genes. These terms included developmental process, transporter activity, calcium ion binding, apoptosis, cell motility, enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway, positive regulation of cell proliferation, ion homeostasis, and hormone activity. Only...... in the process of placentation. Pregnancy-specific localization of IL11RA to the surface epithelium of the endometrium suggests a role of interleukin 11 signaling in formation of the porcine epitheliochorial placenta. Furthermore, up-regulation of FGF9 mRNA in pregnant endometrium and localization of FGF9...

  2. PRESENT DAY CONCERNS ON DIET OF PREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of women at pregnancy and delivery is known to provide basis for normal healthy growth and development of their children. Deficiency of animal proteins, vegetable fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (as b-carotine, А, Е, С, В2, В6, В12, folic acid, as well as calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, chrome, selenium, iodine and other microelements have been shown in the studies of actual diets of pregnant and nursing mothers in different regions of Russia, which was conducted by scientific research institute of nutrition, Russian academy of medical sciences. Methods of diet improvement to correct macro- and micronutrient deficiency in pregnant and nursing mothers, including use of specialized food products, are taken up in the article.Key words: diet, pregnant mothers, nursing mothers, nutritive support.

  3. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  4. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal......BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case......-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted...

  5. Adolescent health, global guidelines versus local realities: the Sub-Saharan Africa experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaya Vajanapoom

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH evolves, further discussion and documentation of national policy and aspects of its implementation is needed to ensure effectiveness of interventions. Further research is required to foster beneficial shifts in policy advocacy, including resource allocation, and in the prioritization of adolescent programs in health and education systems, in communities and in workplaces. Adolescents are exposed to diverse interventions across all the countries under discussion; however there exist obstacles to realization of ASRH goals. In some countries, there exist a conflict of interest between national laws and global policy guidelines on ASRH; moreover national laws and policies are ambiguous and inconsistent. In addition, there have been strong negligence of vulnerable groups such as HIV positive adolescents, pregnant street youth; young sex workers; orphans; adolescents in conflict areas; adolescent refugees; adolescent girls working in the informal sectors and very young adolescents, likewise many adolescents in rural areas remain largely underserved. Furthermore there are consistently less disaggregated data available on adolescents’ key indicators for comparative purposes signifying considerable knowledge gaps. There are multiple obstacles to the realization of ASRH and need for research combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to determine the extent to which factors are either conducive or impeding to consistency between global guidelines, national ASRH policies, and actual policy implementation.

  6. Effect of indomethacin on the pregnant rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Damasceno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance, liver morphological study and post mortem characteristics of the pregnant Wistar rats treated with indomethacin, a general COX inhibitor. Indomethacin at doses of 0 (control, 0.32, 1.68 and 8.40 mg/kg/day were orally given once daily to each group (n=10 on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy (day 0 = first day of pregnancy = positive vaginal sperm. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia on day 11 of pregnancy, and were carried out necropsy and microorganism culture study. The results showed that the doses of 0.32 and 1.68 mg/kg body weight (the therapeutic dose for humans of indomethacin caused no embryotoxic or lethal effects. The highest dose (8.40 mg/kg of indomethacin disturbed implantation process and, thus, interrupted major development in some fetuses. The peritonitis was detected in the necropsy and in the bacteriological study of the animals treated with 8.4 mg/kg. It was considered death cause of these animals. Thus, this study analyzed a pharmacological agent on pregnancy in rodents and it provided some evidences that indomethacin presented embryotoxic and lethal effects at a high dose, but it was safe in the therapeutic dose used for humans.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance reprodutiva, estudo morfológico do fígado e características " post mortem" de ratas Wistar prenhes tratadas com indometacina, um inibidor geral de COX. Indometacina foi administrada oralmente, nas doses de 0 (controle, 0,32, 1,68 e 8,40 mg/kg/dia (n=10/grupo, nos dias 3 e 4 de prenhez (dia 0 = primeiro dia de prenhez = esperma positivo. Os animais foram eutanasiados sob anestesia no 11º dia de prenhez, e foram realizadas necropsia e cultura de microorganismos. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de 0,32 e 1,68 mg/kg de peso corpóreo (dose terapêutica para humanos de indometacina não causaram efeitos embriotóxicos ou letais. A maior dose (8,40 mg/kg de indometacina

  7. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  8. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P dream-associated behaviors (P dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation

  9. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. NEW METHOD OF PREVENTION OF IRONDEFENSE ANEMIA IN PREGNANT TEENS

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    E. S. Mikhaylin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of the method proposed by the authors for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women. In the first stage, 593 histories of childbirth were retrospectively analyzed (group 1 — minors 13-15 years (n = 49, 2 group — minors 16-17 (n = 434, 3rd group — middle reproductive age (n = 110 . In the second stage, a prospective study of the frequency and structure of anemia of pregnant women was carried out (group 1 — minors aged 13-15 years (n = 17, group 2 — minors 16-17 (n = 127, 3rd group — women of middle reproductive age (n = 110. At the III stage, minor pregnant women were divided into two groups: in 1 (main group (n = 144, iron deficiency anemia was prevented according to the method we proposed; in the 2nd group (comparison group traditional therapy with iron preparations was carried out at the appearance of signs of anemia. The essence of the proposed method is that an minor pregnant woman, without waiting for laboratory signs of anemia, is examined for ferritin in venous blood, and at a value below 35 ng/ml, oral iron preparations are prescribed in conventional preventive doses for a period of 3 months, and if through three months the content of ferritin in the venous blood is again below 35 ng/ml — the intake of iron-containing preparations continues for another 3 months. The use of the proposed method contributed to a significant decrease in the incidence of anemia in minor pregnant women. The proposed method of preventing iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women helps to reduce the frequency and severity of anemia in this complex category of patients. 

  11. Studies of dental and oral changes of pregnant diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G

    1987-01-01

    The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women.

  12. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  13. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  14. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral G. Nogayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  15. Use of the smartphone application "Pregnant with Diabetes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Nichum, Vibeke Ladefoged; Barfred, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -hospitalet, to develop the app "Pregnant with Diabetes". The app communicates clinically important antenatal health information to women with diabetes, based on recommendations from our centre. Women with pre-existing diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) completed an anonymous, structured questionnaire at their first...... antenatal visit in early pregnancy at our centre. National and international data on numbers of downloads were obtained from Google Play, from the App Store and from Google Analytics. RESULTS: Among 139 pregnant women with diabetes (96 with Type 1 diabetes and 43 with Type 2 diabetes), 99% had a smartphone...

  16. Variant-specific immunity to Plasmodium berghei in pregnant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2009-01-01

    for recrudescence-type IEs are related to the protection of pregnant mice from maternal anemia, low birth weight, and decreased litter size. We conclude that the model replicates many of the key parasitological and immunological features of PAM, although the P. berghei genome does not encode proteins homologous...... to the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 adhesins, which are of key importance in P. falciparum malaria. The study of P. berghei malaria in pregnant, immune mice can be used to gain significant new insights regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity in general and regarding PAM in particular....

  17. Missed Opportunities For Immunization In Children And Pregnant Women

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    Benjamin A I

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of immunization in reducing childhood mortality cannot be over-emphasised, yet many opportunities for immunization are missed when children and pregnant women visit a health facility. Reducing missed opportunities is the cheapest way to increase immunization coverage. The present study discusses the extent of the problem of missed opportunities for immunization in children and pregnant women and the factors contributing to the problem, in spatiality and community outreach clinics of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Recommendations are made regarding ways and means of reducing missed opportunities.

  18. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Gaszyńska; Justyna Klepacz-Szewczyk; Elżbieta Trafalska; Anna Garus-Pakowska; Franciszek Szatko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Det...

  19. First Trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  20. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  1. Exposure of pregnant women working on cathodic screen VDTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 μSv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units [fr

  2. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  3. Spirituality in adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wratchford, Dale

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years. By giving explicit attention to the contextual norms surrounding adolescence and still recognizing each adolescent-aged patient as unique, palliative care teams can help adolescents transition toward meaningful and sustainable spiritual growth. This paper reviews the clinical and research implications relevant to integrating adolescent spiritual health as part of comprehensive palliative care.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of intended adolescent pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian maternity experiences survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekharan, Vineeth S; Kim, Theresa H M; Oulman, Elizaveta; Tamim, Hala

    2015-11-05

    There is limited research focusing on adolescent women who intended to become pregnant, as majority of research examines unintended adolescent pregnancies. The objective was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of Canadian adolescent women who intended to become pregnant. The analysis was based on the national 2006 Maternity Experiences Survey consisting of women who had a singleton live birth. The sample was restricted to adolescent women between 15 to 19 years of age. The main outcome of this study was the adolescent woman's pregnancy intention. A variety of sociodemographic, maternal, and pregnancy related factors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were reported for all variables. The sample size was 290, weighted to represent 2224 adolescent women. Based on the adjusted model, the odds of experiencing an intended pregnancy were increased if the adolescent woman was between 18-19 years old (OR 2.62, 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57), had a partner (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.99), experienced no violence/abuse (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 1.38, 6.86), and consumed no alcohol before pregnancy (OR 3.17, 95 % CI 1.56, 6.45). Additionally, adolescent women who reported drug use prior to pregnancy were more likely to have an intended pregnancy (OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.95). The findings from this study can be used as the basis for future research to investigate the characteristics and needs represented by this group of adolescents and to aid in the development of effective policies and programs.

  5. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-29

    Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to

  6. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-01-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy

  7. Abnormal vaginal flora in symptomatic non-pregnant and pregnant women in a Greek hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.

  8. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  9. Comparison of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I J; Jun, J; Kim, E M; Lee, K Y; Kim, N; Chung, M H; Choi, Y R; Choi, E M

    2018-05-01

    This study set out to compare the onset and duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women receiving general anesthesia. Forty-seven pregnant (Group P) and forty-seven non-pregnant (Group C) women were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and neuromuscular blockade was assessed with an accelerometric sensor using train-of-four stimulation (TOF-Watch® SX). Tracheal intubation was performed at maximum depression of the first twitch (T1) and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2.5% and 50% oxygen in air. We recorded the times to maximum T1 depression and 5% and 25% T1 recovery, as well as the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at baseline, injection of rocuronium, intubation, and 5% and 25% T1 recovery. The onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (time to maximum T1 depression) did not differ significantly between the groups. The duration (time to 25% T1 recovery) was significantly longer in Group P than in Group C (45.7 ± 12.9 min vs 40.6 ± 10.4 min, P rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade did not significantly differ in onset but lasted significantly longer in second trimester pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  11. Tritium ingestion as organically bound tritium (OBT) - incorporation in different organs of pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Pollaris, K.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kowalska, M.

    1998-01-01

    For a better understanding of the hazard of tritium, its bound form in the food constituents (organically bound tritium (OBT)) has not been investigated though study on tritiated water are many. Hence an evaluation of the uptake of tritium incorporated in basic constituents of food viz, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids is warranted. Present study cells with the incorporated three organically bound tritium components separated from tritiated milk powder (casein, butter and lactose). This is further compared in the organs of pregnant (after parturition) and non-pregnant rats

  12. Subtle differences in selective pressures applied on the envelope gene of HIV-1 in pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, Doris G; Lord, Etienne; Caty, Martine; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc; Diallo, Abdoulaye Baniré; Soudeyns, Hugo

    2018-04-17

    Pregnancy is associated with modulations of maternal immunity that contribute to foeto-maternal tolerance. To understand whether and how these alterations impact antiviral immunity, a detailed cross-sectional analysis of selective pressures exerted on HIV-1 envelope amino-acid sequences was performed in a group of pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 44) HIV-infected women in absence of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Independent of HIV-1 subtype, p-distance, dN and dS were all strongly correlated with one another but were not significantly different in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant patients. Differential levels of selective pressure applied on different Env subdomains displayed similar yet non-identical patterns between the two groups, with pressure applied on C1 being significantly lower in constant regions C1 and C2 than in V1, V2, V3 and C3. To draw a general picture of the selection applied on the envelope and compensate for inter-individual variations, we performed a binomial test on selection frequency data pooled from pregnant and non-pregnant women. This analysis uncovered 42 positions, present in both groups, exhibiting statistically-significant frequency of selection that invariably mapped to the surface of the Env protein, with the great majority located within epitopes recognized by Env-specific antibodies or sites associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity. The median frequency of occurrence of positive selection per site was significantly lower in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Furthermore, examination of the distribution of positively selected sites using a hypergeometric test revealed that only 2 positions (D137 and S142) significantly differed between the 2 groups. Taken together, these result indicate that pregnancy is associated with subtle yet distinctive changes in selective pressures exerted on the HIV-1 Env protein that are compatible with transient modulations of maternal

  13. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Dan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Methods Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Results Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived, difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving, accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving, or failure (despairing, and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Conclusion Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  14. Fasting guidelines for diabetic children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Kiswhar; Mohsin, Fauzia; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zabeen, Bedowra; Ahmad, Jamal; Raza, Syed Abbas; Tayyeb, Samin; Bajaj, Sarita; Ishtiaq, Osama; Kalra, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar). During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM) who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician. PMID:22837907

  15. Fasting guidelines for diabetic children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiswhar Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri till sunset (Iftar. During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician.

  16. Sero-prevalence of IgM antibody to Rubella Virus in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-09-05

    Sep 5, 2014 ... Rubella is a contagious viral infection, which in pregnant women leads to infection of a developing fetus .... health care administrators and providers in. Nigeria to initiate a ... oral consent was obtained from both pregnant and ...

  17. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  18. Serum urea and uric acid concentration in pregnant women in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant blackAfrican women. Uric acid levels for the pregnant women were significantly raised, and the relationship between uric acid elevation and gestational proteinuric hypertensionwas discussed. In conclusion, we recommend that uric acid ...

  19. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  20. O vivenciar da gravidez na adolescência Pregnancy in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender como a adolescente grávida vivencia essa situação. Foram sujeitos 15 adolescentes grávidas de 14 a 19 anos, atendidas em Unidade Básica. A essas adolescentes foi feita uma pergunta orientadora “O que é para você vivenciar uma gravidez na adolescência” ? Os dados revelaram, entre outros, que a gravidez na adolescência impede uma melhor formação profissional; que em relação à família acarreta transtornos muitos fortes, principalmente no aspecto emocional, e ainda que a adolescente se depara com duas crises a enfrentar: a fase de adaptação da adolescência e a da vivência de uma gravidez precoce. A gravidez na adolescência como mostrou este estudo apresenta repercussões de ordem tanto físicas como emocionais, culturais econômicas e sociais. As falas das adolescentes revelaram a necessidade de programas de prevenção, de orientação e informação em relação à gravidez na adolescência; a métodos contraceptivos, partos e sexualidade entre outrosThis research is an attempt to understand the problem of early pregnancy from teenager’s point of view. It aims at understanding how the pregnant teenager feels about such an experience. Fifteen pregnant young women, 14 to 19 years old, attended to in a Health Unit, are the subjects of the research. A question was asked these teenagers: What does experiencing teenage pregnancy mean to you? Data revealed that teenage pregnancy impairs a good professional formation; nurtures deep disruptions in the family, especially of an emotional character; brings together two serious crises, or rather, the adaptation phase of adolescence and the experiencing of early pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy has physical, cultural, economical, social and emotional repercussions. Teenagers’ interviews show the extreme need of prevention, orientation and information programs regarding early pregnancy, contraceptive methods, childbirth, sexuality and

  1. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  2. Ureteroscopy for treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.K. Fathelbab

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... Loin pain and colic were the most common presenting symptoms (90.2%). Twenty-seven patients (65.9%) ... of urinary tract-related abdominal pain in pregnant women with a reported prevalence of .... or a laser lithotriptor, a long lasting JJ stent (PercuflexTM, Boston. Scientific Corp., USA) was left until the ...

  3. Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  5. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  6. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  7. Being targeted as a “severely overweight pregnant woman”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Drude Skov; Sandøe, Peter; Holm, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 have been tar-geted in health-care systems in many western countries as a high- risk group. However, we have limited knowledge of the long-term significance of this prenatal care policy. Objective: To investigate accounts women gi...

  8. Sero-epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and ... Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have been exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, with the ..... observation that food-borne transmission of T. gondii is increasingly recognized as a potentially.

  9. Histological changes in the endometrial of pregnant Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a changed uterine morphometry and its application to the endometrial structure of a pregnant rat. The number and the size of uterine gland and blood vessels changed during the pregnancy period of the rat. This effect on day 15 was significantly changed in the different groups. When the endometrial ...

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  11. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. An underestimated threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Feuchter, Germán; Robles-Torres, Rosa Evangelina; Ruelas-Morán, Andrés; Gómez-Alcalá, Alejandro V

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pregnancy complication. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can trigger the development of serious complications affecting both the mother and the fetus. Determine the frequency of AB among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at the family medicine clinic number 1 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, located in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. A longitudinal study was carried out from September to December 2004. Seventy-two 72 pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or less were followed up during four months. All pregnant women were selected by a non-probabilistic method. Every patient had a monthly urine culture during the follow up period. Among the 72 pregnant women, 16.7% developed symptomatic urinary infections during the follow-up and 25% had at least one positive urine culture without urinary symptoms, being classified as AB, thus receiving treatment. Frequency of positive urine cultures was common at first and fourth months of follow-up. Urine culture is an important component of prenatal care, and helps in identifying a significant number of urinary tract infections that would go otherwise undetected.

  12. Periodontal Status and Some Variables among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the frequency of periodontitis among pregnant women, ranging from 35% to ... Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Abstract .... by the stress and anxiety during pregnancy, which may lead to a neglect of .... Khader YA, Al‑shishani L, Obeidat B, Khassawneh M,.

  13. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  14. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...

  15. Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Kintampo Health Research Centre, B/A, Ghana, 2Ensign College of Public ... knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana ... information on HBV and the least source of information were places of worship (2.7%) ... (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is known to be safe and.

  16. Prevalence and Pattern of Back Pain among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr S.B. OLALEYE

    Back pain is (BP) is recognized as an important problem in pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of back pain. (BP) in pregnancy. A survey of 2,187 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in selected Medical facilities in Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Nigeria was carried out ...

  17. Knowledge and attitude towards smoking of pregnant women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Diamanti

    2017-05-01

    Having not being informed and helped adequately, a significant percentage of pregnant women continued to smoke throughout their pregnancy. The failure in imposing the clean indoor air law in public places in Greece has also contributed to the increased passive smoking exposure.

  18. Should Ultrasonography be Done Routinely for all Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positive findings on ultrasound were significantly greater in the group with specific indications for scanning, P< 0.001. Conclusion: Our suggestion is that ultrasound examination in pregnant women should be performed only when there are clear obstetric reasons, established clinically. Key Words: obstetric ultrasound scan, ...

  19. A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and maternity staff regarding the presence of birth companions during labour and delivery. ... Conclusion: The involvement of birth companions supporting women during childbirth could be promoted as a low cost preventive intervention to improve maternal and ...

  20. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical protozoan disease of public health importance. This study estimated the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ...