WorldWideScience

Sample records for pregnane called diginane

  1. Pregnane glycosides from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    1997-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata, one of the most common Agavaceae plants, has resulted in the isolation of four new pregnane glycosides. Their structures have been determined by spectroscopic analysis and acid- and alkaline-catalysed hydrolysis to be 1 beta,3 beta-dihydroxypregna-5,16-dien-20-one glycosides. This is believed to be the first report of the isolation of the pregnane glycosides from a plant of the family Agavaceae.

  2. Synthesis of 20-14C 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraffo, H.M.; Gros, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    20 - 14 C 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one was synthesised by condensing 3β-acetoxy-5β-androstan-17-one with potassium 14 C cyanide to produce cyanohydrin. This was dehydrated and the resulting unsaturated nitrile treated with methylmagnesiumiodide to produce hydroxypregnenone. Hydrogenation of this gave 14 C 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one. (U.K.)

  3. Environmental phthalate monoesters activate pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Christopher H.; Waxman, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Phthalate esters, widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride, induce reproductive and developmental toxicities in rodents. The mechanism that underlies these effects of phthalate exposure, including the potential role of members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is not known. The present study investigates the effects of phthalates on the pregnane X receptor (PXR), which mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The ability of phthalate monoesters to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in a HepG2 cell reporter assay following transfection with mouse PXR (mPXR), human PXR (hPXR), or the hPXR allelic variants V140M, D163G, and A370T. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) increased the transcriptional activity of both mPXR and hPXR (5- and 15-fold, respectively) with EC 50 values of 7-8 μM. mPXR and hPXR were also activated by monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, up to 5- to 6-fold) but were unresponsive to monomethyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate (M(n)BP) at the highest concentrations tested (300 μM). hPXR-V140M and hPXR-A370T exhibited patterns of phthalate responses similar to the wild-type receptor. By contrast, hPXR-D163G was unresponsive to all phthalate monoesters tested. Further studies revealed that hPXR-D163G did respond to rifampicin, but required approximately 40-fold higher concentrations than wild-type receptor, suggesting that the ligand-binding domain D163G variant has impaired ligand-binding activity. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by phthalate monoesters demonstrated here suggests that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals

  4. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease via the pregnane X receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianxie; Wang, Yuguang; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Tang, Xianglin; Hu, Donghua; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) (C19H18O3) is one of the major active lipophilic components in a conventional Chinese medicine called danshen, and it has long been used in the People’s Republic of China and other neighboring countries to treat patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous experiments by many teams determined which mechanism of Tan IIA is relevant to the treatment of IBD associated with inflammation and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The current study demonstrated that Tan IIA is an efficacious PXR agonist and its ability to induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein expression was mediated by the transactivation of PXR, a known target of abrogating inflammation in IBD. Clinical symptoms in mice and histological assessment data suggested that administration of Tan IIA in mice demonstrated significant protection and showed that in DSS-induced IBD it acts in a concentration-dependent manner. PXR-silenced mice treated with Tan IIA demonstrated low protection against DSS-induced mouse IBD and exacerbated the severity of IBD compared with wild-type mice; PXR-silenced mice demonstrated the necessity for PXR in Tan IIA-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes. The IBD treatment effects of Tan IIA are partially due to PXR-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory mediators. The novel findings reported here may contribute to the effective utilization of Tan IIA and its derivatives as a PXR ligand in the treatment of human IBD. This suggests that Tan IIA may have considerable clinical utility. PMID:26674743

  5. Functional evolution of the vitamin D and pregnane X receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Junhai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vitamin D receptor (VDR and pregnane X receptor (PXR are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1I subfamily that show contrasting patterns of cross-species variation. VDR and PXR are thought to have arisen from duplication of an ancestral gene, evident now as a single gene in the genome of the chordate invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (sea squirt. VDR genes have been detected in a wide range of vertebrates including jawless fish. To date, PXR genes have not been found in cartilaginous fish. In this study, the ligand selectivities of VDRs were compared in detail across a range of vertebrate species and compared with those of the Ciona VDR/PXR. In addition, several assays were used to search for evidence of PXR-mediated hepatic effects in three model non-mammalian species: sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, zebrafish (Danio rerio, and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. Results Human, mouse, frog, zebrafish, and lamprey VDRs were found to have similar ligand selectivities for vitamin D derivatives. In contrast, using cultured primary hepatocytes, only zebrafish showed evidence of PXR-mediated induction of enzyme expression, with increases in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity (a measure of cytochrome P450 3A activity in other species and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activity (measure of cytochrome P450 2C activity following exposure to known PXR activators. A separate assay in vivo using zebrafish demonstrated increased hepatic transcription of another PXR target, multidrug resistance gene (ABCB5, following injection of the major zebrafish bile salt, 5α-cyprinol 27-sulfate. The PXR target function, testosterone hydroxylation, was detected in frog and sea lamprey primary hepatocytes, but was not inducible in these two species by a wide range of PXR activators in other animals. Analysis of the sea lamprey draft genome also did not show evidence of a PXR gene. Conclusion Our results show tight conservation of ligand

  6. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug ...

  7. Effects of pregnane glycosides on food intake depend on stimulation of the melanocortin pathway and BDNF in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarnytsky, Slavko; Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-02-27

    Pregnane glycosides appear to modulate food intake by possibly affecting the hypothalamic feeding circuits; however, the mechanisms of the appetite-regulating effect of pregnane glycosides remain obscure. Here, we show that pregnane glycoside-enriched extracts from swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata at 25-100 mg/kg daily attenuated food intake (up to 47.1 ± 8.5% less than controls) and body weight gain in rats (10% for males and 9% for females, respectively) by activating melanocortin signaling and inhibiting gastric emptying. The major milkweed pregnane glycoside, ikemagenin, exerted its appetite-regulating effect by decreasing levels of agouti-related protein (0.6-fold) but not NPY satiety peptides. Ikemagenin treatment also increased secretion of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) downstream of melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus (1.4-fold) and in the C6 rat glioma cell culture in vitro (up to 6-fold). These results support the multimodal effects of pregnane glycosides on feeding regulation, which depends on the activity of the melanocortin signaling pathway and BDNF.

  8. 16,17-Seco- and 2,3:16,17-di-seco-pregnanes from Guarea guidonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Walmir Silvan; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: wgarcez@nin.ufms.br; Soares, Luzinatia Ramos [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Two new seco- and di-seco-pregnanes, 2{alpha},3{beta}-dihydroxy-16,17-seco-pregn-17-ene-16-oic acid methyl ester 2{beta},19-hemiketal (1) and 2,3:16,17-di-seco-pregn-17-ene-3-oic acid-16-oic acid methyl ester-19-hydroxy-2-carboxylic acid-2,19-lactone (2), have been obtained from the trunk bark of Guarea guidonia. Their structures have been established by a combination of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques and MS data. The unique seco- and di-seco-pregnane carbocyclic skeletal types as found in compounds 1 and 2 are being reported in the Meliaceae for the first time as well as the occurrence of pregnanes in the genus Guarea. (author)

  9. Pregnane steroids from a gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa with anti-flu virus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Ren, Jinwei; Huang, Qixi; Long, Hailin; Jin, Hongwei; Zhang, Liangren; Liu, Huagang; van Ofwegen, Leen; Lin, Wenhan

    2016-04-01

    Five new pregnane-type steroids namely subergorgols T-X (1-5) and three known analogues (6-8) were isolated from a gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analyses, in association with photochemical transformation and ECD methods for the configurational assignment. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for the inhibitory effects against H1N1 virus infected in MDCK cells, while subergorgols T-U and 1,2-dehydroprogesterone exerted potent inhibition against A/WSN/33 virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Verticillosides A-M: Polyoxygenated pregnane glycosides from Asclepias verticillata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Binns, Franklin; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2012-06-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to explore the chemical diversity of plants of the United States Midwest region, the isolation and identification of 13 pregnane glycosides named verticillosides A-M from Asclepias verticillata L. are reported. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and HRMS. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against paired breast cell lines Hs578T (cancer) and Hs578Bst (normal), however, no significant growth inhibition was observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Computational Docking to Identify Pregnane X Receptor Agonists in the ToxCast Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kortagere, Sandhya; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Reschly, Erica J.; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Mani, Sridhar; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Background The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key transcriptional regulator of many genes [e.g., cytochrome P450s (CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2B6), MDR1] involved in xenobiotic metabolism and excretion. Objectives As part of an evaluation of different approaches to predict compound affinity for nuclear hormone receptors, we used the molecular docking program GOLD and a hybrid scoring scheme based on similarity weighted GoldScores to predict potential PXR agonists in the ToxCast database of pesticides...

  12. Calle Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Importante arteria, que comunica el sector del puerto con la plaza. Las más imponentes construcciones se sucedían de un modo continuo, encaramándose a ambos lados de la empinada calle. Antes del gran incendio de 1936 grandes casonas de madera destacaban en calle Irarrázabal y en la esquina de ésta con calle Blanco, la más hermosa construcción pertenecía a don Alberto Oyarzún y la casa vecina hacia Blanco era de don Mateo Miserda, limitada por arriba con la casa de don Augusto Van Der Steldt y ésta era seguida de la casa de don David Barrientos provista de cuatro cúpulas en las esquinas y de un amplio corredor en el frontis. Todas estas construcciones de madera fueron destruidas en el gran incendio de 1936.

  13. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. → PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. → SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. → PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  14. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  15. Pregnanes and other constituents of the roots of Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis Junior, Luiz Roberto de; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva

    2013-01-01

    Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze is a plant popularly known as 'velame'. Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12β-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12β-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E)-8(Z)-dienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8α-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids. (author)

  16. Marine and Semi-Synthetic Hydroxysteroids as New Scaffolds for Pregnane X Receptor Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sepe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many sterols with unusual structures and promising biological profiles have been identified from marine sources. Here we report the isolation of a series of 24-alkylated-hydroxysteroids from the soft coral Sinularia kavarattiensis, acting as pregnane X receptor (PXR modulators. Starting from this scaffold a number of derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their ability to activate the PXR by assessing transactivation and quantifying gene expression. Our study reveals that ergost-5-en-3β-ol (4 induces PXR transactivation in HepG2 cells and stimulates the expression of the PXR target gene CYP3A4. To shed light on the molecular basis of the interaction between these ligands and PXR, we investigated, through docking simulations, the binding mechanism of the most potent compound of the series, 4, to the PXR. Our findings provide useful functional and structural information to guide further investigations and drug design.

  17. Acid epimerization of 20-keto pregnane glycosides is determined by 2D-NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Victor P., E-mail: vpergarw@gobiernodecanarias.org [Instituto de Productos Naturales de Canarias, Departamento de Quimica de Productos Naturales y Biotecnologia (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Carbohydrates influence many essential biological events such as apoptosis, differentiation, tumor metastasis, cancer, neurobiology, immunology, development, host-pathogen interactions, diabetes, signal transduction, protein folding, and many other contexts. We now report on the structure determination of pregnane glycosides isolated from the aerial parts of Ceropegia fusca Bolle (Asclepiadaceae). The observation of cicatrizant, vulnerary and cytostatic activities in some humans and animals of Ceropegia fusca Bolle, a species endemic to the Canary Islands, encouraged us to begin a pharmacological study to determine their exact therapeutic properties. High resolution {sup 1}H-NMR spectra of pregnane glycosides very often display well-resolved signals that can be used as starting points in several selective NMR experiments to study scalar (J coupling), and dipolar (NOE) interactions. ROESY is especially suited for molecules such that {omega}{tau}{sub c} {approx} 1, where {tau}{sub c} are the motional correlation times and {omega} is the angular frequency. In these cases the NOE is nearly zero, while the rotating-frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) is always positive and increases monotonically for increasing values of {tau}{sub c}. The ROESY shows dipolar interactions cross peaks even in medium-sized molecules which are helpful in unambiguous assignment of all the interglycosidic linkages. Selective excitation was carried out using a double pulsed-field gradient spin-echo sequence (DPFGSE) in which 180 Degree-Sign Gaussian pulses are sandwiched between sine shaped z-gradients. Scalar interactions were studied by homonuclear DPFGSE-COSY and DPFGSE-TOCSY experiments, while DPFGSE-ROESY was used to monitor the spatial environment of the selectively excited proton. Dipolar interactions between nuclei close in space can be detected by the 1D GROESY experiment, which is a one-dimensional counterpart of the 2D ROESY method. The C-12 and C-17 configurations were

  18. Endocrine disruptors induce cytochrome P450 by affecting transcriptional regulation via pregnane X receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikamo, Eriko; Harada, Shingo; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nishihara, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes for cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and organic anion-transporting peptide 2 (OATP2). These genes control the metabolism (CYP3A subfamily) and aspects of the pharmacokinetics (MDR1 and OATP2) of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Since PXR is important in understanding the actions of endocrine disruptors (EDs), we determined the ability of suspected EDs to interact with PXR. In our study, 7 of 54 xenobiotics compounds interacted with PXR, including methoxychlor and benzophenone. All of the chemicals activated PXR in vitro and induced CYP3A mRNA in the male rat liver. In addition, CYP2C11 was also induced by some PXR agonists and converted methoxychlor into xenoestrogen. These findings suggest that some EDs affect sex hormone receptor indirectly by induction of metabolic enzyme via PXR, to produce rapidly higher concentrations of effective metabolites, leading to disturbance of the endocrine system

  19. Effects and mechanisms of 3α,5α,-THP on emotion, motivation, and reward functions involving pregnane xenobiotic receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progestogens [progesterone (P4 and its products] play fundamental roles in the development and/or function of the central nervous system during pregnancy. We, and others, have investigated the role of pregnane neurosteroids for a plethora of functional effects beyond their pro-gestational processes. Emerging findings regarding the effects, mechanisms, and sources of neurosteroids have challenged traditional dogma about steroid action. How the P4 metabolite and neurosteroid, 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, influences cellular functions and behavioral processes involved in emotion/affect, motivation, and reward, is the focus of the present review. To further understand these processes, we have utilized an animal model assessing the effects, mechanisms, and sources of 3α,5α-THP. In the ventral tegmental area (VTA, 3α,5α-THP has actions to facilitate affective, and motivated, social behaviors through non-traditional targets, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine receptors. 3α,5α-THP levels in the midbrain VTA both facilitate, and/or are enhanced by, affective and social behavior. The pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR mediates the production of, and/or metabolism to, various neurobiological factors. PXR is localized to the midbrain VTA of rats. The role of PXR to influence 3α,5α-THP production from central biosynthesis, and/or metabolism of peripheral P4, in the VTA, as well as its role to facilitate, or be increased by, affective/social behaviors is under investigation. Investigating novel behavioral functions of 3α,5α-THP extends our knowledge of the neurobiology of progestogens, relevant for affective/social behaviors, and their connections to systems that regulate affect and motivated processes, such as those important for stress regulation and neuropsychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, drug dependence. Thus, further understanding of 3α,5α-THP’s role and mechanisms to enhance affective and motivated

  20. Human pregnane X receptor is activated by dibenzazepine carbamate-based inhibitors of constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Judith; Windshügel, Björn; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Unintentional activation of xenosensing nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by clinical drug use is known to produce severe side effects in patients, which may be overcome by co-administering antagonists. However, especially antagonizing CAR is hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors, which do not activate PXR. Recently, compounds based on a dibenzazepine carbamate scaffold were identified as potent CAR inhibitors. However, their potential to activate PXR was not thoroughly investigated, even if the lead compound was named "CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1" (CINPA1). Thus, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the interaction of CINPA1 and four analogs with PXR. Cellular assays were used to investigate intra- and intermolecular interactions and transactivation activity of PXR as a function of the compounds. Modulation of PXR target gene expression was analyzed in primary human hepatocytes. Ligand binding to PXR was investigated by molecular docking and limited proteolytic digestion. We show here that CINPA1 induced the assembly of the PXR ligand-binding domain, released co-repressors from and recruited co-activators to the receptor. CINPA1 and its analogs induced the PXR-dependent activation of a CYP3A4 reporter gene and CINPA1 induced the expression of endogenous cytochrome P450 genes in primary hepatocytes, while not consistently inhibiting CAR-mediated induction. Molecular docking revealed favorable binding of CINPA1 and analogs to the PXR ligand-binding pocket, which was confirmed in vitro. Altogether, our data provide consistent evidence that compounds with a dibenzazepine carbamate scaffold, such as CINPA1 and its four analogs, bind to and activate PXR.

  1. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  2. CINPA1 is an inhibitor of constitutive androstane receptor that does not activate pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-05-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Pregnane X Receptor-Humanized Mice Recapitulate Gender Differences in Ethanol Metabolism but Not Hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruiell, Krisstonia; Gyamfi, Afua A; Yeyeodu, Susan T; Richardson, Ricardo M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Gyamfi, Maxwell A

    2015-09-01

    Both human and rodent females are more susceptible to developing alcoholic liver disease following chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion. However, little is known about the relative effects of acute EtOH exposure on hepatotoxicity in female versus male mice. The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a broad-specificity sensor with species-specific responses to toxic agents. To examine the effects of the human PXR on acute EtOH toxicity, the responses of male and female PXR-humanized (hPXR) transgenic mice administered oral binge EtOH (4.5 g/kg) were analyzed. Basal differences were observed between hPXR males and females in which females expressed higher levels of two principal enzymes responsible for EtOH metabolism, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and two key mediators of hepatocyte replication and repair, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. EtOH ingestion upregulated hepatic estrogen receptor α, cyclin D1, and CYP2E1 in both genders, but differentially altered lipid and EtOH metabolism. Consistent with higher basal levels of EtOH-metabolizing enzymes, blood EtOH was more rapidly cleared in hPXR females. These factors combined to provide greater protection against EtOH-induced liver injury in female hPXR mice, as revealed by markers for liver damage, lipid peroxidation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These results indicate that female hPXR mice are less susceptible to acute binge EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity than their male counterparts, due at least in part to the relative suppression of cellular stress and enhanced expression of enzymes involved in both EtOH metabolism and hepatocyte proliferation and repair in hPXR females. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  4. Possible involvement of pregnane X receptor–enhanced CYP24 expression in drug-induced osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascussi, Jean Marc; Robert, Agnes; Nguyen, Minh; Walrant-Debray, Odile; Garabedian, Michèle; Martin, Pascal; Pineau, Thierry; Saric, Jean; Navarro, Fréderic; Maurel, Patrick; Vilarem, Marie Josè

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D controls calcium homeostasis and the development and maintenance of bones through vitamin D receptor activation. Prolonged therapy with rifampicin or phenobarbital has been shown to cause vitamin D deficiency or osteomalacia, particularly in patients with marginal vitamin D stores. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is unknown. Here we show that these drugs lead to the upregulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24) gene expression through the activation of the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2). CYP24 is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for inactivating vitamin D metabolites. CYP24 mRNA is upregulated in vivo in mice by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile and dexamethasone, 2 murine PXR agonists, and in vitro in human hepatocytes by rifampicin and hyperforin, 2 human PXR agonists. Moreover, rifampicin increased 24-hydroxylase activity in these cells, while, in vivo in mice, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile increased the plasma concentration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Transfection of PXR in human embryonic kidney cells resulted in rifampicin-mediated induction of CYP24 mRNA. Analysis of the human CYP24 promoter showed that PXR transactivates the sequence between –326 and –142. We demonstrated that PXR binds to and transactivates the 2 proximal vitamin D–responsive elements of the human CYP24 promoter. These data suggest that xenobiotics and drugs can modulate CYP24 gene expression and alter vitamin D3 hormonal activity and calcium homeostasis through the activation of PXR. PMID:15630458

  5. Call Forecasting for Inbound Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vinje

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of inbound call center customer service, the ability to forecast calls is a key element and advantage. By forecasting the correct number of calls a company can predict staffing needs, meet service level requirements, improve customer satisfaction, and benefit from many other optimizations. This project will show how elementary statistics can be used to predict calls for a specific company, forecast the rate at which calls are increasing/decreasing, and determine if the calls may stop at some point.

  6. QSAR model for human pregnane X receptor (PXR) binding: Screening of environmental chemicals and correlations with genotoxicity, endocrine disruption and teratogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Wedebye, Eva Bay

    2012-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) has a key role in regulating the metabolism and transport of structurally diverse endogenous and exogenous compounds. Activation of PXR has the potential to initiate adverse effects, causing drug–drug interactions, and perturbing normal physiological functions...

  7. The human pregnane X receptor: genomic structure and identification and functional characterization of natural allelic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Kuehl, P; Green, E D; Touchman, J W; Watkins, P B; Daly, A; Hall, S D; Maurel, P; Relling, M; Brimer, C; Yasuda, K; Wrighton, S A; Hancock, M; Kim, R B; Strom, S; Thummel, K; Russell, C G; Hudson, J R; Schuetz, E G; Boguski, M S

    2001-10-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR)/steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcriptionally activates cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) when ligand activated by endobiotics and xenobiotics. We cloned the human PXR gene and analysed the sequence in DNAs of individuals whose CYP3A phenotype was known. The PXR gene spans 35 kb, contains nine exons, and mapped to chromosome 13q11-13. Thirty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified including six SNPs in the coding region. Three of the coding SNPs are non-synonymous creating new PXR alleles [PXR*2, P27S (79C to T); PXR*3, G36R (106G to A); and PXR*4, R122Q (4321G to A)]. The frequency of PXR*2 was 0.20 in African Americans and was never found in Caucasians. Hepatic expression of CYP3A4 protein was not significantly different between African Americans homozygous for PXR*1 compared to those with one PXR*2 allele. PXR*4 was a rare variant found in only one Caucasian person. Homology modelling suggested that R122Q, (PXR*4) is a direct DNA contact site variation in the third alpha-helix in the DNA binding domain. Compared with PXR*1, and variants PXR*2 and PXR*3, only the variant PXR*4 protein had significantly decreased affinity for the PXR binding sequence in electromobility shift assays and attenuated ligand activation of the CYP3A4 reporter plasmids in transient transfection assays. However, the person heterozygous for PXR*4 is normal for CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype. The relevance of each of the 38 PXR SNPs identified in DNA of individuals whose CYP3A basal and rifampin-inducible CYP3A4 expression was determined in vivo and/or in vitro was demonstrated by univariate statistical analysis. Because ligand activation of PXR and upregulation of a system of drug detoxification genes are major determinants of drug interactions, it will now be useful to extend this work to determine the association of these common PXR SNPs to human variation in induction of other drug detoxification gene targets.

  8. Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human pregnane X-receptor in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, Emma Jane; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shen, Danny D.; Tracy, Julia; Shuhart, Margaret C.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Eaton, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), is an effective in vitro antagonist of ligand activation of the human pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR). PXR mediated CYP3A4 up-regulation is implicated in adverse drug-drug interactions making identification of small molecule antagonists a desirable therapeutic goal. SFN is not an antagonist to mouse or rat PXR in vitro; thus, normal rodent species are not suitable as in vivo models for human response. To evaluate whether SFN can effectively antagonize ligand activation of human PXR in vivo, a three-armed, randomized, crossover trial was conducted with 24 healthy adults. The potent PXR ligand — rifampicin (300 mg/d) was given alone for 7 days in arm 1, or in daily combination with 450 μmol SFN (Broccoli Sprout extract) in arm 2; SFN was given alone in arm 3. Midazolam as an in vivo phenotype marker of CYP3A was administered before and after each treatment arm. Rifampicin alone decreased midazolam AUC by 70%, indicative of the expected increase in CYP3A4 activity. Co-treatment with SFN did not reduce CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with SFN alone also did not affect CYP3A4 activity in the cohort as a whole, although in the subset with the highest basal CYP3A4 activity there was a statistically significant increase in midazolam AUC (i.e., decrease in CYP3A4 activity). A parallel study in humanized PXR mice yielded similar results. The parallel effects of SFN between humanized PXR mice and human subjects demonstrate the predictive value of humanized mouse models in situations where species differences in ligand-receptor interactions preclude the use of a native mouse model for studying human ligand-receptor pharmacology. -- Highlights: ► The effects of SFN on PXR mediated CYP3A4 induction in humanized PXR mice and humans were examined. ► SFN had no effect on rifampicin mediated CYP3A4 induction in humans or humanized mice. ► SFN had a modest effect on basal CYP3A4 activity among subjects with higher baseline activity. ► Humanized PXR

  9. Novel receptor targets for production and action of allopregnanolone in the central nervous system: a focus on pregnane xenobiotic receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids are cholesterol-based hormones that can be produced in the brain, independent of secretion from peripheral endocrine glands, such as the gonads and adrenals. A focus in our laboratory for over 25 years has been how production of the pregnane neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is regulated and the novel (i.e. non steroid receptor targets for steroid action for behavior. One endpoint of interest has been lordosis, the mating posture of female rodents. Allopregnanolone is necessary and sufficient for lordosis, and the brain circuitry underlying it, such as actions in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA, has been well-characterized. Published and recent findings supporting a dynamic role of allopregnanolone are included in this review. First, contributions of ovarian and adrenal sources of precursors of allopregnanolone, and the requisite enzymatic actions for de novo production in the central nervous system will be discussed. Second, how allopregnanolone produced in the brain has actions on behavioral processes that are independent of binding to steroid receptors, but instead involve rapid modulatory actions via neurotransmitter targets (e.g. -amino butyric acid-GABA, n-methyl-D-aspartate- NMDA will be reviewed. Third, a recent focus on characterizing the role of a promiscuous nuclear receptor, pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR, involved in cholesterol metabolism and expressed in the VTA, as a target for allopregnanolone and how this relates to both actions and production of allopregnanolone will be addressed. For example, allopregnanolone can bind PXR and knocking down expression of PXR in the midbrain VTA attenuates actions of allopregnanolone via NMDA and/or GABAA for lordosis. Our understanding of allopregnanolone’s actions in the VTA for lordosis has been extended to reveal the role of allopregnanolone for broader, clinically-relevant questions, such as neuropsychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and aging.

  10. A Concentration Addition Model to Assess Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) by Pesticide Mixtures Found in the French Diet

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luci...

  11. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E

    1995-12-01

    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  12. Call Center Capacity Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Bang

    in order to relate the results to the service levels used in call centers. Furthermore, the generic nature of the approximation is demonstrated by applying it to a system incorporating a dynamic priority scheme. In the last paper Optimization of overflow policies in call centers, overflows between agent......The main topics of the thesis are theoretical and applied queueing theory within a call center setting. Call centers have in recent years become the main means of communication between customers and companies, and between citizens and public institutions. The extensively computerized infrastructure...... in modern call centers allows for a high level of customization, but also induces complicated operational processes. The size of the industry together with the complex and labor intensive nature of large call centers motivates the research carried out to understand the underlying processes. The customizable...

  13. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  14. Epigenetic impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis: a pregnane X receptor-centric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsley, Robert N; Zhou, Changcheng

    2017-10-01

    Despite the major advances in developing diagnostic techniques and effective treatments, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While considerable progress has been achieved to identify gene variations and environmental factors that contribute to CVD, much less is known about the role of "gene-environment interactions" in predisposing individuals to CVD. Our chemical environment has significantly changed in the last few decades, and there are more than 100,000 synthetic chemicals in the market. Recent large-scale human population studies have associated exposure to certain chemicals including many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with increased CVD risk, and animal studies have also confirmed that some EDCs can cause aberrant lipid homeostasis and increase atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of how exposure to those EDCs influences CVD risk remain elusive. Numerous EDCs can activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) that functions as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate host xenobiotic metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated the novel functions of PXR in lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis. In addition to directly regulating transcription, PXR has been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Exposure to many EDCs can also induce epigenetic modifications, but little is known about how the changes relate to the onset or progression of CVD. In this review, we will discuss recent research on PXR and EDCs in the context of CVD and propose that PXR may play a previously unrealized role in EDC-mediated epigenetic modifications that affect lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis.

  15. Intracellular localization of pregnane X receptor in HepG2 cells cultured by the hanging drop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobori, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Azuma, Ikuko; Akita, Hidetaka; Chiba, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is localized in the cytoplasm of liver cells, whereas it is localized in the nucleus of monolayer-cultured HepG2 cells. Since cultured cells are affected by the microenvironment in which they are grown, we studied the effect of three-dimensional (3D) culture on the localization of PXR in HepG2 cells using the hanging drop method. The results showed that PXR was retained in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells and other human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (FLC5, FLC7 and Huh7) when they were cultured by the hanging drop method. Treatment with rifampicin, a ligand of PXR, translocated PXR from the cytoplasm to nucleus and increased expression levels of CYP3A4 mRNA in HepG2 cells cultured by the hanging drop method. These findings suggest that 3D culture is a key factor determining the intracellular localization of PXR in human hepatocarcinoma cells and that PXR that becomes retained in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells with 3D culture has functions of nuclear translocation and regulation of target genes in response to human PXR ligands. Three-dimensionally cultured hepatocarcinoma cells would be a useful tool to evaluate induction potency of drug candidates and also to study mechanisms of nuclear translocation of PXR by human PXR ligands. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Assessment of human pregnane X receptor involvement in pesticide-mediated activation of CYP3A4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Noracharttiyapot, Wachiraporn; Toriyabe, Takayoshi; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2007-05-01

    Assessment of foreign chemical inducibility on CYP3A4 is necessary to optimize drug therapies. The properties of chemicals such as pesticides, however, are not well investigated. In the present study, properties of various pesticides on human CYP3A4 induction have been tested using HepG2-derived cells stably expressing the CYP3A4 promoter/enhancer (3-1-10 cells) and the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-small interfering RNA (siRNA) system. Among the examined pesticides, 13 pesticides were observed to activate the CYP3A4 gene. Surprisingly, pyributicarb was found to increase the CYP3A4 reporter activity at 0.1 to 1 microM more strongly than typical CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin. Expression of hPXR-siRNA clearly diminished the pyributicarb-stimulated CYP3A4 reporter activity in 3-1-10 cells and decreased the endogenous CYP3A4 mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. Pyributicarb caused enhancement of CYP3A4-derived reporter activity in mouse livers introduced with hPXR by adenovirus. These results indicate pyributicarb as a potent activator of CYP3A4 gene, suggesting the existence of pesticides leading to CYP3A4 induction in our environment.

  18. Assessing call centers’ success:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Baraka

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a model to evaluate the performance of call centers based on the Delone and McLean Information Systems success model. A number of indicators are identified to track the call center’s performance. Mapping of the proposed indicators to the six dimensions of the D&M model is presented. A Weighted Call Center Performance Index is proposed to assess the call center performance; the index is used to analyze the effect of the identified indicators. Policy-Weighted approach was used to assume the weights with an analysis of different weights for each dimension. The analysis of the different weights cases gave priority to the User satisfaction and net Benefits dimension as the two outcomes from the system. For the input dimensions, higher priority was given to the system quality and the service quality dimension. Call centers decision makers can use the tool to tune the different weights in order to reach the objectives set by the organization. Multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to provide a linear formula for the User Satisfaction dimension and the Net Benefits dimension in order to be able to forecast the values for these two dimensions as function of the other dimensions

  19. Synthesis of C3, C5, and C7 pregnane derivatives and their effect on NMDA receptor responses in cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Eva; Chodounská, Hana; Pouzar, Vladimír; Kapras, Vojtěch; Borovská, Jiřina; Cais, Ondřej; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 2 (2009), s. 256-263 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; FP6 Photolysis(XE) LSHM-CT-2007-037765 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pregnane derivatives * NMDA receptor * structure-activity relationship * patch-clamp recording Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2009

  20. Care and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    -centred care through the use of tactile resources and embodied orientations while they attend to the phone call. Experienced nurses Thus perform multiactivity by distributing attention towards both the patient and the phone, and the analysis shows that their concrete ways of doing so depend on the complex...... they are telephoned during interactions with patients are not universal. Indeed different strategies have evolved in other hospital departments. Not only does this thesis contribute insights into the way nurses manage phone calls during interactions with patients, but by subscribing to a growing body of embodied...... of human interaction....

  1. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lille-Langøy, Roger, E-mail: Roger.lille-langoy@bio.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Goldstone, Jared V. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, 02543-1050 Woods Hole, MA (United States); Rusten, Marte [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Milnes, Matthew R. [Mars Hill University, 100 Athletic Street, Box 6671, Mars Hill, 28754 NC (United States); Male, Rune [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Stegeman, John J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, 02543-1050 Woods Hole, MA (United States); Blumberg, Bruce [University of California, Irvine, 92697 CA (United States); Goksøyr, Anders [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears.

  2. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V.; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R.; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J.; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears

  3. Effects of atorvastatin metabolites on induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters through human pregnane X receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, E; Ghebreghiorghis, L; Nussler, AK; Thasler, WE; Weiss, TS; Schwab, M; Burk, O

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Atorvastatin metabolites differ in their potential for drug interaction because of differential inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. We here investigate whether they exert differential effects on the induction of these genes via activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ligand binding to PXR or CAR was analysed by mammalian two-hybrid assembly and promoter/reporter gene assays. Additionally, surface plasmon resonance was used to analyse ligand binding to CAR. Primary human hepatocytes were treated with atorvastatin metabolites, and mRNA and protein expression of PXR-regulated genes was measured. Two-hybrid co-activator interaction and co-repressor release assays were utilized to elucidate the molecular mechanism of PXR activation. KEY RESULTS All atorvastatin metabolites induced the assembly of PXR and activated CYP3A4 promoter activity. Ligand binding to CAR could not be proven. In primary human hepatocytes, the para-hydroxy metabolite markedly reduced or abolished induction of cytochrome P450 and transporter genes. While significant differences in co-activator recruitment were not observed, para-hydroxy atorvastatin demonstrated only 50% release of co-repressors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Atorvastatin metabolites are ligands of PXR but not of CAR. Atorvastatin metabolites demonstrate differential induction of PXR target genes, which results from impaired release of co-repressors. Consequently, the properties of drug metabolites have to be taken into account when analysing PXR-dependent induction of drug metabolism and transport. The drug interaction potential of the active metabolite, para-hydroxy atorvastatin, might be lower than that of the parent compound. PMID:21913896

  4. A novel statistical algorithm for gene expression analysis helps differentiate pregnane X receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms of toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ann Mongan

    Full Text Available Genome-wide gene expression profiling has become standard for assessing potential liabilities as well as for elucidating mechanisms of toxicity of drug candidates under development. Analysis of microarray data is often challenging due to the lack of a statistical model that is amenable to biological variation in a small number of samples. Here we present a novel non-parametric algorithm that requires minimal assumptions about the data distribution. Our method for determining differential expression consists of two steps: 1 We apply a nominal threshold on fold change and platform p-value to designate whether a gene is differentially expressed in each treated and control sample relative to the averaged control pool, and 2 We compared the number of samples satisfying criteria in step 1 between the treated and control groups to estimate the statistical significance based on a null distribution established by sample permutations. The method captures group effect without being too sensitive to anomalies as it allows tolerance for potential non-responders in the treatment group and outliers in the control group. Performance and results of this method were compared with the Significant Analysis of Microarrays (SAM method. These two methods were applied to investigate hepatic transcriptional responses of wild-type (PXR(+/+ and pregnane X receptor-knockout (PXR(-/- mice after 96 h exposure to CMP013, an inhibitor of β-secretase (β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or BACE1. Our results showed that CMP013 led to transcriptional changes in hallmark PXR-regulated genes and induced a cascade of gene expression changes that explained the hepatomegaly observed only in PXR(+/+ animals. Comparison of concordant expression changes between PXR(+/+ and PXR(-/- mice also suggested a PXR-independent association between CMP013 and perturbations to cellular stress, lipid metabolism, and biliary transport.

  5. Phenobarbital induces cell cycle transcriptional responses in mouse liver humanized for constitutive androstane and pregnane x receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Lempiäinen, Harri; Scherbichler, Nina; Braeuning, Albert; Geissler, Miriam; Dubost, Valerie; Müller, Arne; Scheer, Nico; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Hara, Hisanori; Picard, Frank; Theil, Diethilde; Couttet, Philippe; Vitobello, Antonio; Grenet, Olivier; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Thomson, John P; Meehan, Richard R; Elcombe, Clifford R; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland; Schwarz, Michael; Moulin, Pierre; Terranova, Rémi; Moggs, Jonathan G

    2014-06-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related nuclear receptors involved in drug metabolism and play important roles in the mechanism of phenobarbital (PB)-induced rodent nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we have used a humanized CAR/PXR mouse model to examine potential species differences in receptor-dependent mechanisms underlying liver tissue molecular responses to PB. Early and late transcriptomic responses to sustained PB exposure were investigated in liver tissue from double knock-out CAR and PXR (CAR(KO)-PXR(KO)), double humanized CAR and PXR (CAR(h)-PXR(h)), and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Wild-type and CAR(h)-PXR(h) mouse livers exhibited temporally and quantitatively similar transcriptional responses during 91 days of PB exposure including the sustained induction of the xenobiotic response gene Cyp2b10, the Wnt signaling inhibitor Wisp1, and noncoding RNA biomarkers from the Dlk1-Dio3 locus. Transient induction of DNA replication (Hells, Mcm6, and Esco2) and mitotic genes (Ccnb2, Cdc20, and Cdk1) and the proliferation-related nuclear antigen Mki67 were observed with peak expression occurring between 1 and 7 days PB exposure. All these transcriptional responses were absent in CAR(KO)-PXR(KO) mouse livers and largely reversible in wild-type and CAR(h)-PXR(h) mouse livers following 91 days of PB exposure and a subsequent 4-week recovery period. Furthermore, PB-mediated upregulation of the noncoding RNA Meg3, which has recently been associated with cellular pluripotency, exhibited a similar dose response and perivenous hepatocyte-specific localization in both wild-type and CAR(h)-PXR(h) mice. Thus, mouse livers coexpressing human CAR and PXR support both the xenobiotic metabolizing and the proliferative transcriptional responses following exposure to PB.

  6. Chronic ethanol exposure downregulates hepatic expression of pregnane X receptor and P450 3A11 in female ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianping; Xu Dexiang; Sun Meifang; Chen Yuanhua; Wang Hua; Wei Wei

    2005-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) gene transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. Ethanol has been reported to be either an inducer or an inhibitor of CYP3A expression. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on PXR and P450 3A11 gene expression in mouse liver. Female ICR mice were administered by gavage with different doses (1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg) of ethanol for up to 5 weeks. Hepatic PXR and P450 3A11 mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR. Erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) activity was used as an indicator of CYP3A protein expression. Results showed that chronic ethanol exposure markedly decreased hepatic PXR and P450 3A11 mRNA levels. Consistent with downregulation of P450 3A11 mRNA, chronic ethanol exposure significantly decreased ERND activity in a dose-dependent manner. Additional experiment showed that chronic ethanol exposure significantly increased plasma endotoxin level and hepatic CD14 and TLR-4 mRNA expression, all of which were blocked by elimination of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin with antibiotics. Correspondingly, pretreatment with antibiotics reversed the downregulation of PXR and P450 3A11 mRNA expression and ERND activity in mouse liver. Furthermore, the downregulation of hepatic PXR and P450 3A11 mRNA expression was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with GdCl 3 , a selective Kupffer cell toxicant. GdCl 3 pretreatment also significantly attenuated chronically ethanol-induced decrease in ERND activity. These results indicated that activation of Kupffer cells by gut-derived endotoxin contributes to downregulation of hepatic PXR and P450 3A11 expression during chronic alcohol intoxication

  7. Partitioning a call graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.H.; Byrka, J.; Cerav-Erbas, S.; Gvozdenovic, N.; Lorenz, M.; Pendavingh, R.A.; Reeves, C.; Röger, M.; Verhoeven, A.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Splitting a large software system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem for many organizations. The basic structure of a software system is given by a directed graph with vertices representing the programs of the system and arcs representing calls from one program to

  8. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  9. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  10. Call for Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2014-10-03

    Oct 3, 2014 ... 5.Submission process. 6.Eligibility criteria. 7.Selection Process. 8. Format and requirements. 9.Evaluation criteria. 10.Country clearance requirements. 11. .... It is envisaged that through this call a single consortium will undertake 6-8 projects within a total budget of up to ... principle qualify for IDRC's support.

  11. Too close to call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    a number of other frequent explanations and is found to be quite robust. When augmented with approval ratings for incumbent presidents, the explanatory power increases to 83 pct. and only incorrectly calls one of the last 15 US presidential elections. Applied to the 2012 election as a forecasting model...

  12. Care and Calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    on the enactment of care but also on patient safety. Nurses working in various hospital departments have developed different strategies for handling mobile phone calls when with a patient. Additional research into the ways nurses successfully or unsuccessfully enact care and ensure patient safety when they answer......In Danish hospitals, nurses have been equipped with a mobile work phone to improve their availability and efficiency. On the phones nurses receive internal and external phone conversations, patient calls, and alarms from electronic surveillance equipment. For safety reasons the phones cannot...... be switched off or silenced; they consequently ring during all activities and also during interactions with patients. A possible tension thus arises when nurses have to be both caring and sensitive towards the patient and simultaneously be efficient and available and answer their phone. The present paper...

  13. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  14. FERMILAB: Call for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Several hundred physicists attended a special Fermilab 'All Experimenter's Meeting' on November 20 to hear Director John Peoples call for new Tevatron Collider proposals for the years 2000-2005, when the new Main Injector will be complete. At the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the CDF and DO experiments are currently completing improvements for Run II to use the Tevatron when the Main Injector is complete later in this decade. New proposals would be aimed at a Collider Run III to follow these CDF and DO efforts

  15. To be called upon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2015-01-01

    When Danish Muslims explain what made them decide to travel to the Middle East and take up arms in the wake of the Arab Spring, they say that they were called upon. Displayed on videos on social media, women and sometimes children begged them to come to their rescue. In light of some...... to the mass if it is no longer a causal phenomenon that expands from small to big, but rather a simultaneous multitude of one to one relations that are neither local nor global? How are the one and the many related in this specific setting? Furthermore, many of the videos display dead bodies. How can we...

  16. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casabar, Richard C.T.; Das, Parikshit C.; DeKrey, Gregory K.; Gardiner, Catherine S.; Cao Yan; Rose, Randy L.; Wallace, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 μM. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 μM. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 μM, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 μM and 10 μM, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates.

  17. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabar, Richard C T; Das, Parikshit C; Dekrey, Gregory K; Gardiner, Catherine S; Cao, Yan; Rose, Randy L; Wallace, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 microM. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 microM. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 microM, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 microM and 10 microM, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MEDICAL SERVICE - URGENT CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA: EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME: Open 24h/24h 748-49-50 AMG- Association Of Geneva Doctors: Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719-61-11 EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 CHILDREN'S EMERGENCIES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112   FRANCE: EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ...

  19. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  20. Call for volunteers

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  1. Blended call center with idling times during the call service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legros, Benjamin; Jouini, Oualid; Koole, Ger

    We consider a blended call center with calls arriving over time and an infinitely backlogged amount of outbound jobs. Inbound calls have a non-preemptive priority over outbound jobs. The inbound call service is characterized by three successive stages where the second one is a break; i.e., there is

  2. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  3. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  4. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  5. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. House Calls in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  7. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...

  8. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  9. Integrating heterogeneous healthcare call centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, K M; Reed, W C; Salter, K

    1998-01-01

    In a relatively short period, OHS has absorbed multiple call centers supporting different LOBs from various acquisitions, functioning with diverse standards, processes, and technologies. However, customer and employee satisfaction is predicated on OHS's ability to thoroughly integrate these heterogeneous call centers. The integration was initiated and has successfully progressed through a balanced program of focused leadership and a defined strategy which includes site consolidation, sound performance management philosophies, and enabling technology. Benefits have already been achieved with even more substantive ones to occur as the integration continues to evolve.

  10. Calling to Nursing: Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Christie

    The aims of this article are (a) to analyze the concept of a calling as it relates nursing and (b) to develop a definition of calling to nursing with the detail and clarity needed to guide reliable and valid research. The classic steps described by Walker and Avant are used for the analysis. Literature from several disciplines is reviewed including vocational psychology, Christian career counseling, sociology, organizational management, and nursing. The analysis provides an operational definition of a calling to nursing and establishes 3 defining attributes of the concept: (a) a passionate intrinsic motivation or desire (perhaps with a religious component), (b) an aspiration to engage in nursing practice, as a means of fulfilling one's purpose in life, and (c) the desire to help others as one's purpose in life. Antecedents to the concept are personal introspection and cognitive awareness. Positive consequences to the concept are improved work meaningfulness, work engagement, career commitment, personal well-being, and satisfaction. Negative consequences of having a calling might include willingness to sacrifice well-being for work and problems with work-life balance. Following the concept analysis, philosophical assumptions, contextual factors, interdisciplinary work, research opportunities, and practice implications are discussed.

  11. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  12. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Schuetz, Erin G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Chen, Taosheng, E-mail: taosheng.chen@stjude.org [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  13. A Concentration Addition Model to Assess Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) by Pesticide Mixtures Found in the French Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luciferase activity in hPXR/HepG2 cells and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. The three mixtures with the highest potency were evaluated using the CA model, at equimolar concentrations and at their relative proportion in the diet. The seven mixtures significantly activated hPXR and induced the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Of the 14 pesticides which constitute the three most active mixtures, four were found to be strong hPXR agonists, four medium, and six weak. Depending on the mixture and pesticide proportions, additive, greater than additive or less than additive effects between compounds were demonstrated. Predictions of the combined effects were obtained with both real-life and equimolar proportions at low concentrations. Pesticides act mostly additively to activate hPXR, when present in a mixture. Modulation of hPXR activation and its target genes induction may represent a risk factor contributing to exacerbate the physiological response of the hPXR signaling pathways and to explain some adverse effects in humans. PMID:25028461

  14. Pyrethroid insecticides: Isoform-dependent hydrolysis, induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and evidence on the involvement of the pregnane X receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dongfang; Wang Xiliang; Chen Yitzai; Deng Ruitang; Yan Bingfang

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroids account for more than one-third of the insecticides currently marketed in the world. In mammals, these insecticides undergo extensive metabolism by carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In addition, some pyrethroids are found to induce the expression of CYPs. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyrethroids induce carboxylesterases and CYP3A4, and whether the induction is correlated inversely with their hydrolysis. Human liver microsomes were pooled and tested for the hydrolysis of 11 pyrethroids. All pyrethroids were hydrolyzed by the pooled microsomes, but the hydrolytic rates varied by as many as 14 fold. Some pyrethroids such as bioresmethrin were preferably hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase HCE1, whereas others such as bifenthrin preferably by HCE2. In primary human hepatocytes, all pyrethroids except tetramethrin significantly induced CYP3A4. In contrast, insignificant changes were detected on the expression of carboxylesterases. The induction of CYP3A4 was confirmed in multiple cell lines including HepG2, Hop92 and LS180. Overall, the magnitude of the induction was correlated inversely with the rates of hydrolysis, but positively with the activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Transfection of a carboxylesterase markedly decreased the activation of PXR, and the decrease was in agreement with carboxylesterase-based preference for hydrolysis. In addition, human PXR variants as well as rat PXR differed from human PXR (wild-type) in responding to certain pyrethroids (e.g., lambda-cyhalothrin), suggesting that induction of PXR target genes by these pyrethroids varies depending on polymorphic variants and the PXR species identity.

  15. Omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and cell lines via glucocorticoid receptor and pregnane X receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole drugs lansoprazole and omeprazole are used for treatment of various gastrointestinal pathologies. Both compounds cause drug-drug interactions because they activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induce CYP1A genes. In the current paper, we examined the effects of lansoprazole and omeprazole enantiomers on the expression of key drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and human cancer cell lines. Lansoprazole enantiomers, but not omeprazole, were equipotent inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA in HepG2 cells. All forms (S-, R-, rac-) of lansoprazole and omeprazole induced CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in human hepatocytes. The quantitative profiles of CYP3A4 induction by individual forms of lansoprazole and omeprazole exerted enantiospecific patterns. Lansoprazole dose-dependently activated pregnane X receptor PXR in gene reporter assays, and slightly modulated rifampicin-inducible PXR activity, with similar potency for each enantiomer. Omeprazole dose-dependently activated PXR and inhibited rifampicin-inducible PXR activity. The effects of S-omeprazole were much stronger as compared to those of R-omeprazole. All forms of lansoprazole, but not omeprazole, slightly activated glucocorticoid receptor and augmented dexamethasone-induced GR transcriptional activity. Omeprazole and lansoprazole influenced basal and ligand inducible expression of tyrosine aminotransferase, a GR-target gene, in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. Overall, we demonstrate here that omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. The induction comprises differential interactions of omeprazole and lansoprazole with transcriptional regulators PXR and GR, and some of the effects were enantiospecific. The data presented here might be of toxicological and clinical importance, since the effects occurred in therapeutically relevant concentrations.

  16. Chlordecone, a mixed pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist, alters cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Zhang Yuan; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-01-01

    Chlordecone (CD) is one of many banned organochlorine (OC) insecticides that are widespread persistent organic pollutants. OC insecticides alter lipid homeostasis in rodents at doses that are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic. Pretreatment of mice or rats with CD altered tissue distribution of a subsequent dose of [ 14 C]CD or [ 14 C]cholesterol (CH). Nuclear receptors regulate expression of genes important in the homeostasis of CH and other lipids. In this study, we report that CD suppresses in vitro reporter systems for human liver X receptors (LXRs) and activates those for human farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in a concentration-dependent manner (0-50 μM). Consistent with human PXR activation in vitro, three days after a single dose of CD (15 mg/kg) hepatic microsomal CYP3A11 protein increases in C57BL/6 mice. CD decreases hepatic CH ester content without altering total CH concentration. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) contents of hepatic lipoprotein-rich and microsomal fractions of CD-treated mice are higher than controls. There is a significant reduction in non-high density lipoprotein CH but not apolipoprotein B-48/100 (apoB-48/100) in plasma from CD-treated mice after a 4 h fast. At 14 days after 15 mg CD/kg apoA-I and apoB-100 proteins but not CYP3A11 protein in hepatic microsomes are similar to controls. This work indicates that altered CH homeostasis is a mode of OC insecticide action of relevance after a single dose. This at least partially explains altered CH tissue distribution in CD-pretreated mice

  17. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Ma

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  18. Calle y Saberes en Movimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Aguirre Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En México el rezago, el ausentismo, la deserción escolar, el trabajo a temprana edad y el inicio de una vida en la calle, en repetidas ocasiones son consecuencia de un núcleo familiar desarticulado o de una débil relación intrafamiliar, así como de una condición socioeconómica en desventaja. Ante esta problemática, la Secretaría de Educación Pública, instancia gubernamental encargada de garantizar una educación de calidad para la población, trabaja coordinadamente con organizaciones de la sociedad civil e instancias públicas, para la reintegración a los espacios educativos de los niños, niñas y jóvenes en situación de calle.

  19. Ultrasound call detection in capybara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S.C. Nogueira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of some animal species has been considered a non-invasive tool to predict distress reactivity. In rats ultrasound emissions were reported as distress indicator. Capybaras[ vocal repertoire was reported recently and seems to have ultrasound calls, but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, in order to check if a poor state of welfare was linked to ultrasound calls in the capybara vocal repertoire, the aim of this study was to track the presence of ultrasound emissions in 11 animals under three conditions: 1 unrestrained; 2 intermediately restrained, and 3 highly restrained. The ultrasound track identified frequencies in the range of 31.8±3.5 kHz in adults and 33.2±8.5 kHz in juveniles. These ultrasound frequencies occurred only when animals were highly restrained, physically restrained or injured during handling. We concluded that these calls with ultrasound components are related to pain and restraint because they did not occur when animals were free of restraint. Thus we suggest that this vocalization may be used as an additional tool to assess capybaras[ welfare.

  20. Reciprocity of mobile phone calls

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...

  1. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The evolution of farnesoid X, vitamin D, and pregnane X receptors: insights from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis and other non-mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullman Seth W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, pregnane X receptor (PXR, and vitamin D receptor (VDR are three closely related nuclear hormone receptors in the NR1H and 1I subfamilies that share the property of being activated by bile salts. Bile salts vary significantly in structure across vertebrate species, suggesting that receptors binding these molecules may show adaptive evolutionary changes in response. We have previously shown that FXRs from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus and zebrafish (Danio rerio are activated by planar bile alcohols found in these two species. In this report, we characterize FXR, PXR, and VDR from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis, an actinopterygian fish that unlike the zebrafish has a bile salt profile similar to humans. We utilize homology modelling, docking, and pharmacophore studies to understand the structural features of the Tetraodon receptors. Results Tetraodon FXR has a ligand selectivity profile very similar to human FXR, with strong activation by the synthetic ligand GW4064 and by the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid. Homology modelling and docking studies suggest a ligand-binding pocket architecture more similar to human and rat FXRs than to lamprey or zebrafish FXRs. Tetraodon PXR was activated by a variety of bile acids and steroids, although not by the larger synthetic ligands that activate human PXR such as rifampicin. Homology modelling predicts a larger ligand-binding cavity than zebrafish PXR. We also demonstrate that VDRs from the pufferfish and Japanese medaka were activated by small secondary bile acids such as lithocholic acid, whereas the African clawed frog VDR was not. Conclusions Our studies provide further evidence of the relationship between both FXR, PXR, and VDR ligand selectivity and cross-species variation in bile salt profiles. Zebrafish and green-spotted pufferfish provide a clear contrast in having markedly different primary bile salt profiles

  3. Functional characterization of a full length pregnane X receptor, expression in vivo, and identification of PXR alleles, in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainy, Afonso C.D. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Kubota, Akira; Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Lille-Langøy, Roger [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Celander, Malin C. [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Hahn, Mark E. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Goksøyr, Anders [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Full-length pxr has been cloned from zebrafish. •Alleles of pxr were identified in zebrafish. •Full length Pxr was activated less strongly than ligand binding domain in cell-based reporter assays. •High levels of pxr expression were found in eye and brain as well as in liver. •TCPOBOP and PB did not significantly alter expression of pxr in liver. -- Abstract: The pregnane X receptor (PXR) (nuclear receptor NR1I2) is a ligand activated transcription factor, mediating responses to diverse xenobiotic and endogenous chemicals. The properties of PXR in fish are not fully understood. Here we report on cloning and characterization of full-length PXR of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and pxr expression in vivo. Initial efforts gave a cDNA encoding a 430 amino acid protein identified as zebrafish pxr by phylogenetic and synteny analysis. The sequence of the cloned Pxr DNA binding domain (DBD) was highly conserved, with 74% identity to human PXR-DBD, while the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the cloned sequence was only 44% identical to human PXR-LBD. Sequence variation among clones in the initial effort prompted sequencing of multiple clones from a single fish. There were two prominent variants, one sequence with S183, Y218 and H383 and the other with I183, C218 and N383, which we designate as alleles pxr*1 (nr1i2*1) and pxr*2 (nr1i2*2), respectively. In COS-7 cells co-transfected with a PXR-responsive reporter gene, the full-length Pxr*1 (the more common variant) was activated by known PXR agonists clotrimazole and pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile but to a lesser extent than the full-length human PXR. Activation of full-length Pxr*1 was only 10% of that with the Pxr*1 LBD. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed prominent expression of pxr in liver and eye, as well as brain and intestine of adult zebrafish. The pxr was expressed in heart and kidney at levels similar to that in intestine. The expression of pxr in liver was weakly induced by ligands for

  4. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  5. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... calls to rural areas, and enforce restrictions against blocking, choking, reducing, or restricting calls... to alert the Commission of systemic problems receiving calls from a particular originating long... associated with completing calls to rural areas. These rules will also enhance our ability to enforce...

  6. Pregnanes and other constituents of the roots of Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae); Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raizes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis Junior, Luiz Roberto de; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze is a plant popularly known as 'velame'. Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E)-8(Z)-dienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8{alpha}-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids. (author)

  7. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.; Celander, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  8. Interactions of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics on hepatic pregnane X receptor and cytochrome P450 3A signaling pathway in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassmur, Britt; Graens, Johanna; Kling, Peter; Celander, Malin C.

    2010-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily and is commonly described as a xenophore or a pharmacophore, as it can be activated by a wide array of xenobiotics, including numerous pharmaceuticals and other environmental pollutants. The PXR regulates expression of e.g. cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that are involved in excretion of lipophilic xenobiotics and endobiotics. A full length PXR cDNA was isolated from rainbow trout liver and it was expressed in a descending order of magnitude in liver > intestine > kidney > heart. A rainbow trout PXR reporter assay was developed and a suite of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics were screened. However, no specific activation of rainbow trout PXR was observed with the substances tested. Interactions of prototypical PXR agonists on PXR signaling in rainbow trout were further investigated in cells of hepatic origin exposed in vitro and in juvenile rainbow trout exposed in vivo. The rainbow trout hepatoma cell line (RTH-149), displayed 600 times lower expression of CYP3A mRNA compared to primary cultures of hepatocytes, and did not respond to treatment with either pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), ketoconazole (KCZ) or rifampicin (RIF), which implies a non-functional PXR in this cell line. Exposure of hepatocytes to PCN and lithocholic acid (LA), resulted in a weak concentration-dependent induction of CYP3A and P-gp mRNA levels, though, exposure to the higher concentration of LA (50 μM) decreased PXR mRNA levels. Exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) resulted in a decrease in PXR mRNA, without affecting CYP3A mRNA levels in hepatocytes in vitro. Injections of rainbow trout in vivo with 1 mg LA/kg fish resulted in a slight (albeit not significant) increase in CYP3A mRNA levels without affecting PXR mRNA levels. Although, injection with 10 mg omeprazole (OME)/kg fish had no effect on PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels, a 60% inhibition of CYP3A enzyme activities was

  9. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro [Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Celander, Malin C., E-mail: malin.celander@gu.se [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  10. Interactions of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics on hepatic pregnane X receptor and cytochrome P450 3A signaling pathway in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassmur, Britt; Graens, Johanna; Kling, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Zoology, Box 463, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Celander, Malin C., E-mail: malin.celander@zool.gu.se [University of Gothenburg, Department of Zoology, Box 463, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily and is commonly described as a xenophore or a pharmacophore, as it can be activated by a wide array of xenobiotics, including numerous pharmaceuticals and other environmental pollutants. The PXR regulates expression of e.g. cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that are involved in excretion of lipophilic xenobiotics and endobiotics. A full length PXR cDNA was isolated from rainbow trout liver and it was expressed in a descending order of magnitude in liver > intestine > kidney > heart. A rainbow trout PXR reporter assay was developed and a suite of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics were screened. However, no specific activation of rainbow trout PXR was observed with the substances tested. Interactions of prototypical PXR agonists on PXR signaling in rainbow trout were further investigated in cells of hepatic origin exposed in vitro and in juvenile rainbow trout exposed in vivo. The rainbow trout hepatoma cell line (RTH-149), displayed 600 times lower expression of CYP3A mRNA compared to primary cultures of hepatocytes, and did not respond to treatment with either pregnenolone 16{alpha}-carbonitrile (PCN), ketoconazole (KCZ) or rifampicin (RIF), which implies a non-functional PXR in this cell line. Exposure of hepatocytes to PCN and lithocholic acid (LA), resulted in a weak concentration-dependent induction of CYP3A and P-gp mRNA levels, though, exposure to the higher concentration of LA (50 {mu}M) decreased PXR mRNA levels. Exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) resulted in a decrease in PXR mRNA, without affecting CYP3A mRNA levels in hepatocytes in vitro. Injections of rainbow trout in vivo with 1 mg LA/kg fish resulted in a slight (albeit not significant) increase in CYP3A mRNA levels without affecting PXR mRNA levels. Although, injection with 10 mg omeprazole (OME)/kg fish had no effect on PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels, a 60% inhibition of CYP3A enzyme activities

  11. Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Hugo J.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

  12. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  13. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  14. Do market participants learn from conference calls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.; Verbeeten, F.; Mertens, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether market participants learn from the information that is disseminated during the Q-and-A section of conference calls. Specifically, we investigate whether stock prices react to information on intangible assets provided during conference calls, and whether conference calls

  15. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  16. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note: the number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  17. How to call the Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The telephone numbers for the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from "wired" telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  18. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.  

  19. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  20. Dynamic call center routing policies using call waiting and agent idle times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, W.; Koole, G.M.; L'Ecuyer, P.

    2014-01-01

    We study call routing policies for call centers with multiple call types and multiple agent groups. We introduce new weight-based routing policies where each pair (call type, agent group) is given a matching priority defined as an affine combination of the longest waiting time for that call type and

  1. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  2. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.

  3. Outsourcing an Effective Postdischarge Call Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Kevin L.; Williams, Paula; Unterschuetz, Caryn J.

    2018-01-01

    To improve patient satisfaction ratings and decrease readmissions, many organizations utilize internal staff to complete postdischarge calls to recently released patients. Developing, implementing, monitoring, and sustaining an effective call program can be challenging and have eluded some of the renowned medical centers in the country. Using collaboration with an outsourced vendor to bring state-of-the-art call technology and staffed with specially trained callers, health systems can achieve elevated levels of engagement and satisfaction for their patients postdischarge. PMID:29494453

  4. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  5. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming in the mobile unit that determines the handling of a non-911 call and permit the call to be... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  6. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  7. Coaching "Callings" throughout the Adult Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Frederic M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of "callings" continues throughout life. Coaching can connect the present to the future in a meaningful way. Callings represent a value shift requiring revision of the nature and scope of one's central purpose in life and meaningful activities. (JOW)

  8. Performance indicators for call centers with impatience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouini, O.; Koole, G.M.; Roubos, A.

    2013-01-01

    An important feature of call center modeling is the presence of impatient customers. This article considers single-skill call centers including customer abandonments. A number of different service-level definitions are structured, including all those used in practice, and the explicit computation of

  9. Call centers with a postponed callback offer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Legros (Benjamin); S. Ding (Sihan); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); O. Jouini (Oualid)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe study a call center model with a postponed callback option. A customer at the head of the queue whose elapsed waiting time achieves a given threshold receives a voice message mentioning the option to be called back later. This callback option differs from the traditional ones found in

  10. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  11. Calling, is there anything special about it?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... when a pastor is installed or a new candidate is ordained, 'The one who calls you is faithful .... extension to secular work of the dignity of a calling' (Fowler ... For Luther, therefore, the private life of devotion exercised in the.

  12. The Call to Teach and Teacher Hopefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore teacher motivation and well-being. Our analysis focuses on two central concepts, the notion of a "calling to teach" and of teacher "hopefulness." Data from 205 preservice and inservice teachers were collected to determine teachers' sense of calling and level of hope. Results indicate that overwhelmingly,…

  13. Call center performance with direct response advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kiygi Calli (Meltem); M. Weverbergh (Marcel); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the manpower planning and the performance of a national call center dealing with car repairs and on the road interventions. We model the impact of advertising on the capacity required. The starting point is a forecasting model for the incoming calls, where we take

  14. Perceived Calling and Work Engagement Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedelis, Arunas

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of perceived calling and work engagement in nursing over and above major work environment factors. In all, 351 nurses from various health care institutions completed the survey. Data were collected about the most demanding aspects of nursing, major job resources, the degree to which nursing is perceived as a meaningful calling, work engagement, and main demographic information. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to assess the relation between perceived calling and work engagement, while controlling for demographic and work environment factors, and perceived calling was significantly related to two out of three components of nurses' work engagement. The highest association was found with dedication component, and vigor component was related insignificantly. Results have shown that perceived calling might motivate nurses to engage in their work even in burdensome environment, although possible implications for the occupational well-being of nurses themselves remains unclear.

  15. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  16. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  17. Attitude of Farmers towards Kisan Call Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shely Mary Koshy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.

  18. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  19. Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: testing a moderated, multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D; Bott, Elizabeth M; Allan, Blake A; Torrey, Carrie L; Dik, Bryan J

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated the relations of perceiving a calling with career commitment and work meaning, such that these relations were more robust for those with a stronger sense they were living their calling. Additionally, a moderated, multiple mediator model was run to examine the mediating role of career commitment and work meaning in the relation of perceiving a calling and job satisfaction, while accounting for the moderating role of living a calling. Results indicated that work meaning and career commitment fully mediated the relation between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. However, the indirect effects of work meaning and career commitment were only significant for individuals with high levels of living a calling, indicating the importance of living a calling in the link between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  1. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... designated to establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are selected from the general financial community, the accounting and... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting...

  2. Reflections … they called it 'restructuring'[1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    turnaround strategy with the appointment of a CEO to implement such strategy in ... found herself accepting so-called 'native' advertising (the practice of publishing an ... preferring to receive their reading 'lite' on mobile platforms. According.

  3. The Role of Calling in Military Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    depression , hopelessness, emotional and behavior problems , and have lower levels of neuroticism (Oladipo et al., 2013; Suldo & Huebner, 2004; Gilman...retention? Data from surveys of Naval Postgraduate School students reveal many work-related correlations with calling and calling’s positive effects. My...retention? Data from surveys of Naval Postgraduate School students reveal many work-related correlations with calling and calling’s positive effects

  4. Behavioral Preferences for Individual Securities : The Case for Call Warrants and Call Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, large investment banks have flooded the European capital markets with issues of call warrants.This has led to a unique situation in the Netherlands, where now call warrants, traded on the stock exchange, and long-term call options, traded on the options exchange, exist.Both entitle their

  5. Telephone calls by individuals with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie; McAndrews, Leanne; Stein, Karen F

    2013-09-01

    To describe symptom type and reporting patterns found in spontaneously initiated telephone calls placed to an ambulatory cancer center practice. Retrospective, descriptive. Adult hematology oncology cancer center. 563 individuals with a wide range of oncology diagnoses who initiated 1,229 telephone calls to report symptoms. Raw data were extracted from telephone forms using a data collection sheet with 23 variables obtained for each phone call, using pre-established coding criteria. A literature-based, investigator-developed instrument was used for the coding criteria and selection of which variables to extract. Symptom reporting, telephone calls, pain, and symptoms. A total of 2,378 symptoms were reported by telephone during the four months. At least 10% of the sample reported pain (38%), fatigue (16%), nausea (16%), swelling (12%), diarrhea (12%), dyspnea (10%), and anorexia (10%). The modal response was to call only one time and to report only one symptom (55%). Pain emerged as the symptom that most often prompted an individual to pick up the telephone and call. Although variation was seen in symptom reporting, an interesting pattern emerged with an individual reporting on a solitary symptom in a single telephone call. The emergence of pain as the primary symptom reported by telephone prompted educational efforts for both in-person clinic visit management of pain and prioritizing nursing education and protocol management of pain reported by telephone. Report of symptoms by telephone can provide nurses unique insight into patient-centered needs. Although pain has been an important focus of education and research for decades, it remains a priority for individuals with cancer. A wide range in symptom reporting by telephone was evident.

  6. Glasbury Bridge 1: The Jumper. Close Call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Describes an incident in which a group of 10th-grade students in a 1-week outdoor residential program in the Wye Valley (Great Britain) defied program rules, drank alcohol, and had a close call with a near-drowning. Discusses five strategies for dealing with such groups coalesced around a rebellious leader. (SV)

  7. Implementing Distributed Algorithms using Remote Procedure Call

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.E.; van Renesse, R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Remote procedure call (RPC) is a simple yet powerful primitiv~ for communication and synchronization between distributed processes. A problem with RPC is that it tends to decrease the amount of parallelism in an application due to its synchronous nature. This paper shows how light-weight processes

  8. Calle San Martín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available En la década del 30 era un barrizal transitado por carretas, caballos y peatones, flanqueada por unas veredas algo más altas que la calle, limitadas por gruesos tablones que la Municipalidad reparaba de año en año.

  9. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  10. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Hirashima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilinooxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilinothiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  11. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Software: Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and ...

  12. What is this thing called growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1954-01-01

    What is this thing called "growth"? We foresters are constantly thinking in terms of growth. We use growth data to evaluate a forest property. We use them to determine how much we can cut. We use them to weigh the results of a type of cutting.

  13. CIFSRF Concept Notes Call 2013 Instructions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Cc: (the other principal investigators and third-party organisations). Subject: CultiAF 2013 Call for Concept Notes Submitted by (names of all principal ..... clerical, accounting, or secretarial help, general office expenses, office rental and utility ... Please provide the details of financial contributions that will be made to the ...

  14. Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Antonuccio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises the question about whether the data on the medications we call antidepressants justify the label of antidepressant. The authors argue that a true antidepressant should be clearly superior to placebo, should offer a risk/benefit balance that exceeds that of alternative treatments, should not increase suicidality, should not increase anxiety and agitation, should not interfere with sexual functioning, and should not increase depression chronicity. Unfortunately, these medications appear to fall short on all of these dimensions. Many of the “side effects” of these medications have larger effect sizes than the antidepressant effect size. To call these medications antidepressants may make sense from a marketing standpoint but may be misleading from a scientific perspective. Consumers deserve a label that more accurately reflects the data on the largest effects and helps them understand the range of effects from these medications. In other words, it may make just as much sense to call these medications antiaphrodisiacs as antidepressants because the negative effects on libido and sexual functioning are so common. It can be argued that a misleading label may interfere with our commitment to informed consent. Therefore, it may be time to stop calling these medications antidepressants.

  15. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... financial information in decision-making. The Board meets in Washington, DC, for two days every other month... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting... candidates. Any applicant who provided the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board...

  16. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... must be held together with rubber bands or fasteners. Any envelopes must be disposed of before entering... Completion/Call Termination Handbook outlining standards and practices of the industry relevant to ensuring... telecommunications networks. Transmission facilities may be based on a single technology or a combination of...

  17. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transaction merchant is unable to effect personal contact with a leverage customer, a telegram sent to the....18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of...

  18. Make a 21st century phone call

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Want to avoid roaming charges? Click to call anyone at CERN? How about merging your CERN landline with your existing smartphone? That's all easily done with Lync, CERN's new opt-in service that can take your calls to the next level.   The Lync application on Windows (left) and iPhone (right). Lync unites CERN's traditional telephone service with the digital sphere. "Lync gives you the gift of mobility, by letting you access your CERN landline on the go," explains Pawel Grzywaczewski, service manager of the Lync system. "Once you've registered your CERN telephone with the service, you can run the Lync application and make calls from a range of supported devices. No matter where you are in the world - be it simply out to lunch or off at an international conference - you can make a CERN call as though you were in the office. All you need is an Internet connection!" Following a recent upgrade, CERN's Lync service now has...

  19. When to call a linear system nonnegative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will consider discrete time invariant linear systems that allow for an input-state-output representation with a finite dimensional state space, and that have a finite number of inputs and outputs. The basic issue in this paper is when to call these systems nonnegative. An important

  20. Don't Call It School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  1. Optimization of Overflow Policies in Call Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koole, G.M.; Nielsen, B.F.; Nielsen, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    . A Markov decision chain is used to determine the optimal policy. This policy outperforms considerably the ones used most often in practice, which use a fixed threshold. The present method can be used also for other call-center models and other situations where performance is based on actual waiting times...

  2. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  3. Impact of mobility on call block, call drops and optimal cell size in small cell networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanath , Sreenath; Voleti , Veeraruna Kavitha; Altman , Eitan

    2011-01-01

    We consider small cell networks and study the impact of user mobility. Assuming Poisson call arrivals at random positions with random velocities, we discuss the characterization of handovers at the boundaries. We derive explicit expressions for call block and call drop probabilities using tools from spatial queuing theory. We also derive expressions for the average virtual server held up time. These expressions are used to derive optimal cell sizes for various profile of velocities in small c...

  4. Pregnane X receptor-dependent induction of the CYP3A4 gene by o,p'-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Arteaga-Illán, Georgina; de León, Mario Bermudez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Vega, Libia; Gonzalez, Frank J; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    CYP3A4, the predominant cytochrome P450 (P450) expressed in human liver and intestine, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. CYP3A4 catalyzes the 6beta-hydroxylation of a number of steroid hormones and is involved in the bioactivation of environmental procarcinogens. The expression of CYP3A4 is affected by several stimuli, including environmental factors such as insecticides and pesticides. The o,p'-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) isomer of DDT comprises approximately 20% of technical grade DDT, which is an organochloride pesticide. We have recently shown that o,p'-DDT exposure increases CYP3A4 mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. To determine the mechanism by which o,p'-DDT induces CYP3A4 expression, transactivation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were carried out, revealing that o,p'-DDT activates the CYP3A4 gene promoter through the pregnane X receptor (PXR). CYP3A4 gene promoter activation resulted in both an increase in CYP3A4 mRNA levels and an increase in the total CYP3A4 activity in HepG2 cells. We also observed induction of CYP3A4 and mouse Cyp3a11 mRNA in the intestine of CYP3A4-transgenic mice after exposure to 1 mg/kg o,p'-DDT. At higher doses, a decrease of CYP3A4 inducibility was observed together with an increase in levels of interleukin 6 mRNA, a proinflammatory cytokine that strongly represses CYP3A4 transcription. The present study indicates that regulation of other genes under PXR control may be altered by o,p'-DDT exposure.

  5. The far and distal enhancers in the CYP3A4 gene co-ordinate the proximal promoter in responding similarly to the pregnane X receptor but differentially to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Jun; Song, Xiulong; Yang, Dongfang; Deng, Ruitang; Yan, Bingfang

    2008-01-01

    CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450 3A4) is involved in the metabolism of more than 50% of drugs and other xenobiotics. The expression of CYP3A4 is induced by many structurally dissimilar compounds. The PXR (pregnane X receptor) is recognized as a key regulator for the induction, and the PXR-directed transactivation of the CYP3A4 gene is achieved through a co-ordinated mechanism of the distal module with the proximal promoter. Recently, a far module was found to support constitutive expression of CYP3A4. The far module, like the distal module, is structurally clustered by a PXR response element (F-ER6) and elements recognized by HNF-4alpha (hepatocyte nuclear receptor-4alpha). We hypothesized that the far module supports PXR transactivation of the CYP3A4 gene. Consistent with the hypothesis, fusion of the far module to the proximal promoter of CYP3A4 markedly increased rifampicin-induced reporter activity. The increase was synergistically enhanced when both the far and distal modules were fused to the proximal promoter. The increase, however, was significantly reduced when the F-ER6 was disrupted. Chromatin immunoprecipitation detected the presence of PXR in the far module. Interestingly, HNF-4alpha increased the activity of the distal-proximal fused promoter, but decreased the activity of the far-proximal fused promoter. Given the fact that induction of CYP3A4 represents an important detoxification mechanism, the functional redundancy and synergistic interaction in supporting PXR transactivation suggest that the far and distal modules ensure the induction of CYP3A4 during chemical insults. The difference in responding to HNF-4alpha suggests that the magnitude of the induction is under control through various transcriptional networks.

  6. US calls for CO2 cut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Government has outraged energy-intensive industries by calling for an international agreement to reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases. In a clear policy shift, the US--the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases and not previously an advocate of curbing them--says it now intends to lead moves to prevent global warming. At last week's Second Conference of the Parties (COP-2) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), US Undersecretary for Global Affairs Timothy Wirth called for open-quotes an agreement that sets a realistic, verifiable, and binding medium-term emissions target.close quotes Individual countries should be free to choose how to meet targets, and the US favors market-based mechanisms, he says. open-quotes Climate change is a serious problem and will require sustained long-term investment to be addressed successfully,close quotes Wirth says

  7. Eight Leadership Emergency Codes Worth Calling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, David H

    Hospitals have a contemporary opportunity to change themselves before attempting to transform the larger US health care system. However, actually implementing change is much more easily described than accomplished in practice. This article calls out 8 dysfunctional behaviors that compromise professional standards at the ground level of the hospital. The construct of calling a code when one witnesses such behaviors is intended to make it safe for leaders to "See something, say something" and confront them in real time. The coordinated continuum of services that health care reform seeks to attain will not emerge until individual hospital organizations prepare themselves to operate better in their own spaces and the ones that immediately surround them.

  8. BUSINESS MODELS FOR EXTENDING OF 112 EMERGENCY CALL CENTER CAPABILITIES WITH E-CALL FUNCTION INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Dragos Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article concerns present status of implementation in Romania and Europe of eCall service and the proposed business models regarding eCall function implementation in Romania. eCall system is used for reliable transmission in case of crush between In Vehicle System and Public Service Answering Point, via the voice channel of cellular and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN. eCall service could be initiated automatically or manual the driver. All data presented in this article are part of researches made by authors in the Sectorial Contract Implementation study regarding eCall system, having as partners ITS Romania and Electronic Solution, with the Romanian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology as beneficiary.

  9. Circus: A Replicated Procedure Call Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 client client stubs ...... ...... ..... ..... runtime libary stub compiler binding agent...runtime libary Figure 1: Structure of the Circus system replicated procedure call paired message protocol unreliable datagrams Figure 2: Circus...114-121. [11) Digit &! Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, a.nd Xerox Corporation. The Ethernet: A Local Area Networlc. September 1080. [12

  10. Beware of the Spirits that You Call!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Consuelo; Schoeneborn, Dennis; Sergi, Viviane

    This article proposes to study the constitution of organization by acknowledging the fundamentally intertwined nature of order and disorder. Adopting a dialectical lens, we explore the (dis)ordering properties of communication by focusing on both the symbolic and the material dimensions of language...... plays a key role in the development of projects (and more broadly organizations), keeping them in motion by calling forth continuous processes of meaning negotiation....

  11. [Work-family conflict in call center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Ricotta, Simona; Colombo, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The working environment of call centers, which have seen a significant growth in recent years, has been the subject of several studies aiming at understanding its specific dynamics, with particular attention to the possible causes of stress and discomfort. Despite the fact that the work-family conflict is considered a source of stress responsible for undermining workers' well-being, and as such has been explored in many work environments, there is still very little research specific to call centers. This study had the following aims: to explore work-family conflict perceived by call-center operators taking account of any differences related to respondents'professional and personal characteristics; to understand which demands and resources can have an impact on work-family conflict in this context. The study was carried out on a sample of 898 call center operators in a telecommunications company through the administration of a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis included: t-test, one-way analysis of variance, linear correlations and multiple regressions. A higher perception of work-family conflict among workers having a full-time contract was observed compared to those having part-time contracts. Multiple regression analysis identified as sources of influence on work-family conflict: emotional dissonance, uneasiness due customer dissatisfaction, workload, avoidance coping and working hours. Work-family conflict in the context studied is not particularly critical: it is in part influenced by professional and personal characteristics of respondents and primarily caused by work demands. Managerial implications are discussed, especially referred to training activities.

  12. “Computer Assisted Language Learning” (CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlı Gündüz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will provide an overview of computers; an overview of the history of CALL, itspros and cons, the internet, World Wide Web, Multimedia, and research related to the uses of computers in the language classroom. Also, it also aims to provide some background for the beginnerson using the Internet in language classes today. It discusses some of the common types of Internetactivities that are being used today, what the minimum requirements are for using the Internet forlanguage learning, and some easy activities you can adapt for your classes. Some special terminology related to computers will also be used in this paper. For example, computer assisted language learning(CALL refers to the sets of instructions which need to be loaded into the computer for it to be able to work in the language classroom. It should be borne in mind that CALL does not refer to the use of acomputer by a teacher to type out a worksheet or a class list or preparing his/her own teaching alone.Hardware refers to any computer equipment used, including the computer itself, the keyboard, screen (or the monitor, the disc-drive, and the printer. Software (computer programs refers to the sets of instructions which need to be loaded into the computer for it to be able to work.

  13. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  14. Call for another special issue / book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    We would like to continue the series of special issue or maybe edit a book on this topic. To complete the formerly edited special issues we would like to link natural hazards research to cultural heritage research. We see a way of doing this connected to "integrated conservation", which sees the involvment of urban planning in conservation, as well as the (urban) sociology, the integration of the user, the participatism. We further call for investigation of GIS applications for the investigation of natural hazards' impact in this field. We are open for further ideas and wait for you at the Splinter meeting.

  15. Call center. Centrados en el cliente

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Alonso-de-Castañeda, José Enrique

    2003-01-01

    La empresa actual ha de estar preparada para responder al Cliente tal y como éste espera, porque no se busca un cliente puntual, sino un cliente fiel. La globalización de la economía y del acceso a los mercados exige que la empresa sea capaz de atraer al cliente no sólo con un servicio de calidad, sino además con una atención de calidad. La implantación de un Call Center (Centro de Atención al Cliente, Centro de Atención de Llamadas) constituye por todo ello una estrategia de negocio qu...

  16. JPEG XS call for proposals subjective evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Bruylants, Tim; Willème, Alexandre; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Schelkens, Peter; Macq, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    In March 2016 the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), formally known as ISO/IEC SC29 WG1, issued a call for proposals soliciting compression technologies for a low-latency, lightweight and visually transparent video compression scheme. Within the JPEG family of standards, this scheme was denominated JPEG XS. The subjective evaluation of visually lossless compressed video sequences at high resolutions and bit depths poses particular challenges. This paper describes the adopted procedures, the subjective evaluation setup, the evaluation process and summarizes the obtained results which were achieved in the context of the JPEG XS standardization process.

  17. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  18. What Is This Thing Called Learner's Lexicography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Learner lexicography as a research area has attracted increased attention during the past decades, but what is actually the true nature of learner lexicography? This question calls for a complex answer. Learner lexicography has as its objective to develop principles that help practitioners......, namely its functions, data and structures, as this strengthens the basis of learner lexicography because it leads to a proper study and understanding of the competences and needs of learners. Finally, the modern theory of dictionary functions encourages theoretical and practical lexicographers to adopt...

  19. Interactionability in Computer Game: Call of Duty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoud Kowsari

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time communication theorists have criticized public media for being unilateral. What they prescript is to transform pattern of communication into bilateral one; in other words, to make media interactional. Telephone is the first fully interactional, however, there was a long road to the contemporary communication and information media which are highly interactional. Nevertheless, not all the modern media are equally interactional. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate levels of interactionability in modern media and strength them. As other concepts in communication, interaction has different definitions, implying various aspects of the audience-media relation. And this feature of multi-dimensionality is to be considered. Quistis (2002 suggests a model in which all the technical, social, and comprehensive aspects of interaction are inherent. In other words, not only the technical aspect of media, but also audience’s perception plays a key role in the model. Visual-computer games are good instance of interactionability in modern media. However, not all games are equally interactional. Analyzing a well-known computer game “Call of Duty”, this article attempts to study different levels of interactionability. The main question is: how can one offer a pragmatic definition of three dimensions of interactionability to study computer games; and how this features are in Call of Duty applied?

  20. Theology links Christian ministry with God's call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L J

    1984-03-01

    Catholic health care ministry originates in and is shaped by the theme of call in the Old and New Testaments. To be specifically Catholic, health professionals and facilities must define their ministries according to the values expressed in this theological tradition. Sponsorship. The opportunity to provide health care enables religious communities to contribute to God's ongoing creation process and to reiterate Christ's call to minister to others. Although health care facility sponsorship thrusts religious communities into the arena of big business, the abandonment of the health care mission could be considered a betrayal of evangelical values. Quality of life. The implicit concern for human dignity that distinguishes Catholic health care facilities should be evident in personalized patient care, just working conditions, and a commitment to healing in the civic community. Stewardship in ethics. The development of business policies and procedures and institutional responses to social change should be carefully considered in light of the Catholic understanding of loving covenant and the Christian way of life. Shared ministry. Health care facilities have played a leading role in implementing the Second Vatican Council's vision of ministry. Sponsoring communities' continued willingness to share responsibilities with laity will be imperative in meeting the health care demands of the future.

  1. NUESTRA PORTADA. Jugar en la calle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Balius i Juli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta vez Nuestra Portada tiene un carácter excepcional. La ocupan dos obras del que fue el “ninotaire” (dibujante de humor inteligente más importante de nuestro país: Francesc Vila i Rufas, conocido por todos como Cesc (1927–2006. Ambos dibujos destacan por sus inconfundibles características de sencillez y, a la vez, de grandeza argumental, que nos han movido a titular este comentario como “Jugar en la calle”. Comenzaré recordando mi precaria experiencia de infancia y primera juventud en esta actividad de índole “suburbana”. Son muchas las personas de mi edad que en algún momento de sus primeros años han jugado en la calle. Recuerdo que la primera vez que lo hice fue hacia 1938, en Sant Boi de Llobregat (denominado entonces Vilaboi, jugando al fútbol. Pasé unos meses en este pueblo huyendo de las bombas que caían sobre Barcelona. También por aquel tiempo, o quizá uno o dos años después, tuve el deseo, que no he podido satisfacer, de deslizarme sobre unos artefactos de madera con ruedas de cojinetes de bolas por la calle de Enric Granados, donde vivía (los construían los chicos del barrio, en formas rudimentarias, que hoy recordarían a los patinetes o los “skateboards”. Durante el bachillerato, al salir de la Escuela Pia de Balmes esquina con Travesera de Gracia, algunas veces había jugado también a fútbol en la calle Tuset, que por aquellos años no estaba bien urbanizada y tenía unas aceras amplísimas sin asfaltar. En los primeros cursos de la carrera de Medicina, participé en unos continuos e inacabables partidos de fútbol que, desde primera hora de la mañana y hasta el mediodía, se organizaban diariamente en el patio claustrado de la Facultad. Generalmente jugábamos entre clase y clase, aunque existía un núcleo de jugadores entusiastas que no entraban en las aulas en ningún momento. Esta competición se clausuró al cabo de bastantes años, cuando el Decano decidió adornar el patio con

  2. Evaluation of GABAergic neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one as a neurobiological substrate for the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Khemraj; Sharma, Ajay N; Jain, Nishant S; Ugale, Rajesh R; Chopde, Chandrabhan T

    2005-07-01

    Acute systemic ethanol administration is known to elevate plasma and cerebral levels of neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one (3alpha, 5alpha-THP; allopregnanolone) to a concentration sufficient to potentiate GABA(A) receptors. We have earlier demonstrated that 3alpha, 5alpha-THP mediates the antidepressant-like effect of ethanol in Porsolt forced swim test. The aim of the present study is to explain the relationship between endogenous GABAergic neurosteroids and anxiolytic effect of ethanol in Sprague-Dawley rats. The mediation of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP in the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol was assessed by pharmacological interactions of ethanol with various endogenous neurosteroidal modulators and using simulated physiological conditions of altered neurosteroid content in elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Pretreatment of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP (0.5-2.5 mug/rat, i.c.v.) or neurosteroidogenic agents such as 3alpha, 5alpha-THP precursor progesterone (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), 11-beta hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone (50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (25 ng/rat, i.c.v.) significantly potentiated the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, the GABAergic antagonistic neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) (1 mg/kg, i.p.), the GABA(A) receptor blocker bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride (50 x 2 mg/kg, s.c.) or the mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitory receptor antagonist PK11195 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced ethanol-induced preference of time spent and number of entries into open arms. Anti-anxiety effect of ethanol was abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats as compared to sham-operated control. This ADX-induced blockade was restored by prior systemic injection of progesterone, signifying the contribution of peripheral steroidogenesis in ethanol anxiolysis. Socially isolated animals known to exhibit decreased brain 3alpha, 5alpha-THP and GABA(A) receptor

  3. Comprometimento organizacional de trabalhadores de call center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely César Martins Paiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO Neste artigo, analisa-se como se apresenta o comprometimento organizacional de trabalhadores de um call center, localizado em Belo (A Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brasil. Após o delineamento conceitual UJ do tema central, são expostos os resultados de um estudo de caso descritivo, realizado com abordagens quantitativa e qualitativa. Os dados de 399 questionários e 22 entrevistas são, respectivamente, tratados estatisticamente e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. A base de comprometimento que predominou entre esses infoproletários foi "obrigação pelo desempenho" e, em menor grau, "afetiva". Foi observado que quanto maior é o seu tempo de experiência nesse tipo de organização, menores são os níveis de comprometimento de modo geral, fatos esclarecidos, parcialmente, por meio das entrevistas.

  4. Museo a todo pedal: Calle 26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Delgado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto reseña el proyecto urbano “MUSEO A TODO PEDAL: CALLE 26” realizado con la intención de promover el conocimiento y la apropiación crítica del patrimonio escultórico de la Avenida El Dorado en la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia. La gestión dio inicio en octubre de 2014 con una serie de actividades, entre ellas, el lanzamiento oficial de la Guía de Monumentos y Sitios y la organización de una carrera ciclística de observación. Es del interés de RevistArquis, publicar este proyecto en diálogo con el ensayo de uno de los autores publicado en el Vol. 1 (2015 Número 07 “Usos Cotidianos y Populares de la Bicicleta en Bogotá”. This paper reviews the urban project “MUSEO A TODO PEDAL: CALLE 26” held to promote awareness and critical appropriation of the sculptural heritage of Avenida El Dorado in Bogota, Colombia. The urban project began in October 2014 with a series of activities including the official launch of the Guide on Monuments and Sites and the organization of a watching cycling road race. RevistArquis is honored to publish this project in dialogue with the essay by the same author published in Vol. 1 (2015 Number 07 “Usos Cotidianos y Populares de la Bicicleta en Bogotá”.

  5. From nestling calls to fledgling silence: adaptive timing of change in response to aerial alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Platzen, Dirk; Kondo, Junko

    2006-09-22

    Young birds and mammals are extremely vulnerable to predators and so should benefit from responding to parental alarm calls warning of danger. However, young often respond differently from adults. This difference may reflect: (i) an imperfect stage in the gradual development of adult behaviour or (ii) an adaptation to different vulnerability. Altricial birds provide an excellent model to test for adaptive changes with age in response to alarm calls, because fledglings are vulnerable to a different range of predators than nestlings. For example, a flying hawk is irrelevant to a nestling in a enclosed nest, but is dangerous to that individual once it has left the nest, so we predict that young develop a response to aerial alarm calls to coincide with fledging. Supporting our prediction, recently fledged white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, fell silent immediately after playback of their parents' aerial alarm call, whereas nestlings continued to calling despite hearing the playback. Young scrubwrens are therefore exquisitely adapted to the changing risks faced during development.

  6. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times...... for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote...... procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...

  7. Staffing to Maximize Profit for Call Centers with Impatient and Repeat-Calling Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by call center practice, we study the optimal staffing of many-server queues with impatient and repeat-calling customers. A call center is modeled as an M/M/s+M queue, which is developed to a behavioral queuing model in which customers come and go based on their satisfaction with waiting time. We explicitly take into account customer repeat behavior, which implies that satisfied customers might return and have an impact on the arrival rate. Optimality is defined as the number of agents that maximize revenues net of staffing costs, and we account for the characteristic that revenues are a direct function of staffing. Finally, we use numerical experiments to make certain comparisons with traditional models that do not consider customer repeat behavior. Furthermore, we indicate how managers might allocate staffing optimally with various customer behavior mechanisms.

  8. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  9. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, "hilar and perihilar CC" are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed.

  10. From Systematic Review to Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.

  11. REMINDER: In a medical emergency call 74444

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    What happened? A CERN colleague, complaining of pains that might indicate serious heart problem, went to the ?infirmary' on the Prévessin site for medical aid. He was unaware that the ?infirmary' was in fact no such thing, but the office of the French contractors' medical practitioner, and, on top of that, it was closed. He therefore took his own car and went to the CERN Fire Station on the Meyrin Site (Building 65). The firemen and the CERN medical team took care of him and requested helicopter transport to the Geneva cantonal hospital, where he responded well to medical treatment. What do we learn from this event? You must call the CERN internal number 74444 in the event of serious and acute illness, and do not have to present yourself in person or get somebody to go with you. This number is not reserved exclusively for accident, pollution, fire etc. The Firemen can prodice professional assistance at all times as required: first aid on the spot, amulance transport and medical assistance as necessary. ...

  12. A study of so-called hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Scheele, C; Nordgren, L; Kempi, V; Hetta, J; Hallborg, A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with unexplained somatic complaints were subjected to a thorough somatic examination. Only when the examination proved negative was the patient entered into the study. The patients were clinically appraised according to criteria given in DSM-III. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was diagnosed in 12, somatization disorder (SD) in 8, and hypochondriasis in 4 patients. Seventeen of the 24 patients agreed to participate in biochemical investigations including a TRH load, a dexamethasone test, and a determination of the monoamine metabolites 5-HIAA and HVA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A normal TSH increase and a normal suppression of cortisol were registered. The HVA values correlated significantly with the 5-HIAA values as well as with the alexithymia scores. Concerning alexithymia and maturity level, no difference as to social class was found. The patients filled in a Zung depression chart. The Zung scale and the 5-HIAA values were both inconsistent with depressive illness. In so-called hypochondriasis a long-term relationship, including selected somatic and biochemical examinations and thorough information, was crucial in abating the patient's distrust and thus the need for health care.

  13. Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wich, S.A.; Koski, S.; Vries, Han de; Schaik, Carel P. van

    2003-01-01

    Individual and contextual differences in male loud calls of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) were studied in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Loud calls were given in the following contexts: morning calls, vocal responses to other groups, between-group encounter calls and alarmcalls. Loud

  14. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  15. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Frants H; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-10-22

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise.

  16. Optimal scheduling in call centers with a callback option

    OpenAIRE

    Legros , Benjamin; Jouini , Oualid; Koole , Ger

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a call center model with a callback option, which allows to transform an inbound call into an outbound one. A delayed call, with a long anticipated waiting time, receives the option to be called back. We assume a probabilistic customer reaction to the callback offer (option). The objective of the system manager is to characterize the optimal call scheduling that minimizes the expected waiting and abandonment costs. For the single-server case, we prove that ...

  17. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching Guest Editors: Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks. Scope of Submission The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics: WDM node architectures Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion Routing protocols WDM switching and routing Quality of service Performance measurement and evaluation Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control Traffic measurement and field trials Optical burst and packet switching OBS/OPS node architectures Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms Contention resolution/avoidance strategies Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.) Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping Hybrid OBS/TDM or OBS/wavelength routing Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select ``Photonics in Switching' in the features indicator of the online

  18. Geneva calling: WHO resolution on mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbui Corrado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new resolution on mental, neurological and substance use disorders was adopted in January 2012 by the World Health Organization (WHO Executive Board. The resolution urges WHO and Member States to collaborate in the development of a comprehensive mental health action plan, to be submitted for discussion and approval to the WHO World Health Assembly. This commentary aims at rising awareness on the risk that this resolution may not fulfil its potential. Discussion Lack of political awareness and visibility of the resolution is a first major issue. Theoretically, Member States should be aware of the resolution and support its implementation at their respective national level, but in practice political commitment may not be high enough, and technical and financial resources made available may be limited. A second challenge is that the resolution suggests to work with Member States and technical agencies to promote academic exchange through which to contribute to policy-making in mental health. It is not straightforward, however, how such a statement may be effectively translated into action. A third key methodological aspect is how scientific evidence and factors other than scientific evidence will be handled. This seems particularly relevant in the field of mental health, where value-based decisions together with resource and feasibility considerations may be unavoidable. Summary We argue that WHO and Member States should work together to increase the visibility of the resolution, ensuring that Ministries of Health and other relevant components of the health systems are aware of the resolution and its implications. As the resolution urges for academic exchange, WHO should develop a plan for an explicit, inclusive and open call for support and collaboration, so that partners willing to contribute are not kept out from the process. The production of an action plan for mental disorders should be based on scientifically sound

  19. Calling under pressure: Short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frants Havmand; Marrero Perez, Jacobo; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species...... among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic...... DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows...

  20. No Call for Action? Why There Is No Union (Yet in Philippine Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Reese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents findings from a qualitative study which focused on young urban professionals in the Philippines who work(ed in international call centers – workplaces usually characterized by job insecurity and other forms of precarity, factory-like working conditions, and disembeddedness. Nevertheless, trade unions in these centers have not come into existence. Why collective action is not chosen by call center agents as an option to tackle the above mentioned problems – this is what the research project this article is based on tried to understand. After outlining some workrelated problems identified by Filipino call center agents, the article will focus on the strategies the agents employ to counter these problems (mainly accommodation and everyday resistance. By highlighting five objective and five subjective reasons (or reasons by circumstances and reasons by framing, we conclude that it is not repressive regulation policies, but rather the formative power and the internalization of discourses of rule within individual life strategies that are preventing the establishment of unions and other collective action structures.

  1. Using Semantic Similarity In Automated Call Quality Evaluator For Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria A. Sagum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversation between the agent and client are being evaluated manually by a quality assurance officer QA. This job is only one of the responsibilities being done by a QA and particularly eat ups a lot of time for them which lead to late evaluation results that may cause untimely response of the company to concerns raised by their clients. This research developed an application software that automates and evaluates the quality assurance in business process outsourcing companies or customer service management implementing sentence similarity. The developed system includes two modules speaker diarization which includes transcription and question and answer extraction and similarity checker which checks the similarity between the extracted answer and the answer of the call center agent to a question. The system was evaluated for Correctness of the extracted answers and accurateness of the evaluation for a particular call. Audio conversations were tested for the accuracy of the transcription module which has an accuracy of 27.96. The Precision Recall and F-measure of the extracted answer was tested as 78.03 96.26 and 86.19 respectively. The Accuracy of the system in evaluating a call is 70.

  2. New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai

    2006-01-01

    Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.

  3. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal alters (3α,5α)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one immunostaining in cortical and limbic brain regions of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Cook, Jason B; O'Buckley, Todd K; Morrow, Danielle H; McKinley, Raechel E; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; Morrow, A Leslie

    2014-10-01

    The GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) has been studied during withdrawal from ethanol (EtOH) in humans, rats, and mice. Serum 3α,5α-THP levels decreased, and brain levels were not altered following acute EtOH administration (2 g/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice; however, the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on 3α,5α-THP levels have not been examined. Given that CIE exposure changes subsequent voluntary EtOH drinking in a time-dependent fashion following repeated cycles of EtOH exposure, we conducted a time-course analysis of CIE effects on 3α,5α-THP levels in specific brain regions known to influence drinking behavior. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 cycles of CIE to induce EtOH dependence. All mice were sacrificed and perfused at 1 of 2 time points, 8 or 72 hours following the final exposure cycle. Free-floating brain sections (40 μm; 3 to 5 sections/region/animal) were immunostained and analyzed to determine relative levels of cellular 3α,5α-THP. Withdrawal from CIE exposure produced time-dependent and region-specific effects on immunohistochemical detection of 3α,5α-THP levels across cortical and limbic brain regions. A transient reduction in 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity was observed in the central nucleus of the amygdala 8 hours after withdrawal from CIE (-31.4 ± 9.3%). Decreases in 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity were observed 72 hours following withdrawal in the medial prefrontal cortex (-25.0 ± 9.3%), nucleus accumbens core (-29.9 ± 6.6%), and dorsolateral striatum (-18.5 ± 6.0%), while an increase was observed in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus (+42.8 ± 19.5%). Sustained reductions in 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity were observed at both time points in the lateral amygdala (8 hours -28.3 ± 12.8%; 72 hours -27.5 ± 12.4%) and in the ventral tegmental area (8 hours -26.5 ± 9.9%; 72 hours -31.6 ± 13.8%). These data

  4. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  5. Call for concept notes: Research on Myanmar's decentralization and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... are launching this research call under a new initiative called Knowledge for ... Over the decades of military rule, information sharing, research, and freedom of ... Research outputs would take the form of working papers for peer-review and ...

  6. TPMG Northern California appointments and advice call center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conolly, Patricia; Levine, Leslie; Amaral, Debra J; Fireman, Bruce H; Driscoll, Tom

    2005-08-01

    Kaiser Permanente (KP) has been developing its use of call centers as a way to provide an expansive set of healthcare services to KP members efficiently and cost effectively. Since 1995, when The Permanente Medical Group (TPMG) began to consolidate primary care phone services into three physical call centers, the TPMG Appointments and Advice Call Center (AACC) has become the "front office" for primary care services across approximately 89% of Northern California. The AACC provides primary care phone service for approximately 3 million Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members in Northern California and responds to approximately 1 million calls per month across the three AACC sites. A database records each caller's identity as well as the day, time, and duration of each call; reason for calling; services provided to callers as a result of calls; and clinical outcomes of calls. We here summarize this information for the period 2000 through 2003.

  7. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  8. Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the clutch-guarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the clutch-guarding frog Mantidactylus argenteus from eastern ... We provide the first descriptions of the tadpole and advertisement call of Mantidactylus argenteus. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  10. Electoronic Performance Monitoring in Call Centers: An Ethical Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Ever since it emerged on a widespread basis in the 1990s, electronic performance monitoring of employees has received significant scrutiny in the literature. Call centers have been the focus of many of these studies. This particular study addresses the issue of electronic performance monitoring in call centers from an ethical perspective. The following ethical dilemma is offered: "Is it ethical for a call center manager to evaluate the performance of a call center employee using electronic pe...

  11. Smart Grid Technology and Consumer Call Center Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Schamber, Kelsey L.

    2010-01-01

    The following reasearch project deals with utility call center readiness to address customer concerns and questions about the Smart Grid and smart meter technology. Since consumer engagement is important for the benefits of the Smart Grid to be realized, the readiness and ability of utilities to answer consumer questions is an important issue. Assessing the readiness of utility call centers to address pertinant customer concerns was accomplished by calling utility call centers with Smart Grid...

  12. Calling vs Receiving Party Pays: Market Penetration and the Importance of the Call Externality

    OpenAIRE

    Tommaso Majer; Michele Pistollato

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study how the access price affects the choice of the tariff regime taken by the network operators. We show that for high values of the access price, that is taken as a parameter by the firms, networks decide to charge only the callers. Otherwise, for low values of the access charge, networks charge also the receivers. Moreover, we compare market penetration and total welfare between the two price regimes. Our model suggests that, for high values of call externality, market pe...

  13. Calling vs receiving party pays : market penetration and the importance of the call externality

    OpenAIRE

    Majer, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how the access price affects the choice of the tariff regime taken by the network operators. We show that for high values of the access price, that is taken as a parameter by the firms, networks decide to charge only the callers. Otherwise, for low values of the access charge, networks charge also the receivers. Moreover, we compare market penetration and total welfare between the two price regimes. Our model suggests that, for high values of call externality, market pe...

  14. Examining calling as a double-edged sword for employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lysova, Evgenia I.; Jansen, Paul G.W.; Khapova, Svetlana N.; Plomp, Judith; Tims, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Using a two-study design (total N = 1232), this paper examines the relationship between calling and employability. We suggest that, on the one hand, calling can positively relate to employability due to individuals’ engagement in proactive professional development (PPD). On the other hand, calling

  15. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so close... employee who is not required to remain on the employer's premises but is merely required to leave word at his home or with company officials where he may be reached is not working while on call. (Armour & Co...

  16. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  17. The Role of Analyst Conference Calls in Capital Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Roelofsen (Erik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany firms conduct a conference call with analysts shortly after the quarterly earnings announcement. In these calls, management discusses the completed quarter, and analysts can ask questions. Due to SEC requirements, conference calls in the United States are virtually always live

  18. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  19. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  20. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  1. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Public Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20 feet...

  2. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%. Nineteen (19% percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (. Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made.

  3. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, J D; Bhasin, S K

    2016-10-01

    Call center sector in India is a relatively new and fast growing industry driving employment and growth in modern India today. Most international call centers in National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi operate at odd work hours corresponding to a time suitable fortheir international customers. The sleep quality of call handlers employed in these call centers is in jeopardy owing to their altered sleep schedule. To assess the sleep quality and determine its independent predictors among call handlers employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on 375 call handlers aged 18-39 years employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. Sleep quality was assessed using Athens Insomnia scale along with a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 24.6 (SD 2.4) years. 78% of participants were male. 83.5% of respondents were unmarried. 44.3% of call handlers were cigarette smokers. Physical ailments were reported by 37% call handlers. 77.6% of call handlers had somesuspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (pSafeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  4. Heart rate variability changes in physicians working on night call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Birgitta; Persson, Roger; Flisberg, Per; Ørbaek, Palle

    2011-03-01

    Adverse effects by night-call duty have become an important occupational health issue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the heart rate variability (HRV) differed during recovery from day work and night-call duty between distinct physician specialities. We studied the impact of a 16-h night-call duty on autonomic balance, measured by HRV, among two physician groups differing with respect to having to deal with life-threatening conditions while on call. Nineteen anaesthesiologists (ANEST) and 16 paediatricians and ear, nose and throat surgeons (PENT) were monitored by ambulatory digital Holter electrocardiogram (ECG). Heart rate variability was analysed between 21:00 and 22:00 after an ordinary workday, on night call and in the evening post-call. Absolute and normalized high-frequency power (HF, HFnu) were the main outcome variables, expressing parasympathetic influence on the heart. ANEST had lower HF power than PENT while on night call and post-daytime work (p work compared with post-night-call duty (p balance and did not differ between specialities. However, the less dynamic HRV after daytime work and during night-call duty in the ANEST group may indicate a higher physiological stress level. These results may contribute to the improvement of night-call schedules within the health care sector.

  5. Uncertain call likelihood negatively affects sleep and next-day cognitive performance while on-call in a laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprajcer, Madeline; Jay, Sarah M; Vincent, Grace E; Vakulin, Andrew; Lack, Leon; Ferguson, Sally A

    2018-05-11

    On-call working arrangements are employed in a number of industries to manage unpredictable events, and often involve tasks that are safety- or time-critical. This study investigated the effects of call likelihood during an overnight on-call shift on self-reported pre-bed anxiety, sleep and next-day cognitive performance. A four-night laboratory-based protocol was employed, with an adaptation, a control and two counterbalanced on-call nights. On one on-call night, participants were instructed that they would definitely be called during the night, while on the other on-call night they were told they may be called. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form x-1 was used to investigate pre-bed anxiety, and sleep was assessed using polysomnography and power spectral analysis of the sleep electroencephalographic analysis. Cognitive performance was assessed four times daily using a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task. Participants felt more anxious before bed when they were definitely going to be called, compared with the control and maybe conditions. Conversely, participants experienced significantly less non-rapid eye movement and stage two sleep and poorer cognitive performance when told they may be called. Further, participants had significantly more rapid eye movement sleep in the maybe condition, which may be an adaptive response to the stress associated with this on-call condition. It appears that self-reported anxiety may not be linked with sleep outcomes while on-call. However, this research indicates that it is important to take call likelihood into consideration when constructing rosters and risk-management systems for on-call workers.

  6. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  7. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    An economic study of the the behaviour of financial managers of utility companies was presented. The study examined whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions compared to other models. In this study, the Rust (1987) empirical technique was extended to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. Reasonable estimates were obtained from data of shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGE) for the transaction costs associated with a call. It was concluded that the managers of the PGE clearly take into account the value of the option to delay the call when making their call decisions

  8. The oil market. Call on OPEC determines the oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingma, D.; Mulder, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several scenarios are applied to determine the oil price for the medium-long term, based on the so-called 'call on OPEC'. The 'call on OPEC' is part of the demand for oil which has to supplied by OPEC. It is expected that the nominal oil price will be circa $24 per barrel in 2004, based on a global growth of 4%. 2 refs

  9. Calling 911! What role does the pediatrician play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Devin; Kunkov, Sergey; Kaplan, Carl; Crain, Ellen F

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare admission rates and medical interventions among children whose caregivers called their child's primary care provider (PCP) before taking an ambulance to the pediatric emergency department (PED) versus those who did not. This was a prospective cohort study of patients brought to an urban, public hospital PED via emergency medical system (EMS). Children were included if the caregiver called 911 to have them transported via EMS and was present in the PED. The main variable was whether the child's PCP was called before EMS utilization. Study outcomes were medical interventions, such as intravenous line insertion or laboratory tests, and hospital admission. χ Test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship of the main variable to the study outcomes. Six hundred fourteen patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Five hundred eighty-five patients (95.3%) were reported to have a PCP. Seventy-four caregivers (12.1%) called their child's PCP before calling EMS. Two hundred seventy-seven patients (45.1%) had medical interventions performed; of these, 42 (15.2%) called their PCP (P = 0.03). Forty-two patients (6.8%) were admitted; among these, 14 (33.3%) called their PCP (P < 0.01). Adjusting for triage level, patients whose caregiver called the PCP before calling EMS were 3.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2 times) more likely to be admitted and 1.7 times (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9 times) more likely to have a medical intervention compared with patients whose caregivers did not call their child's PCP. Children were more likely to be admitted or require a medical intervention if their caregiver called their PCP before calling EMS. The availability of a PCP for telephone triage may help to optimize EMS utilization.

  10. Leveraging management information in improving call centre productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthisana Mosese

    2016-04-01

    Objectives: This research explored the use of management information and its impact on two fundamental functions namely, improving productivity without compromising the quality of service, in the call centre of a well-known South African fashion retailer, Edcon. Following the implementation of the call centre technology project the research set out to determine how Edcon can transform their call centre to improve productivity and customer service through effective utilisation of their management information. Method: Internal documents and reports were analysed to provide the basis of evaluation between the measures of productivity prior to and post the implementation of a technology project at Edcon’s call centre. Semi-structured in-depth and group interviews were conducted to establish the importance and use of management information in improving productivity and customer service. Results: The results indicated that the availability of management information has indeed contributed to improved efficiency at the Edcon call centre. Although literature claims that there is a correlation between a call centre technology upgrade and improvement in performance, evident in the return on investment being realised within a year or two of implementation, it fell beyond the scope of this study to investigate the return on investment for Edcon’s call centre. Conclusion: Although Edcon has begun realising benefits in improved productivity in their call centre from their available management information, information will continue to play a crucial role in supporting management with informed decisions that will improve the call centre operations. [pdf to follow

  11. On-call work and health: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botterill Jackie S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many professions in the fields of engineering, aviation and medicine employ this form of scheduling. However, on-call work has received significantly less research attention than other work patterns such as shift work and overtime hours. This paper reviews the current body of peer-reviewed, published research conducted on the health effects of on-call work The health effects studies done in the area of on-call work are limited to mental health, job stress, sleep disturbances and personal safety. The reviewed research suggests that on-call work scheduling can pose a risk to health, although there are critical gaps in the literature.

  12. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  13. Well Being and Job Satisfaction Among Call Centre Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegman, Inger Marie; Mathiesen, Karen; Møller, Niels

    2004-01-01

    A survey among 774 agents in four large Danish companies in house call centres shows that working in a call center is stressfull. Lack of control and autonomy, lack of potentiality and challenges, conflict between qualitative and quantitative demands and monitoring all have an adverse effect on job...

  14. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Online scheduling policies for multiclass call centers with impatient customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouini, O.; Pot, S.A.; Koole, G.M.; Dallery, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a call center with two classes of impatient customers: premium and regular classes. Modeling our call center as a multiclass GI / GI / s + M queue, we focus on developing scheduling policies that satisfy a target ratio constraint on the abandonment probabilities of premium customers to

  16. Analysis of jitter due to call-level fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn communication networks used by constant bit rate applications, call-level dynamics (i.e., entering and leaving calls) lead to fluctuations in the load, and therefore also fluctuations in the delay (jitter). By intentionally delaying the packets at the destination, one can transform

  17. The advertisement call, breeding biology, description of the tadpole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males of Bufo dombensis were observed calling late at night at Ongongo Waterfall in north-western Namibia. The analyzed advertisement calls differ distinctly from those of B. vertebralis, B. hoeschi and B. fenoulheti, indicating that all these taxa are separate valid species. Tadpoles raised from a breeding pair found at ...

  18. Jamaican Call-In Radio: A Uses and Gratification Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    Noting that radio call-in programs seem to contain the elements for active audience involvement and participation, a study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that information gain and surveillance are the primary gratifications sought through call-in radio programs, especially in a culture that has a strong oral tradition and relatively few…

  19. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  20. The Structure and Function of Male Thomas Langur Loud Calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wich, Serge Alexander

    2002-01-01

    This study has addressed the acoustical structure of male loud calls and their function in Thomas langur social organisation. Thomas langurs are medium sized primate that lives in Sumatra, Indonesia. Ome of the characteristics of this species is the loud call of males. Several functions for loud

  1. In- and Out-of-the-Money Convertible Bond Calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechman, Ken; Lunde, Asger; Zebedee, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Convertible bond calls typically cause significant reactions in equity prices. The empirical research largely finds negative and positive announcement effects for the in-the-money and the out-of-the-money calls respectively. However, this research has difficulty distinguishing between the two mai...

  2. Consumer Experiences Calling Toll-Free Corporate Hotlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles L.; Smart, Denise T.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that dimensions that contribute to caller satisfaction (of toll-free corporate hotlines) included operator characteristics such as knowledge, courtesy, and interest; specific behaviors such as apologizing for a problem, thanking the consumer for calling, and encouraging them to call again; and reducing time placed on "hold." (SR)

  3. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of...

  4. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement... Completing Carrier must undergo an audit of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system by an independent third party...

  5. Called to do meaningful work : A blessing or a curse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2017-01-01

    Two groups of people are particularly inclined to mention a calling when talking about their work motivation: those who are spiritual (because the concept of calling originated in the religious realm) and those in serving occupations (such as hospitals, schools, and nongovernmental organizations).

  6. Short communications: Calls of three species of arthroleptid frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The calls of three anuran species in the family Arthroleptidae in the sub-family Astylosterminae from Equatorial Guinea are described including information on calling behaviour. For each species, we present a characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram. We also provide numerical information about the spectral and ...

  7. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  8. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide interstate transmission or billing and collection services to an entity offering any service within the scope...

  9. CALL in the Year 2000: A Look Back from 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when "Language Learning & Technology" was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study…

  10. Call Centres in Denmark 2004 - Strategy, HR Practices & Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole H.; El-Salanti, Nadia

    This survey is the first scientifically based benchmarking study of the Danish call centre industry. The main results from the study are based on answers from 128 call centres, which correspond to a response rate of 65%. The Danish study is part of a global project coordinated by researchers at C...

  11. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  12. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile satellite...

  13. Evaluation of Static JavaScript Call Graph Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-J. Dijkstra (Jorryt-Jan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis consists of a replication study in which two algorithms to compute JavaScript call graphs have been implemented and evaluated. Existing IDE support for JavaScript is hampered due to the dynamic nature of the language. Previous studies partially solve call graph computation

  14. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  15. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  16. Investigating CALL in the Classroom: Situational Variables to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Liutkus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new paradigm in second language pedagogy has Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL playing a significant role. Much of the literature to-date claims that CALL can have a positive impact on students’ second language acquisition (SLA. Mixed method of research produces data to investigate if CALL positively affects student language proficiency, motivation and autonomy. Classroom observation of participants in their natural environment is a qualitative technique used but has situational variables that could skew results if not structured. A questionnaire is a quantitative tool that can offer insight regarding participants’ perception of performance but can contradict what the researcher has observed. This paper will take an in-depth look at variables such as: instructor’s pedagogical application; blending CALL into the curriculum; types of CALL implemented; feedback received and their implications for design of the data collection tools

  17. Call Admission Scheme for Multidimensional Traffic Assuming Finite Handoff User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Baitul Al Sadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the number of users within a cell in a mobile cellular network is considered infinite; hence, M/M/n/k model is appropriate for new originated traffic, but the number of ongoing calls around a cell is always finite. Hence, the traffic model of handoff call will be M/M/n/k/N. In this paper, a K-dimensional traffic model of a mobile cellular network is proposed using the combination of limited and unlimited users case. A new call admission scheme (CAS is proposed based on both thinning scheme and fading condition. The fading condition of the wireless channel access to a handoff call is prioritized compared to newly originated calls.

  18. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  19. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions in competitive call

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document discusses various issues associated with the planned competitive call on the French hydraulic power plants. The principles of this competitive call for hydroelectric concessions are first addressed: administrative regime of concessions, competitive call process, criteria of selection of the concession holder, case of 'concession of valleys', potential competitors. It outlines and discusses the difficulties of this competitive call: France is the single country to implement this procedure; it concerns a national asset; it questions the guarantee of a future use of equipment at best for the energy benefits of French consumers; the competitive call is a nice idea indeed but extremely complex. A note discusses the profitability aspects of Plants for Transfer of Energy by Pumping

  20. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Coscia

    Full Text Available Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable.

  1. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of

  2. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Mary; Shuman, Clayton; Galinato, Jose; Patak, Lance; Anderson, Christine A; Titler, Marita G

    2017-01-01

    Background Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients’ perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients’ perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Methods Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated). Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Results Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients’ perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants’ perceptions of “nurse work”). Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Discussion Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients’ understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery. PMID:29075125

  3. Conduits to care: call lights and patients' perceptions of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Mary; Shuman, Clayton; Galinato, Jose; Patak, Lance; Anderson, Christine A; Titler, Marita G

    2017-01-01

    Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients' perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients' perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated). Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients' perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants' perceptions of "nurse work"). Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients' understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery.

  4. Identification of sympatric bat species by the echolocation calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight echolocation calls of 63 free-flying individuals of five bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum,Myotis formosus,Myotis ikonnikovi,Myotis daubentoni and Murina leucogaster)were recorded (by ultrasonic bat detector (D980)) in Zhi'an village of Jilin Province,China.According to the frequency-time spectra,these calls were categorized into two types:FM/CF (constant frequency) / FM (R.ferrumequinum) and FM (frequency modulated)(M.formosus,M.ikonnikovi,M.daubentoni and M.leucogaster).Sonograms of the calls of R.ferrumequinum could easily be distinguished from those of the other four species.For the calls of the remaining four species,six echolocation call parameters,including starting frequency,ending frequency,peak frequency duration,longest inter-pulse interval and shortest inter-pulse interval,were examined by stepwise discriminant analysis.The results show that 84.1% of calls were correctly classified,which indicates that these parameters of echolocation calls play an important role in identifying bat species.These parameters can be used to test the accuracy of general predictions based on bats' morphology in the same forest and can provide essential information for assessing patterns of bat habitat use.

  5. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Design Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one‐week or two‐week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Results Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Conclusions Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline. PMID:18048626

  6. Frogs Call at a Higher Pitch in Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Male frogs call to attract females for mating and to defend territories from rival males. Female frogs of some species prefer lower-pitched calls, which indicate larger, more experienced males. Acoustic interference occurs when background noise reduces the active distance or the distance over which an acoustic signal can be detected. Birds are known to call at a higher pitch or frequency in urban noise, decreasing acoustic interference from low-frequency noise. Using Bayesian linear regression, we investigated the effect of traffic noise on the pitch of advertisement calls in two species of frogs, the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii and the common eastern froglet (Crinia signifera. We found evidence that L. ewingii calls at a higher pitch in traffic noise, with an average increase in dominant frequency of 4.1 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 123 Hz. This frequency shift is smaller than that observed in birds, but is still large enough to be detected by conspecific frogs and confer a significant benefit to the caller. Mathematical modelling predicted a 24% increase in the active distance of a L. ewingii call in traffic noise with a frequency shift of this size. Crinia signifera may also call at a higher pitch in traffic noise, but more data are required to be confident of this effect. Because frog calls are innate rather than learned, the frequency shift demonstrated by L. ewingii may represent an evolutionary adaptation to noisy conditions. The phenomenon of frogs calling at a higher pitch in traffic noise could therefore constitute an intriguing trade-off between audibility and attractiveness to potential mates.

  7. The experience of work in a call centre environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet Hauptfleisch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study explored the work experience in a call centre environment in an information technology call centre based in South Africa, which service foreign customers exclusively. Three data collection methods were used, namely narratives, in-depth interviews with call centre consultants, and observation. Following a grounded theory approach, four themes were elicited, namely the perceptions of team members, uncertainty created by a constantly changing environment, perceived distances due to management practices, and depersonalisation experienced while actually dealing with customers. In addition to this, the reported impact of these themes on work performance was explored and compared to existing research.

  8. Acoustic model optimisation for a call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Secretary system and provides background on some application-specific ASR issues. Section III details the ASR development effort as well as corpus selection and design. Our experiments are described Fig. 1. High level AutoSecretary call flow. in Section IV... and results and a discussion are presented in Section V. Lastly, the conclusion and possible future work appear in Section VI. II. BACKGROUND A. AutoSecretary IVR System Figure 1 shows the high level call flow of the AutoSecretary call routing system...

  9. A synthetic operational account of call-by-need evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian; Danvy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    . The syntactic theory was initiated by Ariola, Felleisen, Maraist, Odersky and Wadler and is prevalent today to reason equationally about lazy programs, on par with Barendregt et al.'s term graphs. Nobody knows, however, how the theory of call by need compares to the practice of call by need: all that is known...... machine implementing lazy evaluation. The machines are intensionally compatible with extensional reasoning about lazy programs and they are lock-step equivalent. Each machine functionally corresponds to a natural semantics for call by need in the style of Launchbury, though for non-preprocessed λ...

  10. Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and communications technology capabilities to transportation and the medical care system in order to save lives, ...

  11. SNPMClust: Bivariate Gaussian Genotype Clustering and Calling for Illumina Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available SNPMClust is an R package for genotype clustering and calling with Illumina microarrays. It was originally developed for studies using the GoldenGate custom genotyping platform but can be used with other Illumina platforms, including Infinium BeadChip. The algorithm first rescales the fluorescent signal intensity data, adds empirically derived pseudo-data to minor allele genotype clusters, then uses the package mclust for bivariate Gaussian model fitting. We compared the accuracy and sensitivity of SNPMClust to that of GenCall, Illumina's proprietary algorithm, on a data set of 94 whole-genome amplified buccal (cheek swab DNA samples. These samples were genotyped on a custom panel which included 1064 SNPs for which the true genotype was known with high confidence. SNPMClust produced uniformly lower false call rates over a wide range of overall call rates.

  12. Call for Expressions of Interest: Strengthening cyber policy centres ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... cyber policy themes, and the capacity and drive to augment work in the other ... to improve their research, policy influence, and organizational performance. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  13. Calling songs of some South African cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-07-13

    Jul 13, 1987 ... Figure 11 Posture of male cicadas during calling song, illustrated by a specimen ... parameters of the smaller samples falls within that of the largest conspecific ... under the control of the neuromuscular system (Pringle. 1954b).

  14. Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... ... cooperation agreement to support joint research projects in December 2017. ... but in most cases they have difficulty reaching marginalized youth ... Visit the call page for detailed information and to access application forms.

  15. Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and decentralization in Myanmar ... address gender inequality in political participation; and; improve gender-sensitive ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women.

  16. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  17. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  18. Taxonomic and phylogenetic utility of variation in advertising calls of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic utility of variation in advertising calls of francolins and spurfowls (Galliformes: Phasianidae). Tshifhiwa G. Mandiwana-Neudani, Rauri C.K. Bowie, Martine Hausberger, Laurence Henry, Timothy M. Crowe ...

  19. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  20. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  1. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  2. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    from a Java application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Android , NDK, Native Development Kit, C callable, Java Native Interface, JNI, Java, C/C++ 16. SECURITY ...ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  3. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... payments consist of a specified number of hours' pay at the applicable straight time or overtime rates...

  4. Objective assessment of IP video calls with Asterisk

    OpenAIRE

    Kapičák, Lukáš; Nevlud, Pavel; Mikulec, Martin; Zdrálek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with an objective assessment of IP video calls transmission over GSM and UMTS networks. Video transmission is affected by many factors in mobile network. Among these factors belong packet loss, latency and transmission rate of the mobile network. Network properties were simulated by Simena network simulator. Our team have developed a unique technique for finding defects in video appearing in video calls. This technique is built on modified Asterisk SW PBX with enabled video re...

  5. Nonpasserine bird produces soft calls and pays retaliation cost

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Ręk; Tomasz S. Osiejuk

    2011-01-01

    Low-amplitude vocalizations produced during aggressive encounters, courtship, or both (quiet/soft songs) have been described for many species of song-learning passerines; however, such signals have not been studied among nonlearning birds. During aggressive interactions, apart from using the broadcast call, male corncrakes (Crex crex) produce a low-amplitude, gurgling--mewing call, which appears to be equivalent to soft songs of songbirds. Previous studies have shown that low-amplitude vocali...

  6. Bundling the value of discharge telephone calls and leader rounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Nina; Meade, Christine

    2009-03-01

    Discharge telephone calls made by hospital staff provide invaluable opportunities to prevent adverse events, improve quality of care, and increase patient satisfaction. Similarly, the effect of rounding on patients can improve clinical quality and improve both patient and staff satisfaction. The author discusses how the combination of implementing both nurse leader rounding and discharge telephone calls simultaneously produced powerful positive outcomes in satisfaction and patient quality of care.

  7. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Raza, Syed Muhammad; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Manzar, S

    2009-01-01

    To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E) and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females) were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9%) were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1%) calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0%) patients. Total 73 (16.0%) calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7%) patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5%) patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1%) patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8%) patients. Total 104 (22.8%) emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7%) patients. Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  8. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Masood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9% were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1% calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0% patients. Total 73 (16.0% calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7% patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5% patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1% patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8% patients. Total 104 (22.8% emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7% patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  9. GROUP POLICY BASED AUTHENTICATION ON INCOMING CALLS FOR ANDROID SMARTPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita M. Kumbhar, Prof. Z.M Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    The numbers of Smartphone users increasing day by day. Hence, there is need to propose advanced Group Policy based Authentication for incoming calls for Android phone. Android platform provides a variety of functions that support the programming of face recognition, as in image processing. Group policy based authentication scheme increases the security which restricts the access of incoming call form un-authorized user. To solve problems, related to face recognition should be applied in the p...

  10. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  11. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  12. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL. In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since the nineteen nineties, curricula in traditional educational institutions have not fundamentally changed, even as we move from a pre-digital society towards a digital society. Curricula have failed to incorporate CALL resources because no agreed-upon pedagogical language enables teachers to discuss CALL classroom practices. Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG can help to provide this language and bridge the gap between the needs of the curriculum and the potentiality of CALL-based resources. This paper will outline how SFG principles can be used to create a pedagogical language for CALL and it will give practical examples of how this language can be used to create sustainable resources in classroom contexts.

  13. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Raja

    2016-10-01

    suspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (p<0.05. Conclusion: Call handlers have to compromise upon their sleep owing to the contemporary work settings in call centers. Safeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  14. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montie M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary Montie,1 Clayton Shuman,1 Jose Galinato,1 Lance Patak,2 Christine A Anderson,1 Marita G Titler1 1Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients’ perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients’ perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Methods: Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated. Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Results: Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients’ perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants’ perceptions of “nurse work”. Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Discussion: Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients’ understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery. Keywords: nurse–patient communication, medical technology, quality of care, qualitative research

  15. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  16. Communication between residents and attending doctors on call after hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselsky Persky, Michal A; Yinnon, Amos M; Freier-Dror, Yossi; Henshke-Bar-Meir, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Off-hours medical care in hospitals is provided by residents, while attendings on call are available for assistance. This study evaluated the gap between residents' expectations and professional guidelines' requirements of attendings on call and what actually occurs during night shifts, while comparing surgical and medical specialties. Two questionnaires based on professional guidelines were filled by residents. The first queried about residents' expectations of attendings on call, and the second asked about communication with the attendings during actual night shifts. While 91 (100%) of residents expected the attending on call to be available by phone during the shift, only 44 (48%) expected the attending to initiate contact, and only 17 (19%) expected the attending to visit the ward or emergency department (ED) without being requested to do so. In 127 shifts (84%), some form of communication occurred. Residents called their attendings during 105 shifts (70%). However, attendings initiated contact with residents at the beginning or during the shift in only 67 (44%) and 62 (41%) shifts, respectively, and initiated a visit to the ward/ED during the shift in only 41 cases (27%). Surgical attendings initiated contact in these three ways significantly more frequently than medical attendings [21 (28%) versus 46 (61%), 20 (26%) versus 42 (56%) and 4 (5%) versus 37 (50%), respectively; P communication during night shifts between residents and attendings occurs in most shifts, attendings initiate far less contact with residents than is required by the guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

    2006-01-01

    Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls.

  18. Instrument calls and real-time code for laboratory automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taber, L.; Ames, H.S.; Yamauchi, R.K.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    These programs are the result of a joint Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Environmental Protection Agency project to automate water quality laboratories. They form the interface between the analytical instruments and the BASIC language programs for data reduction and analysis. They operate on Data General NOVA 840's at Cincinnati and Chicago and on a Data General ECLIPSE C330 at Livermore. The operating system consists of unmodified RDOS, Data General's disk operating system, and Data General's multiuser BASIC modified to provide the instrument CALLs and other functions described. Instruments automated at various laboratories include Technicon AutoAnalyzers, atomic absorption spectrophotometers, total organic carbon analyzers, an emission spectrometer, an electronic balance, sample changers, and an optical spectrophotometer. Other instruments may be automated using these same CALLs, or new CALLs may be written as described

  19. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  20. Calls for Tender and Market Surveys Roles and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    2000-01-01

    ST division has implemented certain procedures to handle the calls for tender and market surveys. In January 1998, the division leader set up the 'call-for-tender co-ordination office' to check and approve each technical document leaving the division. The mandate of the call-for-tender co-ordination office is to check the quality of the documents, in order for these documents to be as clear as possible in terms of both content and structure. The role of this office is to contribute positively and give service to the people writing the documents, and not to give negative criticism. The aim of this paper is to present the mandate of the office, how papers are processed, and to draw up a first result summary.

  1. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.

  2. Penentuan Nilai Opsi Call Eropa Dengan Pembayaran Dividen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Purwandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluktuasi harga saham menyebabkan perdagangan saham memiliki resiko. Opsi merupakan alternatif untuk mengurangi resiko dalam perdagangan saham. Opsi Eropa adalah suatu kontrak keuangan yang memberikan hak, bukan kewajiban, kepada holder, untuk membeli atau menjual aset pokok dari writer pada saat jatuh tempo dengan harga yang sudah ditentukan. Model penilaian harga opsi yang banyak diterima dalam bidang finansial adalah model Black-Scholes. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pembagian dividen terhadap harga saham dan menentukan nilai opsi call Eropa dengan pembayaran dividen pada waktu yang telah ditentukan. Nilai opsi call Eropa dengan pembayaran dividen pada waktu yang telah ditentukan diperoleh menggunakan integrasi numerik dengan metode Simpson sebesar 12,6388.Kata kunci: opsi call Eropa, model Black-Scholes, dividen, metode Simpson.ABSTRACT Fluctuations in stock prices lead stock trading risk. An alternative options to reduce the risk in stock trading. European option is a financial contract that gives the right, but not the obligation, to the holder, to buy or sell the underlying asset of the writer at the maturity date at a price specified. Option price valuation models are widely accepted in the field of finance is the Black-Scholes model. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of dividend distribution to the stock price and determine the value of the European call option with dividend payments at a predetermined time. Value of the European call option with dividend payments at a predetermined time obtained using numerical integration with Simpson method of 12,6388.Key words: European call options, Black-Scholes model, dividend, Simpson method.

  3. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator for Call for Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    can use it, why there is a need for this type of system, what research questions this thesis will answer, the UFO Translator’s relevance to the DoD...of the UFO Translator discussed in Chapter III. E. WHAT IS CALL FOR FIRE? A Call for Fire (CFF) is a request for fire from an observer to the Fire...type, size, and degree of protection are sent. For 21 the UFO Translator, there will be drop down menus to help the user decide what to choose

  4. Exploring antecedents and consequences of burnout in a call centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie A. Visser

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between six characteristics of call centre work environments, burnout, affective commitment and turnover intentions. These characteristics were competing management goals, work overload, electronic performance monitoring, lack of career opportunities, lack of skill variety and emotional labour. A convenient sample of employees (N = 146 was obtained from a call centre. Multiple regression analysis showed that work overload, lack of career opportunities, skill variety and emotional labour were the most important predictors of burnout. Burnout had a direct effect on turnover intentions. Affective commitment partially mediated the relationship between burnout and turnover intention.

  5. Basket call option pricing for CCVG using sparse grids

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian

    2016-01-06

    The use of processes with jumps to overcome the shortcomings of the classical Black and Scholes when modelling stock prices has became very popular. One of the best-known models is the Common Clock Variance Gamma model (CCVG), introduced by Madan and Seneta in the 1990 [3]. We propose a method to price European basket call options modelled by the CCVG. The method could be extended to other model obtained by the subordination of a multidimensional Brownian motion and to more general options. To simplify the expositions we consider calls under the CCVG.

  6. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  7. Erlang C Formula and its Use in the Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Chromy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with calculation of important parameters of the Call Center using the Erlang C formula and then results are verified through simulations. Erlang C formula is defined as a function of two variables: the number of agents N and the load A. On the base of their values it is possible to determine the probability PC, that the incoming call will not be served immediately, but it will have to wait in the waiting queue. Simulations satisfy the assumption of Markov models.

  8. Acoustic model optimisation for a call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available and results and a discussion are presented in Section V. Lastly, the conclusion and possible future work appear in Section VI. II. BACKGROUND A. AutoSecretary IVR System Figure 1 shows the high level call flow of the AutoSecretary call routing system... to be difficult Corpus Name # utterances duration in hours Lwazi English 5843 5.03 Lwazi English plus Lwazi language prompts 7770 5.57 NCHLT English 106018 76.97 AST English (5 dialects) 51745 29.80 TABLE I THE NUMBER OF TRAINING UTTERANCES AND DURATION...

  9. Basket call option pricing for CCVG using sparse grids

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian; Hä ppö lä , Juho; Iania, Alessandro; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The use of processes with jumps to overcome the shortcomings of the classical Black and Scholes when modelling stock prices has became very popular. One of the best-known models is the Common Clock Variance Gamma model (CCVG), introduced by Madan and Seneta in the 1990 [3]. We propose a method to price European basket call options modelled by the CCVG. The method could be extended to other model obtained by the subordination of a multidimensional Brownian motion and to more general options. To simplify the expositions we consider calls under the CCVG.

  10. Should general practitioners call patients by their first names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, B

    1990-10-06

    To assess the acceptability to patients of the use of patients' first names by doctors and doctors' first names by patients in general practice. An administered questionnaire survey. 5 General practices in Lothian. 475 Patients consulting 30 general practitioners. Response by patients to questionnaire on attitude to use of first names. Most of the patients either liked (223) or did not mind (175) being called by their first names. Only 77 disliked it, most of whom were aged over 65. Most patients (324) did not, however, want to call the doctor by his or her first name. General practitioners should consider using patients' first names more often, particularly with younger patients.

  11. Valuation of European Call Option via Inverse Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenis Oskars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Very few models allow expressing European call option price in closed form. Out of them, the famous Black- Scholes approach sets strong constraints - innovations should be normally distributed and independent. Availability of a corresponding characteristic function of log returns of underlying asset in analytical form allows pricing European call option by application of inverse Fourier transform. Characteristic function corresponds to Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG probability density function. NIG distribution is obtained based on assumption that time series of log returns follows APARCH process. Thus, volatility clustering and leptokurtic nature of log returns are taken into account. The Fast Fourier transform based on trapezoidal quadrature is numerically unstable if a standard cumulative probability function is used. To solve the problem, a dampened cumulative probability is introduced. As a computation tool Matlab framework is chosen because it contains many effective vectorization tools that greatly enhance code readability and maintenance. The characteristic function of Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution is taken and exercised with the chosen set of parameters. Finally, the call price dependence on strike price is obtained and rendered in XY plot. Valuation of European call option with analytical form of characteristic function allows further developing models with higher accuracy, as well as developing models for some exotic options.

  12. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attorneys when the inmate demonstrates that communication with attorneys by correspondence, visiting, or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540.103 Section 540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL...

  13. Business Analytics in the Marketing Curriculum: A Call for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintu-Wimsatt, Alma; Lozada, Héctor R.

    2018-01-01

    Marketing education has responded, to some extent, to the academic challenges emanating from the Big Data revolution. To provide a forum to specifically discuss how business analytics has been integrated into the marketing curriculum, we developed a Special Issue for "Marketing Education Review." We start with a call to action that…

  14. Musharraf calls for North-South cooperation: Science and technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "President Gen Pervez Musharraf has called for improved North-South cooperation in scinece and technology and said it would enable millions of people in the developing countries to realize the goal of rapid socio-economic progress" (1.5 page)

  15. Using Call Detail Records for Modeling Coastal Recreation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call data records (CDR) are data from cellular phone networks that can be used to understand human mobility or where people go spatially. They can be used to estimate visitation to an area such as a coastal access point for a given time window, as well as provide information on t...

  16. Criteria for Evaluating a Game-Based CALL Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chiaráin, Neasa; Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2017-01-01

    Game-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is an area that currently warrants attention, as task-based, interactive, multimodal games increasingly show promise for language learning. This area is inherently multidisciplinary--theories from second language acquisition, games, and psychology must be explored and relevant concepts from…

  17. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-07-06

    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007).

  18. Factors Hindering the Integration of CALL in a Tertiary Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaham Shah Ismail

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL is a field that is constantly evolving as it is very much dependent on the advancement of computer technologies. With new technologies being invented almost every day, experts in the field are looking for ways to apply these new technologies in the language classroom. Despite that, teachers are said to be slow at adopting technology in their classrooms and language teachers, whether at schools or tertiary institutions, are no exception. This study attempts to investigate the factors that hinder ESL instructors at an institution of higher learning from integrating CALL in their lessons. Interviews were conducted with five ESL instructors and results revealed that factors which hinder them from integrating CALL in their teaching are universal factors such as knowledge in technology and pedagogy, computer facilities and resources, absence of exemplary integration of CALL, personal beliefs on language teaching, views on the role of a computers as teacher, and evaluation of learning outcomes.

  19. An Experimental Comparison of Remote Procedure Call and Group Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaashoek, M.F.; Tanenbaum, A.S.; Verstoep, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper suggests that a distributed system should support two communication paradigms: Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and group communication. The former is used for point-to-point communication; the latter is used for one-to-many communication. We demonstrate that group communication is an

  20. Orangutan call communication and the puzzle of speech evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis E Lameira, A.

    2013-01-01

    Speech is a human hallmark. However, its evolution is little understood. It remains largely unknown which features of the call communication of our closest relatives – great apes – may have constituted speech evolutionary feedstock. In this study, I investigate the extent to which speech building

  1. Advertising's impact on calls to a women's healthline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, L G; Terwilliger, E L

    1989-09-01

    The impact of advertising on calls to a women's healthline during its first year is assessed. Results indicate that callers cited all but one medium used as their source(s) of information about the healthline. Television and billboards drew the most callers, whereas other paid media attracted fewer callers than did free communication channels such as word of mouth.

  2. Studying Language Learning Opportunities Afforded by a Collaborative CALL Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This research study explores the learning potential of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) activity. Research suggests that the dual emphasis on content development and language accuracy, as well as the complexity of L2 production in natural settings, can potentially create cognitive overload. This study poses the question whether, and…

  3. 78 FR 4369 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... are the other pros or cons of debit calling? We seek comment on ICS providers' overall experiences... regarding intrastate ICS rates. 51. We also seek comment on how and whether use of VoIP technologies by ICS... utilizing VoIP technology to provide ICS? Would the use of VoIP technology affect the authority of state...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lowest qualified benchmark is determined using the adjusted applicable stock price, as defined in § 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In.... Under section 1092(d)(3)(B)(i)(I), stock is personal property if the stock is part of a straddle that...

  5. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”. D is for “Dirichlet”, the boundary conditions which fix the ends of open strings onto a surface. 2 is for a 2-dimensional surface, a membrane. So we say that open string theory has D2-branes among its excitations. Notes:

  6. Las calles y los barrios marginales de Daca

    OpenAIRE

    LeBeau, Nellie; Tuckfield, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Cada año, alrededor de medio millón de personas busca alojamiento en Daca, a causa del nexo entre el cambio climático, la pobreza y la degradación del medio ambiente. Muchas de estas personas terminan viviendo en las calles.

  7. Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school ...

  8. Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-03

    May 3, 2018 ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... or mathematics; and employed at an academic or scientific research ... research groups that will attract international visitors; and to develop links with ... opportunity to support Canadian-African research teams studying Ebola.

  9. Why and when citizens call for emergency help

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A medical emergency call is citizens' access to pre-hospital emergency care and ambulance services. Emergency medical dispatchers are gatekeepers to provision of pre-hospital resources and possibly hospital admissions. We explored causes for access, emergency priority levels, and temp...

  10. Dream Catchers: "Margin Call," "Boss," and Climbing the Beanstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Two recent popular entertainments, "Margin Call" (Barnum, Dodson, Jenckes, Moosa, Quinto & Chandor, 2011) and "Boss" (Safinia, 2011), depict powerful and successful groups of bosses confronting sudden, extreme threats. They are forced to react quickly and sacrifice important values to achieve survival of their organizations. In these emergencies,…

  11. On the Edge: Intelligent CALL in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John

    1989-01-01

    Examines the possibilities of developing computer-assisted language learning (CALL) based on the best of modern technology, arguing that artificial intelligence (AI) strategies will radically improve the kinds of exercises that can be performed. Recommends combining AI technology with other tools for delivering instruction, such as simulation and…

  12. Student Teachers and CALL: Personal and Pedagogical Uses and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlas, Anne Cummings; Conroy, Kelly; Hildebrandt, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    The student teaching semester affords teacher candidates the chance to apply what they have learned during their teacher preparation coursework. Therefore, it can be a prime opportunity for student teachers to use technology for their own language learning and to implement computer assisted language learning (CALL) in their instruction. This study…

  13. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2017-11-01

    Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  14. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monsivais

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  15. Area Students Get a Call from Orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 students, parents and members of the NPS community packed King Auditorium Saturday morning where they received a call from the Space Shuttle Discovery orbiting more than 200 miles into space — part of the NPS Centennial’s Education Downlink STS-131, Teaching from Space event.

  16. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  17. Taking the Danish Speech Trainer from CALL to ICALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Talebob (Speech Bob) is a newly developed interactive CALL-tool for training Danish speech with special regard to the pronunciation of highly idiomatic phrases. Talebob is currently being tested in primary schools in Nuuk, Hafnarfjörður and Tórshavn (where Danish is taught as a L2). The purpose...

  18. Inclusive Education National Research Advocacy Agenda: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather C.; White, Julia M.; Taub, Deborah; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Ryndak, Diane L.; Sauer, Janet; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    The TASH Inclusive Education National Committee responded to Horner and Dunlap's call to ensure that future research integrates inclusive values with strong science by developing an inclusive education national research advocacy agenda. Qualitative methods were implemented to answer three questions: (a) "What is the state of inclusive…

  19. Call for Expressions of Interest for capacity development of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... Think tanks, POLICY RESEARCH, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ... This call is open to independent policy research institutions (“think tanks”), based in Myanmar whose ... Health, SDGs, and public policy—the role of policy research institutions ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  20. An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabieh, Christine

    One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

  1. Investigating Call Drops with Field Measurements on Commercial Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messina, Alessandro; Caragea, Gabriel; Compta, Pol Torres

    2013-01-01

    can be done per day. In this paper we present a new methodology to investigate call drops by using mobile phones to do the measurements following the concept of citizen sensing. Therefore, a mobile application for Android is made that collects all necessary data and dumps the measurement results...

  2. Call for civil registration and vital statistics systems experts | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... This is a call for experts in civil registration, information technology, public health, statistics, law, ... digitization (including IT systems design, and system integration and ... socio-cultural and anthropological research); and; public health. ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  3. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  4. Consumer groups call for ban on internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaise, David

    2004-08-01

    A number of consumer groups have called on the Canadian government to ban internet pharmacies, claiming that the industry is putting the health of Canadians at risk. The groups say that the impact will escalate if the problem is not addressed.

  5. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M

    2016-10-15

    Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility. TADtool is available as a Python package from GitHub (https://github.com/vaquerizaslab/tadtool) or can be installed directly via PyPI, the Python package index (tadtool). kai.kruse@mpi-muenster.mpg.de, jmv@mpi-muenster.mpg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection Based On System Calls Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Maciołek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of probabilistic approach to the anomaly detection (PAD. Byanalyzing selected system calls (and their arguments, the chosen applications are monitoredin the Linux environment. This allows us to estimate “(abnormality” of their behavior (bycomparison to previously collected profiles. We’ve attached results of threat detection ina typical computer environment.

  7. Acoustic Communication in Birds-Differences in Songs and Calls ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songs, calls and visual displays of the Oriental magpie robin have been studied in detail. In northern India, this species breeds between May and August raising several broods. During this period, males sing complex and melodious songs in their respective territories for the advertisement of territories and mate acquisition.

  8. Analysis of Drop Call Probability in Well Established Cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology in Africa has increased over the past decade. The increase in modern cellular networks requires stringent quality of service (QoS). Drop call probability is one of the most important indices of QoS evaluation in a large scale well-established cellular network. In this work we started from an accurate statistical ...

  9. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  10. 78 FR 67956 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... developments also point to lower costs. These changes include lower ``basic telecommunications costs... often pay significantly more to receive a single 15-minute call from prison than for their basic monthly... Commission's reasons for a departure from cost-based ratemaking.'' Thus, although the Commission ``is not...

  11. Neutrality as Obstructionist in Academic Activism: Calling Bullshit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Barbara J.

    2018-01-01

    In this essay, the author uses experiences as a teacher educator and learning from a historically significant activism movement to (a) compare values in activism-centered and education-centered organizations, (b) posit ways that the concept of neutrality weakens academic activism, and (c) call for teacher education curricula and practices that…

  12. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  13. A Relational Account of Call-by-Value Sequentiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, Jon Gary; Sandholm, Anders Bo

    2002-01-01

    We construct a model for FPC, a purely functional, sequential, call-by-value language. The model is built from partial continuous functions, in the style of Plotkin, further constrained to be uniform with respect to a class of logical relations. We prove that the model is fully abstract....

  14. Social Learning: Medical Student Perceptions of Geriatric House Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Linda; Willett, Rita; Selby-Penczak, Rachel; McKnight, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Bandura's social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical students' perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines for "Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning…

  15. CARIAA Call - Call Document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CARIAA

    2013-02-19

    Feb 19, 2013 ... For more information, please consult the website at www.idrc.ca. .... cross-scalar approach allows taking into account the specific needs of vulnerable ... responsive to decision-makers in the eligible countries or regions.

  16. Queueing System with Heterogeneous Customers as a Model of a Call Center with a Call-Back for Lost Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Dudin, Sergey; Kim, Chesoong; Dudina, Olga; Baek, Janghyun

    2013-01-01

    A multiserver queueing system with infinite and finite buffers, two types of customers, and two types of servers as a model of a call center with a call-back for lost customers is investigated. Type 1 customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process. All rejected type 1 customers become type 2 customers. Type r, r=1,2, servers serve type r customers if there are any in the system and serve type r′, r′=1,2,  r′≠r, customers if there are no type r customers in the system....

  17. Secure, web-accessible call rosters for academic radiology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A V; Tellis, W M; Avrin, D E

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally, radiology department call rosters have been posted via paper and bulletin boards. Frequently, changes to these lists are made by multiple people independently, but often not synchronized, resulting in confusion among the house staff and technical staff as to who is on call and when. In addition, multiple and disparate copies exist in different sections of the department, and changes made would not be propagated to all the schedules. To eliminate such difficulties, a paperless call scheduling application was developed. Our call scheduling program allowed Java-enabled web access to a database by designated personnel from each radiology section who have privileges to make the necessary changes. Once a person made a change, everyone accessing the database would see the modification. This eliminates the chaos resulting from people swapping shifts at the last minute and not having the time to record or broadcast the change. Furthermore, all changes to the database were logged. Users are given a log-in name and password and can only edit their section; however, all personnel have access to all sections' schedules. Our applet was written in Java 2 using the latest technology in database access. We access our Interbase database through the DataExpress and DB Swing (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) components. The result is secure access to the call rosters via the web. There are many advantages to the web-enabled access, mainly the ability for people to make changes and have the changes recorded and propagated in a single virtual location and available to all who need to know.

  18. Application of Cognitive and Socio-Cultural Theories in CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın Güngör

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since it is quite difficult in traditional learning atmospheres for the learners to be exposed to the target language adequately in foreign language acquisition, CALL in which virtual environment is designed in more appropriate way has given rise. Two main paradigms, cognitive model and socio-cultural theory, have also been adopted in CALL. Moreover, rather than applying one theory, combination of these paradigms is unavoidable. However, application of this combination is challenging in practice, as these two theories have different principles. Furthermore, when it comes to online education, it turns into more challenging process. In this poster this combination is presented with the help of sample applications from Gazi University.

  19. Predictive model for determining the quality of a call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznak, M.; Rozhon, J.; Partila, P.; Safarik, J.; Mikulec, M.; Mehic, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the predictive model for speech quality estimation is described. This model allows its user to gain the information about the speech quality in VoIP networks without the need of performing the actual call and the consecutive time consuming sound file evaluation. This rapidly increases usability of the speech quality measurement especially in high load networks, where the actual processing of all calls is rendered difficult or even impossible. This model can reach its results that are highly conformant with the PESQ algorithm only based on the network state parameters that are easily obtainable by the commonly used software tools. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether different languages (English, Czech) have an effect on perceived voice quality for the same network conditions and the language factor was incorporated directly into the model.

  20. Complexity Theory and CALL Curriculum in Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Complexity theory literally indicates the complexity of a system, behavior, or a process. Its connotative meaning, while, implies dynamism, openness, sensitivity to initial conditions and feedback, and adaptation properties of a system. Regarding English as a Foreign/ Second Language (EFL/ESL this theory emphasizes on the complexity of the process of teaching and learning, including all the properties of a complex system. The purpose of the current study is to discuss the role of CALL as a modern technology in simplifying the process of teaching and learning a new language while integrating into the complexity theory. Nonetheless, the findings obtained from reviewing previously conducted studies in this field confirmed the usefulness of CALL curriculum in EFL/ESL contexts. These findings can also provide pedagogical implications for employing computer as an effective teaching and learning tool.

  1. The World Health Organization "Rehabilitation 2030: a call for action".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimigliano, Francesca; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    February 6th-7th, 2017 might become a memorable date in the future of rehabilitation. On these two days, the World Health Organization (WHO) has summoned over 200 stakeholders in the Executive Board Room of the WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Their common aim was to a launch the "Rehabilitation 2030" call to action and to present the WHO Recommendations on rehabilitation in health systems. These initiatives are meant to draw attention to the increasing unmet need for rehabilitation in the world; to highlight the role of rehabilitation in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the United Nations; to call for coordinated and concerted global action towards strengthening rehabilitation in health systems. The aim of this paper is to report on the scientific events of these 2 days, which will most likely mark the history of rehabilitation.

  2. Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S Kassahn

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/ for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.

  3. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  4. The ecology and evolution of avian alarm call signaling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Alexis Chandon

    Communication is often set up as a simple dyadic exchange between one sender and one receiver. However, in reality, signaling systems have evolved and are used with many forms and types of information bombarding multiple senders, who in turn send multiple signals of different modalities, through various environmental spaces, finally reaching multiple receivers. In order to understand both the ecology and evolution of a signaling system, we must examine all the facets of the signaling system. My dissertation focused on the alarm call signaling system in birds. Alarm calls are acoustic signals given in response to danger or predators. My first two chapters examine how information about predators alters alarm calls. In chapter one I found that chickadees make distinctions between predators of different hunting strategies and appear to encode information about predators differently if they are heard instead of seen. In my second chapter, I test these findings more robustly in a non-model bird, the Steller's jay. I again found that predator species matters, but that how Steller's jays respond if they saw or heard the predator depends on the predator species. In my third chapter, I tested how habitat has influenced the evolution of mobbing call acoustic structure. I found that habitat is not a major contributor to the variation in acoustic structure seen across species and that other selective pressures such as body size may be more important. In my fourth chapter I present a new framework to understand the evolution of multimodal communication across species. I identify a unique constraint, the need for overlapping sensory systems, thresholds and cognitive abilities between sender and receiver in order for different forms of interspecific communication to evolve. Taken together, these chapters attempt to understand a signaling system from both an ecological and evolutionary perspective by examining each piece of the communication scheme.

  5. CEE/CA: Report calls for decriminalization of sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-04-01

    In December 2005, the Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network (CEEHRN) released a report calling for the decriminalization of sex work in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEE/CA). The report brings together a wealth of published and original information concerning sex work, laws regulating sex work, epidemiological data regarding HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), services available to sex workers, and human rights abuses faced by sex workers.

  6. Climatic crime, stop - the call made by the civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Alberto; Aurenche, Guy; Aykut, Stefan C.; Azam, Genevieve; Bassey, Nnimmo; Bihouix, Philippe; Bonneuil, Christophe; Cabanes, Valerie; Cabello, Joanna; Gilbertson, Tamra; Chapelle, Sophie; Combes, Maxime; George, Susan; Planche, Jeanne; Gemenne, Francois; Haeringer, Nicolas; Hamilton, Clive; Jordan, John; Jouzel, Jean; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Uyi Ojo, Godwin; Palais, Jon; Randall, Alex; Shiva, Vandana; Solon, Pablo; Klein, Naomi; McKibben, Bill; Sano, Yeb M.; Tutu, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Whereas climate change actually kills as it upsets hundreds of millions of human lives - at first the poorest and most vulnerable ones, this book aims at expressing a call made by the civil society to build up a wide movement to refund our societies. It contains contributions of various people, researchers who are aware of the present deadlock, as well as victims, climate refugees or collectives struggling against the global warming process

  7. Who answers the call? Institutional moral agency and global justice

    OpenAIRE

    Klapdor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis asks who is able to answer the call to action that the problems of global injustice pose. It focuses on the concept of institutions such as states, intergovernmental organisations, corporations and non-governmental organisations as moral agents and whether such institutions can be said to be morally responsible for creating or responding to global injustice. It examines three theories of institutional moral agency as presented by Peter French, Toni Erskine and Onora O’Neill and th...

  8. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-03

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Staff Scheduling for Inbound Call and Customer Contact Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaga, Alex; Hamilton, Ed; Fama, Jason; Andre, David; Matan, Ofer; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2002-01-01

    The staff scheduling problem is a critical problem in the call center (or, more generally, customer contact center) industry. This article describes DIRECTOR, a staff scheduling system for contact centers. DIRECTOR is a constraint-based system that uses AI search techniques to generate schedules that satisfy and optimize a wide range of constraints and service-quality metrics. DIRECTOR has successfully been deployed at more than 800 contact centers, with significant measurable benefits, some ...

  10. New AIDA-2020 call for breakthrough detector technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Physicists, engineers, and industry will be interested in a new proof-of-concept fund for breakthrough projects from the general field of detector development and testing.   Launched in the framework of the European project AIDA-2020, this open call will provide up to 200k€ of seed funding to support innovative and societal applications with a focus on industry-oriented applications. The deadline for applying is 20 October 2016. More information here.

  11. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  12. Prazer e sofrimento entre os trabalhadores de Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Scolari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os conceitos de Taylor foram fundamentais para o desenvolvimento industrial no século XX. Ainda hoje, seus ensinamentos estão presentes em diversos ramos da economia, inclusive, no setor de call center. Call center é uma estrutura que visa ao atendimento de clientes com a utilização de um terminal de computador e de um aparelho telefônico. Esse setor sofreu grande expansão e, em 2006, foi responsável pela geração de 60 mil empregos diretos, tornando-se uma forma de contato e negócios atrativa para empresas do ramo público e privado. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as vivências de prazer e sofrimento no trabalho entre os operadores de call centers. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa, estratégia de estudo de caso e método de análise dos dados, análise de conteúdo. Como resultados, foram elaboradas algumas categorias finais, entre elas as mediações no trabalho, analisada no presente artigo sob o referencial teórico da psicodinâmica do trabalho.

  13. Homicides of law enforcement officers responding to domestic disturbance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Cassandra; Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-10-01

    To describe the law enforcement officer (LEO), encounter, perpetrator and victim characteristics of domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides in the USA from 1996 to 2010. Narrative text analysis was conducted on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual report 'Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted'. Potential cases were confirmed if the narrative included the term 'domestic disturbance' or a domestic disturbance situation was described. 116 LEOs were killed while responding to domestic disturbance calls. Ninety-five per cent of these homicides were committed with a firearm. Sixty-seven per cent of LEOs were wearing body armour when killed; however, 52% received the fatal wound to the head/neck. Sixty-one per cent of suspects had a criminal history mentioned within the narratives and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) were more likely to be killed by LEOs than suspects involved in other forms of domestic violence. Victims of the domestic disturbance were killed in 21% of the IPV-related LEO homicide cases as opposed to only 5% of other domestic disturbance calls. A firearm was the most common weapon used in the murder of a domestic disturbance victim (86%). This study describes domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides. Future research in this area should further examine the dangers unique to domestic disturbance calls. A longitudinal analysis could provide greater understanding of the injury and mortality risks faced by LEOs, in order to inform homicide prevention among law enforcement.

  14. Social learning: medical student perceptions of geriatric house calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Linda; Willett, Rita; Selby-Penczak, Rachel; McKnight, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Bandura's social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework to understand medical students' perceptions of a house calls experience at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Social learning and role modeling reflect Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines for "Medical schools (to) ensure that the learning environment for medical students promotes the development of explicit and appropriate professional attributes (attitudes, behaviors, and identity) in their medical students." This qualitative study reports findings from open-ended survey questions from 123 medical students who observed a preceptor during house calls to elderly homebound patients. Their comments included reflections on the medical treatment as well as interactions with family and professional care providers. Student insights about the social learning process they experienced during house calls to geriatric patients characterized physician role models as dedicated, compassionate, and communicative. They also described patient care in the home environment as comprehensive, personalized, more relaxed, and comfortable. Student perceptions reflect an appreciation of the richness and complexity of details learned from home visits and social interaction with patients, families, and caregivers.

  15. Application of a smartphone nurse call system for nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Ting; Liu, Yi-Fang; Fu, Zi-Xuan; Liu, Kuang-Chung; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Lin, Chin-Lon; Lin, Pi-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, a patient presses the nurse call button and alerts the central nursing station. This system cannot reach the primary care nurse directly. The aim of this study was to apply a new smartphone system through the cloud system and information technology that linked a smartphone and a mobile nursing station for nursing care service. A smartphone and mobile nursing station were integrated into a smartphone nurse call system through the cloud and information technology for better nursing care. Waiting time for a patient to contact the most responsible nurse was reduced from 3.8 min to 6 s. The average time for pharmacists to locate the nurse for medication problem was reduced from 4.2 min to 1.8 min by the new system. After implementation of the smartphone nurse call system, patients received a more rapid response. This improved patients' satisfaction and reduced the number of complaints about longer waiting time due to the shortage of nurses.

  16. INTER-BANK CALL MONEY MARKET TRANSACTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Haryadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the effect of Indonesian Bank loan, the amount of demand deposits, and the Indonesia economic crisis in 1997 on the interbank call money market transactions in Indonesia using a multiple linear regression method. This study finds that the variables influencing the interbank call money market transactions are the interest rate of interbank call money market and the check money. Both variables have positive effect on the interbank money market transactions in Indonesia.Keywords: Loans, Interest Rate, Check Money, Monetary Crisis, Interbank Money Market TransactionsJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pinjaman Bank Indonesia terhadap tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank, jumlah uang giral, dan krisis ekonomi Indonesia tahun 1997 terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia menggunakan metode regresi linier berganda. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa variabel yang berpengaruh terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank tersebut adalah tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank dan jumlah uang giral. Dua variabel tersebut berpengaruh positif terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia.Keywords: Pinjaman, Tingkat Bunga, Uang Giral, Krisis Moneter, Transaksi Pasar Uang antar BankJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28

  17. Voice over IP phone calls from your smartphone

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    All CERN users do have a Lync account (see here) and can use Instant Messaging, presence and other features. In addition, if your number is activated on Lync IP Phone(1) system then you can make standard phone calls from your computer (Windows/Mac).   Recently, we upgraded the infrastructure to Lync 2013. One of the major features is the possibility to make Voice over IP phone calls from a smartphone using your CERN standard phone number (not mobile!). Install Lync 2013 on iPhone/iPad, Android or Windows Phone, connect to WiFi network and make phone calls as if you were in your office. There will be no roaming charges because you will be using WiFi to connect to CERN phone system(2). Register here to the presentation on Tuesday 29 April at 11 a.m. in the Technical Training Center and see the most exciting features of Lync 2013.   Looking forward to seeing you! The Lync team (1) How to register on Lync IP Phone system: http://information-technology.web.cern.ch/book/lync-ip-phone-serv...

  18. Towards Agent-Oriented Approach to a Call Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashamalla, Amir Nabil; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    There is more chance of a completed sale if the end customers and relationship managers are suitably matched. This in turn can reduce the number of calls made by a call centre reducing operational costs such as working time and phone bills. This chapter is part of ongoing research aimed at helping a CMC to make better use of its personnel and equipment while maximizing the value of the service it offers to its client companies and end customers. This is accomplished by ensuring the optimal use of resources with appropriate real-time scheduling and load balancing and matching the end customers to appropriate relationship managers. In a globalized market, this may mean taking into account the cultural environment of the customer, as well as the appropriate profile and/or skill of the relationship manager to communicate effectively with the end customer. The chapter evaluates the suitability of a MAS to a call management system and illustrates the requirement analysis phase using i* models.

  19. Language teacher education in CALL: history and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Biondo Salomão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the new technologies have changed the way we relate to information and communicate with other people, which has brought on impact to foreign language teaching and learning, and, consequently, to the area of foreign language teacher education. The abbreviation CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning has been used to designate the processes of language teaching and learning with the use of computers, and language teacher education in CALL to name teacher education for and with the use of new technologies, since a number of authors point to the interdependence of both processes. We intend in this article to present an overview of the literature of the area of language teacher education in CALL nowadays and discuss issues related to the use of new technologies concerning its integration to teacher education and the functional and institutional roles to be taken. We also present two proposals of teacher education with the use of new technologies which are being implemented and at the same time studied in Brazil, which we believe have essential elements for the development of language teachers for and with the use of new technologies currently.

  20. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  1. Composting plant of sewage sludges in Calles, Valencia (Spain); Planta de compostaje de fangos en la localidad de Calles (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Jimenez Sanchez, J.; Zorrilla Soriano, F.; Manuelcandela, V.

    2000-07-01

    This article explains the operation of the composting plant of muds of residual waters in the location of Calles, in Valencia. Through the composting, the sludge is transformed in wet material. This process is developed by aerobic thermopile fermentation of the organic fraction of the muds. The composting is a biological process aerobic and thermopile by decomposition of organic waste in solid phase and in controlled conditions. (Author)

  2. Gotta Go, Mom’s Calling: Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus Mothers Use Individually Distinctive Acoustic Signals To Call Their Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj II

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin calves often wander away from their mothers, which can compromise their safety and survival. Mothers can retrieve their calves by actively pursuing them or by signaling their wandering calves to return. However, little is known about the retrieval techniques employed by mothers in specific calf recall contexts. We experimentally investigated maternal calf retrieval methods by assessing behavioral and acoustic strategies employed by three Atlantic bottlenose dolphin mothers to elicit their calf’s return in a controlled, non-threatening setting. Three mothers were asked to retrieve their calves on cue in this setting, and could do so however they chose. Mothers were much more likely to use energetically less costly acoustic signals than physical retrievals. Each mother produced individually distinctive calls that incorporated the mother’s signature whistle but often also involved additional whistles and clicks. The dolphin mothers’ use of individually distinctive calls to request a calf’s return is consistent with the notion that other dolphins can distinguish such calls and provides additional support for the notion that dolphin communication is flexible rather than fixed.

  3. Death Notification: Someone Needs To Call the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombres, Rachel; Montemorano, Lauren; Becker, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    The death notification process can affect family grief and bereavement. It can also affect the well-being of involved physicians. There is no standardized process for making death notification phone calls. We assumed that residents are likely to be unprepared before and troubled after. We investigated current death notification practices to develop an evidence-based template for standardizing this process. We used results of a literature review and open-ended interviews with faculty, residents, and widows to develop a survey regarding resident training and experience in death notification by phone. We invited all internal medicine (IM) residents at our institution to complete the survey. Sixty-seven of 93 IM residents (72%) responded to the survey. Eighty-seven percent of responders reported involvement in a death that required notification by phone. Eighty percent of residents felt inadequately trained for this task. Over 25% reported that calls went poorly. Attendings were involved in 17% of cases. Primary care physicians were not involved. Nurses and chaplains were not involved. Respondents never delayed notification of death until family arrived at the hospital. There was no consistent approach to rehearsing or making the call, advising families about safe travel to the hospital, greeting families upon arrival, or following up with expressions of condolence. Poor communication skills during death notification may contribute to complicated grief for surviving relatives and stress among physicians. This study is the first to describe current practices of death notification by IM residents. More training is needed and could be combined with training in disclosure of medical error.

  4. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL WAY: CALLING, CHANCE OR OPPORTUNITY. AN ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship plays an important role in shaping economies and producing economic added value. Among other determinants of the economic activity, the influence of religion on economic activity was a major concern in socio-economic research. However, how the religion affects the decision to enter into entrepreneurship has been approached in fewer studies and researches. The decision to enter into entrepreneurship is a complex process, determined by many factors, from different sources, exerting various influences. Thus, it was argued that certain religions can foster business initiative, while others inhibit it. On the other hand, individuals and communities, separated by native environment, prove outstanding entrepreneurial capabilities and determination. Although the “protestant” attributes of entrepreneurship have long ceased to make the rule in researching the religious perspective on the entrepreneurial phenomenon, the temptation to explain some successful business by vocation, gift or even by ”call” still exists in contemporary research. A significant part of entrepreneurs, self-declared as religious, are deeply convinced of the divine grace bestowed on them and their businesses, while other entrepreneurs avoid to associate ”calling” with business success. There are certain reasons explaining this reluctance, e.g. caution, separation between religious practice and business, fear that entrepreneurial failure could mean lack of divine grace etc. The theological studies accept and promote the concept of calling in trade and business, but they place it in a pastoral context, i.e. the true calling should be realized in the act of faith and religiously guided. Nevertheless, examples of entrepreneurial activity, both honest and successful, can also occur outside the revelation of calling.

  5. Called to respond: The potential of unveiling hiddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Black

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interested in exploring how personal stories and aesthetic modes of representing experiences can nudge open academic and educational spaces, this article/collection of particles seeks to document our encounters of being affected and called to respond to things the other has written and represented. As a way of engaging with questions about what research and research data might be and become, our attention has been drawn to stories and images from our lives that we have not shaken off – and to how, as we have opened these to the other, making once private moments public, our hiddens have morphed tenderly into a shared knowing and being. As we have acted on the call we have felt to respond we have found ourselves entering spaces of collaboration, communion, contemplation, and conversation – spaces illuminated by what we have not been able to – and cannot – set aside. Using visual and poetic materials we explore heartfelt and heartbroken aspects of our educational worlds and lives, to be present with each other and our (reemerging personal and professional meanings. We see the shared body (of work, of writing, of image that develops from the taking of brave steps and the risky slipping off of academic masks and language, as a manifestation of the trusted and nurturing spaces that can be generated through collaborative opportunities to gather together. These steps towards unveiling hiddens are producing in us and of us a friendship, fluency, and fluidity as we write new ways of becoming. In turn, we hope the uncovering and revealing of our dialogue in the public gathering of this journal might supports readers’ telling of their own life stories through what calls them to respond.

  6. CoVaCS: a consensus variant calling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Gioiosa, Silvia; Chillemi, Giovanni; D'Antonio, Mattia; Flati, Tiziano; Picardi, Ernesto; Zambelli, Federico; Horner, David Stephen; Pesole, Graziano; Castrignanò, Tiziana

    2018-02-05

    The advent and ongoing development of next generation sequencing technologies (NGS) has led to a rapid increase in the rate of human genome re-sequencing data, paving the way for personalized genomics and precision medicine. The body of genome resequencing data is progressively increasing underlining the need for accurate and time-effective bioinformatics systems for genotyping - a crucial prerequisite for identification of candidate causal mutations in diagnostic screens. Here we present CoVaCS, a fully automated, highly accurate system with a web based graphical interface for genotyping and variant annotation. Extensive tests on a gold standard benchmark data-set -the NA12878 Illumina platinum genome- confirm that call-sets based on our consensus strategy are completely in line with those attained by similar command line based approaches, and far more accurate than call-sets from any individual tool. Importantly our system exhibits better sensitivity and higher specificity than equivalent commercial software. CoVaCS offers optimized pipelines integrating state of the art tools for variant calling and annotation for whole genome sequencing (WGS), whole-exome sequencing (WES) and target-gene sequencing (TGS) data. The system is currently hosted at Cineca, and offers the speed of a HPC computing facility, a crucial consideration when large numbers of samples must be analysed. Importantly, all the analyses are performed automatically allowing high reproducibility of the results. As such, we believe that CoVaCS can be a valuable tool for the analysis of human genome resequencing studies. CoVaCS is available at: https://bioinformatics.cineca.it/covacs .

  7. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  8. Thoughts on the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.; Mainz Univ.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull. (orig.) [de

  9. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H; Mueller, H A; Wagner, H; Baetz, W

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  10. A Call for Critical Perspectives in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of critical poststructuralism in the United States has fundamentally transformed qualitative research. The crisis of representation first discussed in anthropology has had the effect of rethinking the foundations of qualitative research by putting ethical questions on the agenda and stimulating a search for new forms of validity. Against this backdrop, this study will analyze different methods and research strategies in critical qualitative inquiry, such as interpretive interactionism, autoethnography, and performance ethnography. The call to action inherent in these strategies and further contributions to cultural and social change will be discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110171

  11. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  12. [Once again the so-called Testament of Hippocrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideras, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This study is dealing with the so-called Testament of Hippocrates, a short ethic about the doctor's background, knowledge, character, appearance and behaviour towards the patient. Along with the three well-known Greek manuscripts the author is looking at two other by now unknown codices, so that the two Greek versions are accompanied by a third and larger version. After a careful consideration of the relations between the different versions he is discussing all readings of the codices explaining the terms within the background of the history of medicine. At the end he is presenting a reconstruction of the Greek original together with a German translation.

  13. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Call-by-Need Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin; Munk, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the standard call-by-need reduction for the λ-calculus that is common to Ariola, Felleisen, Maraist, Odersky, and Wadler, we inter-derive a series of hygienic semantic artifacts: a reduction-free stateless abstract machine, a continuation-passing evaluation function, and what appears...... and Felleisen. Overall, the semantic artifacts presented here are simpler than many other such artifacts that have been independently worked out, and which require ingenuity, skill, and independent soundness proofs on a case-by-case basis. They are also simpler to inter-derive because the inter...

  14. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  15. The evolutionary emergence of what we call "emotions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijda, Nico H

    2016-01-01

    The term "emotion" is not precise. It refers to an assemblage of processes that contribute to how we relate to the social and physical world. We need to understand the functional bases of such processes, and one such basis is action readiness. Action readiness is the preparation for movement or action. Preparation for movement occurs in all animals. In more recently evolved species, such as birds and mammals, preparation for directed action is found as well. Action readiness is the basis for the states we now call emotions, but its importance goes far beyond emotions: action readiness is an elementary aspect of the way autonomous living beings regulate their interactions with the world.

  16. svclassify: a method to establish benchmark structural variant calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Hemang; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob; Lam, Hugo Y K; Iyer, Hariharan; Chen, Desu; Pratt, Mark; Bartha, Gabor; Spies, Noah; Losert, Wolfgang; Zook, Justin M; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-16

    The human genome contains variants ranging in size from small single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to large structural variants (SVs). High-quality benchmark small variant calls for the pilot National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Material (NA12878) have been developed by the Genome in a Bottle Consortium, but no similar high-quality benchmark SV calls exist for this genome. Since SV callers output highly discordant results, we developed methods to combine multiple forms of evidence from multiple sequencing technologies to classify candidate SVs into likely true or false positives. Our method (svclassify) calculates annotations from one or more aligned bam files from many high-throughput sequencing technologies, and then builds a one-class model using these annotations to classify candidate SVs as likely true or false positives. We first used pedigree analysis to develop a set of high-confidence breakpoint-resolved large deletions. We then used svclassify to cluster and classify these deletions as well as a set of high-confidence deletions from the 1000 Genomes Project and a set of breakpoint-resolved complex insertions from Spiral Genetics. We find that likely SVs cluster separately from likely non-SVs based on our annotations, and that the SVs cluster into different types of deletions. We then developed a supervised one-class classification method that uses a training set of random non-SV regions to determine whether candidate SVs have abnormal annotations different from most of the genome. To test this classification method, we use our pedigree-based breakpoint-resolved SVs, SVs validated by the 1000 Genomes Project, and assembly-based breakpoint-resolved insertions, along with semi-automated visualization using svviz. We find that candidate SVs with high scores from multiple technologies have high concordance with PCR validation and an orthogonal consensus method MetaSV (99.7 % concordant), and candidate SVs with low scores are

  17. Radiotherapy practice in an unregulated environment: Call for joint action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elegba, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    There are five radiotherapy centres and thousands of diagnostic x-ray units in Nigeria. There is a five-year old radiation protection decree, which is yet to be implemented. Consequently, radiotherapy and radio-diagnosis are practiced in the country without any form of regulatory guidelines backed by law. This paper is a call for the concerted effort of the WHO and the IAEA to persuade the Nigerian Government to establish the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This will ensure safe applications of atomic energy in the national heath delivery system. (author)

  18. Why all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that if we follow a pragmatist understanding of humans and technologies, there is no reason to keep these phenomena strongly separated. The suggestion that all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology might provoke some readers, but it is first and foremost intended...... of such efforts, namely Sherry Turkle’s recent work on care robots and other new technologies that mediate human relationships. I move on to suggest that with Latour’s notion of delegation, such mediation appears less alien. In order to develop further the consequences of Latour’s techno-anthropologist moves, I...

  19. Explaining the so-called 'price premium' in oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, A.; Ortiz, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the information content of several variables on the so-called ''oil price premium over fundamentals''. We define this premium as the difference between the market oil price and the estimated price consistent with the OECD's relative industry stock level. By using Granger causality tests and extended regressions we test the systematic ability of a broad set of variables to explain the premium. We find that speculation in the oil market - measured by non-commercial long positions - can improve the traditional model, reducing the premium significantly during some parts of the sample. (author)

  20. Primitive entertainment prank calls in the work of counseling psychologist on Children helpline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Geronimus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore the challenges faced by counseling psychologist when working at the Children's Helpline in cases of prank calls. The category of prank calls include such calls, when the caller asks the psychologist to discuss the imaginary situation, or do not formulate a query at all. On the basis of empirical data, we revealed the main varieties of such calls: call jokes, fantasy calls, intrusive calls, insulting calls, prank calls, calls of a sexual nature, dating calls. We explore the possible motivations of children and adolescents, entertaining by phone calls: experimentation with new social roles, expression of negative emotions, cognitive motivation, etc. We show the principles and strategies of counselors of Children's helpline working with this type of calls: they are based on cultural-historical psychology ideas and V. Satir communicative styles model.

  1. Staffing a call center with uncertain non-stationary arrival rate and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, S.; van Delft, C.; Jouini, O.; Koole, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a multi-period staffing problem in a single-shift call center. The call center handles inbound calls, as well as some alternative back-office jobs. The call arrival process is assumed to follow a doubly non-stationary stochastic process with a random mean arrival rate. The inbound calls

  2. Calling and Life Satisfaction: It's Not about Having It, It's about Living It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Allan, Blake A.; Autin, Kelsey L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relation of career calling to life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 553 working adults, with a specific focus on the distinction between perceiving a calling (sensing a calling to a career) and living a calling (actualizing one's calling in one's current career). As hypothesized, the relation of perceiving a…

  3. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  4. Creating a vision for your medical call center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J L; Laufenberg, S; Sieckman, B L

    1998-01-01

    MCC technologies and applications that can have a positive impact on managed care delivery are almost limitless. As you determine your vision, be sure to have in mind the following questions: (1) Do you simply want an efficient front end for receiving calls? (2) Do you want to offer triage services? (3) Is your organization ready for a fully functional "electronic physician's office?" Understand your organization's strategy. Where are you going, not only today but five years from now? That information is essential to determine your vision. Once established, your vision will help determine what you need and whether you should build or outsource. Vendors will assist in cost/benefit analysis of their equipment, but do not lose sight of internal factors such as "prior inclination" costs in the case of a nurse triage program. The technology is available to take your vision to its outer reaches. With the projected increase in utilization of call center services, don't let your organization be left behind!

  5. ToTem: a tool for variant calling pipeline optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Nikola; Tom, Ondrej; Malcikova, Jitka; Pavlova, Sarka; Kubesova, Blanka; Rausch, Tobias; Kolarik, Miroslav; Benes, Vladimir; Bystry, Vojtech; Pospisilova, Sarka

    2018-06-26

    High-throughput bioinformatics analyses of next generation sequencing (NGS) data often require challenging pipeline optimization. The key problem is choosing appropriate tools and selecting the best parameters for optimal precision and recall. Here we introduce ToTem, a tool for automated pipeline optimization. ToTem is a stand-alone web application with a comprehensive graphical user interface (GUI). ToTem is written in Java and PHP with an underlying connection to a MySQL database. Its primary role is to automatically generate, execute and benchmark different variant calling pipeline settings. Our tool allows an analysis to be started from any level of the process and with the possibility of plugging almost any tool or code. To prevent an over-fitting of pipeline parameters, ToTem ensures the reproducibility of these by using cross validation techniques that penalize the final precision, recall and F-measure. The results are interpreted as interactive graphs and tables allowing an optimal pipeline to be selected, based on the user's priorities. Using ToTem, we were able to optimize somatic variant calling from ultra-deep targeted gene sequencing (TGS) data and germline variant detection in whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. ToTem is a tool for automated pipeline optimization which is freely available as a web application at  https://totem.software .

  6. ASTHENOPIA PADA PEKERJA WANITA DI CALL CENTRE-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans X Suharyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowdays, computers have been used widely in every kind of occupation. One of the health problems of the computer using is eyestrain or asthenopia. Some experts have tried to correlate the exposure of Video Display Terminal (VDT with the occurrence of asthenopia but until present there is no database about the prevelance of computer operators found they more easily become asthenopic. The complain of asthenopia itself is subjective and varies in every individual and therefore one measureable objective value is needed to determine the occurrence of the asthenopia case itself.The design of the study was using "pre and post test", it involved 72 subjects in "X"-call centre and using photostress test to measure objectively the occurrence ofasthenopia by measuring the increasing of Macular Recovery Time (MKT before and after working.The average shift of MKT was about 2.98 ± 3.57 second within 68.1 % of thesubjects, which were evaluated after 4-hour working time with their VDT. The distance between the eyes to VDT and the satisfaction with the working shift arrangement had significant correlation with the occurrence of asthenopia. There was significant correlation between subjective complaints such as pain within the area around the eyes,headache and dry eyes due to increasing of the MRTKeywords : Asthenopia, Macular Recovery Time (MRT, Call Centre, Video DisplayTerminal (VDT.

  7. Sophie Calle. Autoritratto allo specchio: abbi cura di te

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Modena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 the France Pavilion in Giardini of the Biennale di Venezia was occupied by Prenez soin de vous, a work by Sophie Calle. This project was based on an email received by the artist from her lover (in which the man puts an end to their relationship that Calle submits to one hundred and seven women, asking them to analyze and interpret it according to their specific professional skills. We chose this installation to propose an insight into the French artist's research by reading and interpreting it in the light of our theme, the mirror: "reflections and doublings". Our aim is to contextualize this work in her artistic production in relation to the role of writing and storytelling and the use of art as a therapeutic tool, underlining how Prenez soin de vous represents a fundamental fragment key to understand and reconstruct the big and elusive self-portrait painted and repainted, written and rewritten, which characterizes, through the autobiographical trigger, a significant part of her research in a contemporary anamorphosis.

  8. Young doctors' problem solving strategies on call may be improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Jens; Malchow-Møller, Axel; Charles, Peder; Eika, Berit

    2013-03-01

    The first year following graduation from medical school is challenging as learning from books changes to workplace-based learning. Analysis and reflection on experience may ease this transition. We used Significant Event Analysis (SEA) as a tool to explore what pre-registration house officers (PRHOs) consider successful and problematic events, and to identify what problem-solving strategies they employ. A senior house officer systematically led the PRHO through the SEA of one successful and one problematic event following a night call. The PRHO wrote answers to questions about diagnosis, what happened, how he or she contributed and what knowledge-gaining activities the PRHO would prioritise before the next call. By using an inductive, thematic data analysis, we identified five problem-solving strategies: non-analytical reasoning, analytical reasoning, communication with patients, communication with colleagues and professional behaviour. On average, 1.5 strategies were used in the successful events and 1.2 strategies in the problematic events. Most PRHOs were unable to suggest activities other than reading textbooks. SEA was valuable for the identification of PRHOs' problem-solving strategies in a natural setting. PRHOs should be assisted in increasing their repertoire of strategies, and they should also be helped to "learn to learn" as they were largely unable to point to new learning strategies. not relevant. not relevant.

  9. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  10. Investigation of CT picture in so-called loose shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Shigehito; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Akira; Moriishi, Takeji; Takada, Keiichi.

    1985-01-01

    CT picture of the shoulder joint was analyzed in 124 shoulders (114 patients). A line perpendicular to a given line between the precornu of acetabular tegmen (A) and the postcornu of acetabular tegmen (B) was drawn and the intersection where the line and the caput humeri meet (C) was obtained. The angle of CAB was defined as the backward angular aperture of the acetabular tegmen. The angular aperture was 26.2 0 +-1.9 in 16 so-called loose shoulders, 17.3 0 +-1.0 in 28 loose shoulders restricted to the inward rotation, and 12.2 0 +-0.4 in 80 normal shoulders, showing a distinct correlation between the angular aperture and the degree of loose shoulder. An increased backward angular aperture of the acetabular tegmen was considered greatly attributable to the forward glenohumeral movement resulting from malformation of the acetabular tegmen and flaccidity of the joint. Glenoid osteotomy was thus performed in 9 patients, 6 of whom underwent CT scanning before and after osteotomy. Coronal and transverse CT images of the shoulder joint disclosed a noticeable improvement of the glenohumeral alignment. The angular aperture shown on CT seems to be of major importance not only in the diagnosis of so-called loose shoulder but also in surgical choice. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Call 4 Concern: patient and relative activated critical care outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Mandy; Gerber, Karin; Gager, Melanie

    Patients can experience unexpected deterioration in their physiological condition that can lead to critical illness, cardiac arrest, admission to the intensive care unit and death. While ward staff can identify deterioration through monitoring physiological signs, these signs can be missed, interpreted incorrectly or mismanaged. Rapid response systems using early warning scores can fail if staff do not follow protocols or do not notice or manage deterioration adequately. Nurses often notice deterioration intuitively because of their knowledge of individual patients. Patients and their relatives have the greatest knowledge of patients, and can often pick up subtle signs physiological deterioration before this is identified by staff or monitoring systems. However, this ability has been largely overlooked. Call 4 Concern (C4C) is a scheme where patients and relatives can call critical care teams directly if they are concerned about a patient's condition- it is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK. A C4C feasibility project ran for six months, covering patients being transferred from the intensive care unit to general wards. C4C has the potential to prevent clinical deterioration and is valued by patients and relatives. Concerns of ward staff could be managed through project management. As it is relatively new, this field offers further opportunities for research.

  12. Study protocol of the YOU CALL - WE CALL TRIAL: impact of a multimodal support intervention after a "mild" stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Gina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 60% of new strokes each year are "mild" in severity and this proportion is expected to rise in the years to come. Within our current health care system those with "mild" stroke are typically discharged home within days, without further referral to health or rehabilitation services other than advice to see their family physician. Those with mild stroke often have limited access to support from health professionals with stroke-specific knowledge who would typically provide critical information on topics such as secondary stroke prevention, community reintegration, medication counselling and problem solving with regard to specific concerns that arise. Isolation and lack of knowledge may lead to a worsening of health problems including stroke recurrence and unnecessary and costly health care utilization. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness, for individuals who experience a first "mild" stroke, of a sustainable, low cost, multimodal support intervention (comprising information, education and telephone support - "WE CALL" compared to a passive intervention (providing the name and phone number of a resource person available if they feel the need to - "YOU CALL", on two primary outcomes: unplanned-use of health services for negative events and quality of life. Method/Design We will recruit 384 adults who meet inclusion criteria for a first mild stroke across six Canadian sites. Baseline measures will be taken within the first month after stroke onset. Participants will be stratified according to comorbidity level and randomised to one of two groups: YOU CALL or WE CALL. Both interventions will be offered over a six months period. Primary outcomes include unplanned use of heath services for negative event (frequency calendar and quality of life (EQ-5D and Quality of Life Index. Secondary outcomes include participation level (LIFE-H, depression (Beck Depression Inventory II and use of health services for

  13. Fluid approximation analysis of a call center model with time-varying arrivals and after-call work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features to be included in queueing-theoretic models of the call center operation are multiple servers, impatient customers, time-varying arrival process, and operator’s after-call work (ACW. We propose a fluid approximation technique for the queueing model with these features by extending the analysis of a similar model without ACW recently developed by Liu and Whitt (2012. Our model assumes that the service for each quantum of fluid consists of a sequence of two stages, the first stage for the conversation with a customer and the second stage for the ACW. When the duration of each stage has exponential, hyperexponential or hypo-exponential distribution, we derive the time-dependent behavior of the content of fluid in each stage of service as well as that in the waiting room. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the system performance for the cases in which the input rate and/or the number of servers vary in sinusoidal fashion as well as in adaptive ways and in stationary cases.

  14. Systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a service representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott H.; Johnson, Joel A.; Neiswanger, Jeffery R.; Twitchell, Kevin E.

    2004-03-09

    The present invention includes systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a customer service representative. In one embodiment of the invention, a system configured to distribute a telephone call within a network includes a distributor adapted to connect with a telephone system, the distributor being configured to connect a telephone call using the telephone system and output the telephone call and associated data of the telephone call; and a plurality of customer service representative terminals connected with the distributor and a selected customer service representative terminal being configured to receive the telephone call and the associated data, the distributor and the selected customer service representative terminal being configured to synchronize, application of the telephone call and associated data from the distributor to the selected customer service representative terminal.

  15. Legal Network report calls for decriminalization of prostitution in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2005-12-01

    In December 2005 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released Sex, work, rights: reforming Canadian criminal laws on prostitution. The report examines the ways in which the prostitution-related provisions of the Criminal Code, and their enforcement, have criminalized many aspects of sex workers' lives and have promoted their social marginalization. Evidence indicates that the criminal law has contributed to health and safety risks, including the risk of HIV infection, faced by sex workers. The Legal Network calls for the decriminalization of prostitution in Canada, and for other legal and policy reforms that respect the human rights and promote the health of sex workers. Despite the report's Canadian focus, its human rights analysis is relevant to the situation of sex workers in other countries where prostitution is illegal and sex workers face rights abuses. In this article, Glenn Betteridge, the principal author of the report, briefly sets out the case for law reform.

  16. Evaluation of a Postdischarge Call System Using the Logic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Timothy C; Poe, Terri L; Wilson, Marisa L; Milligan, Gary

    2018-02-01

    This mixed-method study was conducted to evaluate a postdischarge call program for congestive heart failure patients at a major teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. The program was implemented based on the premise that it would improve patient outcomes and overall quality of life, but it had never been evaluated for effectiveness. The Logic Model was used to evaluate the input of key staff members to determine whether the outputs and results of the program matched the expectations of the organization. Interviews, online surveys, reviews of existing patient outcome data, and reviews of publicly available program marketing materials were used to ascertain current program output. After analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data from the evaluation, recommendations were made to the organization to improve the effectiveness of the program.

  17. Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Jette Joost

    2012-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients Purpose: To explore nurses' relationships with patients they regard as being difficult. How do nurses feel about such patients and relate to them, and what are the consequences for nurse and patient? Design and methods....... Patients' case records were studied and four meetings with the staff were arranged to discuss the findings. Data collection lasted 18 months in all. Findings: Three strategies were identified: persuasion, avoidance (emotional distance), and compromise. Interestingly, in the relationship with a particular...... patient, the avoidance strategy did not necessarily represent the terminal stage, since a nurse could revert to the compromise strategy. Some of the nurses experienced painful emotions regarding these interactions. Conclusions: The avoidance strategy (emotional distance) resulted in important social...

  18. Entrepreneurship research and practice: a call to action for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon

    2007-09-01

    Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.

  19. Survival as medical registrar on call: remember the doughnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Sarah; Crowe, Alexander; Bray, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    Life as a medical registrar presents many challenges and concern is growing that a downwards trend in recruitment to General Medicine is the direct result of a perception by junior doctors that the role of the medical registrar is excessively demanding and results in poor work-life balance. A solution-focused approach (SFA) can be used successfully to find a satisfying outcome for both registrar and patient in many of the situations encountered during an on-call, as well as carrying over benefits into life outside of work. We explore the origins of SFA and the ways in which it can be successfully applied to clinical medicine, providing case studies from the author's own experience to illustrate the principles of this way of thinking. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  20. A jolly good call for Marie Curie Fellows

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A new funding opportunity to train young researchers has just been announced by the European Commission. One of the calls within FP7 Marie Curie Actions requests proposals for Initial Training Network (ITN) projects, with a deadline of 22 December 2009. Project proposals are strongly encouraged at CERN and authors can receive support and guidance from the Marie Curie Steering Group. Winnie Wong: "I wouldn’t have considered a PhD if I hadn’t been a Marie Curie fellow" Dan Savu: "It’s the best of both worlds: training plus working in an international organisation" ITN projects have one key aim: training. Academic and industrial partners work together to form a network to recruit and train Marie Curie Fellows. Fellows are young researchers (typically PhD-level) from any country who combine project-based research with tailor-made training programmes, ...

  1. Calls to Poison Centers for hookah smoking exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzky, Sandra S; Spiller, Henry A; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2018-06-01

    Over the past decade, smoking behaviors have changed in the US. Hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing, especially among youth and young adults. Social media sites describe the "hookah high" or "buzz", which may be related to nicotine, carbon monoxide, or other inhalants in hookah smoke. Most important is the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case reports include a high number of victims presenting with loss of consciousness from either syncope or seizures. Anaphylaxis and a very rare respiratory hypersensitivity reaction, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, have also been reported from hookah smoking in previously healthy young adults. This article provides background information on hookah smoking, describes hookah-induced acute injuries that could precipitate poison center calls, and offers suggestions for exposure characterization.

  2. Mythic Frodo and his Predestinate Call to Adventure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of J.R.R. Tolkien’s stories, especially The Lord of the Rings is the presentation of the multidimensional characters; therefore, the complexity of interpretations concerning their actions, motives, and aims will be manifested from the beginning of the story, until the end. Following the study of a mythic hero’s adventure, initiation, and psychological aspects, the present paper focuses on the investigation of Predestinate Call to Adventure. The researcher has benefited the theories of Joseph Campbell, presented in his renowned book The Hero with a Thousand Faces and the supplementary comments of Christopher Vogler. In fact, the researcher’s motivation for the work initiated in this regard is to improve the very few previous attempts studied by others, concerning Frodo Baggins’ role as the main and the most tragic hero of The Lord of the Rings.

  3. Near Real-Time Call Detail Record ETL Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochinwala, Munir; Panagos, Euthimios

    Telecommunication companies face significant business challenges as they strive to reduce subscriber churn and increase average revenue per user (ARPU) by offering new services and incorporating new functionality into existing services. The increased number of service offerings and available functionality result in an ever growing volume of call detail records (CDRs). For many services (e.g., pre-paid), CDRs need to be processed and analyzed in near real-time for several reasons, including charging, on-line subscriber access to their accounts, and analytics for predicting subscriber usage and preventing fraudulent activity. In this paper, we describe the challenges associated with near real-time extract, transform, and load (ETL) of CDR data warehouse flows for supporting both the operational and business intelligence needs of telecommunication services, and we present our approach to addressing these challenges.

  4. N. Sarkosy calls for a global development of civil nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The President Sarkosy called to develop the nuclear power and ask to international financing institutions to resolutely engage in financing nuclear energy power. Mister Yukiya Amano, chief of IAEA declared that:' nuclear power can make a major contribution to economic development and help mitigate climate change'. Mister Manuel Barroso, president of European Commission, said: 'We are confident that the new economy of the European Union will involve the decarbonization of our electricity supply and has announced an initiative to raise European safety standards and international safety and make them legally binding throughout the world '. Mister Daniel Poneman, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Energy said that the United States is working domestically to reinvigorate the nuclear industry and ensure that alongside all countries can have access to nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, in a manner that minimizes proliferation. (N.C.)

  5. Life or death decisions: framing the call for help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Y Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic blood shortages in the U.S. would be alleviated by small increases, in percentage terms, of people donating blood. The current research investigated the effects of subtle changes in charity-seeking messages on the likelihood of people responses to a call for help. We predicted that "avoid losses" messages would lead to more helping behavior than "promote gains" messages would. METHOD: Two studies investigated the effects of message framing on helping intentions and behaviors. With the help and collaboration of the Red Cross, Study 1, a field experiment, directly assessed the effectiveness of a call for blood donations that was presented as either death-preventing (losses or life-saving (gains, and as being of either more or less urgent need. With the help and collaboration of a local charity, Study 2, a lab experiment, assessed the effects of the gain-versus-loss framing of a donation-soliciting flyer on individuals' expectations of others' monetary donations as well their own volunteering behavior. Study 2 also assessed the effects of three emotional motivators - feelings of empathy, positive affect, and relational closeness. RESULT: Study 1 indicated that, on a college campus, describing blood donations as a way to "prevent a death" rather than "save a life" boosted the donation rate. Study 2 showed that framing a charity's appeals as helping people to avoid a loss led to larger expected donations, increased intentions to volunteer, and more helping behavior, independent of other emotional motivators. CONCLUSION: This research identifies and demonstrates a reliable and effective method for increasing important helping behaviors by providing charities with concrete ideas that can effectively increase helping behavior generally and potentially death-preventing behavior in particular.

  6. Life or Death Decisions: Framing the Call for Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Eileen Y.; Murnighan, J. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic blood shortages in the U.S. would be alleviated by small increases, in percentage terms, of people donating blood. The current research investigated the effects of subtle changes in charity-seeking messages on the likelihood of people responses to a call for help. We predicted that “avoid losses” messages would lead to more helping behavior than “promote gains” messages would. Method Two studies investigated the effects of message framing on helping intentions and behaviors. With the help and collaboration of the Red Cross, Study 1, a field experiment, directly assessed the effectiveness of a call for blood donations that was presented as either death-preventing (losses) or life-saving (gains), and as being of either more or less urgent need. With the help and collaboration of a local charity, Study 2, a lab experiment, assessed the effects of the gain-versus-loss framing of a donation-soliciting flyer on individuals’ expectations of others’ monetary donations as well their own volunteering behavior. Study 2 also assessed the effects of three emotional motivators - feelings of empathy, positive affect, and relational closeness. Result Study 1 indicated that, on a college campus, describing blood donations as a way to “prevent a death” rather than “save a life” boosted the donation rate. Study 2 showed that framing a charity’s appeals as helping people to avoid a loss led to larger expected donations, increased intentions to volunteer, and more helping behavior, independent of other emotional motivators. Conclusion This research identifies and demonstrates a reliable and effective method for increasing important helping behaviors by providing charities with concrete ideas that can effectively increase helping behavior generally and potentially death-preventing behavior in particular. PMID:23483903

  7. Advertisement call of Scinax camposseabrai (Bokermann, 1968) (Anura: Hylidae), with comments on the call of three species of the Scinax ruber clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Gabriel; Zina, Juliana

    2016-02-25

    Scinax camposseabrai was allocated into the Scinax ruber clade by Caramaschi & Cardoso (2006) by overall similarities as snout not pointed, breeding in open areas, and an advertisement calls with multipulsed notes. This assumption about the call was based solely on an onomatopoeia provided by Bokermann (1968). Herein we provide a formal description of the advertisement call of S. camposseabrai and compare it with described calls of other S. ruber clade species. Additionally, we provide descriptions of the advertisement calls of three sympatric species of the S. ruber clade: S. eurydice (Bokermann), S. pachycrus (Miranda-Ribeiro) and S. cf. x-signatus.

  8. Determinants of cruise passengers’ expenditures in the port of call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maršenka Marksel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism generates different types of cruise consumption and related indirect, direct and induced expenditure effects, in homeports as well as in ports of call. Cruise passengers’ expenditures produce positive economic effects for destinations, from increasing the incomes and employment, to tax incomes, duties, etc. Therefore, it is no doubt that cruise stakeholders and local economies can benefit from increased cruise passenger consumption. To stimulate higher consumption and passengers’ satisfaction, it is necessary to design the supportive policy framework and build appropriate quality of products and services. Identifying influential variables of cruise passengers’ expenditures in this sense enables the design of appropriate policies and measures. In the current research, based on a survey of 357 cruise passengers, several variables included in a new theoretical model of the expenditures determinants, such as gender, nationality, frequency of cruising and frequency of visits, were found to be statistically significantly associated with cruise passengers’ expenditures. Several conclusions and suggestions to stimulate cruise passenger expenditures based on research findings are provided.

  9. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  10. Canonical quantization of so-called non-Lagrangian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Kupriyanov, V.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    We present an approach to the canonical quantization of systems with equations of motion that are historically called non-Lagrangian equations. Our viewpoint of this problem is the following: despite the fact that a set of differential equations cannot be directly identified with a set of Euler-Lagrange equations, one can reformulate such a set in an equivalent first-order form that can always be treated as the Euler-Lagrange equations of a certain action. We construct such an action explicitly. It turns out that in the general case the hamiltonization and canonical quantization of such an action are non-trivial problems, since the theory involves time-dependent constraints. We adopt the general approach of hamiltonization and canonical quantization for such theories as described in D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints (Springer, Berlin, 1990). to the case under consideration. There exists an ambiguity (that cannot be reduced to the addition of a total time derivative) in associating a Lagrange function with a given set of equations. We present a complete description of this ambiguity. The proposed scheme is applied to the quantization of a general quadratic theory. In addition, we consider the quantization of a damped oscillator and of a radiating point-like charge. (orig.)

  11. Canonical quantization of so-called non-Lagrangian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Kupriyanov, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach to the canonical quantization of systems with equations of motion that are historically called non-Lagrangian equations. Our viewpoint of this problem is the following: despite the fact that a set of differential equations cannot be directly identified with a set of Euler-Lagrange equations, one can reformulate such a set in an equivalent first-order form that can always be treated as the Euler-Lagrange equations of a certain action. We construct such an action explicitly. It turns out that in the general case the hamiltonization and canonical quantization of such an action are non-trivial problems, since the theory involves time-dependent constraints. We adopt the general approach of hamiltonization and canonical quantization for such theories as described in D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints (Springer, Berlin, 1990). to the case under consideration. There exists an ambiguity (that cannot be reduced to the addition of a total time derivative) in associating a Lagrange function with a given set of equations. We present a complete description of this ambiguity. The proposed scheme is applied to the quantization of a general quadratic theory. In addition, we consider the quantization of a damped oscillator and of a radiating point-like charge. (orig.)

  12. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Luo

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  13. Reminder: call 74444 also in case of a medical emergency

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    What happened? A CERN colleague, suffering from heart trouble, went to the ‘infirmary' on the Prévessin site for medical aid. He was unaware that the ‘infirmary' was in fact no such thing, but the office of the French medical officer, and, on top of that, it was closed. He therefore took his own car and went to the CERN Fire Station on the Meyrin site (building 65). The firemen and the CERN infirmary took care of him and requested a helicopter transport to the Geneva cantonal hospital, where he received medical treatment.   What do we learn from this event?   You can call the CERN internal number 74444 also in case of serious and acute illness, not only in the event of an accident, pollution, fire, etc.   Professional aid (ambulance firemen and medical assistance, if needed) will be provided.   The CERN Fire station is located in building 65, on ‘Route Einstein', the first road on your right when you enter CERN entrance B on the Meyrin site. It is open permanently, 24 hours per day, 7 days per we...

  14. Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, P D

    1985-04-01

    Mammals stem from the mammal-like reptiles (therapsids) that were widely prevalent in Pangaea 250 million years ago. In the evolutionary transition from reptiles to mammals, three key developments were (1) nursing, in conjunction with maternal care; (2) audiovocal communication for maintaining maternal-offspring contact; and (3) play. The separation call perhaps ranks as the earliest and most basic mammalian vocalization, while play may have functioned originally to promote harmony in the nest. How did such family related behavior develop? In its evolution, the forebrain of advanced mammals has expanded as a triune structure that anatomically and chemically reflects ancestral commonalities with reptiles, early mammals, and late mammals. Recent findings suggest that the development of the behavioral triad in question may have depended on the evolution of the thalamocingulate division of the limbic system, a derivative from early mammals. The thalamocingulate division (which has no distinctive counterpart in the reptilian brain) is, in turn, geared in with the prefrontal neocortex that, in human beings, may be inferred to play a key role in familial acculturation.

  15. A call for more science in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Sah, Sunita; Albright, Thomas D; Gates, S James; Denton, M Bonner; Casadevall, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    Forensic science is critical to the administration of justice. The discipline of forensic science is remarkably complex and includes methodologies ranging from DNA analysis to chemical composition to pattern recognition. Many forensic practices developed under the auspices of law enforcement and were vetted primarily by the legal system rather than being subjected to scientific scrutiny and empirical testing. Beginning in the 1990s, exonerations based on DNA-related methods revealed problems with some forensic disciplines, leading to calls for major reforms. This process generated a National Academy of Science report in 2009 that was highly critical of many forensic practices and eventually led to the establishment of the National Commission for Forensic Science (NCFS) in 2013. The NCFS was a deliberative body that catalyzed communication between nonforensic scientists, forensic scientists, and other stakeholders in the legal community. In 2017, despite continuing problems with forensic science, the Department of Justice terminated the NCFS. Just when forensic science needs the most support, it is getting the least. We urge the larger scientific community to come to the aid of our forensic colleagues by advocating for urgently needed research, testing, and financial support.

  16. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  17. How Do “Mute” Cicadas Produce Their Calling Songs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as “mute”. This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the “mute” cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism. PMID:25714608

  18. Gene calling and bacterial genome annotation with BG7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobes, Raquel; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Manrique, Marina; Pareja-Tobes, Eduardo; Kovach, Evdokim; Alekhin, Alexey; Pareja, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    New massive sequencing technologies are providing many bacterial genome sequences from diverse taxa but a refined annotation of these genomes is crucial for obtaining scientific findings and new knowledge. Thus, bacterial genome annotation has emerged as a key point to investigate in bacteria. Any efficient tool designed specifically to annotate bacterial genomes sequenced with massively parallel technologies has to consider the specific features of bacterial genomes (absence of introns and scarcity of nonprotein-coding sequence) and of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies (presence of errors and not perfectly assembled genomes). These features make it convenient to focus on coding regions and, hence, on protein sequences that are the elements directly related with biological functions. In this chapter we describe how to annotate bacterial genomes with BG7, an open-source tool based on a protein-centered gene calling/annotation paradigm. BG7 is specifically designed for the annotation of bacterial genomes sequenced with NGS. This tool is sequence error tolerant maintaining their capabilities for the annotation of highly fragmented genomes or for annotating mixed sequences coming from several genomes (as those obtained through metagenomics samples). BG7 has been designed with scalability as a requirement, with a computing infrastructure completely based on cloud computing (Amazon Web Services).

  19. IMPORTANT REMINDER - In a Medical Emergency Call 74444

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    What happened? A CERN employee, complaining of pains that might indicate a serious heart problem, went to building 57 for medical assistance1). He went to the first floor and found the reception desk temporarily unoccupied. He then went to the CERN Fire Station. The firemen and the CERN medical team took care of him and requested helicopter transport to the Geneva cantonal hospital, where he responded well to medical treatment. What do we learn from this event? Although in this case the patient is doing well, precious time was lost. In the event of serious and acute illness, you must call the CERN internal number 74444 and avoid going in person, even accompanied by someone else. This number is available for all types of emergency. The firemen can provide professional assistance at all times as required: first aid on the spot, ambulance transport and medical assistance as necessary. The CERN Fire Station is located in building 65, on ‘Route Einstein', the first road on your right when you enter CERN Ent...

  20. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  1. Non-Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

  2. Cyclone Nargis and Myanmar: A wake up call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In early May 2008, Cyclone Nargis (CN tore across the southern coastal regions of Myanmar, pushing a tidal surge through villages and rice paddies. The almost 12 foot wall of water and wind speed of over 200 km/hr killed tens of thousands of people and left hundreds of thousands homeless and vulnerable to injury and disease. Out of the 7.35 million living in the affected townships of Labutta, Bogale, Pyinsalu, Yangon, and many more, approximately 2.4 million were affected. Overall, more than 50 townships were affected by this most devastating cyclone in Asia since 1991. The Delta region, Myanmar′s Rice Bowl, was severely damaged. The low-lying villages were submerged. There was widespread destruction of homes, critical infrastructure of the villages, roads, ferries, water, fuel, and electricity supplies. Our team from Singapore (called Team Singapore reached out to at least 10 different villages during the time we were there. We ran mobile clinics daily at several locations and these operated from warehouses, temples, schools or any make shift buildings. The journey to the remote villages may take between 1 and 2 hours by road or by boat. We also ran mobile clinics at the township hospital, the rural healthcare centers, and an orphanage.

  3. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  4. ICT and the location of call centres: regional and local patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Frank; Rietveld, Piet; Beekman, Michiel

    2004-01-01

    One of the sectors that gained most of the boost in ICT developments is the call centres sector. The focus in this paper is on spatial diffusion patterns of call centres in the Netherlands. The number of call centres has increased rapidly in the last decade and it seems that impacts of call

  5. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by the...

  6. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d' Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise

  7. The 3D Elevation Program initiative: a call for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Constance, Eric W.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative is accelerating the rate of three-dimensional (3D) elevation data collection in response to a call for action to address a wide range of urgent needs nationwide. It began in 2012 with the recommendation to collect (1) high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Hawaii, and the U.S. territories and (2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska. Specifications were created for collecting 3D elevation data, and the data management and delivery systems are being modernized. The National Elevation Dataset (NED) will be completely refreshed with new elevation data products and services. The call for action requires broad support from a large partnership community committed to the achievement of national 3D elevation data coverage. The initiative is being led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and includes many partners—Federal agencies and State, Tribal, and local governments—who will work together to build on existing programs to complete the national collection of 3D elevation data in 8 years. Private sector firms, under contract to the Government, will continue to collect the data and provide essential technology solutions for the Government to manage and deliver these data and services. The 3DEP governance structure includes (1) an executive forum established in May 2013 to have oversight functions and (2) a multiagency coordinating committee based upon the committee structure already in place under the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP). The 3DEP initiative is based on the results of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) that was funded by NDEP agencies and completed in 2011. The study, led by the USGS, identified more than 600 requirements for enhanced (3D) elevation data to address mission-critical information requirements of 34 Federal agencies, all 50 States, and a sample of private sector companies and Tribal and local

  8. Asian American mental health: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; Yan Cheng, Janice Ka; Saad, Carmel S; Chu, Joyce P

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed since its publication in 2001. This article highlights advances and illuminates gaps in the knowledge gained about the mental health and psychotherapeutic treatment of Asian Americans in the past decade. Though larger epidemiological surveys point to lower prevalence rates of mental illness in Asian Americans, further advances are needed in culturally valid assessment and quantification of cultural biases in symptom reporting in order to draw definitive conclusions about the state of Asian American mental health. A focus on prevalence in Asian Americans as a whole also shrouds important subgroup elevations such as heightened suicide risk in Asian elderly women or greater posttraumatic stress disorder in Southeast Asian refugees. Despite important developments in our knowledge about mental health prevalence, help-seeking behaviors, and culturally competent treatments for Asian Americans, it appears that troublingly low rates of service utilization still remain even when one accounts for the seemingly low prevalence rates among Asian Americans. Some progress has been made in the cultural adaptations of psychotherapy treatments for Asian Americans. In order to reduce mental health care disparities, greater efforts are needed to provide outreach at the community level and to bridge the gap between mental health and other medical or alternative health facilities. We call for innovation and provide recommendations to address these issues in the next decade.

  9. ITER, On the way to call for the license

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaidre, C.; Girard, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: All the seven ITER Parties have now ratified the lTER Agreement, which was signed in Paris in November last year. On October 24, 2007 the ITER Agreement enters officially into force. The licensing procedure to start construction shall be launched within the coming months in order to start construction at the beginning of 2009. The Host Party, Europe and the Host State, France have already participated together with the ITER Organization (IO) to a public debate to present the project to the neighboring populations (January to May 2006) and other administrative procedures to prepare the site and the roads for heavy loads. According to host state law on licensing of nuclear facilities, IO will send a set of administrative documents including a safety assessment (called Preliminary Safety Report) and public hearing files including impact studies and risk analysis. The review and public hearing are expected mid-08 to be consistent with the start of nuclear building construction on site. The latest update of the design took into account of inputs from: -An internal design review managed through eight specialist groups including safety and licensing, - Host State regulations (technical and QA), which should be fulfilled as quoted in the ITER agreement, - Site adaptation including land configuration, environmental conditions and external hazards. The ITER designers, in close contact with the Participant Teams, are proceeding with the adaptation of the generic design to comply with these new inputs. The codes and standards for all equipment are also under revision in order to fit with the expected requirements, taking into account the procurement sharing agreement and the French regulations. In the earlier stage of ITER design fusion took benefit from fission knowledge, in the present stage fusion is taking the lead as can be demonstrated by the update of the European mechanical code RCC-MR, now ready and updated to the vacuum vessel design

  10. Practical theologians’ calling to serve in the field of gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African demographic statistics echo the global trend of an ageing population. This fact poses challenges to the country’s labour supply, to health care, retirement and intergenerational relations. The elderly are faced with specific challenges such as negative views regarding older people, discrimination and prejudice based on age, changing roles, the loss of a support system when children emigrate, financial problems, abuse and neglect, emotions of fear and depression, and the struggle to find meaning in life and suffering. The field of study that concerns ageing and older adulthood is called gerontology. Joan Erber defines it as ‘the study of the biological, behavioural, and social phenomena that occur from the point of maturity to old age.’ It is an interdisciplinary field where different disciplines seek to address the problems associated with ageing. Biologists focus on the biological processes of ageing, psychologists focus on aspects like mental abilities, personality and behaviour, whilst sociologists study the social roles, group behaviour and status of older people. The question may be asked what is being done regarding the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly. This is the niche of practical theology, as indicated by one definition of practical theology that it is ‘a place where religious belief, tradition and practice meet contemporary experiences, questions and actions and conducts a dialogue that is mutually enriching, intellectually critical, and practically transforming’ according to Pattison and Woodward. The aims of this exploratory article are (1 to investigate to what extent research in practical theology has addressed the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly and (2 to identify opportunities where practical theology may provide service in the field of gerontology.

  11. Data Call Response for NEPA Supplement Analysis of CMRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is proposing to provide analytical chemistry (AC) and materials characterization (MC) capabilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by using a combination of existing space in two existing buildings: the Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building (RLUOB) and the Plutonium Facility, Building 4 (PF-4) in TA-55. This represents a change from decisions made by DOE as informed by previous National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses. In accordance with Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and DOE requirements, NNSA is preparing a Supplement Analysis (SA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action. The focus of this analysis is on determining whether the proposal to provide AC and MC laboratory capabilities in existing space in RLUOB and PF-4 rather than building a new nuclear facility (NF) is a substantial change that is relevant to environmental concerns or whether new circumstance or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts are significant. The end result of the analysis is a determination whether the existing Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Environmental Impact Statement (CMRR EIS) should be supplemented, a new EIS should be prepared, or no further NEPA analysis is necessary. This report provides data for incorporation into the Supplement Analysis being written by Leidos, Inc. under contract to NNSA. Responding to the data call requires several areas of expertise. Los Alamos subject matter experts estimate equipments lists, facility modifications, waste quantities, labor needs and radiological doses. Los Alamos NEPA experts assist Leidos in compiling existing data from the LANL Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) and CMRR EIS for public and other impacts. Bounding conditions are used to determine NEPA estimates.

  12. IAEA calls for urgent action on nuclear situation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, called on the United States and other Coalition authorities to allow IAEA experts to return to Iraq to address a possible radiological emergency there. 'I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites and about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.' Such reports have described among other things yellow cake emptied on the ground from containers then taken for domestic use, and radioactive sources being stolen and removed from their shielding. 'We have a moral responsibility to establish the facts without delay and take urgent remedial action,' said Dr. ElBaradei. As hostilities in Iraq were coming to an end, Dr. ElBaradei wrote on 10 April to the US government bringing its attention to the need to secure the nuclear material stored at Tuwaitha - Iraq's nuclear research centre - and under IAEA seal since 1991. The IAEA also provided the United States with information about the nuclear material, radioactive sources, and nuclear waste in Iraq. The IAEA received oral assurances that physical protection of the site was in place; but following reports of looting there and at other sites, Dr. ElBaradei wrote again on 29 April, emphasizing the responsibility of the Coalition forces to maintain appropriate protection over the materials in question. This includes natural and low-enriched uranium, radioactive sources such as Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, and nuclear waste. Dr. ElBaradei regrets that the IAEA has to date not received a response. He again urged that the Agency be allowed to send a safety and security team to Iraq so that a potentially serious humanitarian situation can be addressed without further delay. The IAEA has experienced international teams of radiation safety, nuclear security and emergency response specialists

  13. A call for the adoption of nuclear utility information standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slone, B.J. III; Richardson, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1986, the International Organization for Standardization (SO) issued a standard for document representation, ISO 8879, open-quotes Standard Generalized Markup Languageclose quotes (SGML). The standard prescribes a method for defining documents in two parts, one containing text and the other describing its structure without reference to word processing or publishing system software or hardware. It provides a method for open-quotes marking upclose quotes information, a way to place open-quotes tagsclose quotes on pieces of information to define their purpose. The SGML is part of a group of ISO standards titled open-quotes Information Processing-Text and Office Systems.close quotes This group contains the Document Style Specification and Semantics Language, the Standard Document Interchange Format, the Standard Page Description Language, and the fonts standard. The Department of Defense (DoD) has taken a standards initiative to improve the efficiency and reliability of systems by mandating that DoD suppliers comply with specific standards when delivering technical information. The initiative is called the Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) and includes a package of standards to address engineering drawings, raster font images, vector illustrations, text, and magnetic tape format. SGML is the CALS standard for documentation representation. Other industries have adopted this standard. Several industry groups, such as the Air Transport Association, American Association of Publishers, and the Telecommunications Industry Forum, are moving ahead vigorously with their own applications of SGML. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has also adopted the ISO standard for production of its documents. Work is under way to develop their own SGML application

  14. Cultura y espacio urbano. Pensar, construir y habitar la calle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arq. Mariela Szpac

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El espacio público es una herramienta privilegiada para la puesta en escena de las experiencias de lo urbano. Es el lugar para la complejidad, heterogeneidad social, cultural y la calle como el campo de articulación de intereses diferenciados y de convalidación colectiva. Un sitio se hace lugar, a partir de la apropiación cultural que la gente hace de él, desde el pensar, el construir y el habitar. Pensar el espacio público signifca considerarlo como estructurador y ordenador de la ciudad. Se hace necesario pensarlo desde la posibilidad de incrementar valores de inclusión; allí se producen los encuentros, se socializan, se realizan como ciudadanos y como sujetos políticos de una democracia. Construir en el espacio público, se introduce en la esfera del hacer y en la necesidad de reflexionar sobre el cómo hacer. Es posible hacer más con menos, la austeridad formal y material tiene hoy valor de compromiso ético con la sociedad. Habitar en el espacio público es complejo. A partir de la apropiación social, del ser vividos y usados, es que los mismos adquieren su verdadera dimensión. Estos se transforman cada vez más, en el escenario crítico de una sociedad de consumo masifcada y excluyente. Se presenta la ciudad como el escenario de la cultura y sus espacios públicos, como lugares claves en la construcción de la trama social, como marco para la conformación de identidades.

  15. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke.

  16. Adaptive control of call acceptance in WCDMA network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the algorithms for access control in mobile wireless networks is presented. A review of adaptive control methods of accepting a call in WCDMA networks is discussed, based on the overview of the algorithms used for this purpose, and their comparison. Appropriate comments and conculsions in comparison with the basic characteristics of these algorithms are given. The OVSF codes are explained as well as how the allocation method influences the capacity and probability of blocking.. Introduction We are witnessing a steady increase in the number of demands placed upon modern wireless networks. New applications and an increasing number of users as well as user activities growth in recent years reinforce the need for an efficient use of the spectrum and its proper distribution among different applications and classes of services. Besides humans, the last few years saw different computers, machines, applications, and, in the future, many other devices, RFID applications, and finally networked objects, as a new kind of wireless networks "users". Because of the exceptional rise in the number of users, the demands placed upon modern wireless networks are becoming larger, and spectrum management plays an important role. For these reasons, choosing an appropriate call admission control algorithm is of great importance. Multiple access and resource management in wireless networks Radio resource management of mobile networks is a set of algorithms to manage the use of radio resources with the aim is to maximize the total capacity of wireless systems with equal distribution of resources to users. Management of radio resources in cellular networks is usually located in the base station controller, the base station and the mobile terminal, and is based on decisions made on appropriate measurement and feedback. It is often defined as the maximum volume of traffic load that the system can provide for some of the requirements for the

  17. On-call duty effects on sleep-state physiological stability in male medical interns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On-call duty among medical interns is characterized by sleep deprivation and stressful working conditions, both of which alter cardiac autonomic modulation. We hypothesized that sleep stability decreased in medical interns during on-call duty. We used cardiopulmonary-coupling (CPC analysis to test our hypothesis. METHODS: We used electrocardiogram (ECG-based CPC analysis to quantify physiological parameters of sleep stability in 13 medical interns during on-call and on-call duty-free periods. There were ten 33.5-h on-call duty shifts per month for interns, each followed by 2 on-call duty-free days, over 3 months. Measurements during sleep were collected before, during, and after an on-call shift. Measurements were repeated 3 months later during an on-call duty-free period. RESULTS: The medical interns had significantly reduced stable sleep, and displayed increased latency to the first epoch of stable sleep during the on-call night shift, compared to the pre-call and on-call duty-free nights. Interns also had significantly increased rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep during the on-call night shift, compared to the pre-call and on-call duty-free nights. CONCLUSION: Medical interns suffer disrupted sleep stability and continuity during on-call night shifts. The ECG-based CPC analysis provides a straightforward means to quantify sleep quality and stability in medical staff performing shift work under stressful conditions.

  18. Individual, contextual, and age-related acoustic variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor loud calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M Erb

    Full Text Available Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor. Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53% followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0 decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances.

  19. Short communication: relationship of call rate and accuracy of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2013-05-01

    Call rates on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) basis and an animal basis are used as measures of data quality and as screening tools for genomic studies and evaluations of dairy cattle. To investigate the relationship of SNP call rate and genotype accuracy for individual SNP, the correlation between percentages of missing genotypes and parent-progeny conflicts for each SNP was calculated for 103,313 Holsteins. Correlations ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 for the BovineSNP50 and BovineLD (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (Neogen Corp., Lincoln, NE) chips, with lower correlations for newer chips. For US genomic evaluations, genotypes are excluded for animals with a call rate of call rate for 220,175 Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss genotypes was 99.6%. Animal genotypes with a call rate of ≤99% were examined from the US Department of Agriculture genotype database to determine how genotype call rate is related to accuracy of calls on an animal basis. Animal call rate was determined from SNP used in genomic evaluation and is the number of called autosomal and X-specific SNP genotypes divided by the number of SNP from that type of chip. To investigate the relationship of animal call rate and parentage validation, conflicts between a genotyped animal and its sire or dam were determined through a duo test (opposite homozygous SNP genotypes between sire and progeny; 1,374 animal genotypes) and a trio test (also including conflicts with dam and heterozygous SNP genotype for the animal when both parents are the same homozygote; 482 animal genotypes). When animal call rate was ≤ 80%, parentage validation was no longer reliable with the duo test. With the trio test, parentage validation was no longer reliable when animal call rate was ≤ 90%. To investigate how animal call rate was related to genotyping accuracy for animals with multiple genotypes, concordance between genotypes for 1,216 animals that had a genotype with a call rate of ≤ 99

  20. Adult meerkats modify close call rate in the presence of pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T; Rivers, Pearl R; Muller, Coline; Toni, Pauline; Manser, Marta B

    2017-06-01

    In animals, signaling behavior is often context-dependent, with variation in the probability of emitting certain signals dependent on fitness advantages. Senders may adjust signaling rate depending on receiver identity, presence of audiences, or noise masking the signal, all of which can affect the benefits and costs of signal production. In the cooperative breeding meerkat Suricata suricatta , group members emit soft contact calls, termed as "close calls", while foraging in order to maintain group cohesion. Here, we investigated how the close calling rate during foraging was affected by the presence of pups, that produce continuous, noisy begging calls as they follow older group members. Adults decreased their overall close call rate substantially when pups were foraging with the group in comparison to periods when no pups were present. We suggest this decrease was likely due to a masking effect of the loud begging calls, which makes the close call function of maintaining group cohesion partly redundant as the centrally located begging calls can be used instead to maintain cohesion. There was some support that adults use close calls strategically to attract specific pups based on fitness advantages, that is, as the philopatric sex, females should call more than males and more to female pups than male pups. Dominant females called more than dominant males when a pup was in close proximity, while subordinates showed no sex-based differences. The sex of the nearest pup did not affect the calling rate of adults. The study shows that meerkats modify their close call production depending on benefits gained from calling and provides an example of the flexible use of one calling system in the presence of another, here contact calls versus begging calls, within the same species.

  1. Adult meerkats modify close call rate in the presence of pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan T.WYMAN; Pearl R.RIVERS; Coline MULLER; Pauline TONI; Marta B.MANSER

    2017-01-01

    In animals,signaling behavior is often context-dependent,with variation in the probability of emitting certain signals dependent on fitness advantages.Senders may adjust signaling rate depending on receiver identity,presence of audiences,or noise masking the signal,all of which can affect the benefits and costs of signal production.In the cooperative breeding meerkat Suricata suricatta,group members emit soft contact calls,termed as "close calls",while foraging in order to maintain group cohesion.Here,we investigated how the close calling rate during foraging was affected by the presence of pups,that produce continuous,noisy begging calls as they follow older group members.Adults decreased their overall close call rate substantially when pups were foraging with the group in comparison to periods when no pups were present.We suggest this decrease was likely due to a masking effect of the loud begging calls,which makes the close call function of maintaining group cohesion partly redundant as the centrally located begging calls can be used instead to maintain cohesion.There was some support that adults use close calls strategically to attract specific pups based on fitness advantages,that is,as the philopatric sex,females should call more than males and more to female pups than male pups.Dominant females called more than dominant males when a pup was in close proximity,while subordinates showed no sex-based differences.The sex of the nearest pup did not affect the calling rate of adults.The study shows that meerkats modify their close call production depending on benefits gained from calling and provides an example of the flexible use of one calling system in the presence of another,here contact calls versus begging calls,within the same species.

  2. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    European partners contributed to the attempt to develop the energy flow calculation model designed for said spa into a numerical planning tool with broad applicability to other technical boundary conditions. This aim could not yet be fully achieved with the given means, by virtue of the fact that huge differences exist among spas, regarding technical design (sometimes accumulations of ad-hoc solutions to past technical problems) as well as characteristic energy demand of the various functional units of the investigated facilities. What could be achieved, though, was a better understanding how the communication between clients and consultants shall be conducted and what steps have to be taken in order to reach the original goal in a subsequent project. Furthermore, it was the ideational aim of our work to set up a network of established players, capable of influencing national developments, and make it a proponent of the envisaged improvements in their home countries and beyond. Among the recommended measures to improve on the energy management of existing thermal spas, on the one hand, there are those that only specialized knowledge can reveal or the proper application of which only painstaking monitoring and calculation can ascertain and which, therefore, will not easily be at the hand of many planners. These include, for example, combining geothermal heat with advanced heating technology (gas condensing boiler, cogeneration plant) for peak load conditions, deciding on the kind of advanced technology to be used (condensing boiler or cogeneration plus heat pump), making consistent said technology with the temperature control system (e.g. substitution of bypass design of heat exchanger control by volume flow control); introducing solar energy, in particular, has to be carefully designed. On the other hand, there are some improvements to be called for, which are meaningful and applicable even as belated additions, and in cases would, on top of this, be obvious to most non

  3. Salivary alpha amylase in on-call from home fire and emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of working on-call from home on the sympatho-adrenal medullary system activity is currently unknown. This study had two aims, Aim 1: examine salivary alpha amylase awakening response (AAR and diurnal salivary alpha amylase (sAA profile in fire and emergency service workers who operate on-call from home following a night on-call with a call (NIGHT-CALL, a night on-call without a call (NO-CALL and an off-call night (OFF-CALL, and Aim 2: explore whether there was an anticipatory effect of working on-call from home (ON compared to when there was an off-call (OFF on the diurnal sAA profile. Participants wore activity monitors, completed sleep and work diaries and collected seven saliva samples a day for one week. AAR area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG, AAR area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI, AAR reactivity, diurnal sAA slope, diurnal sAA AUCG and mean 12-h sAA concentrations were calculated. Separate generalised estimating equation models were constructed for each variable of interest for each aim. For Aim 1, there were no differences between NIGHT-CALL or NO-CALL and OFF-CALL for any response variable. For Aim 2, there was no difference between any response variable of interest when ON the following night compared to when OFF the following night (n = 14. These findings suggest that there is no effect of working on-call from home on sAA, but should be interpreted with caution, as overnight data were not collected. Future research, using overnight heart rate monitoring, could help confirm these findings.

  4. The job demands-resources model of work engagement in South African call centres

    OpenAIRE

    Yolandi Janse van Rensburg; Billy Boonzaier; Michèle Boonzaier

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: A ‘sacrificial human resource strategy’ is practised in call centres, resulting in poor employee occupational health. Consequently, questions are posed in terms of the consequences of call centre work and which salient antecedent variables impact the engagement and wellbeing of call centre representatives. Research purpose: Firstly, to gauge the level of employee engagement amongst a sample of call centre representatives in South Africa and, secondly, to track the paths throu...

  5. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Loeb; E. Britzke

    2010-01-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of...

  6. New pregnane and steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Yi, Guo-Qing; Xu, Jian-Kun; Zhang, Tian-Long; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-03-01

    Three new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as 16beta-(4'-methyl-5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-pentanoxy)-5alpha-pregn-3beta-ol-12,20-dione-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3).

  7. SNP calling using genotype model selection on high-throughput sequencing data

    KAUST Repository

    You, Na; Murillo, Gabriel; Su, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Xu, Jian; Ning, Kang; Zhang, ShouDong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Cui, Xinping

    2012-01-01

    calling SNPs. Thus, errors not involved in base-calling or alignment, such as those in genomic sample preparation, are not accounted for.Results: A novel method of consensus and SNP calling, Genotype Model Selection (GeMS), is given which accounts

  8. 29 CFR 4002.6 - Place of meetings; use of conference call communications equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Place of meetings; use of conference call communications... conference call communications equipment. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at the principal... may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors through the use of conference call telephone or...

  9. Call mimicry by eastern towhees and its significance in relation to auditory learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon S. Greenlaw; Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown

    1998-01-01

    The authors document cases of eastern towhees (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) using mimicked alarm calls from three presumptive models (blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), and American robin (Turdus migratorius)). In four instances, male towhees employed heterospecific calls without substitution in their own call repertoires. Three birds (New...

  10. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  11. EFL Teachers' Knowledge of the Use and Development of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Even though there are a plethora of CALL materials available to EFL teachers nowadays, very limited attention has been directed toward the issue that most EFL teachers are merely the consumers of CALL materials. The main challenge is to equip EFL teachers with the required CALL materials development skills to enable them to be contributors to CALL…

  12. The Ghost in the Machine: Are "Teacherless" CALL Programs Really Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ted; Williamson, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    Reflects critically on pedagogical issues in the production of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) courseware and ways CALL has affected the practice of language learning. Concludes that if CALL is to reach full potential, it must be more than a simple medium of information; it should provide a teaching/learning process, with the real…

  13. The impact of phone calls on follow-up rates in an online depression prevention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Muñoz

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Adding phone call contacts to email reminders and monetary incentives did increase follow-up rates. However, the rate of response to follow-up was low and the number of phone calls required to achieve one completed follow-up raises concerns about the utility of adding phone calls. We also discuss difficulties with using financial incentives and their implications.

  14. 47 CFR 64.1509 - Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... each such service; and (4) A statement of the pay-per-call service provider's name, business address... name and mailing address of any provider of pay-per-call services offered by that carrier; and (2... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call...

  15. Effects of Responding to a Name and Group Call on Preschoolers' Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Lauren; Hanley, Gregory P.; Roberson, Aleasha A.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed teacher-child relations with respect to children's name calls, instructions, and compliance in a preschool classroom. The most frequent consequence to a child's name being called was the provision of instructions. We also observed a higher probability of compliance when children attended to a name call. Next, we evaluated the effects…

  16. 47 CFR 80.320 - Radiotelephone distress call and message transmission procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by its call sign or name, to permit direction-finding stations to determine its position. This... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone distress call and message... Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.320 Radiotelephone distress call and message...

  17. The relationship of on-call work with fatigue, work-home interference, and perceived performance difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziebertz, C.M.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Hooftman, W.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between on-call duty exposure (active and total on-call hours a month, number of calls per duty) and employees’ experiences of being on-call (stress due to unpredictability, ability to relax during inactive on-call periods, restrictions during on-call

  18. The relationship of on-call work with fatigue, work-home interference, and perceived performance difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziebertz, C.M.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Hooftman, W.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between on-call duty exposure (active and total on-call hours a month, number of calls per duty) and employees’ experiences of being on-call (stress due to unpredictability, ability to relax during inactive on-call periods, restrictions during on-call duties,

  19. When seconds count: A study of communication variables in the opening segment of emergency calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Koole, Tom; Nattrass, Rhona

    2017-09-01

    The opening sequence of an emergency call influences the efficiency of the ambulance dispatch time. The greeting sequences in 105 calls to a South African emergency service were analysed. Initial results suggested the advantage of a specific two-part opening sequence. An on-site experiment aimed at improving call efficiency was conducted during one shift (1100 calls). Results indicated reduced conversational repairs and a significant reduction of 4 seconds in mean call length. Implications for systems and training are derived.

  20. Outsourcing your medical practice call center: how to choose a vendor to ensure regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Medical practices receive hundreds if not thousands of calls every week from patients, payers, pharmacies, and others. Outsourcing call centers can be a smart move to improve efficiency, lower costs, improve customer care, ensure proper payer management, and ensure regulatory compliance. This article discusses how to know when it's time to move to an outsourced call center, the benefits of making the move, how to choose the right call center, and how to make the transition. It also provides tips on how to manage the call center to ensure the objectives are being met.

  1. Temporal and spatial variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....

  2. A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Effect of two 12-minute culturally targeted films on intent to call 911 for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Eimicke, Joseph; Abel-Bey, Amparo; Valdez, Lenfis; Noble, James; Gordillo, Madeleine; Ravenell, Joseph; Ramirez, Mildred; Teresi, Jeanne A; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2016-05-24

    We assessed the behavioral effect of two 12-minute culturally targeted stroke films on immediately calling 911 for suspected stroke among black and Hispanic participants using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design. We enrolled 102 adult churchgoers (60 black and 42 Hispanic) into a single viewing of one of the 2 stroke films-a Gospel musical (English) or Telenovela (Spanish). We measured intent to immediately call 911 using the validated 28-item Stroke Action Test in English and Spanish, along with related variables, before and immediately after the intervention. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. An increase in intent to call 911 was seen immediately following the single viewing. Higher self-efficacy for calling 911 was associated with intent to call 911 among Hispanic but not black participants. A composite measure of barriers to calling 911 was not associated with intent to call 911 in either group. A significant association was found between higher stroke symptom knowledge and intent to call 911 at baseline, but not immediately following the intervention. No sex associations were found; however, being older was associated with greater intent to call 911. The majority of participants would strongly recommend the films to others. One participant appropriately called 911 for a real-life stroke event. Narrative communication in the form of tailored short films may improve intent to call 911 for stroke among the black and Hispanic population. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. All emergency calls to the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust (currently the Hampshire Division of South Central Ambulance Service, Winchester, UK) during the first weekend of the 2006 World Cup football matches were analysed by call volume and classification of call (call type). On the day of the first football match, call volume was over 50% higher than that on a typical Saturday, with distinct peaks before and after the inaugural match. Call profile analysis showed increases in alcohol-related emergencies, including collapse, unconsciousness, assault and road traffic accidents. The increase in assaults was particularly marked at the end of each match and increased again into the late evening. A detailed mapping of call volumes and profiles during the World Cup football shows a significant increase in overall emergency calls, mostly alcohol related. Mapping of limited resources to these patterns will allow improved responses to emergency calls.

  5. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  6. Where do out-of-hours calls to a consultant microbiologist come from?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-08-01

    There is little in the literature about out-of-hours calls to medical microbiologists. The calls taken by a consultant medical microbiologist over a five-year period in an Irish tertiary referral hospital were reviewed. Excluding calls on weekend mornings and significant evening positive blood cultures, the mean annual number of calls on a one-in-four rota was 89 (range 70-111). Over 90% of calls were received before midnight and 51% were from specialist registrars. Medical specialties, neurosurgery and intensive care were the most common departments seeking advice. Two-thirds of calls related to the management of an individual patient, but advice on infection prevention and control is increasingly requested. Calls out-of-hours are not insignificant but little is known about how these vary between hospitals and what contribution they make to patient care.

  7. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  8. Calls to Florida Poison Control Centers about mercury: Trends over 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Matthew O; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Stephan, Wendy B; Hunter, Candis M; Weisman, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to contrast trends in exposure-report calls and informational queries (a measure of public interest) about mercury to the Florida Poison Control Centers over 2003-2013. Poison-control specialists coded calls to Florida Poison Control Centers by substance of concern, caller demographics, and whether the call pertained to an exposure event or was an informational query. For the present study, call records regarding mercury were de-identified and provided along with daily total number of calls for statistical analysis. We fit Poisson models using generalized estimating equations to summarize changes across years in counts of daily calls to Florida Poison Control Centers, adjusting for month. In a second stage of analysis, we further adjusted for the total number of calls each day. We also conducted analyses stratified by age of the exposed. There was an overall decrease over 2003-2013 in the number of total calls about mercury [Ratio per year: 0.89, 95% CI: (0.88, 0.90)], and calls about mercury exposure [Ratio per year: 0.84, 95% CI: (0.83, 0.85)], but the number of informational queries about mercury increased over this time [Ratio per year: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.18)]. After adjusting for the number of calls of that type each day (e.g., call volume), the associations remained similar: a ratio of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.89) per year for total calls, 0.85 (0.83, 0.86) for exposure-related calls, and 1.17 (1.14, 1.21) for informational queries. Although, the number of exposure-related calls decreased, informational queries increased over 2003-2013. This might suggest an increased public interest in mercury health risks despite a decrease in reported exposures over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On-call work: To sleep or not to sleep? It depends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paterson, Jessica L; Hall, Sarah J; Jay, Sarah M; Aisbett, Brad

    On-call working time arrangements are increasingly common, involve work only in the event of an unpredictable incident and exist primarily outside of standard hours. Like other non-standard working time arrangements, on-call work disrupts sleep and can therefore have negative effects on health, safety and performance. Unlike other non-standard working time arrangements, on-call work often allows sleep opportunities between calls. Any sleep obtained during on-call periods will be beneficial for waking performance. However, there is evidence that sleep while on call may be of substantially reduced restorative value because of the expectation of receiving the call and apprehension about missing the call. In turn, waking from sleep to respond to a call may be associated with temporary increases in performance impairment. This is dependent on characteristics of both the preceding sleep, the tasks required upon waking and the availability and utility of any countermeasures to support the transition from sleep to wake. In this paper, we critically evaluate the evidence both for and against sleeping during on-call periods and conclude that some sleep, even if it is of reduced quality and broken by repeated calls, is a good strategy. We also note, however, that organisations utilising on-call working time arrangements need to systematically manage the likelihood that on-call sleep can be associated with temporary performance impairments upon waking. Given that the majority of work in this area has been laboratory-based, there is a significant need for field-based investigations of the magnitude of sleep inertia, in addition to the utility of sleep inertia countermeasures. Field studies should include working with subject matter experts to identify the real-world impacts of changes in performance associated with sleeping, or not sleeping, whilst on call.

  10. Mobile telephones: a comparison of radiated power between 3G VoIP calls and 3G VoCS calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dragan; Bragard, Guillaume; Picard, Dominique; Chauvin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the mean RF power radiated by mobile telephones during voice calls in 3G VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) using an application well known to mobile Internet users, and to compare it with the mean power radiated during voice calls in 3G VoCS (Voice over Circuit Switch) on a traditional network. Knowing that the specific absorption rate (SAR) is proportional to the mean radiated power, the user's exposure could be clearly identified at the same time. Three 3G (High Speed Packet Access) smartphones from three different manufacturers, all dual-band for GSM (900 MHz, 1800 MHz) and dual-band for UMTS (900 MHz, 1950 MHz), were used between 28 July and 04 August 2011 in Paris (France) to make 220 two-minute calls on a mobile telephone network with national coverage. The places where the calls were made were selected in such a way as to describe the whole range of usage situations of the mobile telephone. The measuring equipment, called "SYRPOM", recorded the radiation power levels and the frequency bands used during the calls with a sampling rate of 20,000 per second. In the framework of this study, the mean normalised power radiated by a telephone in 3G VoIP calls was evaluated at 0.75% maximum power of the smartphone, compared with 0.22% in 3G VoCS calls. The very low average power levels associated with use of 3G devices with VoIP or VoCS support the view that RF exposure resulting from their use is far from exceeding the basic restrictions of current exposure limits in terms of SAR.

  11. High call volume at poison control centers: identification and implications for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, E M; Latimer, S; Reblin, M; Bennett, H K W; Cummins, M R; Crouch, B I; Ellington, L

    2012-09-01

    High volume surges in health care are uncommon and unpredictable events. Their impact on health system performance and capacity is difficult to study. To identify time periods that exhibited very busy conditions at a poison control center and to determine whether cases and communication during high volume call periods are different from cases during low volume periods. Call data from a US poison control center over twelve consecutive months was collected via a call logger and an electronic case database (Toxicall®).Variables evaluated for high call volume conditions were: (1) call duration; (2) number of cases; and (3) number of calls per staff member per 30 minute period. Statistical analyses identified peak periods as busier than 99% of all other 30 minute time periods and low volume periods as slower than 70% of all other 30 minute periods. Case and communication characteristics of high volume and low volume calls were compared using logistic regression. A total of 65,364 incoming calls occurred over 12 months. One hundred high call volume and 4885 low call volume 30 minute periods were identified. High volume periods were more common between 1500 and 2300 hours and during the winter months. Coded verbal communication data were evaluated for 42 high volume and 296 low volume calls. The mean (standard deviation) call length of these calls during high volume and low volume periods was 3 minutes 27 seconds (1 minute 46 seconds) and 3 minutes 57 seconds (2 minutes 11 seconds), respectively. Regression analyses revealed a trend for fewer overall verbal statements and fewer staff questions during peak periods, but no other significant differences for staff-caller communication behaviors were found. Peak activity for poison center call volume can be identified by statistical modeling. Calls during high volume periods were similar to low volume calls. Communication was more concise yet staff was able to maintain a good rapport with callers during busy call periods

  12. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapojuwo Abraham O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  13. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  14. Should I Take this Call? Understanding Interruption Response Decision-Making in Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukeshini Grandhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones not only increase our availability for communication anytime, anywhere, but also interrupt us anytime, anywhere. This paper empirically examines the role of local context (e.g. activity/location where one receives the call vs. the relational context (e.g. what the phone call is about and from whom in how people make decisions to answer or ignore phone call. Using both quantitative (N=101 and qualitative (N=10 methods, we gathered data on people's cellphone handling practices. Analysis of the data reveals that 1 people are influenced by the availability or unavailability of relational context in making call handling decisions and are rarely influenced by their local context alone; 2 people predict the value of a call to be significantly different before engaging in the call than the value they perceive after the call. Our qualitative data confirmed that the low availability of relational context information not only led to misjudgment of call value but also suboptimal call handling decisions. Together our findings suggest that designing cell phone interfaces that display relational context information can support people in accurately gauging the value of incoming calls to appropriate response decisions in social and professional contexts.

  15. PENGARUH PERMAINAN CALL CARDS TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR DAN AKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Machin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh permainan call cards terhadap hasil belajar dan aktivitas pembelajaran. Aktivitas pembelajaran yang diukur meliputi aktivitas individual siswa dan kinerja guru. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media permainan call cards berkontribusi sebesar 46% terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Hasil belajar siswa yang diberi media permainan call cards lebih baik daripada hasil belajar siswa yang tidak diberi mediapermainan call cards. Dengan demikian, media permainan call cards dapat menjadi alternatif dalam pencapaian hasil belajar biologi yang lebih baik.   Research purposes to determine the effect of call cards game against learning outcomes and learning activities. Learning activities that were measured included the activity of individual student and teacher performance. This research was experimental. The results showed that the media play call cards account for 46% of the student learning outcomes. Learning outcomes of students who were given media cards call the game better than the learning outcomes of students who were not given mediapermainan call cards. Thus, the media play call cards can be an alternative in achieving the learning outcomes of biology better.

  16. On-call work and physicians' turnover intention: the moderating effect of job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Elovainio, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Physician shortage and turnover are major problems worldwide. On-call duties may be among the risk factors of high turnover rates among physicians. We investigated whether having on-call duties is associated with physicians' turnover intention and whether job strain variables moderate this association. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3324 (61.6% women) Finnish physicians. The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for age, gender, response format, specialization status and employment sector. The results showed that job strain moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention. The highest levels of turnover intention were among those who had on-call duties and high level of job strain characterized by high demands and low control opportunities. The lowest levels of turnover intention were among those who were not on-call and who had low strain involving low demands and high control. Also, job demands moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention; turnover intention levels were higher among those with on-call duties and high demands than those being on-call and low demands. To conclude, working on-call was related to physicians' turnover intention particularly in those with high job strain. Health care organizations should focus more attention on working arrangements and scheduling of on-call work, provide a suitable working pace and implement means to increase physicians' participation and control over their job.

  17. Call intercalation in dyadic interactions in natural choruses of Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárano, Zaida; Carballo, Luisana

    2016-05-01

    Communal signaling increases the likelihood of acoustic interference and impairs mate choice; consequently, mechanisms of interference avoidance are expected. Adjustment of the timing of the calls between signalers, specifically call alternation, is probably the most efficient strategy. For this reason, in the present study we analyzed call timing in dyads of males of E. johnstonei in six natural assemblages. We addressed whether males entrain their calls with those of other males at the assemblage and if they show selective attention in relation to perceived amplitude of the other males' calls, inter-male distance, or intrinsic call features (call duration, period or dominant frequency). We expected males to selectively attend to closer or louder males and/or to those of higher or similar attractiveness for females than themselves, because those would be their strongest competitors. We found that most males intercalated their calls with those of at least one male. In assemblages of 3 individuals, males seemed to attend to a fixed number of males regardless of their characteristics. In assemblages of more than 3 individuals, the perceived amplitude of the call of the neighboring male was higher, and the call periods of the males were more similar in alternating dyads than in the non-alternating ones. At the proximate level, selective attention based on perceived amplitude may relate to behavioral hearing thresholds. Selective attention based on the similarity of call periods may relate to the properties of the call oscillators controlling calling rhythms. At the ultimate level, selective attention may be related to the likelihood of acoustic competition for females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An ontology-based nurse call management system (oNCS) with probabilistic priority assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The current, place-oriented nurse call systems are very static. A patient can only make calls with a button which is fixed to a wall of a room. Moreover, the system does not take into account various factors specific to a situation. In the future, there will be an evolution to a mobile button for each patient so that they can walk around freely and still make calls. The system would become person-oriented and the available context information should be taken into account to assign the correct nurse to a call. The aim of this research is (1) the design of a software platform that supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons in hospitals and residential care and (2) the design of a sophisticated nurse call algorithm. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff members and patients into account. Additionally, the priority of a call probabilistically depends on the risk factors, assigned to a patient. Methods The ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS) was developed as an extension of a Context-Aware Service Platform. An ontology is used to manage the profile information. Rules implement the novel nurse call algorithm that takes all this information into account. Probabilistic reasoning algorithms are designed to determine the priority of a call based on the risk factors of the patient. Results The oNCS system is evaluated through a prototype implementation and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls amongst nurses and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS system and the current, place-oriented nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system is discussed. Conclusions The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the oNCS system significantly improves the assignment of nurses

  19. An ontology-based nurse call management system (oNCS with probabilistic priority assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoeve Piet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current, place-oriented nurse call systems are very static. A patient can only make calls with a button which is fixed to a wall of a room. Moreover, the system does not take into account various factors specific to a situation. In the future, there will be an evolution to a mobile button for each patient so that they can walk around freely and still make calls. The system would become person-oriented and the available context information should be taken into account to assign the correct nurse to a call. The aim of this research is (1 the design of a software platform that supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons in hospitals and residential care and (2 the design of a sophisticated nurse call algorithm. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff members and patients into account. Additionally, the priority of a call probabilistically depends on the risk factors, assigned to a patient. Methods The ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS was developed as an extension of a Context-Aware Service Platform. An ontology is used to manage the profile information. Rules implement the novel nurse call algorithm that takes all this information into account. Probabilistic reasoning algorithms are designed to determine the priority of a call based on the risk factors of the patient. Results The oNCS system is evaluated through a prototype implementation and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls amongst nurses and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS system and the current, place-oriented nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system is discussed. Conclusions The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the oNCS system significantly improves

  20. Effect of introduction of electronic patient reporting on the duration of ambulance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Markku; Väyrynen, Taneli; Hiltunen, Tuomas; Porthan, Kari; Aaltonen, Janne

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effect of the change from paper records to the electronic patient records (EPRs) on ambulance call duration. We retrieved call duration times 6 months before (group 1) and 6 months after (group 2) the introduction of EPR. Subgroup analysis of group 2 was fulfilled depending whether the calls were made during the first or last 3 months after EPR introduction. We analyzed 37 599 ambulance calls (17 950 were in group 1 and 19 649 were in group 2). The median call duration in group 1 was 48 minutes and in group 2 was 49 minutes (P = .008). In group 2, call duration was longer during the first 3 months after EPR introduction. In multiple linear regression analysis, urgency category (P introduction was noticed, reflecting adaptation process to a new way of working.

  1. The Effects of the CALL Model on College English Reading Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL is an important concept in English teaching method reform. College students’ English reading ability is an important indicator in the evaluation on the college students’ English proficiency. Therefore, this paper applies the CALL model in English reading teaching. Firstly, it introduces the application and development prospect of the CALL model, and analyzes its advantages and disadvantages; secondly, it analyzes the present situation of college English teaching and its influencing factors and then designs an application example to integrate the CALL model with different aspect of English reading. Finally, it analyzes the teaching results of college English reading under the CALL model. Therefore, in both theory and practice, this paper proves the effectiveness and innovativeness of the CALL model.

  2. Hospital emergency on-call coverage: is there a doctor in the house?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Debra A; Felland, Laurie E

    2007-11-01

    The nation's community hospitals face increasing problems obtaining emergency on-call coverage from specialist physicians, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2007 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. The diminished willingness of specialist physicians to provide on-call coverage is occurring as hospital emergency departments confront an ever-increasing demand for services. Factors influencing physician reluctance to provide on-call coverage include decreased dependence on hospital admitting privileges as more services shift to non-hospital settings; payment for emergency care, especially for uninsured patients; and medical liability concerns. Hospital strategies to secure on-call coverage include enforcing hospital medical staff bylaws that require physicians to take call, contracting with physicians to provide coverage, paying physicians stipends, and employing physicians. Nonetheless, many hospitals continue to struggle with inadequate on-call coverage, which threatens patients' timely access to high-quality emergency care and may raise health care costs.

  3. Referential calls coordinate multi-species mobbing in a forest bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2016-01-01

    Japanese great tits ( Parus minor ) use a sophisticated system of anti-predator communication when defending their offspring: they produce different mobbing calls for different nest predators (snake versus non-snake predators) and thereby convey this information to conspecifics (i.e. functionally referential call system). The present playback experiments revealed that these calls also serve to coordinate multi-species mobbing at nests; snake-specific mobbing calls attracted heterospecific individuals close to the sound source and elicited snake-searching behaviour, whereas non-snake mobbing calls attracted these birds at a distance. This study demonstrates for the first time that referential mobbing calls trigger different formations of multi-species mobbing parties.

  4. Voice Quality Measuring Setup with Automatic Voice over IP Call Generator and Lawful Interception Packet Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLEVA Matus

    Full Text Available This paper describes the packet measuring laboratory setup, which could be used also for lawful interception applications, using professional packet analyzer, Voice over IP call generator, free call server (Asterisk linux setup and appropriate software and hardware described below. This setup was used for measuring the quality of the automatically generated VoIP calls under stressed network conditions, when the call manager server was flooded with high bandwidth traffic, near the bandwidth limit of the connected switch. The call generator realizes 30 calls simultaneously and the packet capturer & analyzercould decode the VoIP traffic, extract RTP session data, automatically analyze the voice quality using standardized MOS (Mean Opinion Score values and describe also the source of the voice degradation (jitter, packet loss, codec, delay, etc..

  5. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival-An evaluation of 548 emergency calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPR prior ) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPR during ) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPR prior . This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01.01.2013 to 31.12.2013. OHCAs were linked to emergency medical dispatch centre records and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPR prior . The study included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPR prior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPR during group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPR prior and CPR during . Predictors positively associated with CPR prior included witnessed OHCA and healthcare professional bystanders. Predictors negatively associated with CPR prior included residential location, solitary bystanders, and bystanders related to the patient. The majority of bystander CPR (65%) was initiated during the emergency call, following dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions. Whether bystander CPR was initiated prior to emergency call versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR was not associated with ROSC or 30-day survival. Dispatcher-assisted CPR was especially beneficial for the initiation of bystander CPR in residential areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae): call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Caty Frenkel

    2006-01-01

    Call frequency and movements of the gecko Hemidactylus frenatus were studied in Punta Morales, Costa Rica from April 1999 through May 2000. Call activity of H. frenatus was positively related to air temperature at night and throughout the year. Higher activity was at dusk, dawn, and during the hottest months. Call frequency was related with gecko abundance per month, although not during the night. More males and females had a regenerated tail compared to juveniles, the last ones could have it...

  7. Communication calls produced by electrical stimulation of four structures in the guinea pig brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David B.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Zobay, Oliver; Palmer, Alan R.

    2018-01-01

    One of the main central processes affecting the cortical representation of conspecific vocalizations is the collateral output from the extended motor system for call generation. Before starting to study this interaction we sought to compare the characteristics of calls produced by stimulating four different parts of the brain in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). By using anaesthetised animals we were able to reposition electrodes without distressing the animals. Trains of 100 electrical pulses were used to stimulate the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG), hypothalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Each structure produced a similar range of calls, but in significantly different proportions. Two of the spontaneous calls (chirrup and purr) were never produced by electrical stimulation and although we identified versions of chutter, durr and tooth chatter, they differed significantly from our natural call templates. However, we were routinely able to elicit seven other identifiable calls. All seven calls were produced both during the 1.6 s period of stimulation and subsequently in a period which could last for more than a minute. A single stimulation site could produce four or five different calls, but the amygdala was much less likely to produce a scream, whistle or rising whistle than any of the other structures. These three high-frequency calls were more likely to be produced by females than males. There were also differences in the timing of the call production with the amygdala primarily producing calls during the electrical stimulation and the hypothalamus mainly producing calls after the electrical stimulation. For all four structures a significantly higher stimulation current was required in males than females. We conclude that all four structures can be stimulated to produce fictive vocalizations that should be useful in studying the relationship between the vocal motor system and cortical sensory representation. PMID:29584746

  8. Effects of airgun sounds on bowhead whale calling rates: evidence for two behavioral thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna B Blackwell

    Full Text Available In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus decrease their calling rates. Here, we investigate the transition from normal calling behavior to decreased calling and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August-October 2007-2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangulation, whale calls localized within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call production rate. Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on each DASAR, analyzed, and a cumulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (CSEL10-min. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received CSEL10-min from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received CSEL10-min of ~94 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the lower threshold. In contrast, once CSEL10-min exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the upper threshold, whale calling rates began decreasing, and when CSEL10-min values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa2-s, the whales were virtually silent.

  9. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5-2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world.

  10. Communication calls produced by electrical stimulation of four structures in the guinea pig brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Green

    Full Text Available One of the main central processes affecting the cortical representation of conspecific vocalizations is the collateral output from the extended motor system for call generation. Before starting to study this interaction we sought to compare the characteristics of calls produced by stimulating four different parts of the brain in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus. By using anaesthetised animals we were able to reposition electrodes without distressing the animals. Trains of 100 electrical pulses were used to stimulate the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG, hypothalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Each structure produced a similar range of calls, but in significantly different proportions. Two of the spontaneous calls (chirrup and purr were never produced by electrical stimulation and although we identified versions of chutter, durr and tooth chatter, they differed significantly from our natural call templates. However, we were routinely able to elicit seven other identifiable calls. All seven calls were produced both during the 1.6 s period of stimulation and subsequently in a period which could last for more than a minute. A single stimulation site could produce four or five different calls, but the amygdala was much less likely to produce a scream, whistle or rising whistle than any of the other structures. These three high-frequency calls were more likely to be produced by females than males. There were also differences in the timing of the call production with the amygdala primarily producing calls during the electrical stimulation and the hypothalamus mainly producing calls after the electrical stimulation. For all four structures a significantly higher stimulation current was required in males than females. We conclude that all four structures can be stimulated to produce fictive vocalizations that should be useful in studying the relationship between the vocal motor system and cortical sensory representation.

  11. Communication calls produced by electrical stimulation of four structures in the guinea pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David B; Shackleton, Trevor M; Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Zobay, Oliver; Palmer, Alan R; Wallace, Mark N

    2018-01-01

    One of the main central processes affecting the cortical representation of conspecific vocalizations is the collateral output from the extended motor system for call generation. Before starting to study this interaction we sought to compare the characteristics of calls produced by stimulating four different parts of the brain in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). By using anaesthetised animals we were able to reposition electrodes without distressing the animals. Trains of 100 electrical pulses were used to stimulate the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG), hypothalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Each structure produced a similar range of calls, but in significantly different proportions. Two of the spontaneous calls (chirrup and purr) were never produced by electrical stimulation and although we identified versions of chutter, durr and tooth chatter, they differed significantly from our natural call templates. However, we were routinely able to elicit seven other identifiable calls. All seven calls were produced both during the 1.6 s period of stimulation and subsequently in a period which could last for more than a minute. A single stimulation site could produce four or five different calls, but the amygdala was much less likely to produce a scream, whistle or rising whistle than any of the other structures. These three high-frequency calls were more likely to be produced by females than males. There were also differences in the timing of the call production with the amygdala primarily producing calls during the electrical stimulation and the hypothalamus mainly producing calls after the electrical stimulation. For all four structures a significantly higher stimulation current was required in males than females. We conclude that all four structures can be stimulated to produce fictive vocalizations that should be useful in studying the relationship between the vocal motor system and cortical sensory representation.

  12. Acceptance factors for the use of video call via smartphone by blind people

    OpenAIRE

    Tamanit Chanjaraspong

    2017-01-01

    Using video call via smartphones is a new technology for blind people which can be applied to facilitate their daily lives. This video call technology is different from old technology and the technology acceptance has changed users' behavior in society, culture, and especially attitude toward using new technology. This research studied the intention and the need to use video call via smartphone by blind people according to the Technology Acceptance Model, a famous and widely-accepted theory f...

  13. London Calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Lisbeth Rieshøj

    2008-01-01

    The above contribution appears in Down The Block: An Anthology of City Life; available at http://www.lulu.com/content/4462396. In this anthology, new authors and bloggers react to life in cities throughout the world. With a foreword by Mary Beard, Cambridge University Professor and Times Literary...

  14. CALL English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Else

    This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...

  15. Leviathan Calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A spectre has haunted many forms of ‘social’ explanation over the course of the last century – the spectre of anti-statism. For not a few sociologists and social theorists, the state has long been regarded as the medium of enslavement, the very antithesis of what they take to be ‘civil society’. ...

  16. 'Call Eric'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Fremtidens telefoner kan forklædes som øreringe og brillestel, og er styret af brugernes stemme.......Fremtidens telefoner kan forklædes som øreringe og brillestel, og er styret af brugernes stemme....

  17. Call document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... It works with researchers as they confront contemporar y challenges .... The type of study and method of systematic review of evidence must be ... of sources valuing rigorous qualitative and quantitative research; and should be ...

  18. AMR Call

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Musa Mulongo

    manufacturers and other organizations, as well as early involvement of regulatory ... and veterinary health, food and feed production systems and agro-ecological ... integrated into the design and implementation of the proposed research.

  19. Homeland calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    A great deal of those immigrants that settled in Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s have maintained strong bonds to their communities of origin. These bonds play an important role in shaping the identities and in maintaining relationships between migrants in the receiving communities. But while...... on the institutions and practices that act to transmit relations between country of origin and the new homeland. Focus is particularly on the efforts that the Yugoslav and Serbian states have made to maintain migrants political and economic loyalty and on the effects that this has had on migrants perceptions on key...

  20. Call document

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arlyne Beeche

    Improved understanding of travel and social behaviors that influence the risks ... interventions at times of crisis, e.g. experimental vaccine delivery, uptake and efficacy .... increases opportunities — and makes a real difference in people's lives.