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Sample records for pregnancy testing meeting

  1. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  2. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  3. hCG Test (Pregnancy Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search hCG Pregnancy Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ...

  4. Letter: California's position on pregnancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G C

    1976-07-01

    The dangers of do-it-yourself pregnancy testing have been recognized in California resulting in the passing of legislation. Pregnancy is a c ondition which requires skill, medical assistance, and occasionally inte rvention or objective counseling. There are 4 arguments against do-it-y ourself testing: 1) it may be inaccurate or inexpertly done, 2) reagents can be hazardous to the health of users or small children, 3) it fails to save money because confirmation by health professionals is usually required, and 4) the individual may not have access to appropriate healt h care resources. California counties have been providing an increasing volume of tests that have served to encourage earlier prenatal care, earlier and safer pregnancy termination, or attendance at family planning clinics. The success of this program warrants implementation by other state governments.

  5. Chemical Pathology Laboratory Tests in Pregnancy | Bolarin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, chemical pathology laboratory investigative test results during normal healthy pregnancy show significant differences from the normal reference intervals or ranges (i.e. non-pregnant woman's reference intervals or ranges) thereby causing misinterpretation as inappropriate or odd. This wrong interpretation of the ...

  6. Admission Test and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Akhavan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The admission test (AT has been carried out for many years, but there are still debates about the prognostic value of the test. Therefore, we aimed to examine the value of the AT in predicting the adverse outcome in neonates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 425 pregnant women with normal vaginal delivery were studied between2009 and 2014at Vali-e-Asr Hospital. Based on the results, the women were divided into 2groups of normal and abnormal ATs. All the patients were followed up until the birth of their baby, when the status of mother and neonate was determined. The main outcomes of the study were cesarean rate, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission, fetus demise, neonatal acidosis, and Apgar score. The independent t-test, chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17. Results: Of 425 pregnant women studied, 142 (33.4% had abnormal ATs with a mean age of 29 (±4.5 years. Multivariate analysis showed that an abnormal AT was able to predict the incidence of cesarean section, intrauterine growth restriction, turned cord, and Apgar<7, but it could not predict neonatal death and hypoxia. Conclusion: The AT was shown to be a useful screening test with risk factors such as oligohydramnios, bloody amniotic fluid, meconium amniotic fluid, intrauterine growth restriction, and turned cord. Additionally, the test was also able to predict NICU admission and the need for cesarean section, but it could not predict the occurrence of neonatal death.

  7. Breast carcinoma during pregnancy. International recommendations from an expert meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gwyn, Karin; Ellis, Paul; Blohmer, Jens U; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Keller, Monika; Harder, Sebastian; Theriault, Richard L; Crivellari, Diana; Klingebiel, Thomas; Louwen, Frank; Kaufmann, Manfred

    2006-01-15

    Breast carcinoma during pregnancy (BCP) is a difficult clinical situation, as it appears to put the health of the mother in conflict with that of the fetus. An international expert meeting was conducted to form guidelines on how to diagnose and treat women with BCP. The goal for treatment of the pregnant woman with breast carcinoma is the same as that of the nonpregnant breast carcinoma patient: local control of disease and prevention of systemic metastases. However, certain treatment modalities need to be modified because of the potential for adverse effects on the fetus. There is evidence to support the safety of anthracycline-based chemotherapy during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (Oxford Level of Evidence [LOE] 2b). Because of the lack of evidence, the expert opinion was not to recommend the routine use of newer cytotoxic drugs like the taxanes during pregnancy (LOE 5). The recommendations provided should help to reach informed decision making by the patient. The ongoing prospective collection of data on BCP, such as that at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UTMDACC) and that of the German Breast Group/Breast International Group (GBG/BIG), is necessary to further our knowledge regarding the treatment of this unique group of breast carcinoma patients.

  8. Pregnancy presenting as hyperthyroidism with negative urine pregnancy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Rita; Deepak, Desh; Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Gupta, Mamta

    2014-05-20

    A 22-year-old lactating mother presented with symptoms of uneasiness, palpitation, tachycardia and exophthalmos. She had an abdominal lump suggestive of 26 weeks uterine size but her urine pregnancy test was negative. Her thyroid profile was suggestive of hyperthyroidism. Gynaecological and ultrasonographic findings revealed a hydatidiform mole. She had a low β-human chorionic gonadotropin level that surprisingly increased after suction and evacuation. The paradoxical findings that appeared as erroneous laboratory results could be explained by the 'high-dose hook effect' after a review of literature. One week after the evacuation, the patient's thyroid profile and symptoms resolved completely without any treatment for hyperthyroidism. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY DRIVER FUEL MEETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1966-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has convened this meeting to enlist the best talents of our laboratories and industry in soliciting factual, technical information pertinent to the Pacific Northwest's Laboratory's evaluation of the potential fuel systems for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The particular factors emphasized for these fuel systems are those associated with safety, ability to meet testing objectives, and economics. The proceedings includes twenty-three presentations, along with a transcript of the discussion following each, as well as a summary discussion.

  10. The value of a registry negative urine pregnancy test for the prediction of a future unintended pregnancy among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2018-05-15

    Performance of urine pregnancy test in general adolescents' clinic reflects caregiver or woman's concern that there might be a pregnancy. We aimed to assess whether young-unmarried women in whom a negative urine pregnancy test was registered would be at increased risk of a future unintended pregnancy. The study cohort included consecutive women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015. The risk of unintended pregnancy was compared between women with a negative urine pregnancy test (n = 2774), the study group, and those in whom urine pregnancy test was not carried out (n = 126,659), the control group. During the study period, 2147 (1.7%) women experienced an unintended pregnancy. The risk of unintended pregnancy was significantly higher in patients in whom a past pregnancy test was negative 4.3% (n = 118), as compared with the control group 1.6% (n = 2028) (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-3.26). In multivariate analysis history of a negative pregnancy test results was an independent predictor for a future unintended pregnancy (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.63-2.52). A history of a negative pregnancy test among young conscripted women is a significant risk indicator for a future unintended pregnancy. Directed efforts should be made in this particular vulnerable group of patients.

  11. New methods of pregnancy testing in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, B B

    1981-05-01

    The knowledge and use of newer, more sensitive, and reliable pregnancy tests which are easily accessible and of moderate cost are the 1st steps in the early diagnosis and management of pregnancy, especially in adolescent girls. Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy soon after conception offers the option of abortion by simple, effective, and inexpensive procedures or early initiation of prenatal maternity care. Discussion focuses on the symptoms of pregnancy and the historical development and basis of pregnancy tests as well as the specific types of pregnancy tests. The most familiar sign of pregnancy is the missed period. Other symptoms that provide presumptive evidence of pregnancy include fatigue and lassitude, increased body temperature, and breast fullness or pain. Feelings of nausea, vomiting, and weight gain may appear after 2 weeks. The diagnosis of pregnancy by the detection of the human chorionic gonadotropin was initially described 53 years ago by Selmar Aschheim and Bernhardt Zondek. Improvements in the techniques for the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been directly related to the progress in the purification and isolation of hCG and elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the hormone-nonspecific alpha subunit and hormone-specific beta subunit of hCG. The history, physical examination, and pregnancy tests will generally provide sufficient information for a definite diagnosis of pregnancy. The presence of hCG in the urine or blood is the most accurate of all the indications of pregnancy. During the last century, 4 different techniques for the determination of hCG in blood and/or urine have been developed. These include the following and are reviewed in detail: 1) bioassays in intact laboratory animals; 2) immunologic tube or slide methods with heme- or latex-agglutination inhibition, as well as the more recently developed competitive protein binding method such as 3) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the use of radioisotope labeled hormone

  12. 75 FR 39954 - Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting; Change of Meeting Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...] Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting; Change of Meeting Location AGENCY: Food and Drug... location for the upcoming public meeting entitled ``Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests.'' A new... the public meeting, FDA is announcing in this notice a new location for the public meeting. II. New...

  13. The uriscreen test to detect significant asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppa, Roberto J; Roberts, James M

    2005-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) occurs in 2-11% of pregnancies and it is a clear predisposition to the development of acute pyelonephritis, which, in turn, poses risk to mother and fetus. Treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy reduces the incidence of pyelonephritis. Therefore, it is recommended to screen for ASB at the first prenatal visit. The gold standard for detection of bacteriuria during pregnancy is urine culture, but this test is expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. To determine the reliability of an enzymatic urine screening test (Uriscreen; Savyon Diagnostics, Ashdod, Israel) for detecting ASB in pregnancy. Catheterized urine samples were collected from 150 women who had routine prenatal screening for ASB. Patients with urinary symptoms, active vaginal bleeding, or who were previously on antibiotics therapy were excluded from the study. Sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the Uriscreen were estimated using urine culture as the criterion standard. Urine cultures were considered positive if they grew >10(5) colony-forming units of a single uropathogen. Twenty-eight women (18.7%) had urine culture results indicating significant bacteriuria, and 17 of these 28 specimens had positive enzyme activity. Of 122 samples with no growth, 109 had negative enzyme activity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the Uriscreen test were 60.7% (+/-18.1), 89.3% (+/-5.6), 56.6%, and 90.8%, respectively. The Uriscreen test had inadequate sensitivity for rapid screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy.

  14. What Tests Might I Need during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fetus is getting enough oxygen. Biophysical profile (BPP). This test, given in the third trimester of ... amniotic fluid to determine fetal well-being. The BPP includes an ultrasound test and a non-stress ...

  15. [Pilot tests using molecular diagnostic assay cervicovaginal infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Montoya, J; Escudero-Gontes, S; Martínez-Huerta, N E; Ávila-Vergara, M A; Morales-Hernández, V; Canchola-Sotelo, C; Palacios-González, B; Vadillo-Ortega, F

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes however, the actual approach used for diagnosis is not effective. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis of vaginal infections in pregnant women using clinical, molecular diagnostic and traditional microbiological culture in a pilot study, to determine the prevalence and association with the development of preterm labor. We performed a nested cross-sectional study composed by 54 women in a cohort of pregnant women in Mexico City. Cervicovaginal infections were evaluated by clinical methods, microbiology culture and a commercially available molecular biology test. Prevalence of cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy was estimated between 28% and 50% according to methodologies. Considering the clinical diagnosis of preterm labor as the gold standard, all diagnostic tests were poor as predictors of preterm labor. Traditional approaches to establish the significance of cervicovaginal infection in pregnancy are exhausted, so be sought new ways to understand this complex relationship. Meanwhile it is recommended to continue to use traditional methods to identify infections during pregnancy in both knowledge of new methods aimed at understanding these relationships are sophisticated.

  16. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report III: nanomedicine applications and exosome biology, xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy, and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, C; Caniggia, I; Clifton, V; Göhner, C; Harris, L; Hemmings, D; Jawerbaum, A; Johnstone, E; Jones, H; Keelan, J; Lewis, R; Mitchell, M; Murthi, P; Powell, T; Saffery, R; Smith, R; Vaillancourt, C; Wadsack, C; Salomon, C

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting, as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2015 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops were related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of pregnancy pathologies and placental metabolism: 1) nanomedicine applications and exosome biology; 2) xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy; 3) lipid mediators and placental function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. CLINICAL TESTS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE PAIN IN PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Šćepanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PGP refers to the pain in the lumbosacral region, the sacroiliac joints and the symphysis pubis joint. The results of the high methodological quality studies indicate that the point prevalence of pregnant women suffering from PGP is about 20 %. Pregnancy-related PGP requires a comprehensive physiotherapy assessment in order to make or confirm a diagnosis, plan the treatment and evaluate the patient’s condi- tion. Physiotherapy assessment includes clinical diagnostic tests which should satisfy the criteria of safety, feasibility, reliability, sensitivity, specificity and validity. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review the literature on clinical diagnostic tests of PGP in order to determine which clinical tests meet the necessary criteria and are appropriate for clinical examination of PGP in pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, Index Medicus databases and the Cochrane controlled trials reg- ister from 1980 to 2008 were searched using the key words, pregnancy/pelvic girdle pain, pregnancy/clinical tests/sacroiliac joint/symphysis pubis. Only the articles/texts in English and Slovene were reviewed unless translated abstract was available. Additional manual searches of the reference lists in books and review articles were undertaken. Along with the randomized clinical studies the literature search encompassed also the basic studies. Results: Nine studies evaluating the tests for clinical examination of the pregnancy-related PGP met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The studies evaluated and analysed six provocation tests for the sacroiliac joint, namely, the Posterior pelvic pain provocation test (P4, Patrick’s Faber test, palpation of the long dorsal ligament, compression test, separation test, Menell’s test as well as two provocation tests for the symphysis pubis joint (pain palpation and a modified Trendelenburg test and one functional

  18. Barriers for HIV testing during pregnancy in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Rosa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess HIV testing rate and determine risk factors for not have been tested during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from December 2000 to February 2001. Socioeconomic, maternal and healthcare variables were obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were obtained in logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1,642 mothers were interviewed. Of them, 94.3% reported being offered HIV testing before or during pregnancy or during labor; 89 mothers (5.4% were not tested or did not know if they were tested. Attending fewer than six prenatal visits, being single and younger than 18 years old were relevant barriers preventing HIV testing. There was found a relationship between maternal schooling and the category of prenatal care provider. Having low 22.20 (12.43-39.67 or high 3.38 (1.86-7.68. schooling and being cared in the private sector strongly reduced the likelihood of being HIV tested. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Health Ministry's recommendation for universal counseling and HIV testing has been successfully implemented in the public sector. In order to improve HIV testing coverage, new strategies need to target women cared in the private sector especially those of low schooling.

  19. Barriers for HIV testing during pregnancy in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess HIV testing rate and determine risk factors for not have been tested during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from December 2000 to February 2001. Socioeconomic, maternal and healthcare variables were obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were obtained in logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1,642 mothers were interviewed. Of them, 94.3% reported being offered HIV testing before or during pregnancy or during labor; 89 mothers (5.4% were not tested or did not know if they were tested. Attending fewer than six prenatal visits, being single and younger than 18 years old were relevant barriers preventing HIV testing. There was found a relationship between maternal schooling and the category of prenatal care provider. Having low 22.20 (12.43-39.67 or high 3.38 (1.86-7.68. schooling and being cared in the private sector strongly reduced the likelihood of being HIV tested. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Health Ministry's recommendation for universal counseling and HIV testing has been successfully implemented in the public sector. In order to improve HIV testing coverage, new strategies need to target women cared in the private sector especially those of low schooling.

  20. The radioimmunoassay of a pregnancy specific-β1-glycoprotein in plasma as a pregnancy test for subfertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, F.; Masson, G.M.; Wood, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    A pregnancy specific-β 1 -glycoprotein (SP 1 ) radioimmunoassay was used to monitor 72 menstrual cycles of 38 apparently subfertile women who were trying to become pregnant. Blood samples were taken up to day 42 from the start of the previous menstrual cycle. Using serum SP 1 levels greater than 6 μg/l as indicative of pregnancy, 16 positive results were obtained of which 11 were later confirmed by a human chorionic gonadotrophin haemagglutination pregnancy test. Three of the five women whose pregnancies were not confirmed had a subsequent history of spontaneous abortion. (author)

  1. Current problems regarding abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current ethical and legal issues with regard to abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy are discussed in this paper. These problems are considered from the legal theory point of view as well as from the standpoint of the Serbian Law, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, legal regulations of several EU countries, the USA, Japan, and their judicial practice. First, the pregnancy termination standards that exist in Serbia are introduced. Then the following issues are explained separately: the pro life and pro choice approaches to abortion; abortion according to the legal approach as a way of survival; the moral and legal status of the fetus; prenatal genetic testing, and finally matters regarding managing pregnancy today. Moral and legal principals of autonomy, namely freedom of choice of the individual, privacy and self-determination give women the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In addition, the basic question is whether the right of the woman to abortion clashes with the rights of others. Firstly, with the right of the "fetus to life". Secondly, with the right of the state to intervene in the interest of protecting "the life of the fetus". Third, with the rights of the woman’s partner. The fetus has the moral right to life, but less in relation to the same right of the woman as well as in relation to her right to control her life and her physical and moral integrity. On the other hand, the value of the life of the fetus increases morally and legally with the maturity of gestation; from the third trimester, the interest of the state prevails in the protection of the "life of the fetus" except when the life or health of the pregnant woman are at risk. As regards the rights of the woman’s partner, namely the husband’s opinion, there is no legal significance. The law does not request his participation in the decision on abortion because

  2. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and hea...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  3. Zika Virus Testing and Outcomes during Pregnancy, Florida, USA, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Colette; Starker, Rebecca; Kwal, Jaclyn; Bartlett, Michelle; Crane, Anise; Greissman, Samantha; Gunaratne, Naiomi; Lardy, Meghan; Picon, Michelle; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gonzalez, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to congenital Zika syndrome. Implementation of screening programs and interpretation of test results can be particularly challenging during ongoing local mosquitoborne transmission. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,327 pregnant women screened for Zika virus in Miami–Dade County, Florida, USA, during 2016. Of these, 86 had laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection; we describe 2 infants with probable congenital Zika syndrome. Delays in receipt of laboratory test results (median 42 days) occurred during the first month of local transmission. Odds of screening positive for Zika virus were higher for women without health insurance or who did not speak English. Our findings indicate the increase in screening for Zika virus can overwhelm hospital and public health systems, resulting in delayed receipt of results of screening and confirmatory tests and the potential to miss cases or delay diagnoses. PMID:29260671

  4. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after pregnancy...

  5. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... current.html ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. (2013; Reaffirmed 2015). Committee Opinion No. 579. Definition of term pregnancy. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from ...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1270 - Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. 862.1270 Section 862.1270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.1270 Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. (a) Identification. As estrogens...

  7. [Experience with Pregnosticon-planotest, a 2-minute immunologic pregnancy test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancsók, M; Huber, G; Páhoki, I; Czeizel, E

    1969-08-23

    Pregnosticon-Planotest (PPT), produced by N.V. Organon, is an immunological latex-suspension pregnancy test that can be read in 2 minutes (or up to 60 minutes) and requires no special equipment such as centrifuges. Parallel pregnancy tests, using PPT and the biological Galli-Mainin Reaction (GMR) were carried out on 381 women for a total of 407 tests. The cases included 334 possible early pregnancies, 38 supected extrauterine pregnancies, and 35 suspected fetal deaths. The 2 tests agreed in 93.9% of the cases, and of 23 cases on which results differed, the PPT reading proved correct for 21 cases. Both tests gave false-negative readings for 36 early pregnancies and 1 extrauterine pregnancy. However, PPT results were correct for 80% of the extrauterine pregnancies (where production of human chorionic gonadotropin, the substance tested for, is low); the GMR was correct in 68.8% of these cases. The sensitivity of PPT was also shown in its early detection of pregnancies - 3.3-4 days earlier than with GMR. PPT is thus judged to be a sensitive, reliable, simple, and quick pregnancy test.

  8. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; PDHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  9. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after...

  10. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required

  11. Measurement of EPF for detection of cow pregnancy using rosette inhibition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari Laleh, V; Ghaffari Laleh, R; Pirany, N; Moghadaszadeh Ahrabi, M

    2008-07-01

    Early embryonic death of calves due to sub-fertility in cows is of great economic concern to dairy industry. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a secretory protein with pregnancy associated immunosuppressive properties. Rosette inhibition test (RIT) was used to detect EPF in inseminated dairy cows. Blood samples were collected at two intervals, 1-3 and 5-7 days after insemination from 23 inseminated and 18 non-inseminated control cows for RIT and pregnancy diagnosis performed between 42 and 45 days on palpation. The study indicates that RIT (P<0.05) has the potential to distinguish pregnant from non-pregnant dairy cows in the first week of pregnancy.

  12. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Dube

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

  13. [Abnormal hepatic function tests in pregnancy: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2013-07-21

    The well-known normal ranges of laboratory parameters are altered due to the broad spectrum of physiological changes as well as proinflammatory and procoagulant effects of pregnancy. Hepatic disorders of any aetiology can cause potential problems during gravidity. Most frequently toxic-effects, hepatotrop viruses (such as hepatitis B and C), metabolic syndrome and diseases with autoimmune background can be observed. When dealing with "pregnancy-specific hepatic syndromes", it is very important to consider the "timing-factors" of pathologic changes and deterioration of clinical pictures as well. Due to the progress in cholestasis management, early termination of pregnancy can be avoided in many cases. As the overlap is really broad between various hepatic disorders, a multidisciplinary cooperation of different sub-disciplines is emphasized in order to achieve proper diagnosis and curative measures at early phase.

  14. The utility of six over-the-counter (home) pregnancy tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2011-08-01

    The home pregnancy market is rapidly evolving. It has moved from detection of pregnancy on the day of missed menstrual bleeding, to detection claims 4 days prior. It is moving from all manual tests to digital tests, with a monitor reading the bands and informing women they are pregnant. A thorough study is needed to investigate the validity of claims and evolving usefulness of devices. Studies were proposed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of home tests and their abilities to detect pregnancy. Methods examined the abilities of tests to detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), hyperglycosylated hCG, free β-subunit, a mixture of these antigens in 40 individual early pregnancy urines. Using a mixture of hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and free β-subunit typical for early pregnancy, the sensitivity of the First Response manual and digital tests was 5.5 mIU/mL, while the sensitivities of the EPT and ClearBlue brand manual and digital tests was 22 mIU/mL. On further evaluation, the First Response manual and digital tests both detected 97% of 120 pregnancies on the day of missed menstrual bleeding. The EPT manual and digital devices detected 54% and 67% of pregnancies, respectively, and the ClearBlue manual and digital devices detected 64% and 54% of pregnancies, respectively. First Response manual and digital claim >99% detection on the day of missed menses. The results here suggest similar sensitivity for these two tests. The EPT and ClearBlue manual and digital test make similar >99% claims, the data presented here disputes their elevated claim.

  15. Thin blue lines: product placement and the drama of pregnancy testing in British cinema and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszynko-Gryn, Jesse

    2017-09-01

    This article uses the case of pregnancy testing in Britain to investigate the process whereby new and often controversial reproductive technologies are made visible and normalized in mainstream entertainment media. It shows how in the 1980s and 1990s the then nascent product placement industry was instrumental in embedding pregnancy testing in British cinema and television's dramatic productions. In this period, the pregnancy-test close-up became a conventional trope and the thin blue lines associated with Unilever's Clearblue rose to prominence in mainstream consumer culture. This article investigates the aestheticization of pregnancy testing and shows how increasingly visible public concerns about 'schoolgirl mums', abortion and the biological clock, dramatized on the big and small screen, propelled the commercial rise of Clearblue. It argues that the Clearblue close-up ambiguously concealed as much as it revealed; abstraction, ambiguity and flexibility were its keys to success.

  16. Is routine pregnancy test necessary in women of reproductive age admitted to the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Ozlem; Ozdemir, Fatma; Armağan, Erol; Oner, Nuran; Sert, Pınar Çinar; Sigirli, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the necessity of pregnancy test in women of reproductive age admitted to emergency department (ED) in routine practice. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who presented to the ED between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and received a pregnancy test. The median age of 1 586 patients enrolled into the study was 27 years. Of these patients, 19.55% had a positive result of pregnancy test. The most common complaint at admission was abdominal pain in 60.15% of the patients, and pregnancy test was prescribed. 15.83% of the patients with abdominal pain had a positive result of pregnancy test. Of the patients, 30.64% had nausea-vomiting at admission, and 11.52% had a positive result of pregnancy test. When other complaints were considered, the most commonly observed complaints were non-specific symptoms such as dizziness, malaise and respiratory problems. Of the patients, 70.93% were not remembering the date of last menstruation, and 9.51% showed a positive result of pregnancy test. Urinary tract infection (UTI) was commonly diagnosed with an incidence of 17.65%, which was followed by non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP) (16.77%) and gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis and peptic ulcer (6.87%). Of the patients, 88.40% were discharged from ED, and 11.60% were hospitalized. Pregnancy test should be given to women of reproductive age as a routine practice in ED in developing countries like Turkey.

  17. Developing and evaluating a meeting assistant test bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Lincoln, M.

    2008-01-01

    A test bed has been developed in which participants are tasked to work in simulated, scenario based, projects in which face-to-face and remote meetings of about 45 minutes have to be held. Measures on performance, team factors and remote aspects are automatically collected with electronic

  18. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  19. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  20. 78 FR 7460 - Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...] Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meeting. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to attend an informal stakeholder meeting concerning Nationally Recognized Testing...

  1. Integrating Pregnancy Prevention Into an HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Noah J; Upadhya, Krishna K; Tawe, Marie-Sophie; Tomaszewski, Kathy; Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Marcell, Arik V

    2018-04-11

    Certified health educator (CHE)-based HIV counseling and testing typically focus on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention only. A quality improvement initiative examined integrating assessment of reproductive life plans, counseling about pregnancy prevention, and contraception referral into a CHE-based HIV testing program. Between February 2014 and January 2017, in one urban pediatric primary care clinic serving patients aged 0-25, CHEs assessed sexual history, HIV risk, short-term (i.e., the next 6-12 months) pregnancy desire, and current contraception method and satisfaction among patients aged 13-25 who had ever had vaginal sex, using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a de-identified administrative dataset that also tracked referrals to initiate contraception and actual method initiation. Of 1,211 patients, most (96%) reported no short-term pregnancy or partner pregnancy desire. Use of less effective or no contraception, as well as method dissatisfaction, was common. A high proportion of female patients referred to new methods opted for more effective methods (62%) and initiated these methods (76%); a high proportion of male patients opted for receipt of condoms (67%). Patients reporting short-term pregnancy desire reported higher rates of previous pregnancy and STIs. Program findings highlight the potential benefit of integrating assessment for and counseling about pregnancy prevention in a CHE-based HIV testing program. This can more effectively address the needs of patients with concomitant risks of STI/HIV and unintended pregnancy, and link patients who do not desire pregnancy to more effective methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Xu, H.; Uerpairojkit, B.

    2016-01-01

    -risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including...... testing (NIPT) has enabled efficient and accurate screening for T21, T18 and T13. Various professional societies suggested that NIPT could be considered as a second-tier screening test for women at high risk for aneuploidy. What does this study add? This study reports the performance of NIPT...

  3. Repeat HIV testing during pregnancy and delivery: missed opportunities in a rural district hospital in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemelaar, S.; Habets, N.; Makukula, Z.; van Roosmalen, J.; van den Akker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess coverage of repeat HIV testing among women who delivered in a Zambian hospital. HIV testing of pregnant women and repeat testing every 3 months during pregnancy and breastfeeding is the recommended policy in areas of high HIV prevalence. Methods: A prospective implementation

  4. Confirmation Testing of Essure Microinserts in Unintended Pregnancies Using a 10-Year Retrospective Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Darrien; Thiel, Peter; Suchet, Ian; Thiel, John

    2016-01-01

    To examine the imaging modality used in cases of Essure failures and determine the cause of the unintended pregnancies (noncompliance to follow-up recommendations, misinterpretation of the imaging test, or device failure). Retrospective, single-center interventional cohort (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary level hospital. Women who have had Essure placement and subsequent pregnancy. Coding data from the Regina General Hospital was examined for any pregnancy occurring after an Essure procedure. The hospital charts were then reviewed for data collection. A separate imaging database established over the same time frame was then reviewed to determine the imaging modality used in each case (transvaginal ultrasound [TVU], hysterosalpingogram [HSG], or none). Results of the imaging study were reviewed and the cause of the failure determined. Twenty-four pregnancies in 25 women were identified after Essure procedures from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013. There were 4 in vitro fertilization pregnancies and 4 pregnancies where the woman had been instructed not to rely on the devices because of incomplete placement noted at time of the procedure. Therefore, 17 unintended pregnancies occurred of a total 2080 procedures performed. Examination of the imaging studies revealed that 11 were due to patient noncompliance (either early cessation of backup contraception or failure to go for confirmatory imaging), 5 due to misinterpretation of the imaging tests (3 HSG, 2 TVU), and 1 device failure. This reveals a cumulative failure rate of 6 of 2080 or .29% over 10 years with only .04% (1/2080) being device related. Essure sterilization is an effective means of permanent contraception with a device failure rate of only .04%. Most unintended pregnancies after the Essure procedure result from a failure to comply with follow-up recommendations, and strategies to improve compliance should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in normal and disturbed early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dericks-Tan, J.S.E.; Taubert, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of a rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in serum showed that this method is as suitable as conventional radioimmunoassay or receptor methods in the diagnosis of normal and disturbed early pregnancy. Using a direct immunosorbent method total time requirements for the estimation could be reduced to half a working day. Sera of 314 women with normal pregnancies showed an exponential increase of HCG concentrations in serum during the first 8 weeks and thereafter steady levels for several weeks. As the anti-HCG serum used has only a slight cross reactivity with LH, false-positive results need hardly be expected in states if high LH levels in serum (menopause, polycystic ovaries, preovulatory LH peak). HCG concentrations in serum were clearly diminished in all pregnancies ending in abortion and in nearly all extrauterine pregnancies. Repeated estimations in early pregnancy enable a diagnosis of ectopic or disturbed intrauterine pregnancy to be made before symptoms of rupture, haemorrhage and similar complications occur. (orig.) [de

  6. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  7. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  8. Low utilization of HIV testing during pregnancy: What are the barriers to HIV testing for women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gita; Dyalchand, Ashok; Khale, Manisha; Kulkarni, Gopal; Vasudevan, Shubha; Bollinger, Robert C

    2008-02-01

    Sixty percent of India's HIV cases occur in rural residents. Despite government policy to expand antenatal HIV screening and prevention of maternal-to-child transmission (PMTCT), little is known about HIV testing among rural women during pregnancy. Between January and March 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 400 recently pregnant women from rural Maharashtra was administered a questionnaire regarding HIV awareness, risk, and history of antenatal HIV testing. Thirteen women (3.3%) reported receiving antenatal HIV testing. Neither antenatal care utilization nor history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms influenced odds of receiving HIV testing. Women who did not receive HIV testing, compared with women who did, were 95% less likely to have received antenatal HIV counseling (odds ratio = 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.17) and 80% less aware of an existing HIV testing facility (odds ratio = 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.04 to 0.75). Despite measurable HIV prevalence, high antenatal care utilization, and STI symptom history, recently pregnant rural Indian women report low HIV testing. Barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy include lack of discussion by antenatal care providers and lack of awareness of existing testing services. Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing during pregnancy would optimize HIV prevention for women throughout rural India.

  9. A checklist approach to caring for women seeking pregnancy testing: effects on contraceptive knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica; Papic, Melissa; Baldauf, Erin; Updike, Glenn; Schwarz, E Bimla

    2015-02-01

    To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, [aOR 4.66 (1.76-12.35)], [corrected] have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, pcontraception and were more likely to report at 3-month follow-up a method of contraception more effective than the method they used prior to seeking pregnancy testing from the study clinic (aOR=2.02, 95% CI=1.03-3.96). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. [corrected]. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in the 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appears to increase use of

  10. Outcome in clients with positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A retrospective analysis of the outcome of all patients who have recorded a positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI treatment from June 1999 to December 2002 was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 1256 treatment cycles were carried out using the long day 1 (early follicular phase) or day 21 ...

  11. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of a repeat HIV test in pregnancy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Smita; Kulkarni, Vinay; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mahajan, Uma; Sharma, Sushma; Shirole, Devendra; Chandhiok, Nomita

    2015-06-11

    To evaluate cost-effectiveness of second HIV test in pregnancy. Current strategy of single HIV test during pregnancy in India can miss new HIV infections acquired after the first test or those HIV infections that were missed in the first test due to a false-negative HIV test. Between August 2011 and April 2013, 9097 pregnant HIV uninfected women were offered a second HIV test near term (34 weeks or beyond) or within 4 weeks of postpartum period. A decision analysis model was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness of a second HIV test in pregnant women near term. Our key outcome measures include programme cost with addition of second HIV test in pregnant women and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. We detected 4 new HIV infections in the second test. Thus HIV incidence among pregnant women was 0.12 (95% 0.032 to 0.297) per 100 person women years (PWY). Current strategy of a single HIV test is 8.2 times costlier for less QALYs gained as compared to proposed repeat HIV testing of pregnant women who test negative during the first test. Our results warrant consideration at the national level for including a second HIV test of all pregnant women in the national programme. However prior to allocation of resources for a second HIV test in pregnancy, appropriate strategies will have to be planned for improving compliance for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and reducing loss-to-follow-up of those women detected with HIV. CTRI/2013/12/004183. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  14. "A private little revolution": the home pregnancy test in American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The home pregnancy test went from novelty to norm in twenty-five years. This article explores its cultural impact in the context of the women's health movement. Though women had long made do without it, the "private little revolution," as the test was called in an early advertisement, enabled them to take control of their reproductive health care and moved the moment of discovery from the doctor's office (back) to the home. The article introduces the test, explores its acceptance by physicians and by women, looks at the marketing of the test by drug companies, and traces its use in movies, television, and novels.

  15. Repeat HIV testing during pregnancy and delivery: missed opportunities in a rural district hospital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemelaar, Steffie; Habets, Nicole; Makukula, Ziche; van Roosmalen, Jos; van den Akker, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    To assess coverage of repeat HIV testing among women who delivered in a Zambian hospital. HIV testing of pregnant women and repeat testing every 3 months during pregnancy and breastfeeding is the recommended policy in areas of high HIV prevalence. A prospective implementation study in a second-level hospital in rural Zambia. Included were all pregnant women who delivered in hospital during May and June 2012. Data regarding antenatal visits and HIV testing were collected by two investigators using a standardised form. Of 401 women who delivered in hospital, sufficient antenatal data could be retrieved for 322 (80.3%) women. Of these 322 women, 301 (93.5%) had attended antenatal care (ANC) at least once. At the time of discharge after delivery in hospital, 171 (53.1%) had an unclear HIV status because their negative test result was more than 3 months ago or of an unknown date, or because they had not been tested at all during pregnancy or delivery. An updated HIV status was present for 151 (46.9%) women: 25 (7.8%) were HIV positive and 126 (39.1%) had tested negative within the last 3 months. In this last group, 79 (24.5%) had been tested twice or more during pregnancy. During the study period, none of the women was tested during admission for delivery. Despite high ANC coverage, opportunities for repeat HIV testing were missed in almost half of all women who delivered in this hospital in a high-prevalence HIV setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Association Between Low 50 g Glucose Challenge Test Values and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayan; Lee, Joonho; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young-Han

    2018-01-11

    The implications of low values on the 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) in pregnancy are not clearly defined. Few studies have evaluated the influence of maternal low GCT values on obstetrical outcomes. This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with low 50 g GCT values and those with normal values. Women undergoing gestational diabetes mellitus screening at 24-28 weeks of gestational age between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Women with multifetal pregnancies, prepregnancy type I or II diabetes, GCT performed before 24 or after 28 weeks of gestational age, and women undergoing multiple GCTs in the same pregnancy were excluded. Low GCT values and normal GCT values were defined as ≤85 mg/dL and 86-130 mg/dL, respectively. Of 3875 screened subjects, 519 (13.4%) women were included in the low GCT group and 3356 (86.6%) in the normal GCT group. Low GCT women had a significantly higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) infants than normal GCT women (10.8% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.02). Cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) were less frequent in low GCT women than in normal women (32.6% vs. 42.8%, p values. Low GCT values were independently associated with an increased risk of SGA.

  17. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  18. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  19. HIV testing during pregnancy: use of secondary data to estimate 2006 test coverage and prevalence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological proposal based on secondary data and the main results of the HIV-Sentinel Study among childbearing women, carried out in Brazil during 2006. A probabilistic sample of childbearing women was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 150 health establishments were selected, stratified by municipality size (<50,000; 50,000-399,999; 400,000+. In the second stage, 100-120 women were selected systematically. Data collection was based on HIV-test results registered in pre-natal cards and in hospital records. The analysis focused on coverage of HIV-testing during pregnancy and HIV prevalence rate. Logistic regression models were used to test inequalities in HIV-testing coverage during pregnancy by macro-region of residence, municipality size, race, educational level and age group. The study included 16,158 women. Results were consistent with previous studies based on primary data collection. Among the women receiving pre-natal care with HIV-test results registered in their pre-natal cards, HIV prevalence was 0.41%. Coverage of HIV-testing during pregnancy was 62.3% in the country as a whole, but ranged from 40.6% in the Northeast to 85.8% in the South. Significant differences according to race, educational level and municipality size were also found. The proposed methodology is low-cost, easy to apply, and permits identification of problems in routine service provision, in addition to monitoring compliance with Ministry of Health recommendations for pre-natal care.

  20. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Koper; Agnieszka B. Serwin; Anna Baran; Iwona Flisiak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS) in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, pe...

  1. "Hook-like effect" causes false-negative point-of-care urine pregnancy testing in emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Trent, Caleb J; Bavolek, Rebecca A; Keeperman, Jacob B; Sampson, Christopher; Poirier, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency department (ED) can have important consequences. Urine human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) point-of-care (POC) assays are valued for rapidly detecting early pregnancy with high sensitivity. However, under certain conditions, POC uhCG tests can fail to detect pregnancy. In investigating a series of late first-trimester false-negative pregnancy tests in our ED, a novel and distinct causative phenomenon was recently elucidated in our institution. We discuss uhCG POC tests, review our false-negative rate, and describe mechanisms for false negatives and potential remedies. The false-negative POC uhCG rate is very low, but in the setting of a large volume of tests, the numbers are worth consideration. In positive uhCG POC tests, free and fixed antibodies bind hCG to form a "sandwich"; hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. When in excess, intact hCG can saturate the antibodies, preventing sandwich formation (hook effect phenomenon). Some assays may include an antibody that does not recognize certain variants present in later stages of pregnancy. When this variant is in excess, it can bind one antibody avidly and the other not at all, resulting in a false-negative test (hook-like phenomenon). In both situations, dilution is key to an accurate test. Manufacturers should consider that uhCG tests are routinely used at many stages of pregnancy. Characterizing uhCG variants recognized by their tests and eliminating lot-to-lot variability may help improve uhCG test performance. Clinicians need to be aware of and familiarize themselves with the limitations of the specific type of uhCG POC tests used in their practice, recognizing that under certain circumstances, false-negative tests can occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterogeneity in testing practices for infections during pregnancy: national survey across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi-Popp, Karoline; Kahlert, Christian; Rauch, Andri; Mosimann, Beatrice; Baud, David; Low, Nicola; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Detection and treatment of infections during pregnancy are important for both maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to describe testing practices and adherence to current national guidelines in Switzerland. We invited all registered practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists in Switzerland to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire about strategies for testing for 14 infections during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive analysis according to demographic characteristics. Of 1138 invited clinicians, 537 (47.2%) responded and 520 (45.6%) were eligible as they are currently caring for pregnant women. Nearly all eligible respondents tested all pregnant women for group B streptococcus (98.0%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (96.5%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (94.7%), in accordance with national guidelines. Although testing for toxoplasmosis is not recommended, 24.1% of respondents tested all women and 32.9% tested at the request of the patient. Hospital doctors were more likely not to test for toxoplasmosis than doctors working in private practice (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-6.13, p = 0.04). Only 80.4% of respondents tested all women for syphilis. There were regional differences in testing for some infections. The proportion of clinicians testing all women for HIV, HBV and syphilis was lower in Eastern Switzerland and the Zurich region (69.4% and 61.2%, respectively) than in other regions (range 77.1-88.1%, p Switzerland. More extensive national guidelines could improve consistency of testing practices.

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the rural pregnancy experience scale (RPES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; Stoll, Kathrin; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Rural pregnant woman who lack local access to maternity care due to their remote living circumstances may experience stress and anxiety related to pregnancy and parturition. The Rural Pregnancy Experience Scale (RPES) was designed to assess the unique worry and concerns reflective of the stress and anxiety of rural pregnant women related to pregnancy and parturition. The items of the scale were designed based on the results of a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant rural women, thereby building a priori content validity into the measure. The relevancy content validity index (CVI) for this instrument was 1.0 and the clarity CVI was .91, as rated by maternity care specialists. A field test of the RPES with 187 pregnant rural women from British Columbia indicated that it had two factors: financial worries and worries/concerns about maternity care services, which were consistent with the conceptual base of the tool. Cronbach's alpha for the total RPES was .91; for the financial worries subscale and the worries/concerns about maternity care services subscale, alpha were .89 and .88, respectively. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations between the total scores of the RPES and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS [r =.39, p DASS supporting convergent validity (correlations ranged between .20; p < .05 and .43; p < .01). Construct validity was also supported by findings that the level of access and availability of maternity care services were significantly associated with RPES scores. It was concluded that the RPES is a reliable and valid measure of worries and concerns reflective of rural pregnant women's stress and anxiety related to pregnancy and parturition.

  4. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting, 1998. It was held on May.8-9, 1998 Yeungnam University in Daegu, Korea and subject of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 1998. This proceedings is comprised of 4 sessions.

  5. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting, 2001. It was held on May. 11-12, 2001 in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 2001. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions.

  6. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting, 1993. It was held on May. 24, 1993 in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 1993. There are main session and technical session.

  7. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting, 1999. It was held on Nov. 26, 1999 in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting 1999. This proceedings is comprised of 4 sessions.

  8. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting, 1993. It was held on Nov. 22, 1993 in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Fall Meeting 1993. There are main session and technical session.

  9. Proceedings of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting, 1992. It was held on May. 20, 1992 in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing Spring Meeting 1992. There are main session and technical session.

  10. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Koper

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, performed during the antenatal visit. On the basis of patients' history, physical examination and STS results, early latent syphilis was diagnosed in the first patient; biological false positive reactions were considered in the second one. Both patients received procaine penicillin treatment. Conclusions. Screening for syphilis in pregnancy as a part of antenatal care and appropriate treatment with penicillin are the most effective interventions to prevent complications of syphilis in pregnancy. It is also important to adapt modern European Guidelines for management of syphilis to Polish conditions.

  11. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  12. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Weke, Elly; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2016-07-11

    Repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy has the potential to decrease rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by identifying mothers who seroconvert after having tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Despite being national policy in Kenya, the available data suggest that implementation rates are low. We conducted 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers and managers to explore barriers and enablers to implementation of repeat HIV testing guidelines for pregnant women. Participants were from the Nyanza region of Kenya and were purposively selected to provide variation in socio-demographics and job characteristics. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed in Dedoose software using a thematic analysis approach. Four themes were identified a priori using Ferlie and Shortell's Framework for Change and additional themes were allowed to emerge from the data. Participants identified barriers and enablers at the client, provider, facility, and health system levels. Key barriers at the client level from the perspective of providers included late initial presentation to antenatal care and low proportions of women completing the recommended four antenatal visits. Barriers to offering repeat HIV testing for providers included heavy workloads, time limitations, and failing to remember to check for retest eligibility. At the facility level, inconsistent volume of clients and lack of space required for confidential HIV retesting were cited as barriers. Finally, at the health system level, there were challenges relating to the HIV test kit supply chain and the design of nationally standardized antenatal patient registers. Enablers to improving the implementation of repeat HIV testing included client dissemination of the benefits of antenatal care through word-of-mouth, provider cooperation and task shifting, and it was suggested that use of an electronic health record system could provide automatic reminders for retest eligibility. This study

  13. Proceedings of the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of various programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. The papers presented during the Meeting were divided into 9 sessions and one round able discussion which concluded the Meeting. The Sessions were: Program, Fuel Development, Fuel Fabrication, Irradiation testing, Safety Analysis, Special Reactor Conversion, Reactor Design, Critical Experiments, and Reprocessing and Spent Fuel Storage. Thus, topics of this Meeting were of a very wide range that was expected to result in information exchange valuable for all the participants in the RERTR program

  14. Proceedings of the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of various programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. The papers presented during the Meeting were divided into 9 sessions and one round able discussion which concluded the Meeting. The Sessions were: Program, Fuel Development, Fuel Fabrication, Irradiation testing, Safety Analysis, Special Reactor Conversion, Reactor Design, Critical Experiments, and Reprocessing and Spent Fuel Storage. Thus, topics of this Meeting were of a very wide range that was expected to result in information exchange valuable for all the participants in the RERTR program.

  15. The diagnostic accuracy of the rapid dipstick test to predict asymptomatic urinary tract infection of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigbefoh, J O; Isabu, P; Okpere, E; Abebe, J

    2008-07-01

    Untreated urinary tract infection can have devastating maternal and neonatal effects. Thus, routine screening for bacteriuria is advocated. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection in pregnancy with the gold standard of urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity acting as the control. The urine dipstick test uses the leucocyte esterase, nitrite and test for protein singly and in combination. The result of the dipstick was compared with the gold standard, urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity using confidence interval for proportions. The reliability and validity of the urine dipstick was also evaluated. Overall, the urine dipstick test has a poor correlation with urine culture (p = 0.125, CI 95%). The same holds true for individual components of the dipstick test. The overall sensitivity of the urine dipstick test was poor at 2.3%. Individual sensitivity of the various components varied between 9.1% for leucocyte esterase and the nitrite test to 56.8% for leucocyte esterase alone. The other components of the dipstick test, the test of nitrite, test for protein and combination of the test (leucocyte esterase, nitrite and proteinuria) appear to decrease the sensitivity of the leucocyte esterase test alone. The ability of the urine dipstick test to correctly rule out urinary tract infection (specificity) was high. The positive predictive value for the dipstick test was high, with the leucocyte esterase test having the highest positive predictive value compared with the other components of the dipstick test. The negative predictive value (NPV) was expectedly highest for the leucocyte esterase test alone with values higher than the other components of the urine dipstick test singly and in various combinations. Compared with the other parameters of the urine dipstick test, singly and in combination, leucocyte esterase appears to be the most accurate (90.25%). The dipstick test has a

  16. [Pilot testing of an internet based pregnancy planning study "Snart-gravid.dk"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2011-01-01

    Before launching a new study pilot testing is often recommended, however, it is seldom described in depth. Here, we report extensively on a pilot study using the internet as a new method for recruitment and data collection in a prospective cohort study of women planning a pregnancy.We aimed to enroll 2500 participants in six months and attained more than 75 % after 12 months follow up. To test data completeness and validity we randomized participants to fill either a long or a short version of the baseline questionnaire and compared self reported data with registry based data.We succeeded in enrolling 2288 participants, and participation rate was 82 % after 12 months. We found high correlations (0.96) for self-reported vs. registry based data and no difference in participation rate or data completeness according to questionnaire length. Overall, the internet based methods seem promising and we plan to launch the full study.

  17. Testing HIV positive in pregnancy: A phenomenological study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen-Stallard, Andrew; Furber, Christine; Lavender, Tina

    2016-04-01

    globally women receive HIV testing in pregnancy; however, limited information is available on their experiences of this potentially life-changing event. This study aims to explore women's experiences of receiving a positive HIV test result following antenatal screening. a qualitative, phenomenological approach. two public National Health Service (NHS) hospitals and HIV support organisations. a purposive sampling strategy was used. Thirteen black African women with a positive HIV result, in England, participated. data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. An interpretive phenomenological approach to data analysis was used. the emergent phenomenon was transition and transformation of 'being,' as women accepted HIV as part of their lives. Paired themes support the phenomenon: shock and disbelief; anger and turmoil; stigma and confidentiality issues; acceptance and resilience. Women had extreme reactions to their positive HIV diagnosis, compounded by the cultural belief that they would die. Initial disbelief of the unexpected result developed into sadness at the loss of their old self. Turmoil was evident, as women considered termination of pregnancy, self-harm and suicide. Women felt isolated from others and relationship breakdowns often occurred. Most reported the pervasiveness of stigma, and how this was managed alongside living with HIV. Coping strategies included keeping HIV 'secret' and making their child(ren) the prime focus of life. Growing resilience was apparent with time. this study gives midwives unique understanding of the complexities and major implications for women who tested positive for HIV. Women's experiences resonated with processes of bereavement, providing useful insight into a transitional and transformational period, during which appropriate support can be targeted. midwives are crucial in improving the experience of women when they test HIV positive and to do this they need to be appropriately trained. Midwives need to

  18. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact

  19. The demand for pregnancy testing: The Aschheim–Zondek reaction, diagnostic versatility, and laboratory services in 1930s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszynko-Gryn, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The Aschheim–Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the ‘heroic age’ of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim–Zondek test launched a ‘modern era’ of obstetric knowledge, which asserted its superiority over that of pregnant women. This article reconsiders Oakley’s claim by examining how pregnancy testing worked in practice. It explains the British adoption of the test in terms less of the medicalisation of pregnancy than of clinicians’ increasing general reliance on laboratory services for differential diagnosis. Crucially, the Aschheim–Zondek reaction was a test not directly for the fetus, but for placental tissue. It was used, less as a yes-or-no test for ordinary pregnancy, than as a versatile diagnostic tool for the early detection of malignant tumours and hormonal deficiencies believed to cause miscarriage. This test was as much a product of oncology and the little-explored world of laboratory services as of reproductive medicine. PMID:24388014

  20. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to long-term HIV care and treatment services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Grant, Alison D; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kahawita, Tanya; Ong'ech, John O; Ross, David A

    2012-05-01

    To quantify attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services in low- or middle-income countries and to explore the reasons underlying client drop-out by synthesising current literature on this topic. A systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences of literature published 2000-2010. Only studies meeting pre-defined quality criteria were included. Of 2543 articles retrieved, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (80%) drew on data from sub-Saharan Africa. The pathway between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV-related services is complex, and attrition was usually high. There was a failure to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among 38-88% of known-eligible women. Providing 'family-focused care', and integrating CD4 testing and HAART provision into prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services appear promising for increasing women's uptake of HIV-related services. Individual-level factors that need to be addressed include financial constraints and fear of stigma. Too few women negotiate the many steps between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing HIV-related services for themselves. Recent efforts to stem patient drop-out, such as the MTCT-Plus Initiative, hold promise. Addressing barriers and enabling factors both within health facilities and at the levels of the individual woman, her family and society will be essential to improve the uptake of services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    July 1989 No.19 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 55th Annual. Meeting ... in the world, keeping alive atthe same time his research interests, abreast .... theory made a comeback with many new ideas and with the success of the ...

  2. Analyzing Test-Taking Behavior: Decision Theory Meets Psychometric Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budescu, David V; Bo, Yuanchao

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the implications of penalizing incorrect answers to multiple-choice tests, from the perspective of both test-takers and test-makers. To do so, we use a model that combines a well-known item response theory model with prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47:263-91, 1979). Our results reveal that when test-takers are fully informed of the scoring rule, the use of any penalty has detrimental effects for both test-takers (they are always penalized in excess, particularly those who are risk averse and loss averse) and test-makers (the bias of the estimated scores, as well as the variance and skewness of their distribution, increase as a function of the severity of the penalty).

  3. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report II: mechanistic role of the placenta in fetal programming; biomarkers of placental function and complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraweera, P H; Bobek, G; Bowen, C; Burton, G J; Correa Frigerio, P; Chaparro, A; Dickinson, H; Duncombe, G; Hyett, J; Illanes, S E; Johnstone, E; Kumar, S; Morgan, T K; Myers, J; Orefice, R; Roberts, C T; Salafia, C M; Thornburg, K L; Whitehead, C L; Bainbridge, S A

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an integral component of the annual International Federation of Placenta Association (IFPA) meeting, allowing for networking and focused discussion related to specialized topics on the placenta. At the 2015 IFPA meeting (Brisbane, Australia) twelve themed workshops were held, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops focused on various aspects of placental function, particularly in cases of placenta-mediated disease. Collectively, these inter-connected workshops highlighted the role of the placenta in fetal programming, the use of various biomarkers to monitor placental function across pregnancy, and the clinical impact of novel diagnostic and surveillance modalities in instances of late onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Diagnosis and monitoring of endangered early pregnancies with determination of oestrone, oestradiol 17beta, oestriol, progesterone and HPL in plasma and the pregnancy test in graduated dilutions of urine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, J R; Negulescu, R; Dahlén, H; Musch, K

    1977-06-01

    Unconjugated oestrone (Oe1), oestradiol-17beta (Oe2), oestriol (Oe3), progesterone (P) and HPL in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay and the immunological pregnancy-test in urine was carried out in 70 patients with normal pregnancy or imminent abortion from 4th-20th week of gestation. Oe2 and HPL showed the most pronounced rises, Oe3 increased especially after the first trimester. In cases with abortion symptoms and poor prognosis Oe2 and HPL gave the most reliable results concerning the endocrin function of early normal pregnancy. Oe1- and P-values in normal pregnancy did not differ so clearly from concentrations observed during normal menstrual cycles and were thus of less value. The pregnancy-test was positive (greater than 1000 IU/1) even in most cases of dead pregnancy and therefore not reliable. With increasing production of oestrogen precursors in the fetal adrenal cortex after the first trimester determination of Oe3 becomes more important. In cases with abortion symptoms in early pregnancy and subsequent normal development, plasma Oe2- and Oe3- values represented best criteria for a prognosis. -- For the diagnosis and control of the endangered early pregnancy we recommend, as a consequence of this study, determination of Oe2 up to the 13th week of pregnancy and thereafter Oe3 in maternal plasma.

  5. Corporate Schooling Meets Corporate Media: Standards, Testing, and Technophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational publishing corporations and media corporations in the United States have been converging, especially through the promotion of standardization, testing, and for-profit educational technologies. Media and technology companies--including News Corp, Apple, and Microsoft--have significantly expanded their presence in public schools to sell…

  6. Impact of iodized oil injection during pregnancy on thyroid function tests of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadat, N.; Sheikholeslam, R.; Azizi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that injection of iodized oil in pregnant women can be used as a prophylactic strategy for iodine deficiency disorders and may improve the growth indices of their offspring. Since administration of pharmacological doses of iodine may lead occasionally to large goiter and rarely to hypothyroidism, in the present study the thyroid function tests of neonates and infants born to women who had received 480 mg iodized oil intramuscularly during pregnancy were assessed and compared to those of a control group. Off 277 cord blood samples obtained from Mazandaran and Khohkiluyeh-Boyerahmad provinces, 125 made up the case (injected) and 152 the control (non-injected) group. Of 1026 blood samples of the neonates and infants from Mazandaran province. 544 made up the case and 482 the control group. Serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH concentrations were measured with RIA kits. in the cord blood samples, mean serum T 4 in cases who had received iodized oil was lower than that of the control group:140± 32 vs. 149± 33 nmol/L, respectively; p 3 and TSH were not however different. In the neonates and infants, T 4 and T 3 concentrations were significantly higher in the case than control group:178± 40 vs. 168± and 3.5±0,02 nmol/L, respectively, both p 3 and decreased TSH were seen in infants of mothers who were injected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Injection of iodized oil in pregnant women does not cause hypothyroidism in the offsprings, however it does cause a transient increase in serum thyroid hormones and a decrease in TSH concentrations

  7. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in southwestern Kenya: progress and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna J; Akama, Eliud; Weke, Elly; Blackburn, Justin; Owino, George; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Kwena, Zachary A; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2017-12-01

    Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal data was conducted for a cohort of 2145 women attending antenatal care clinic at a large district hospital in southwestern Kenya. Data were abstracted from registers for all women who attended the clinic from the years 2011 to 2014. Although 90.2% of women first came to clinic prior to their third trimester and 27.5% had at least four clinic visits, 58.0% of all women went to delivery without a retest. Missed opportunities for retesting included not returning to clinic at all, not returning when eligible, or late gestational age (>28 weeks) at first clinic visit making them ineligible for retesting (accounting for 14.2%, 26.8% and 9.6% of all clinic attendees respectively); and failure to be retested even when eligible at one or more visits (accounting for 73.2% of eligible returnees). Being unmarried and aged 20 or younger was associated with an increase in mean gestational age of first visit by 2.52 weeks (95% CI: 1.56, 3.48) and a 2.59 increased odds (95% CI: 1.90, 3.54) of failing to return to clinic, compared to those who were married and over 20 years of age. On retest, two women tested HIV positive, suggesting an incidence rate of 4.4 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, only later year of last menstrual period (2013 vs. 2012 and 2011) was associated with retesting. Adoption of retesting guidelines in 2012

  8. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Benn

    Full Text Available Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT in the general pregnancy population.Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars.Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176 of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176 by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264 in the general screening population.Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits.

  9. Verification Testing: Meet User Needs Figure of Merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryan W.; Welch, Bryan W.

    2017-01-01

    Verification is the process through which Modeling and Simulation(M&S) software goes to ensure that it has been rigorously tested and debugged for its intended use. Validation confirms that said software accurately models and represents the real world system. Credibility gives an assessment of the development and testing effort that the software has gone through as well as how accurate and reliable test results are. Together, these three components form Verification, Validation, and Credibility(VV&C), the process by which all NASA modeling software is to be tested to ensure that it is ready for implementation. NASA created this process following the CAIB (Columbia Accident Investigation Board) report seeking to understand the reasons the Columbia space shuttle failed during reentry. The reports conclusion was that the accident was fully avoidable, however, among other issues, the necessary data to make an informed decision was not there and the result was complete loss of the shuttle and crew. In an effort to mitigate this problem, NASA put out their Standard for Models and Simulations, currently in version NASA-STD-7009A, in which they detailed their recommendations, requirements and rationale for the different components of VV&C. They did this with the intention that it would allow for people receiving MS software to clearly understand and have data from the past development effort. This in turn would allow the people who had not worked with the MS software before to move forward with greater confidence and efficiency in their work. This particular project looks to perform Verification on several MATLAB (Registered Trademark)(The MathWorks, Inc.) scripts that will be later implemented in a website interface. It seeks to take note and define the limits of operation, the units and significance, and the expected datatype and format of the inputs and outputs of each of the scripts. This is intended to prevent the code from attempting to make incorrect or impossible

  10. Psychometric Properties of Brief Screening Tests for Alcohol Use Disorders during Pregnancy in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mariana Beatriz; Lichtenberger, Aldana; Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2017-07-01

    Background  Considering the physical, mental and behavioral problems related to fetal alcohol exposure, prenatal clinical guides suggest a brief evaluation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy to detect alcohol intake and to adjust interventions, if required. Even if any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying women with alcohol use disorders is important because they could need a more specific intervention than simple advice to abstain. Most screening tests have been developed and validated in male populations and focused on the long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use, so they might be inappropriate to assess consumption in pregnant women. Objective  To analyze the internal reliability and validity of the alcohol screening instruments Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPS-QF) and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) to identify alcohol use disorders in pregnant women. Methods  A total of 641 puerperal women were personally interviewed during the 48 hours after delivery. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the sensitivity and specificity of each instrument using different cut-off points were analyzed. Results  All instruments showed areas under the ROC curves above 0.80. Larger areas were found for the TWEAK and the AUDIT. The TWEAK, the T-ACE and the AUDIT-C showed higher sensitivity, while the AUDIT and the RAPS-QF showed higher specificity. Reliability (internal consistency) was low for all instruments, improving when optimal cut-off points were used, especially for the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C and the RAPS-QF. Conclusions  In other cultural contexts, studies have concluded that T-ACE and TWEAK are the best instruments to assess pregnant women. In contrast, our results evidenced the low

  11. Pre-operative testing for pregnancy in Dublin day surgery units.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, L F A

    2013-06-01

    The safety of anaesthetic agents in early pregnancy cannot be guaranteed. Certain types of surgery, particularly gynaecological, may also be dangerous. It is therefore important to ensure that, female patients are not inadvertently pregnant when undergoing elective surgery. Different hospitals have different policies and guidelines in place to determine female patients\\' pregnancy status prior to elective surgery.

  12. Utilization of fetal fibronectin testing and pregnancy outcomes among women with symptoms of preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell SC

    2017-10-01

    .7%.Conclusion: The utilization of fFN testing is 12%. The majority of pregnant patients triaged through the ELD with symptomatic PTL do not receive an fFN test. As part of PTL evaluation, fFN testing may identify women at increased risk for preterm delivery and help determine appropriate patient management. Keywords: preterm labor, pregnancy, emergency department, fetal fibronectin testing 

  13. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    .... EERE-2010-BT-TP-0038] Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting... methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps designed to use... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities less...

  14. THE CURRENT PRACTICES FOR TESTING FOR HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN PREGNANCY (HIP IN THE MEDICAL COLLEGE INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Divakar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to determine the current practices in the medical college institutions pan India for testing for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP to detect gestational diabetes and highlight areas that need additional attention in order to ensure adherence to current national guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding the testing strategy for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. The questionnaires were filled out by the teaching faculty of the OB/GYN departments of 47 medical college institutions in India. The perceptions regarding the prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in India and the needs for capacity building were assessed. RESULTS Forty seven respondents answered the questionnaires. The majority of respondents (95.83% reported that all pregnant women were offered (universal testing for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and 37.5% reported that women were screened both in early and midtrimester of pregnancy. Most reported that testing for HIP took place once at booking, irrespective of the gestational age (39.58%. Thirty three (70.21% respondents reported using the single-step nonfasting method to diagnose hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, 21.28% of respondents reported using a glucometer to determine the concentration of blood glucose in plasma, while 68.08% reported using a lab analyser. The instructions for the testing were offered by consultants and postgraduates in a vast majority of cases (87.5%. The staff communicated with the women in a significantly less number of cases (12.5%. 65.96% of respondents felt that all women readily agreed to follow this advice. The majority of respondents (89.35% reported having noticed an increase in the number of women with hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, 91% of all the respondents felt there was a need to train medical personnel to test and manage hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION Our study confirms the continued wide variability in testing for HIP in India with

  15. Selenomethionine Uptake Test as a Sensitive Indicator of Placental Function in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J. S. [Medical Research Council, Department of Obstetrics, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    During the last trimester of pregnancy the demands of the human foetus for nutrients can only just be met by the normal placenta. If the placenta is damaged or poorly developed foetal growth is impaired or, in severe cases, the baby dies. It is clinically important to detect placental failure as early as possible so that the underlying cause can be treated, or if this is not possible the baby can be delivered before term. {sup 75}Se-selenomethionine is one of the amino-acids which is taken up by the placenta from the mother's blood and actively transported against a concentration gradient to the foetus. In the selenomethionine uptake test two 3-in. diameter Nal detectors in cylindrical collimators are used; one is positioned over the mother's mediastinum and the other over her uterus. The output from each detector is fed through a pulse-height analyser to a recording ratemeter. A dose of 2 {mu}Ci of selenomethionine is given intravenously to the mother, and from the recorded count-rates during the next 15 minutes the efficiency of placental amino-acid transport can be assessed. The maximum radiation dose to the mother or foetus is 20 mrad. This test has been applied without ill effects to over 500 patients in whom there were clinical grounds for suspecting placental damage. Gross placental failure and intrauterine death were invariably associated with a very low selenomethionine-uptake over the uterus, and high uterine uptakes were always associated with good placental function. Misleading results may be obtained in cases with rhesus immunization or congenital defect in the foetus, since in such cases foetal growth failure is not due to a defect of transport in the placenta. Generally the test provides a quick, simple and reliable indication of the nutritive function of the placenta, and can be safely used to select those mothers who need particularly careful clinical management. (author)

  16. Thyroid Function Test in Thyroid Diseases and Pregnancy - The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M. H.; Yoon, H. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, J. C.; Chung, S. I.; Cho, B. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine(FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free T 4 and T 4 , T 3 , T 3 RU, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1) In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, T 3 , free T 4 and FTI, T 4 /TBG ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. T 4 is increased in 94%(18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79%(15/19). 2) In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI is decreased in all cases. T 4 is decreased in 87.5%(7/8), T 3 is decreased in 75%(6/8) and T 4 /TBG ratio is decreased in 62.5%(5/8). 3) In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, T , 4 free T 4 , FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and T 3 is normal in 60%(3/5) and slightly increased in 40%(2/5). 4) In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI are decreased in all cases, but T 4 and T 3 , T 4 /TBG ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free T 4 or FTI are recommended as optimal function test. 5) In normal pregnancy, free T 4 , FTI and T 4 /TBG ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6) The coefficients of correlation between T 4 and FTI were 0.862(p 4 and T 4 /TBG ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free T 4 was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free T 4 measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism or with T 3 for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  17. Assessment of Doppler velocimetry versus nonstress test in antepartum surveillance of high risk pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi Choudhury; Barun Kumar Sharma; Bikram Kishor Kanungo; Ruby Yadav; Hafizur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Background: High risk pregnancies increase the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality; and there is a need for appropriate investigation which can diagnose it early and predicts the morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of Doppler velocimetry studies and NST in predicting fetal compromise in utero and compare their ability in predicting the perinatal outcome in cases of high risk pregnancies. Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional ho...

  18. Improving global estimates of syphilis in pregnancy by diagnostic test type: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, D Cal; Lin, Carol; Newman, Lori; Wijesooriya, N Saman; Kamb, Mary

    2015-06-01

    "Probable active syphilis," is defined as seroreactivity in both non-treponemal and treponemal tests. A correction factor of 65%, namely the proportion of pregnant women reactive in one syphilis test type that were likely reactive in the second, was applied to reported syphilis seropositivity data reported to WHO for global estimates of syphilis during pregnancy. To identify more accurate correction factors based on test type reported. Medline search using: "Syphilis [Mesh] and Pregnancy [Mesh]," "Syphilis [Mesh] and Prenatal Diagnosis [Mesh]," and "Syphilis [Mesh] and Antenatal [Keyword]. Eligible studies must have reported results for pregnant or puerperal women for both non-treponemal and treponemal serology. We manually calculated the crude percent estimates of subjects with both reactive treponemal and reactive non-treponemal tests among subjects with reactive treponemal and among subjects with reactive non-treponemal tests. We summarized the percent estimates using random effects models. Countries reporting both reactive non-treponemal and reactive treponemal testing required no correction factor. Countries reporting non-treponemal testing or treponemal testing alone required a correction factor of 52.2% and 53.6%, respectively. Countries not reporting test type required a correction factor of 68.6%. Future estimates should adjust reported maternal syphilis seropositivity by test type to ensure accuracy. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education

    OpenAIRE

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Copas, A; Oakley, A; Stephenson, J; Johnson, A

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To examine whether attitude to school is associated with subsequent risk of teenage pregnancy. To test two hypotheses that attitude to school is linked to pregnancy via pathways involving young people having "alternative" expectations or deficits in sexual health knowledge and confidence.

  20. Proceedings of the 1984 international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    More than 40 papers were presented at this RERTR Meeting during the following sessions: Status of RERTR programs and licensing procedures; LEU fuel element development; fuel fabrication and testing; economics; mixed reactor cores; and applications, i.e. neutronics and thermal hydraulics design of upgraded reactors, with new LEU fuel, fuel cycle studies, feasibility and safety analyses

  1. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Test Site Kick-off Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Witzberger, Kevin; Hackenberg, Davis L.; Murphy, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This briefing was presented during the Test Site Kick Off Meeting to discuss the contract awards for Task 1 and Task 2. This briefing covered a high level overview for contract deliverables, Task 1 - UAS Traffic Management and Task 2, Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment.

  2. Proceedings of the 1984 international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Base technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    More than 40 papers were presented at this RERTR Meeting during the following sessions: Status of RERTR programs and licensing procedures; LEU fuel element development; fuel fabrication and testing; economics; mixed reactor cores; and applications, i.e. neutronics and thermal hydraulics design of upgraded reactors, with new LEU fuel, fuel cycle studies, feasibility and safety analyses.

  3. 78 FR 18932 - Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... discussion about which privacy issues are raised by UAS operations and how law, public policy, and the...-0061] Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach AGENCY: Federal... a public engagement session on Wednesday, April 3, 2013, on the proposed privacy policy approach for...

  4. Raising the Bar: Standards and Tests in California's High Schools. A Town Hall Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstine, Barbara; Futernick, Ken; Hodson, Timothy A.; Ostgaard, Kolleen

    In 1999, the LegiSchool Project planned to conduct the 12th in its series of televised Town Hall Meetings to provide a forum in which California high school students, educators, and legislators can engage in face-to-face dialogue about problems of mutual interest. For 1999, the topic is standards and tests in California high schools. This guide…

  5. Opening address at the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Sato

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of variuos programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. More detailed status of the RERTR program in Japan, as the host country is covered in this presentation

  6. False-positive pregnancy test after transfusion of solvent/detergent-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Wreford-Bush, Tim; Mills, Francesca; Davidson, Fiona; Kursten, Friedrich W; Jilma, Bernd; Birchall, Janet

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of pathogens, antibodies, and proteins is a possible consequence of blood product transfusion. A female patient had an unexpected positive serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin result, indicative of pregnancy, after she had received a transfusion with 1 unit of platelet concentrate, 4 units of red blood cells, and 4 units of pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (Octaplas). To investigate the possibility of passive transfusion of β-human chorionic gonadotropin from the plasma transfusion, one additional unit from the same batch was thawed and analyzed. To validate the β-human chorionic gonadotropin assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and to investigate any interference in the assay, dilution experiments were performed using the implicated plasma batch diluted with male and non-pregnant female sera. Also, plasma from a known pregnant woman was diluted with Octaplas (tested negative for β-human chorionic gonadotropin) and with a male serum to validate the assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma. The implicated solvent/detergent-treated plasma had a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin level of 91.5 mIU/mL. Results from the dilution experiments revealed an excellent correlation (r > 0.99) between β-human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and male serum and no over or under recovery of the expected results. Further measurements of β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the female recipient revealed an estimated half-life of 6 hours. This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of passive transmission of analytes to a patient from the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, the measurement of β-human chorionic gonadotropin is valid in solvent/detergent-treated plasma using a Roche Cobas analyzer. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some

  8. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  9. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  10. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately.

  11. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  14. WANTO 32: Proceedings of the 32nd Weapons Agencies Nondestructive Testing Organization meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

    1991-02-01

    The Thirty-Second Weapons Agencies Nondestructive Testing Organization (WANTO) meeting was held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on November 27--29, 1990. The meeting was hosted by Edward J. Majzlik, Jr., Savannah River Laboratory, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Chairman of the WANTO Steering Committee is L.E. (Larry) Bryant, Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report is the sole proceedings of the meeting and includes the agenda, attendance, steering committee report, interim reports and technical presentation summaries. This report is the first to present the meeting proceedings in an unclassified form. The reader should contact individual authors directly for any additional information desired. The meeting was organized to provide coverage of a wide variety of NDE subjects relevant to the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). Approximately 60 technical experts and managers representing 11 DOE weapons agencies and 3 DOE offices attended. A total of 56 technical presentations and 3 special NDE workshops were included in the agenda along with two tours of the SRS Reactor Mock-up Facility. Invited presentations included five speakers who reported on the DOE sponsored conference Concurrent Engineering and the NDE Role held at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 30-November 1, 1990 and X-ray Film Retention and Disposal presented by Orville R. Pratt, DOE/AL-Martin Marietta. The WANTO Steering Committee report for the Thirty-Second Meeting immediately follows this section. The meeting Agenda and Attendance are presented in Appendices A and B, respectively. Technical presentation summaries and abstracts are presented in Appendix C. For cases in which a summary was not provided, a telephone number is offered for direct contact with the author/presenter. Interim Activity Reports are compiled in Appendix D. Special Workshop reports are presented in Appendix E. (JF)

  15. Prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy program improves compliance with postpartum testing in GDM women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Terri; Ghaffari, Neda; Bastek, Jamie; Durnwald, Celeste

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate whether prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy program (DMC) improves compliance with completion of the 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HrOGTT) in GDM women. A retrospective cohort study of GDM women delivering in a university health system between January 2011 and March 2014 was performed. Women were divided into two groups: those receiving care in prenatal clinics over an 18-month period prior to the establishment of the diabetes in pregnancy clinic (pre-DMC) and those receiving prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy clinic (post-DMC). The primary outcome was completion of the 2HrOGTT postpartum. Clinical characteristics associated with 2HrOGTT completion were evaluated. Time trend analysis was performed to evaluate month to month variation in 2HrOGTT compliance for secular trends. A total of 292 women were analyzed, 147 post-DMC and 118 pre-DMC. The 2HrOGTT was ordered more frequently in the post-DMC compared to pre-DMC (90.0 versus 53.0%, p prenatal care post-DMC were 2.98 times more likely to complete the 2HrOGTT compared to those receiving care pre-DMC (OR 2.98 [1.34, 6.62], p = 0.007). Providers were 5.9 times more likely to order the recommended testing for GDM women who attended the postpartum visit in the post-DMC period. GDM women who receive prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy program are more likely to complete the 2HrOGTT in the postpartum period.

  16. Effect of Pregnancy on Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Detection of Latent TB Infection Among HIV-Infected Women in a High Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Cranmer, Lisa M; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Horne, David J; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-05-01

    Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. HIV-infected women were serially tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay [QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFT)] in pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage. Incidence of test conversion at 6 weeks postpartum was evaluated in baseline TST-/QFT- women. Among 100 HIV-infected women, median age was 26 years, median CD4 was 555 cells per cubic millimeter, and 88% were on antiretrovirals. More women were QFT+ than TST+ in both pregnancy (35.4% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.001) and postpartum (29.6% vs. 14.8%, P pregnancy vs. postpartum, and specifically among persistently QFT+ women (Mtb-Ag: 3.46 vs. 4.48 IU/mL, P = 0.007). QFT indeterminate rate was higher in pregnancy (16%) compared with postpartum (0%) because of lower mitogen response. QFT identified >2-fold more women with LTBI compared with TST in pregnancy and postpartum. Lower QFT Mtb-Ag and mitogen responses in pregnancy compared with postpartum suggest that pregnancy-associated immunologic changes may influence LTBI test performance.

  17. Asthma in pregnancy: association between the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and comparisons with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Georgia Véras; Leite, Débora F B; Rizzo, José A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible association between the assessment of clinical asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and to perform comparisons with values of spirometry. Through this cross-sectional study, 103 pregnant women with asthma were assessed in the period from October 2010 to October 2013 in the asthma pregnancy clinic at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Questionnaires concerning the level of asthma control were administered using the Global Initiative for Asthma classification, the Asthma Control Test validated for asthmatic expectant mothers and spirometry; all three methods of assessing asthma control were performed during the same visit between the twenty-first and twenty-seventh weeks of pregnancy. There was a significant association between clinical asthma control assessment using the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification (pspirometry. This study shows that both the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and the Asthma Control Test can be used for asthmatic expectant mothers to assess the clinical control of asthma, especially at the end of the second trimester, which is assumed to be the period of worsening asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. We highlight the importance of the Asthma Control Test as a subjective instrument with easy application, easy interpretation and good reproducibility that does not require spirometry to assess the level of asthma control and can be used in the primary care of asthmatic expectant mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: key concepts to deal with an emerging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Dunn, James; Versalovic, James; Murray, Kristy O; Suter, Melissa A; Sanz Cortes, Magda; Espinoza, Jimmy; Seferovic, Maxim D; Lee, Wesley; Hotez, Peter; Mastrobattista, Joan; Clark, Steven L; Belfort, Michael A; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015. Among the minority of infected women with symptoms, clinical manifestations of Zika virus infection may include fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and maculopapular rash; however, only 1 of every 4-5 people who are infected have any symptoms. Thus, clinical symptom reporting is an ineffective screening tool for the relative risk assessment of Zika virus infection in the majority of patients. As previously occurred with other largely asymptomatic viral infections posing perinatal transmission risk (such as HIV or cytomegalovirus), we must develop and implement rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and diagnostic testing for both viral detection and estimation of timing of exposure. Unfortunately, despite an unprecedented surge in attempts to rapidly advance perinatal clinical testing for a previously obscure arbovirus, there are several ongoing hindrances to molecular- and sonographic-based screening and diagnosis of congenital Zika virus infection. These include the following: (1) difficulty in estimating the timing of exposure for women living in endemic areas and thus limited interpretability of immunoglobulin M serologies; (2) cross-reaction of immunoglobulin serologies with other endemic flaviruses, such as dengue; (3) persistent viremia and viruria in pregnancy weeks to months after primary exposure; and (4) fetal brain malformations and anomalies

  19. Proceedings of the 1978 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    November 9-10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event - the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The RERTR Program had been started only three months earlier, and the meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and while it established the basis for all later meetings, it was unique in several respects. It was a time of feeling each other out, and of sharing new ideas, concerns, and hopes. In the absence of an established precedent, a number of participants came with written papers while others made only verbal presentations. Informality added spice and special importance to the discussions at the end of each presentation and, especially, to the panel discussion at the end of the meeting. An important achievement was a consensus on near-, medium-, and long-term density goals for the various fuels. This consensus resulted in a list written on the blackboard at the end of the panel discussion, and reproduced on page 216, which outlined the goals of each fabricator. Luckily, both presentations and discussions were recorded on audio tape. These recordings were transcribed and used to complete the informal presentations and to append the discussions at the end of each presentation. Considerable effort was expended in clearing the transcribed papers and key discussions with the participants. A few issues could not be resolved quickly, and in the frantic rush of those early years, these proceedings were set aside. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort, we have recently dusted off the manuscript and finished our editing job.

  20. Proceedings of the 1978 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1993-08-01

    November 9-10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event - the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The RERTR Program had been started only three months earlier, and the meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and while it established the basis for all later meetings, it was unique in several respects. It was a time of feeling each other out, and of sharing new ideas, concerns, and hopes. In the absence of an established precedent, a number of participants came with written papers while others made only verbal presentations. Informality added spice and special importance to the discussions at the end of each presentation and, especially, to the panel discussion at the end of the meeting. An important achievement was a consensus on near-, medium-, and long-term density goals for the various fuels. This consensus resulted in a list written on the blackboard at the end of the panel discussion, and reproduced on page 216, which outlined the goals of each fabricator. Luckily, both presentations and discussions were recorded on audio tape. These recordings were transcribed and used to complete the informal presentations and to append the discussions at the end of each presentation. Considerable effort was expended in clearing the transcribed papers and key discussions with the participants. A few issues could not be resolved quickly, and in the frantic rush of those early years, these proceedings were set aside. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort, we have recently dusted off the manuscript and finished our editing job

  1. Persistent Low Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Is Common in Pregnancy: Experience from Antenatal Testing in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Findal

    Full Text Available The parasite Toxoplasma gondii might harm the fetus if a woman is infected during pregnancy. IgG seroconversion and significant increase in IgG antibody amount in pregnancy indicates maternal infection. Presence of toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM, immunoglobulin G (IgG and low IgG avidity in a single serum sample indicates possible maternal infection, but positive toxoplasma IgM and low IgG avidity may persist for months and even years. We aimed to evaluate avidity development during pregnancy in a retrospective study. Serial blood samples from 176 pregnant women admitted to Oslo University Hospital 1993-2013 for amniocentesis because of suspected toxoplasma infection were included. Data were obtained from journals and laboratory records. The avidity method used was based on Platelia Toxo IgG assay. Mean maternal age at first serology was 29.9 years (SD 5.2, range 18-42. In 37 (21% women only the avidity increased from low to high in < 3 months. In 139 (79% the IgG avidity remained below the high threshold ≥ 3 months and within this group 74 (42% women had stable low IgG avidity during the observation period. Median gestational age at first test was 10.6 weeks (range 4.6-28.7. Fetal infection was detected in four children, but none among children whose mother had stable low IgG avidity. The first antenatal toxoplasma serology should ideally be collected in early pregnancy and if stable values of toxoplasma IgM and low IgG-avidity are detected in a second sample after three to four weeks, the need for amniocentesis can be questioned.

  2. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Life Assets in Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatsanee Soontrapirom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is an evolving global public health problem. Level of life assets could predict behaviors and take effect to less sexual risk behaviors in teenagers. Objective: To compare life assets between pregnant and non-pregnant teenagers and to evaluate the relationship between basic factors and teenage pregnancy. Methods: A total of 172 female teenagers aged 12-19 years were included. The control group was matched with the case group by age with mean age of 17.07 years old. The case group consisted of 86 pregnant teenagers who attended the Teenage Antenatal Care Unit at Siriraj Hospital. The control group consisted of 86 teenagers who were not pregnant and who had never been pregnant. The research instruments were general information and life assets inventory questionnaires developed by Suriyadeo Tripathi with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.890. Results: Mean life assets scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the case group (T-test analysis: Mean = 94.70/87.65, SD = 17.45/22.68, p-value =.024, respectively. The control group scored more favorably than the case group on 16 items. In addition, the case group could not meet the minimum assessment criteria on 21 items, which indicated their status as an at risk group. A total of 12 factors were found to be statistically significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Overall life assets were significantly higher among teenagers who had not experienced pregnancy. The risk factors included level of education, GPA, family income, mothers or family members of teenagers having experience of teenage pregnancy, main guardians, father education, mother occupation, parental relationship, family warmth and smoking were found to be significantly associated with risk of teenage pregnancy in this study. These results will help to facilitate preventive interventions and the development of policies and guidelines to control and perhaps reverse current

  4. Missed Opportunities: barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy from a population based cohort study in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin C Larsson

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess population-level HIV-testing uptake among pregnant women, key for access to prevention-of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services, and to identify risk factors for not being HIV tested,The study was conducted May 2008-May 2010 in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS, Eastern Uganda, during regular surveillance of 68,000 individuals. All women identified to be pregnant May-July 2008 (n=881 were interviewed about pregnancy-related issues and linked to the HDSS database for socio-demographic data. Women were followed-up via antenatal care (ANC register reviews at the health facilities to collect data related to ANC services received, including HIV testing. Adjusted relative risk (aRR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI for not being HIV tested were calculated using multivariable binomial regression among the 544 women who remained after record review.Despite high ANC attendance (96%, the coverage of HIV testing was 64%. Only 6% of pregnant women who sought ANC at a facility without HIV testing services were referred for testing and only 20% received counseling regarding HIV. At ANC facilities with HIV testing services, 85% were tested. Only 4% of the women tested had been couple tested for HIV. Living more than three kilometers away from a health facility with HIV testing services was associated with not being tested both among the poorest (aRR,CI; 1.44,1.02-2.04 and the least poor women (aRR,CI;1.72,1.12-2.63.The lack of on site HIV testing services and distant ANC facilities lead to missed opportunities for PMTCT, especially for the poorest women. Referral systems for HIV testing need to be improved and testing should be expanded to lower level health facilities. This is in order to ensure that the policy of HIV testing during pregnancy is implemented more effectively and that testing is accessible for all.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis and mortality impact estimation of scaling-up pregnancy test kits in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Robert J; Audibert, Martine; Comfort, Alison B

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits. Among a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 women of reproductive age, we estimate that over a 1-year period, the intervention would save 26, 35 and 48 lives in Madagascar, Ethiopia, and Malawi, respectively. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for the cost per life saved varies by country: $2311 [95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): $1699; $3454] in Madagascar; $2969 [UI: $2260; $5041] in Ethiopia and $1228 [UI: $918; $1777] in Malawi. This equates to an average cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted of $36.28, $47.95 and $21.92, respectively. Based on WHO criteria and a comparison with other maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, we conclude that the addition of urine pregnancy tests to an existing community health worker maternal and reproductive services package is highly cost-effective in all three countries. To optimize uptake of family planning and antenatal care services and, in turn, accelerate the reduction of mortality and DALYs, decision makers and program planners should consider adding urine pregnancy tests to the community-level package of services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures...... placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, “PlaNet”, will bridge academia, industry...

  7. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks of pregnancy Ovarian cysts Anemia Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an ... have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. Prevention If you've had a molar pregnancy, talk ...

  8. Consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing during pregnancy and delayed diagnosis for Mexican women, children and male partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Kendall

    Full Text Available HIV testing during pregnancy permits prevention of vertical (mother-to-child transmission and provides an opportunity for women living with HIV to access treatment for their own health. In 2001, Mexico's National HIV Action Plan committed to universal offer of HIV testing to pregnant women, but in 2011, only 45.6% of women who attended antenatal care (ANC were tested for HIV. The study objective was to document the consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during pregnancy and late HIV diagnosis for Mexican women living with HIV and their families.Semi-structured-interviews with 55 women living with HIV who had had a pregnancy since 2001 were completed between 2009 and 2011. Interviews were analyzed thematically using a priori and inductive codes.Consistent with national statistics, less than half of the women living with HIV (42% were offered HIV testing and counseling during ANC. When not diagnosed during ANC, women had multiple contacts with the health-care system due to their own and other family members' AIDS-related complications before being diagnosed. Missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care and health-care providers failure to recognize AIDS-related complications resulted in pediatric HIV infections, AIDS-related deaths of children and male partners, and HIV disease progression among women and other family members. In contrast, HIV diagnosis permitted timely access to interventions to prevent vertical HIV transmission and long-term care and treatment for women living with HIV.Omissions of the offer of HIV testing and counseling in ANC and health-care providers' failure to recognize AIDS-related complications had negative health, economic and emotional consequences. Scaling-up provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling within and beyond antenatal care and pre-service and in-service trainings on HIV and AIDS for health-care providers can hasten timely HIV diagnosis and

  9. The public health impact of nuclear weapons testing in Kazakstan. Report on a WHO expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk Region of Kazakstan was subject to radioactive fallout from weapons testing which, it is alleged, has resulted in substantial exposure of the population and significant health effects. The Meeting, attended by experts in radiological science, reviewed the evidence from recent studies designed to establish the importance of these exposures to public health. The Meeting concluded that, in the most heavily exposed settlement, doses to individuals subject to the fallout were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than previously claimed. While there is need to confirm this result in other exposed settlements, the Kazakstan health authorities should be advised that health problems related to past exposures are not as great as previously thought and that, with existing agricultural practices, there is at present no threat to health. Changes in agricultural practices could cause a hazard from plutonium. (author)

  10. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  11. A simple point of care test can indicate the need for periodontal therapy to reduce the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Mervyn Sydney; Henkel, Ralf Reinhold; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce

    2017-12-01

    Although the association between periodontal disease (PD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained recognition amongst antenatal healthcare workers, not much has changed in practice to address it. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that BANA (N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide), a diagnostic test for PD, may inform obstetricians and other antenatal healthcare practitioners, of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics. At first visit, the presence of suspected periodontopathogens was assessed by BANA testing of dental plaque from 443 mothers attending antenatal clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and an association later sought with pregnancy outcomes. The accuracy of BANA to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes was evaluated by the calculation of likelihood ratios. The study complied with the Declaration of Helsinki. Significant differences were found between pregnancy outcomes of BANA-negative and BANA-positive mothers (p periodontal therapy to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and could form part of the routine antenatal examination.

  12. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  13. Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    This session, following the precedents of earlier meetings, related the operating requirements placed on the high efficiency filter and the capacity of industry to meet them. To this end, the collected talents of the assembled body were unified toward the problems of the particulate filter, its components, and its methods of test. The following seven subjects were discussed: round robin paper test program; DOP (di-octyl phthalate) carcinogenicity; DOP substitute (thermal); DOP substitute (air); filter materials in corrosive environments; fire retardant filter frames; and filter unit leakage. Highlights of the session are: results of the round robin filter exchange test program to ascertain the accuracy and reproducibility of the Q127 filter media tester indicated that the overall agreement between the widely dispersed instruments were much better than expected and previously determined; the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expected to issue in the near future an intelligence bulletin, pointing out that some carcinogenic effect was noted of DOP from bioassay data; it was recommended that polyethylene glycol 400 be accepted as a substitute for DOP in thermal generators; for the Laskin-type air-operated generators, dioctyl sebacate appeared to give the most promising results; a strong recommendation was made that all polyurethane foams be excluded from specifications and use where the filter unit will be exposed to acid environments; filter unit leakage was attributed to a lack of or insufficient adhasive and/or improper application of adhesie

  14. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  15. Annual meeting 1996 'Nondestructive materials testing'. German, Austrian and Swiss nondestructive materials testing standards as mirrored by international standardization. Vol. 1. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains 45 lectures which were given at the annual meeting of the German Society for Nondestructive Testing on May 13-15, 1996 at Lindau. The main subjects were: Standardization of nondestructive testing, irradiation testing, ultrasonic testing and electromagnetic processes. 13 individual articles were included in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  16. Annual meeting 1996 'Nondestructive material testing'. German, Austrian and Swiss nondestructive materials testing standards as mirrored by international standardization. Vol. 2. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains 49 poster articles which were presented at the Annual Meeting of the German Society for Nondestructive Testing at Lindau on May 13-15, 1996. The main subjects were: Standardization of nondestructive testing, irradiation testing, ultrasonic testing and electromagnetic processes. 16 individual articles were included in the ENERGY databank. (MM) [de

  17. Reliability of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minja, Daniel T.; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Oesterholt, Mayke

    2012-01-01

    dehydrogenase (pLDH) based RDTs (Parascreen™) or HRP-2 only (Paracheck Pf® and ParaHIT®f), microscopy and nested Plasmodium species diagnostic PCR. Results: From a cohort of 924 pregnant women who completed the follow up, complete RDT and microscopy data was available for 5,555 blood samples and of these 442...... (RDTs) could be an ideal diagnostic complement to microscopy, due to their ease of use and adequate sensitivity in detecting even sub-microscopic infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is even more sensitive, but it is mainly used for research purposes. The accuracy and reliability of RDTs...... in diagnosing PAM was evaluated using microscopy and PCR. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women in north-eastern Tanzania was followed throughout pregnancy for detection of plasmodial infection using venous and placental blood samples evaluated by histidine rich protein 2 (HRP-2) and parasite lactate...

  18. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  19. Maternal hair testing for the assessment of fetal exposure to drug of abuse during early pregnancy: Comparison with testing in placental and fetal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, M; Pichini, S; Joya, J; Pujadas, M; Sanchez, A; Vall, O; García Algar, O; Luna, A; de la Torre, R; Rotolo, M C; Pellegrini, M

    2012-05-10

    Drug use by pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent fetal exposure during early gestation can be assessed only by repetitive/systematic maternal blood/urine analysis or segmental hair analysis. No evidence of any relationship between maternal/fetal exposure during this specific period of gestation has been demonstrated to date in a human model. To clarify drugs toxicokinetics and transplacental passage during early pregnancy, the presence of the most widely used recreational drugs of abuse and metabolites was investigated in the proximal 4cm hair segments of women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy (n=280) during the 12th week of gestation and the results were compared to those from placenta and fetal tissue samples in order to verify whether maternal hair testing can reflect fetal exposure and, if so, to what extent. Hair, placenta and fetal remains were analyzed by validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry assays. Eighty one positive hair samples were identified: 60 were positive for cannabis (74.1%), 28 for cocaine (34.6%), 7 for opiates (8.6%), 3 for MDMA (3.7%) and 18.5% were positive for more than one drug. The positive hair test results were confirmed in placenta/fetal tissues in 10 cases out of 60 for cannabis (16. 7%); in 7 out of 28 for cocaine (25%); and none for the 6 opiates positive cases and 3 MDMA cases, respectively. Drugs/metabolites in hair of pregnant women can be used as biomarkers of past drug use (repetitive or sporadic), although the use is not always reflected in fetal/placental tissues. There are several possible hypotheses to explain the results: (1) the use occurred before the start of pregnancy, (2) past sporadic consumption which could be measured in hair but not in fetal and placental remains because of the narrow window of drug detection in placental/fetal tissues; (3) the sensitivity of the analytical methods was not high enough for the detection of the minute amount of drugs of abuse and

  20. Developing and pre-testing a decision board to facilitate informed choice about delivery approach in uncomplicated pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean sections is increasing worldwide, yet medical literature informing women with uncomplicated pregnancies about relative risks and benefits of elective caesarean section (CS compared with vaginal delivery (VD remains scarce. A decision board may address this gap, providing systematic evidence-based information so that patients can more fully understand their treatment options. The objective of our study was to design and pre-test a decision board to guide clinical discussions and enhance informed decision-making related to delivery approach (CS or VD in uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Development of the decision board involved two preliminary studies to determine women's preferred mode of risk presentation and a systematic literature review for the most comprehensive presentation of medical risks at the time (VD and CS. Forty women were recruited to pre-test the tool. Eligible subjects were of childbearing age (18-40 years but were not pregnant in order to avoid raising the expectation among pregnant women that CS was a universally available birth option. Women selected their preferred delivery approach and completed the Decisional Conflict Scale to measure decisional uncertainty before and after reviewing the decision board. They also answered open-ended questions reflecting what they had learned, whether or not the information had helped them to choose between birth methods, and additional information that should be included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and women's choice of delivery approach pre/post decision board. Change in decisional conflict was measured using Wilcoxon's sign rank test for each of the three subscales. Results The majority of women reported that they had learned something new (n = 37, 92% and that the tool had helped them make a hypothetical choice between delivery approaches (n = 34, 85%. Women wanted more information about neonatal risks and

  1. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements? (a...

  2. 75 FR 62406 - Plan To Develop a Genetic Testing Registry at the National Institutes of Health; Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... informed decision making by patients, caregivers, health care professionals, clinical laboratory... of tests would be added later. If NIH adopts this approach, what criteria should be used to determine which genetic tests should be included in the first phase of the GTR, and what types of tests would meet...

  3. Trends in cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects, metropolitan Atlanta, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cragan, Janet D; Olney, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the use of cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects. Utilizing data from 1968 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, we analyzed trends in the frequency and timing (prenatal or postnatal) of cytogenetic testing and the prevalence of recognized chromosome abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects (n = 51,424). Cytogenetic testing of pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 7.2% in 1968 to 25.0% in 2005, as did the identification of chromosomal abnormalities (2.2% in 1968 to 6.8% in 2005). The use of prenatal cytogenetic testing decreased from 1996 to 2005 among women aged ≥35 years. Identification of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 1968 to 2005, possibly due to increased testing, improved diagnostic techniques, or increasing maternal age. The decline in prenatal cytogenetic testing observed among mothers aged ≥35 years may be related to the availability of improved prenatal screening techniques, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of invasive diagnostic tests. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples receiving integrated HIV counseling, testing, and family planning services in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (psex without a condom. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522.

  5. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  6. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

  7. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately

  8. Characterization and testing of materials for nuclear reactors. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Nuclear techniques in general and neutrons based methods in particular have played and will continue to play an important role in research in materials science and technology. Today the world is looking at nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as the main sources of energy supply for the future. Research reactors have played a key role in the development of nuclear technology. A materials development programme will thus play a major role in the design and development of new nuclear power plants, for the extension of the life of operating reactors as well as for fusion reactors. Against this background, the IAEA had organized a Technical Meeting on Development, Characterization and Testing of Materials - With Special Reference to the Energy Sector under the activity on specific applications of research reactors. The meeting was held in Vienna, May 29- June 2, 2006. There was also participation by experts in techniques, complementary to neutrons. The participants for the technical meeting were experts in the utilization of nuclear techniques namely the high flux and medium flux research reactors, fusion research and positron annihilation. They presented the design, development and utilization of the facilities at their respective centres for materials characterization with main focus on materials for nuclear energy, both fission and fusion. In core irradiation of materials, development of instrument for residual stress measurement in large and / or irradiated specimen, neutron radiography for inspection of irradiated fuel, work on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and SiC composites, relevant to future power systems were cited as application of nuclear techniques in fission reactors. The use of neutron scattering for helium bubbles in steel, application of positron annihilation to study helium bubbles in Cu, Ti-stabilized stainless steel and voidswelling studies etc. show that these techniques have an important role in the development of materials for energy

  9. Anxiety in voluntary HIV-antibody testing in pregnancy and its implications for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldspang, A; Hedegaard, M

    1991-06-01

    During a three-month period in 1989, 820 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered a HIV-antibody test and asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about attitudes to HIV-antibody testing; 779 (95.0%) agreed to do so. One hundred and fifty-six women (20.0% of the participants) had been tested on a previous occasion, and 629 (80.7%) accepted the present offer to be tested. The most prevalent reasons to decline testing were indifference to the epidemic (45.3% of those declining), refusal of (further) blood testing (34.7%) and fear of being infected (16.7%). Women who consented to be tested most often expressed fear of being infected (21.8%). Fear of registration worried less than 5% of study group members; only 1% declined to be tested because of such worry. The pattern of worries expressed by the pregnant women is interpreted as one of anxiety and, in part at least, perplexity as concerns how to take rational consequences of public messages about the HIV epidemic. It is suggested that future surveillance be based primarily on voluntary testing and, whenever needed and possible, supplied with anonymous unlinked testing of existing blood samples from groups and persons declining to be tested. Such surveillance strategies should be supported in individual patient contacts and public health educational campaigns underscoring the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV and the need for repeated HIV-antibody testing of selected groups and individuals.

  10. Meeting sex partners through the Internet, risky sexual behavior, and HIV testing among sexually transmitted infections clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Pugsley, River; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has now become a popular venue to meet sex partners. People who use the Internet to meet sex partners may be at a higher risk for contracting HIV and STIs. This study examined the association between meeting sex partners from the Internet, and HIV testing, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Data were obtained from the Virginia Department of Health STD Surveillance Network. Logistic regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios, and 95 % confidence intervals for the associations between meeting sex partners through the Internet and ever tested for HIV, HIV testing in the past 12 months, STI history, and risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression was also used to determine if gender and men who have sex with men interaction terms significantly improved the model. Women who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to have had an HIV test in the past 12 months than women who did not meet a partner in this way. On the other hand, men who met a sex partner through the Internet were more likely to have ever had an HIV test than other men, but this was only seen for heterosexual men. All populations who met a sex partner from the Internet were more likely to take part in risky sexual behavior. HIV prevention strategies should emphasize annual testing for all populations.

  11. Proceedings of the international meeting on research and test reactor core conversions from HEU to LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1983-09-01

    Conversion of research and test reactor cores from the use of high enrichment uranium to the use of low enrichment uranium depends on the cooperation of many research organizations, reactor operators, and government agencies. At a technical level, it involves almost all aspects of the fuel cycle, including fuel development, testing, shipping and reprocessing; experiment performance; economics; and safety and licensing aspects. The reactors involved and the conversion activities are distributed among approximately 25 countries, making this a subject which is best dealt with on an international basis. To foster direct communication in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the fifth of a series which began in 1978. The previous meetings were held at Argonne (International Meeting of Research Reactor Fuel Designers, Developers, and Fabricators, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, U.S.A., November 910, 1978), at Saclay (IAEA Consultants' Meeting on Research Reactor Core Conversions from HEU to LEU, Centre d'etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Saclay, France, December 12-14, 1979), at Argonne (International Meeting on Development, Fabrication and Application of Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, U.S.A., November 12-14, 1980) and at Juelich (Seminar on Research Reactor Operation and Use, Juelich Nuclear Research Center, Juelich, F.R.G., September 48, 1981). Proceedings from the two most recent previous meetings were published as ANL/RERTR/TM-3 (CONF-801144) and IAEA-SR-77. The spirit of this meeting differs slightly from that of the previous meetings. The advances which have been made and the growing maturity of the effort have caused a gradual shift of emphasis away from those topics which dominated the floor during the first meetings, such as fuel and methods development, and towards topics which concern more

  12. Proceedings of the international meeting on research and test reactor core conversions from HEU to LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Conversion of research and test reactor cores from the use of high enrichment uranium to the use of low enrichment uranium depends on the cooperation of many research organizations, reactor operators, and government agencies. At a technical level, it involves almost all aspects of the fuel cycle, including fuel development, testing, shipping and reprocessing; experiment performance; economics; and safety and licensing aspects. The reactors involved and the conversion activities are distributed among approximately 25 countries, making this a subject which is best dealt with on an international basis. To foster direct communication in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the fifth of a series which began in 1978. The previous meetings were held at Argonne (International Meeting of Research Reactor Fuel Designers, Developers, and Fabricators, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, U.S.A., November 910, 1978), at Saclay (IAEA Consultants' Meeting on Research Reactor Core Conversions from HEU to LEU, Centre d'etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Saclay, France, December 12-14, 1979), at Argonne (International Meeting on Development, Fabrication and Application of Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, U.S.A., November 12-14, 1980) and at Juelich (Seminar on Research Reactor Operation and Use, Juelich Nuclear Research Center, Juelich, F.R.G., September 48, 1981). Proceedings from the two most recent previous meetings were published as ANL/RERTR/TM-3 (CONF-801144) and IAEA-SR-77. The spirit of this meeting differs slightly from that of the previous meetings. The advances which have been made and the growing maturity of the effort have caused a gradual shift of emphasis away from those topics which dominated the floor during the first meetings, such as fuel and methods development, and towards topics which concern more

  13. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  14. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of quantitative hepatitis B virus surface antigen testing in pregnancy in predicting vertical transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Kochaksaraei, Golasa; Congly, Stephen E; Matwiy, Trudy; Castillo, Eliana; Martin, Steven R; Charlton, Carmen L; Coffin, Carla S

    2016-11-01

    Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can occur despite immunoprophylaxis in mothers with high HBV DNA levels (>5-7 log 10 IU/ml). Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) testing could be used as a surrogate marker to identify high viral load carriers, but there is limited data in pregnancy. We conducted a prospective observational study to determine the cost-effectiveness and utility of qHBsAg as a valid surrogate marker of HBV DNA. Pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B were recruited from a tertiary referral centre. HBV DNA levels and qHBsAg were assessed in the second to third trimester. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's rank correlation and student's t-test. The cost-effectiveness of qHBsAg as compared to HBV DNA testing was calculated. Ninety nine women with 103 pregnancies, median age 32 years, 65% Asian, 23% African and 12% other [Hispanic, Caucasian] were enrolled. Overall, 23% (23/99) were HBV e Ag (HBeAg)-positive. A significant correlation between qHBsAg and HBV DNA levels was noted in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.79, P < 0.05) but not in HBeAg-negative patients (r = 0.17, P = 0.06). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal qHBsAg cut-off values for predicting maternal viraemia associated with immunoprophylaxis failure (i.e., HBV DNA ≥7 log 10 IU/ml) was 4.3 log 10 IU/ml (accuracy 98.7%, sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 94.4%) (95% CI, 97-100%, P < 0.05). Use of HBV DNA as compared to qHBsAg costs approximately $20 000 more per infection prevented. In resource poor regions, qHBsAg could be used as a more cost-effective marker for high maternal viraemia, and indicate when anti-HBV nucleos/tide analogue therapy should be used to prevent HBV immunoprophylaxis failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Design, construction and testing of replacement nuclear coolant pump stators to meet today's equipment reliability expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, L.; Howell, D.

    2005-01-01

    The reliability expectations of equipment and components in today's nuclear power plant are much greater than three or more decades ago when nuclear plants were first constructed due to economic impact of a failure. Very few components in a pressurized water reactor plant can have as much impact of the plants capacity factor as a catastrophic failure of a reactor coolant pump winding. This paper describes the maintenance approach taken by one North American utility in attempt to preclude such failures. The paper will discuss the challenges of the reactor coolant pump application and the enhancements made in the winding design and construction by the supplier to address failure mechanisms so as to better meet present reliability expectations in accordance with dedicated specifications. The paper will also present the in-process and final testing requirements and limits imposed in an attempt to ensure quality of the machine windings, along with selected test results from the stators that have been designed and constructed to these specifications to date. (author)

  17. Women’s Attitudes towards the Option to Choose between Karyotyping and Rapid Targeted Testing during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique J. A. Kooper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pregnant women, referred because of an increased risk of fetal Down syndrome, who underwent an invasive prenatal procedure were offered a choice between karyotyping and rapid targeted testing. This study aims to assess women’s attitudes and experiences towards what option to choose. Methods. A retrospective multicentre survey (2008–2010 was conducted among 1370 women. General questions were asked about decision making issues, followed by personal questions about their experiences in choice making, test preference, influence of others, and possible regrets. Results. In total, 90.1% of the respondents (N=825 indicated that pregnant women are able to choose, although 33.1% stated that the choice can best be made by a professional. 18.4% indicated that making a choice places a burden on women. In 96.4%, respondents preferred to have the option to choose again in case of a next pregnancy, whereas 2.7% preferred the choice to be made by a professional. Regret was indicated by 1.2%. Decision making was influenced by others in 64.9%. A slightly higher preference for karyotyping was indicated by 52.7% of the respondents. Conclusions. Positive attitudes and experiences were expressed towards the option to choose. Respondents took decisions freely, although sometimes influenced by a partner or a professional, to follow their individual perspectives.

  18. IFPA meeting 2014 workshop report : Animal models to study pregnancy pathologies; new approaches to study human placental exposure to xenobiotics; biomarkers of pregnancy pathologies; placental genetics and epigenetics; the placenta and stillbirth and fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbaux, S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Favaron, P. O.; Gil, S.; Gallot, D.; Golos, T. G.; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A.; Guibourdenche, J.; Heazell, A. E. P.; Jansson, T.; Laprevote, O.; Lewis, R. M.; Miller, R. K.; Monk, D.; Novakovic, B.; Oudejans, C.; Parast, M.; Peugnet, P.; Pfarrer, C.; Pinar, H.; Roberts, C. T.; Robinson, W.; Saffery, R.; Salomon, C.; Sexton, A.; Staff, A. C.; Suter, M.; Tarrade, A.; Wallace, J.; Vaillancourt, C.; Vaiman, D.; Worton, S. A.; Lash, G. E.

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2014 there were six themed workshops, five of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered

  19. Gynecologic cancers in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amant, Frédéric; Halaska, Michael J; Fumagalli, Monica

    2014-01-01

    insights and more experience were gained since the first consensus meeting 5 years ago. METHODS: Members of the European Society of Gynecological Oncology task force "Cancer in Pregnancy" in concert with other international experts reviewed the existing literature on their respective areas of expertise....... The summaries were subsequently merged into a complete article that served as a basis for discussion during the consensus meeting. All participants approved the final article. RESULTS: In the experts' view, cancer can be successfully treated during pregnancy in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team...... to provide throughout the pregnancy period. Diagnostic procedures, including staging examinations and imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging and sonography, are preferable. Pelvic surgery, either open or laparoscopic, as part of a treatment protocol, may reveal beneficial outcomes and is preferably...

  20. 76 FR 21870 - Meeting of the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... research for the next 3 years. 7. Public's Accessibility to the Meeting: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b and 41 CFR 102-3.140 through 102-3.165, and the availability of space, this meeting is open to the public. 8...

  1. Congenital bladder exstrophy associated with Duogynon hormonal pregnancy tests-signal for teratogenicity or consumer report bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümmler, Gregor; Rißmann, Anke; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2014-06-01

    A combination of ethinylestradiol and 10mg norethisterone under the brand names of Duogynon (Germany) or Primodos (UK) was used as a pregnancy test until the 1970s. Until very recently there was continuing public concern about the safety of these drugs and legal proceedings were instituted against the medicinal authorization holder. Given the lack of epidemiological studies focusing on Duogynon/Primodos, the present study evaluates 296 consumer reports of the German Duogynon database and compares the reported birth defects with data from a population based birth registry. The most striking result is an increase of bladder exstrophy (OR=37.27; 95%-CI 14.56-95.28). Neural tube defects (OR=2.99; 95%-CI 1.85-4.84) and renal agenesis (OR=2.53; 95%-CI 1.17-5.45) were also significantly increased. Bladder exstrophy may be a yet undetected teratogenic effect of Duogynon, but may also represent a reporting bias. The present study highlights the difficulties of evaluating consumer reports which may be influenced by public media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Motor and memory testing of long-lived pregnancy-associated plasma protein--a knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Emily J; Grell, Jacquelyn A; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2014-12-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an IGF binding protein protease, have been shown to be resistant to experimentally induced atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy, and, in the laboratory environment, live 30-40% longer than wild-type littermates in association with delayed incidence and occurrence of age-related neoplasms and degenerative diseases. PAPP-A is highly expressed in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the mouse brain. Therefore, the studies presented here were aimed at determining motor behavior, learning and retention in PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates with age. Balance and coordination were assessed using an accelerating rotarod; learning and memory were assessed in a Stone T-maze. Time on the rotarod decreased with age but there was no significant difference between PAPP-A KO and WT mice at any of the testing ages. Latency to reach the goal box and number of errors committed in the Stone T-maze did not change with age and there were no significant differences between PAPP-A KO and WT mice. Lack of PAPP-A in mice did not impact central regulation of coordination, learning or memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in the avidity era: A 14-year experience at the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy, Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Michele; Borchi, Beatrice; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Sterrantino, Gaetana; Brogi, Michela; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Lorini, Chiara; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Colao, Maria Grazia; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test (IgM IFAT) for the diagnosis of acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy. Pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis referred to the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy during the period 1998-2012 were retrospectively enrolled. All women were tested with a panel of serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG avidity and IgM IFAT. On the basis of anamnestic, clinical, and serological criteria, pregnant women were classified into three groups: recently infected (RI), latently infected (LI), and doubtful latently infected (DLI). Patients classified as DLI were excluded from the analysis. The association between IgM IFAT (positive or negative) and the diagnosis of infection (acute or chronic) was assessed. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the IgM IFAT were calculated. A total of 810 pregnant women were enrolled in the study: 302 in the RI group and 508 in the LI group. Fifty-two women classified as DLI were excluded. IgM IFAT was positive in 172 out of 302 (56.9%) pregnant women in the RI group and in 29 out of 508 (5.7%) in the LI group. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgM IFAT in predicting RI was 85.6% and 78.6%, respectively. IgM IFAT has reasonable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing recent infection and, mostly in case of borderline avidity test, could be considered as a further aid for an accurate diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Comparison of CO breath testing and women's self-reporting of smoking behaviour for identifying smoking during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Deborah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare services often use a carbon monoxide (CO breath test to validate self-reported smoking and to assess reductions in smoking habit. A cut-off level of ≥ 8 parts per million (p.p.m. is used to identify smoking. This cut-off requires further validation in pregnant women. Methods Data on self-reported smoking were assessed in conjunction with breath CO levels. Subjects in the study were 2548 women attending antenatal booking during 12 months. Results 546/2584 (21.4% women self-reported as current smokers. A cut-off of 8 ppm identified only 325/546 self-reported smokers (sensitivity 59.4%. 27/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels greater than 8 ppm (specificity 98.7%. Sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that CO cut-off levels of 2 or 3 p.p.m. resulted in the best sensitivity and specificity for discriminating apparent smokers and non-smokers. A cut-off of 2 p.p.m. would have identified 468/546 of self-reported smokers (sensitivity 86%. 206/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels > 2 ppm (specificity 90 %. If all these women were 'true' smokers, the real prevalence of smoking in pregnancy was 26.5% (752/2548 and 27% of true smokers provided false answers to the self-reported question at maternity booking. Conclusion At 8 ppm, many smokers are missed and there may be gross underestimating of levels of smoking in a pregnant population. Results emphasise the need to support a lower cut-off level for the breath CO test closer to 2 or 3 p.p.m. These cut-offs may be more appropriate in the antenatal clinic setting, and are in line with recent recommendations in the non-pregnant population.

  5. Teenage pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or family member, your partner, or your labor coach with you. Stay Healthy During Your Pregnancy You ... Pregnancy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  6. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  7. Summary Report of the 1. Research Coordination Meeting on Testing and Improving the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Simakov, S.P.

    2013-09-01

    In accordance with the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee in May 2012, the Nuclear Data Section of IAEA has initiated a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP number F41031) with the main goal to test, validate and improve the international dosimetry library for fission and fusion (IRDFF). The output of this CRP will be a reference dosimetry database of cross sections and decay data with corresponding documentation. It will serve to the needs of fission, fusion and accelerator applications. The first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was held 1 to 5 July 2013 in IAEA. At this meeting, the attendees discussed the objectives of the whole CRP, presented their contributions and elaborated on consolidated recommendations and actions for implementation over the next 1.5 year period. This Summary Report documents the individual contributions and joint decisions made during this meeting. (author)

  8. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by blood loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ... protect against sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that can cause PID. If ... about the pregnancy being ectopic, talk to your doctor — it's important ...

  9. Pregnancy & Motherhood >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking when pregnant; Pregnancy and smoking; Smoking during pregnancy; Pregnant women smoking; Smoking when pregnant effects; Pregnancy and smoking effects; Pregnant quit smoking; Pregnant stop smoking; How to quit smoking when pregnant; Smoking and fertility; Smoking and infertility; Mom smoking; Smoking around children; Second hand smoke and children

  10. Routine Tests in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... given to prevent an Rh-negative person’s antibody response to Rh-positive blood cells. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): Infections that are spread by sexual contact, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, herpes, syphilis, and infection with human ...

  11. "Men don't think that far" - Interviewing men in Sweden about chlamydia and HIV testing during pregnancy from a discursive masculinities construction perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Monica; Boman, Jens; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-06-01

    We used qualitative research design to discursively explore expectant fathers' perceptions of chlamydia and HIV, and their masculinity constructions about testing, and explored how they talked about their potential resistance towards testing and their pre-test emotions. Twenty men were offered chlamydia and HIV testing at the beginning of their partner's pregnancy. Those who agreed to be tested were interviewed in-depth; those who declined testing were also interviewed. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analysis was inspired by discourse analysis on masculinity. Three discursive themes: Men prefer to suppress their vulnerability to STIs, Body and biology differ between men and women and Men have mixed emotions around STI testing underscore the informants' conversations and sometimes conflicting thoughts about STI testing. The majority of men talked about pregnancy as a feminine territory, raised uncertainties about men's roles in the transmission of STIs, and talked about women's and men's essentially different bodies and biology, where few men realised that they could infect both their partner and the unborn child. This knowledge gap that men have must become apparent to healthcare providers, and policy makers must give men equal access to the reproductive arena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy with Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Negi, Neha; Aggarwal, Aakash; Bodh, Vijay; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Even though pregnancy is rare with cirrhosis and advanced liver disease, but it may co-exist in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension as liver function is preserved but whenever encountered together is a complex clinical dilemma. Pregnancy in a patient with portal hypertension presents a special challenge to the obstetrician as so-called physiological hemodynamic changes associated with pregnancy, needed for meeting demands of the growing fetus, worsen the portal hypertension thereby putting mother at risk of potentially life-threatening complications like variceal hemorrhage. Risks of variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation increase many fold during pregnancy. Optimal management revolves round managing the portal hypertension and its complications. Thus management of such cases requires multi-speciality approach involving obstetricians experienced in dealing with high risk cases, hepatologists, anesthetists and neonatologists. With advancement in medical field, pregnancy is not contra-indicated in these women, as was previously believed. This article focuses on the different aspects of pregnancy with portal hypertension with special emphasis on specific cause wise treatment options to decrease the variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation. Based on extensive review of literature, management from pre-conceptional period to postpartum is outlined in order to have optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25755552

  13. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Methods Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants’ intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. Results The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. Conclusions This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:24410764

  15. Messages that increase women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-13

    Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants' intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.

  16. Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal liver function tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies, with many potential causes, including coincidental liver disease (most commonly viral hepatitis or gallstones and underlying chronic liver disease. Pruritus in pregnancy is common, affecting 23% of pregnancies, of which a small proportion will have obstetric cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a cholestatic disorder characterized by pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4-1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19­60%, meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%, fetal bradycardia (14%, fetal distress (22-41%, and fetal loss (0.4-4.1%, particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels >40 μmol/L. Important ICP-induced changes in serum profiles of amidated bile acids were observed, involving both a marked increase in cholic acid concentration and a shift towards a higher proportion of taurine-conjugated species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (10-20 mg/kg/d is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 37-38th week when lung maturity has been established.

  17. Single-gene testing combined with single nucleotide polymorphism microarray preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy: a novel approach in optimizing pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Paul R; Benner, Andrew; Rechitsky, Svetlana; Kuliev, Anver; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Pauling, Dana; Kearns, William G

    2011-04-01

    To describe a method of amplifying DNA from blastocyst trophectoderm cells (two or three cells) and simultaneously performing 23-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and single-gene preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Case report. IVF clinic and preimplantation genetic diagnostic centers. A 36-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1011, and her husband who both were carriers of GM(1) gangliosidosis. The couple wished to proceed with microarray analysis for aneuploidy detection coupled with DNA sequencing for GM(1) gangliosidosis. An IVF cycle was performed. Ten blastocyst-stage embryos underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Twenty-three-chromosome microarray analysis for aneuploidy and specific DNA sequencing for GM(1) gangliosidosis mutations were performed. Viable pregnancy. After testing, elective single embryo transfer was performed followed by an intrauterine pregnancy with documented fetal cardiac activity by ultrasound. Twenty-three-chromosome microarray analysis for aneuploidy detection and single-gene evaluation via specific DNA sequencing and linkage analysis are used for preimplantation diagnosis for single-gene disorders and aneuploidy. Because of the minimal amount of genetic material obtained from the day 3 to 5 embryos (up to 6 pg), these modalities have been used in isolation of each other. The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy coupled with testing for single-gene disorders via trophectoderm biopsy is a novel approach to maximize pregnancy outcomes. Although further investigation is warranted, preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy and single-gene testing seem destined to be used increasingly to optimize ultimate pregnancy success. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  19. Proceedings of a C.S.N.I. specialist meeting on instrumented pre-cracked Charpy testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullaert, R A [Fracture Control Corp., 340 South Kellogg Avenue, Suite G, Goleta, California 93017 (United States)

    1981-11-15

    This report presents the status of the testing and data analysis procedures for the instrumented pre-cracked Charpy test with emphasis on the application of the test technique to the nuclear industry. The report (Proceedings) consist of invited technical papers by specialists in the field and a synopsis of the comments, conclusions, and recommendations reached in a workshop session. The CSNl-sponsored and EPRI-hosted meeting confirmed both the popularity of the test technique in the nuclear industry and the problems associated with the test technique due to the lack of a national or international consensus standard. Major emphasis in the meeting was devoted to evaluating the existing industry testing procedure (EPRI procedure) and proposed national standards (ASTM, ASK). The EPRI procedures were considered adequate by specialists concerned with engineering applications, but too restrictive by specialists concerned with research applications. As a result of the conference, a compilation of state-of-the-art papers is now available to code and standard committees. Specific comments concerning test and data analysis procedures, applications in the nuclear industry, and future research areas are also contained in the proceedings

  20. Proceedings of the 1994 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This meeting brought together participants in the international effort to minimize and eventually eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civilian nuclear programs. Papers cover the following topics: National programs; fuel cycle; nuclear fuels; analyses; advanced reactors; and reactor conversions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. 78 FR 7850 - Sixty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 24, 2013. Richard F. Gonzalez, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, ANG-A12, Federal... Remarks, Introductions. Introduction of FAA Representative Approval of Summary from the Sixtieth Meeting... Section 4 Section 5 Section 8 Section 16 Section 20 Section 21 New and Unfinished Business Errata Sheet...

  2. Proceedings of the 1994 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This meeting brought together participants in the international effort to minimize and eventually eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civilian nuclear programs. Papers cover the following topics: National programs; fuel cycle; nuclear fuels; analyses; advanced reactors; and reactor conversions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  3. 76 FR 59481 - Fifty Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Meeting (RTCA Paper No. 166-11/SC 135-685). Review Approved Revised SC135 TOR (Terms of Reference..., RTCA Advisory Committee. [FR Doc. 2011-24637 Filed 9-23-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-13-P ...

  4. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestman, Jorge H

    2012-10-01

    Successful outcome in pregnancy hyperthyroidism depends on the cause, interpretation of laboratory tests, and careful use of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Planning of a pregnancy in a woman with active or past history of Graves' hyperthyroidism is mandatory in order to avoid complications. Fetal health may be affected by three factors: poor control of maternal hyperthyroidism, titer of maternal TRAb, and inappropriate use of ATD. Careful assessment of thyroid function through pregnancy and evaluation of fetal development by ultrasonography is the cornerstone for a successful outcome. In a subgroup of women previously treated with ablation therapy, those whose serum TSRAb titers remained elevated, are at risk of having a fetus/neonate with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Use of ATD during lactation is well tolerated, if recommended guidelines are followed. Women during their childbearing age with active Graves' hyperthyroidism should plan their pregnancy. Causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy include Graves' disease or autonomous adenoma, and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis as a consequence of excessive production of human chroionic gonadotropin by the placenta. Careful interpretation of thyroid function tests and frequent adjustment of ATD is of utmost importance in the outcome of pregnancy. Graves' hyperthyroidism may relapse early in pregnancy or at the end of the first year postpartum.

  5. Stillbirth in diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2011-01-01

    , but more than 50% of stillbirths are unexplained. Majority of stillbirths are characterised by suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy. Foetal hypoxia and cardiac dysfunction secondary to poor glycaemic control are probably the most important pathogenic factors in stillbirths among pregnant diabetic...... women. There is thus a need for new strategies for improving glycaemic control to near-normal levels throughout pregnancy and for preventing and treating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Antenatal surveillance tests including ultrasound examinations of the foetal growth rate, kick counting and non...

  6. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  7. In-Pile Testing and Instrumentation for Development of Generation-IV Fuels and Materials. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    For many years, the increase in efficiency in the production of nuclear electricity has been an economic challenge in many countries which have developed this kind of energy. The increase in fuel burnup and fuel residence time leads to a reduction in the volume of fresh fuel loaded and spent fuel discharged, respectively. More demanding nuclear fuel cycle parameters are combined with a need to operate nuclear power plants with maximal availability and load factors, in load-follow mode and with longer fuel cycles. In meeting these requirements, fuel has to operate in a demanding environment of high radiation fields, high temperatures, high mechanical stresses and high coolant flow. Requirements of increased fuel reliability and minimal fuel failures also remain in force. Under such circumstances, continuous development of more radiation resistant fuel materials, especially advanced cladding, careful and incremental examinations, and improved understanding and modelling of high burnup fuel behaviour are required. Following a recommendation of the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology, the Technical Meeting on In-pile Testing and Instrumentation for Development of Generation-IV Fuels and Materials was held in Halden, Norway, on 21-24 August 2012. The purpose of the meeting was to review the current status and the progress in methods and technologies used for the in-pile testing of nuclear fuel achieved since the previous IAEA meeting on In-core Instrumentation and Reactor Core Assessment, also held in Halden in 2007. Emphasis was placed on advanced techniques applied for the understanding of high burnup fuel behaviour of water cooled power reactors that represent the vast majority of the current nuclear reactor fleet. However, the meeting also included papers and discussion on testing techniques applied or developed specifically for new fuel and structural materials considered for Generation-IV systems. The meeting was attended by 43

  8. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  9. Optimal timing of periodontal disease treatment for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes: before or during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Goldenberg, Robert L; Offenbacher, Steven; Qian, Xu

    2011-08-01

    Several large randomized controlled clinical trials failed to find that standard periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduces the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, preterm birth and low birthweight). However, treating periodontal disease during pregnancy may be too late to reduce the inflammation that is related to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, periodontal treatment during pregnancy can cause bacteremia, which itself may initiate the pathway leading to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Finally, the periodontal treatments provided during pregnancy are not always effective in preventing the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy. Pregnancy may not be an appropriate period for periodontal intervention(s). We hypothesize that periodontal treatment before pregnancy may reduce the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to test if treating periodontal disease in the prepregnancy period reduces the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proceedings of the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists' Meeting on Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the proceedings of a Specialists' Meeting on Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing that was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on October 23-25, 1992. The meeting was jointly sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In particular, the International Working Group (IWG) on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (LMNPP) was the IAEA sponsor, and the Principal Working Group 3 (PWG-3) (Primary System Component Integrity) of the Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) was the NEA's sponsor. This meeting was preceded by two prior international activities that were designed to examine the state-of-the-art in fracture analysis capabilities and emphasized applications to the safety evaluation of nuclear power facilities. The first of those two activities was an IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing that was held at the Staatliche Materialprufungsanstalt (MPA) in Stuttgart, Germany, on May 25-27, 1988; the proceedings of that meeting were published 1991.1 The second activity was the CSNI/PWG-3's Fracture Assessment Group's Project FALSIRE (Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments). The proceedings of the FALSIRE workshop that was held in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on May 8-10, 1990, was recently published by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Those previous activities identified capabilities and shortcomings of various fracture analysis methods based on analyses of six available large-scale experiments. Different modes of fracture behavior, which ranged from brittle to ductile, were considered. In addition, geometry, size, constraint and multiaxial effects were considered. While generally good predictive capabilities were demonstrated for brittle fracture, issues were identified relative to predicting fracture behavior at higher

  11. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle... passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads. Specifically, FTA proposed to change the average...

  12. Search for a test for fracture potential of asphalt mixes : close out meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Presentation Outline : 1)Part A Introduction : 2)Part B The OT test method : 3)Part C Surrogate crack tests (6 No.) : 4)Part D Comparison of the crack test methods : 5)Part E Summary & recommendations : 6)Miscellaneous & discussions

  13. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  14. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  15. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  16. Procedures and techniques for the management of experimental fuels from research and test reactors. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Almost all countries that have undertaken fuel development programs for power, research or military reactors have experimental and exotic fuels, either stored at the original research reactors where they have been tested or at some away-from-reactor storage facility. These spent fuel liabilities cannot follow the standard treatment recognized for modern power reactor fuels. They include experimental and exotic fuels ranging from liquids to coated spheres and in configurations ranging from full test assemblies to post irradiation examination specimens set in resin. This document contains an overview of the extent of the problem of managing experimental and exotic fuels from research and test reactors and an expert evaluation of the overall situation in countries which participated in the meeting

  17. Management and storage of spent nuclear fuel at research and test reactors. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Irradiated fuel from research and test reactors has been stored at various facilities for several decades. As these facilities age and approach or exceed their original design lifetimes, there is mounting concern about closure of the fuel cycle and about the integrity of ageing fuels from the materials point of view as well as some concern about the loss of self-protection of the fuels as their activity decays. It is clear that an international effort is necessary to give these problems sufficient exposure and to ensure that work continues on appropriate solutions. The future of nuclear research, with its many benefits to mankind, is in jeopardy in some countries, especially countries without nuclear power programmes, because effective solutions for extended interim storage and final disposition of spent research reactor fuels are not yet available. An advisory Group meeting was convened in Vienna to consider a Database on the Management and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Research and Test Reactors. Sixteen experts from sixteen different countries participated in the Advisory Group meeting and presented country reports, which together represent an overview of the technologies used in spent fuel management and storage at research and test reactors world-wide. The sixteen country reports together with the database summary are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Current Knowledge on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs from Animal Biology to Humans, from Pregnancy to Adulthood: Highlights from a National Italian Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Street

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife has often presented and suggested the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Animal studies have given us an important opportunity to understand the mechanisms of action of many chemicals on the endocrine system and on neurodevelopment and behaviour, and to evaluate the effects of doses, time and duration of exposure. Although results are sometimes conflicting because of confounding factors, epidemiological studies in humans suggest effects of EDCs on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism and obesity, puberty, fertility, and on carcinogenesis mainly through epigenetic mechanisms. This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on this topic.

  19. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  20. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography and Contrast Sensitivity Test for Observing Fundus Changes of Patients With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Zou, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenying; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wenying

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the fundus changes of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIHS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology and contrast sensitivity (CS) tests.Ninety-eight patients with PIHS underwent routine eye examinations including vision correction, fundus examination, OCT, and CS tests. The CS test was performed at low, medium, and high frequency, respectively. Moreover, the difference in CS tests between 2 groups was analyzed by independent-samples T test. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and linear regression model were used to detect the correlation of OCT with CS, respectively. Meanwhile Satterthwaite approximate T test was adopted for pairwise comparisons after nonparametric analysis of variance.The OCT test revealed that 56.76% of the examined eyes showed shallow retinal detachment in the macula lutea and around the optic disk. The differences in CS at each spatial frequency between the case and control group were statistically significant (P tests might be valuable methods in observing fundus changes for PIHS patients.

  1. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  2. Phytoestrogens in Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jarrell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The hormonal milieu associated with pregnancy has become a focus of interest owing to potential links with the developmental origins of health and disease. Phytoestrogens are hormonally active plant-derived chemicals that may have an impact on human reproductive processes. However, developmental exposure to phytoestrogens has not been well characterized and thus our objective was to quantify phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and lactation. Methods. Women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study during counseling for prenatal genetic information. Women who had an indication for a genetic amniocentesis on the basis of late maternal age were approached for inclusion. They completed an environmental questionnaire; a sample of amniotic fluid was collected for karyotype, blood was collected from women during pregnancy and at birth, from the umbilical cord and breast milk. Samples were tested for the presence of daidzein and genistein by GC Mass Spectroscopy. Findings. Phytoestrogens are commonly found in pregnant women’s serum and amniotic fluid during pregnancy. There is a sex difference in the concentrations with higher levels in amniotic fluid containing female fetuses. This difference was not present in maternal serum. Soy ingestion increases amniotic fluid phytoestrogen concentrations in female and male fetuses. The presence and concentrations of phytoestrogens did not differ in relation to common pregnancy complications or preexisting infertility.

  3. Use of a National Continuing Medical Education Meeting to Provide Simulation-Based Training in Temporary Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion Skills: A Pre-Test Post-Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G Clark

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs. Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Objectives: Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Design: Pre-test – post-test study. Setting: 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Participants: Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Measurements: Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Methods: Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Results: Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21. Seventeen of 22 participants (77% completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001. All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics

  4. Use of a national continuing medical education meeting to provide simulation-based training in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion skills: a pre-test post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and

  5. TEST OF ENGLISH FOR AVIATION PERSONNEL TO MEET ICAO LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the actual problem of the assessment of English language proficiency of aviation personnel. The paper presents an English language test, which is used for professional pilots and air traffic controllers.

  6. Vertical Transmission of Hypopituitarism: Critical Importance of Appropriate Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Levothyroxine Therapy During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Christopher J.; Radovick, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Background Typically, newborns with congenital hypothyroidism are asymptomatic at birth, having been exposed to euthyroid mothers. However, hypopituitarism may be associated with central hypothyroidism, preserved fertility, and autosomal dominant inheritance, requiring increased attention to thyroid management during pregnancy. Patient Findings A woman with a history of growth hormone deficiency and central hypothyroidism gave birth to a term male neonate appropriate for gestational age. Due to low thyrotropin (TSH) in the second trimester, the levothyroxine dose was decreased by the obstetrician, and free T4 was low throughout the latter half of pregnancy. The neonatal laboratory evaluation showed central hypothyroidism with a low T4 of 2.1 μg/dL (4.5–11.5) and an inappropriately normal TSH of 0.98 uIU/mL (0.5–4.5); undetectable growth hormone, IGF-I, and IGFBP3; a normal cortisol level; and a normal gonadotropin surge. After initiation of levothyroxine in the first week, both tone and feeding tolerance improved. However, the patient was found to have hearing loss, gross motor delay, and speech delay. Summary In this report, we review a case of vertical transmission of a dominant negative POU1F1 mutation in which fetal abnormalities due to the hypothyroxinemic state during gestation may have been exacerbated by a decrease in the mother's levothyroxine dose based on a low TSH in early gestation. Both mother and fetus were unable to synthesize sufficient thyroid hormone, which may be responsible for the patient's clinical presentation. Conclusion This case underscores several important points in the management of women with hypopituitarism. First, it is important that patients and clinicians are both aware of the differences in etiology, as well as appropriate screening and treatment, of primary versus central hypothyroidism. Second, it is necessary to monitor the thyroid hormone status closely during pregnancy to prevent fetal sequelae of maternal

  7. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data. Highlights of some of our research follow Obesity In the United States, obesity during pregnancy is ... trial among adults with glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Results identified intervention strategies that reduced the ...

  8. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or mild symptoms during pregnancy. Many women work their full term and travel while they are pregnant. Others may have to cut back on their hours or stop working. Some women require bed rest ...

  9. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby, making plans for relatives or an adoptive family to raise the baby, or terminating the pregnancy. ... The decision to place a baby with an adoptive family is legal and binding. However, most states do ...

  10. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Savasci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic infection that caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The clinical progress is generally asymptomatic in patient with normal immune system, on the other hand severe clinical presentations seen in patients with immune deficiency or pregnancy. Congenital toxoplasmosis can emerge due to contamination during pregnancy but 6-8 weeks prior to pregnancy are also at risk. Infants with toxoplasmosis have some clinical semptoms such as chorioretinitis, epilepsia, hypotonia, psychomotor disorders, mental retardation, encephalitis, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, hepatosplenomegaly. Early diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent treatment. may prevent malformations. Toxoplasmosis diagnosis during pregnancy is mostly based on IgM and IgG antibody screening tests. While IgM indicates the acute infection, it disappears in early period and can be detected in low consantrations through long ages. Therefore IgG avidity test takes more place in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. High avidity levels indicate acquired infection prior than 16 weeks, so that it is recommended to perform the test in the first trimester. Low IgG avidity level may indicate a newly onset infection. Amniotic fluid T.gondii PCR, anomaly screening with ultrasonography, Toxoplasma gondii cyst dying with Wright-Giemsa dye in plasental and fetal tissue are the other diagnostic tools can be performed during pregnancy. Avidity test methods during the 16 weeks of pregnancy reduce repeating serum analysis, amniotic fluid PCR reguirement, unnecessary antibiotic treatments and noncompulsory abortus. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 767-772

  11. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, P. J.; Mol, B. W.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Ankum, W. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy can now often be made by non-invasive methods due to sensitive pregnancy tests (in urine and serum) and high resolution transvaginal sonography, which have been integrated in diagnostic algorithms. These algorithms, in combination with the increased

  12. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XIV international meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suripto, Asmedi; Hastowo, Hudi; Hersubeno, J B [eds.

    1995-07-01

    Apart from the progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program the national programs of Indonesia, Japan and China were presented. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed with a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR program, has concentrated its efforts on technology transfer and implementation activities consistent with the guidance received from the Department of Energy at the end of 1990. A number of presentations were devoted to development of new fuel uranium silicide fuel elements, fuel irradiation testing and reactor core conversions from highly enriched (HEU) to slightly enriched uranium (LEU). Calculations and measurements of converted reactor core parameters were shown related to safety test and analysis. Fuel cycle issue were discussed as well. One should note that a significant number of papers were devoted to Indonesian GA SIWABESSY reactor core conversion and related topics.

  13. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XIV international meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, Asmedi; Hastowo, Hudi; Hersubeno, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Apart from the progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program the national programs of Indonesia, Japan and China were presented. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed with a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR program, has concentrated its efforts on technology transfer and implementation activities consistent with the guidance received from the Department of Energy at the end of 1990. A number of presentations were devoted to development of new fuel uranium silicide fuel elements, fuel irradiation testing and reactor core conversions from highly enriched (HEU) to slightly enriched uranium (LEU). Calculations and measurements of converted reactor core parameters were shown related to safety test and analysis. Fuel cycle issue were discussed as well. One should note that a significant number of papers were devoted to Indonesian GA SIWABESSY reactor core conversion and related topics

  14. 1999 Annual meeting on non-destructive testing. 10. Anniversary of DGZfP in Germany. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The two proceedings volumes contain the 92 papers presented at the meeting, dealing with the following key subjects: Ultrasonic testing; industrial radiography and other testing methods using radiation; acoustic emission testing; materials charcaterization; training and certification; standards and other technical codes and regulations. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Attitudes Towards Prenatal Genetic Counseling, Prenatal Genetic Testing, and Termination of Pregnancy among Southeast and East Asian Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ginger J; Cameron, Carrie A; Czerwinski, Jennifer L; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Peterson, Susan K; Noblin, Sarah Jane

    2017-10-01

    Recognizing the heterogeneity of the Asian population with regards to acculturation, education, health awareness, and cultural values is vital for tailoring culturally sensitive and appropriate care. Prior studies show that cultural values influence perceptions of genetics within Asian populations. The reputation of the family unit factors into decisions such as pregnancy termination and disclosure of family medical history, and the nondirective model of American genetic counseling may conflict with the historical Asian model of paternalistic health care. Previous studies also provide conflicting evidence regarding correlations between education, acculturation, age, and awareness and perceptions of genetic testing. The aims of this study were to describe attitudes towards prenatal genetics among Southeast and East Asian women living in the United States for varying amounts of time and to explore sociocultural factors influencing those attitudes. Twenty-three Asian women who were members of Asian cultural organizations in the United States were interviewed via telephone about their attitudes towards prenatal genetic counseling, prenatal genetic testing, and termination of pregnancy. Responses were transcribed and coded for common themes using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged. In general, participants: (1) had diverse expectations for genetic counselors; (2) tended to weigh risks and benefits with regards to genetic testing decisions; (3) had mixed views on termination for lethal and non-lethal genetic conditions; and (4) identified cultural factors which influenced testing and termination such as lack of available resources, societal shame and stigma, and family pressure. These findings may allow prenatal genetic counselors to gain a richer, more nuanced understanding of their Asian patients and to offer culturally tailored prenatal genetic counseling.

  16. 75 FR 34463 - Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... patient population. In addition, the components of traditional LDTs were regulated individually by FDA as... field creates a competitive disadvantage and potential disincentive to innovation by other manufacturers...) Challenges for Laboratories, (3) Direct to Consumer Marketing of Testing, and (4) Education and Outreach...

  17. 77 FR 39501 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center) Clinical Reference Lab... Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN... 65203, 573-882-1273 U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory, 2490 Wilson St., Fort George...

  18. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  19. Loratadine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loratadine more frequently during pregnancy. Can taking loratadine cause other pregnancy problems? Loratadine is not expected to cause other pregnancy problems. A study of 161 women taking loratadine ...

  20. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV.This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants.Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times.HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for assessment of their treatment needs within three months of diagnosis

  1. The design and testing of sodium pumps in the UK to meet the CDFR cavitation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, G.E.; Macleod, I.D.; Wilkinson, D.

    2002-01-01

    A primary objective in the design of the sodium pumps for the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor has been to avoid cavitation during normal operation. This requirement arises from the need to avoid blade erosion and also, in the case of the Primary Sodium Pumps (PSP), the generation of cavitation noise which might otherwise interfere with instrumentation installed to detect noise of boiling in the core. This paper outlines the approach adopted to achieve a pump design with good cavitation performance and the programme of model testing carried out in a water loop to establish the cavitation boundaries for incipient cavitation of selected designs using both visual and acoustic techniques

  2. Is self-assessment of medical abortion using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test combined with a checklist and phone text messages feasible in South African primary healthcare settings? A randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Constant

    Full Text Available To evaluate feasibility of self-assessment of medical abortion outcome using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test, checklist and text messages. The study assessed whether accurate self-assessment required a demonstration of the low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test or if verbal instructions suffice.This non-inferiority trial enrolled 525 adult women from six public sector abortion clinics. Eligible women were undergoing medical abortion at gestations within 63 days. Consenting women completed a baseline interview, received standard care with mifepristone and home-administration of misoprostol. All were given a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test and checklist for use 14 days later, sent text reminders, and asked to attend in-clinic follow-up after two weeks. Women were randomly assigned 1:1 to an instruction-only group (n = 262; issued with pre-scripted instructions on the low-sensitivity pregnancy test, or a demonstration group (n = 263; performed practice tests guided by lay health workers. The primary outcome was accurate self-assessment of incomplete abortion, defined as needing additional misoprostol or vacuum aspiration. Analysis was by intention to treat and a non-inferiority margin was set to six percentage points. Women's acceptability of their abortion procedure and preferences for follow-up were also assessed.Follow-up was 81% for abortion outcome, confirmed in-clinic at two weeks or self-reported within six months. Non-inferiority of instruction-only to a demonstration was inconclusive for accurate self-assessment (risk difference for instruction-only -demonstration: -2.5%; 95%CI: -9% to 4%. Comparing instruction-only to demonstration groups, 99% and 100% found the pregnancy test easy to do; and 91% and 93% respectively chose the pregnancy test, checklist and text messages for abortion outcome assessment in the future.Routine self-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test, checklist and text messages is feasible and

  3. Is self-assessment of medical abortion using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test combined with a checklist and phone text messages feasible in South African primary healthcare settings? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Daskilewicz, Kristen; Myer, Landon; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of self-assessment of medical abortion outcome using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test, checklist and text messages. The study assessed whether accurate self-assessment required a demonstration of the low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test or if verbal instructions suffice. This non-inferiority trial enrolled 525 adult women from six public sector abortion clinics. Eligible women were undergoing medical abortion at gestations within 63 days. Consenting women completed a baseline interview, received standard care with mifepristone and home-administration of misoprostol. All were given a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test and checklist for use 14 days later, sent text reminders, and asked to attend in-clinic follow-up after two weeks. Women were randomly assigned 1:1 to an instruction-only group (n = 262; issued with pre-scripted instructions on the low-sensitivity pregnancy test), or a demonstration group (n = 263; performed practice tests guided by lay health workers). The primary outcome was accurate self-assessment of incomplete abortion, defined as needing additional misoprostol or vacuum aspiration. Analysis was by intention to treat and a non-inferiority margin was set to six percentage points. Women's acceptability of their abortion procedure and preferences for follow-up were also assessed. Follow-up was 81% for abortion outcome, confirmed in-clinic at two weeks or self-reported within six months. Non-inferiority of instruction-only to a demonstration was inconclusive for accurate self-assessment (risk difference for instruction-only -demonstration: -2.5%; 95%CI: -9% to 4%). Comparing instruction-only to demonstration groups, 99% and 100% found the pregnancy test easy to do; and 91% and 93% respectively chose the pregnancy test, checklist and text messages for abortion outcome assessment in the future. Routine self-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test, checklist and text messages is feasible and preferred by women

  4. IFPA meeting 2009 workshops report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lash, G.E.; Burton, G.J.; Chamley, L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Workshops are an important part of the annual meeting of the International Federation of Placenta Associations (IFPA). At IFPA Meeting 2009 diverse topics were discussed in twelve themed workshops. Topics covered included: immune response to pregnancy; signaling between fetus and placenta...

  5. Pilates and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Adi

    2005-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a number of musculoskeletal problems. It is important to educate all mothers, as well as those involved in ante- and postnatal care with advice on bras and exercises that are safe in pregnancy (in particular pelvic floor exercises). There is not much that can be done to alter the inevitable physiological and hormonal changes of pregnancy. However, by strengthening the core stabilising muscles around the pelvis and spine, and improving the breathing pattern, it is hoped that one can optimise the body for the challenges it may face. Pilates is based on the principle that a central core is developed and then movements are introduced to challenge this core stability. This philosophy is clearly applicable in pregnancy--a significant test both mentally and physically on the mother's body. By maximising the mother's core stability before and during pregnancy, it should be possible to limit any potential harm. Returning to exercise soon after the birth is important for the mother's physical and mental wellbeing--she looks after her baby's body for nine months, who cares for hers?

  6. Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Many of the accomplishments of the air filtration programs achieved thus far have been due to the efforts of an informed working group concerned with high efficiency filters. The existence of this group has now spanned eleven conferences and has drawn expanded attendance and technical contributions at each one. From the original participants and their open and often argumentative mode of operation, the sessions have progressed to an invited audience with a permanent chairman and a prepared agenda. The most recent session of this group was devoted to a series of discussions on current interest subjects. Although the major portion of the group were from industry, government agencies, academic and contract investigators, over eight international groups were represented. All of the facets of the industrial complex were present, from the basic fiber suppliers, through media producers and, finally, to the filter unit fabricators. Various test facilities and evaluation groups also contributed to the overall process. R and D organizations from government and national laboratories, and academic institutions, all contributed status reports on work currently underway. Users at various levels expressed their problems and actively participated in the discussions. A review, in abstract form, of the items of deliberation is presented. The items are addressed in the order of their discussion, and not in any priority

  7. The design and testing of interactive hospital spaces to meet the needs of waiting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; McPherson, Amy; Shea, Geoffrey; McKeever, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    To design an innovative interactive media display in a pediatric hospital clinic waiting space that addresses the growing demand for accessible, contact-surface-free options for play. In healthcare settings, waiting can be anxiety provoking for children and their accompanying family members. Opportunities for positive distraction have been shown to reduce waiting anxiety, leading to positive health outcomes. An interactive media display, ScreenPlay, was created and evaluated using a participatory design approach and a combination of techniques including quality function deployment and mixed data elicitation methods (questionnaires, focus groups, and observations). The user and organizational design requirements were established and used to review contemporary strategies for positive distraction in healthcare waiting spaces and to conceptualize and test ScreenPlay. Ten staff members, 11 children/youths, and 6 parents participated in the design and evaluation of ScreenPlay. ScreenPlay provided a positive, engaging experience without the use of contact surfaces through which infections can be spread. It was accessible to children, youth, and adults of all motor abilities. All participants strongly agreed that the interactive media display would improve the healthcare waiting experience. ScreenPlay is an interactive display that is the result of a successful model for the design of healthcare waiting spaces that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, and responsive to the needs of its community. Design process, healing environments, hospital, interdisciplinary, pediatric.

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  10. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  11. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  13. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  14. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ... Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ...

  15. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  16. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy & Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Diseases with the potential to affect ... control. What are the effects of pregnancy on rheumatic disease? The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  18. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  19. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  20. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  1. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  2. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  7. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Your Checkup Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Syphilis in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  13. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  14. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Getting Ready for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Listeria and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Listeria and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Listeria and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy PFS013, January 2017 PDF Format Listeria and Pregnancy Fact Sheets Food Poisoning in Pregnant Women The ...

  18. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Pregnancy and vaccinoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galev, A; Nacheva, A

    2014-01-01

    Vaccinations protect woman and her fetus against different infectious diseases, but their application on pregnant should be extremely responsible. In this review I present information about some infectious diseases and vaccines during pregnancy. Women, planning to get pregnant should be advised to do serological tests in order to find out their immune status against some infections, leading to fetal congenital malformations (rubella, chicken pox, hepatitis B) and if necessary to get vaccinated at least a month before pregnancy. Despite the lack of vaccines against Cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus 19 and Toxoplasma gondii it is good to know woman's immune status against these infections in order to clarify the clinical approach in case of future contact with sick or carriers. Parvovirus 19 could cause fetal death, while CMV could be transmitted to the child. Immune women wouldn't get sick and wouldn't transmit Toxoplasmagondii to the fetus during pregnancy. Recommended vaccines before pregnancy include vaccines against flu, human papilloma virus, MMR (morbilli, measles, rubella), Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough), chicken pox. CDC-Atlanta recommends during pregnancy two vaccines--against flu, in case it wasn't done before pregnancy, and Tdap during every pregnancy between 27-th and 36-th gestation week. Whooping cough is very dangerous for the baby during the first two months after birth, while it is not yet vaccinated. From this point of view it is of best interest of the mother to have strong immunity in order to transfer antibodies during breastfeeding, as well as for the father and the rest who will take care for the newborn child to be vaccinated against whooping cough. During pregnancy vaccinations against tuberculosis, morbilli, measles, rubella, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever and chicken pox are contraindicated. In case of contact vaccinations against rabies, anthrax, small pox, poliomyelitis and yellow fever should be taken into

  20. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  2. Study on the thyroid function of thoroughbred females in varying stages of pregnancy using 'in vitro' tests /sup 125/I-T/sub 3/ and /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Martin, B W [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    1975-01-01

    A study is made on the thyroid function of thoroughbred female equines, aged between five through twelve years, in varying stages of pregnancy, using 'in vitro' tests /sup 125/I.T/sub 3/ and /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/.

  3. Nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II). Summary report of the third research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2002-04-01

    This report summarises the results and recommendations of the third Research Co-ordination Meeting on improving and testing the Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II. A primary aim of the meeting was to review the achievements of the CRP, to assess the testing of the library and to approve the final contents. Actions were approved that will result in completion of the file and a draft report by the end of February 2002. Full release of the library is scheduled for July 2002. (author)

  4. Nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II). Summary report of the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Testing and Improvement of the Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II. A primary aim of this meeting was to review progress in the CRP work, to review results of testing the library, to establish the RIPL-2 format and to decide on the contents of the library. The actions were agreed with an aim to complete the project by the end of 2001. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 individual papers

  5. The diagnostic strength of the 24-h pad test for self-reported symptoms of urinary incontinence in pregnancy and after childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Jacobus; Potters, Annemarie E. Weis; Tinga, Dick J.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.

    The clinical impact of incontinence in pregnancy and after childbirth is growing because some studies report the efficacy of physiotherapy in pregnancy and because obstetric choices are supposed to have significant impact on post-reproductive urinary function (Goldberg et al. in Am J Obstet Gynecol

  6. Accuracy of single progesterone test to predict early pregnancy outcome in women with pain or bleeding: meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, Jorine; Gallos, Ioannis D.; van Mello, Norah M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Harb, Hoda; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy with which a single progesterone measurement in early pregnancy discriminates between viable and non-viable pregnancy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, ProQuest,

  7. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after γ-irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy γ-ray of 60 Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author)

  8. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  9. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  10. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  11. Missed Opportunities for Repeat HIV Testing in Pregnancy: Implications for Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caiyun; Golden, William Christopher; Anderson, Jean R; Coleman, Jenell S

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing is an effective intervention that is used for reducing perinatal HIV transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a second HIV test during the third trimester of pregnancy for women in settings with an elevated HIV incidence (≥17 cases per 100,000 person-years). We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a single hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, to determine whether a second HIV test was done and to compare HIV retesting with mandated syphilis retesting. Of women who delivered at this hospital, 98.8% received prenatal care. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Among 1632 women, mean age was 27.6 years (standard deviation: 6.3), 59.6% were black, and 55.5% were single. HIV retesting was done in 28.4% of women, which was significantly less often compared with the state-mandated syphilis retesting (78.7%, p HIV retest were 15 times higher among women who received prenatal care at a teaching clinic [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 15.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 11.12-21.81], and they were lower among women with private insurance (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34-0.86). The odds of having a syphilis retest were twice as high among women who received prenatal care at a faculty practice (aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.53-3.09), and they were lower among women with private insurance (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88). Emphasizing an "opt-out" HIV retesting approach through state laws may minimize risk perception, and this is one strategy that can be considered in areas of high HIV incidence to reach the goal of eliminating perinatal HIV transmission in the United States.

  12. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies.

  13. 2014 annual meeting of the German Society for Non-Destructive Testing (DGZfP). NDE in research development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the 2014 annual meeting of the German Society for Non-Destructive Testing (DGZfP) includes contributions to the following issues: process control, methods for surface analysis, dimensional measuring methods, computerized tomography, materials characterization, construction engineering, energy engineering, adhesive joints, equipment condition monitoring, thermography, guided waves, simulation - reconstruction - imaging techniques, phased array methods, combination of test procedures, microwave-terahertz-methods, fiber-reinforced composites.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Belinda; Garovic, Vesna D

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (AKI) has declined in incidence in the last three decades, although it remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy-related causes of AKI such as preeclampsia, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver function tests, Low Platelets) syndrome, and the thrombotic microangiopathies (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome [HUS]) exhibit overlapping features and often present as diagnostic dilemmas. Differentiating among these conditions may be difficult or impossible based on clinical criteria only. In difficult and rare cases, a renal biopsy may need to be considered for the exact diagnosis and to facilitate appropriate treatment, but the risks and benefits need to be carefully weighed. The use of eculizumab for the treatment of atypical HUS has demonstrated efficacy in early case reports. Non-pregnancy related causes such as volume depletion and pyelonephritis require early and aggressive resuscitative as well as antibiotic measures respectively. We will discuss in this review the various etiologies of AKI in pregnancy, current diagnostic approaches, and the latest treatment strategies. Given the recent trends of increasing maternal age at the time of pregnancy, and the availability of modern reproductive methods increase the risks of AKI in pregnancy in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Uterine cervix cancer and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orna, Victor; Rueda, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Describe a pathology with a high incidence in our means, in association with pregnancy in this case, graphically report they type of cervical malignancy, clinical manifestations, diagnose and treatment according to stage. Clinical case: We present a young patient with cervical pathology (endofitic bleeding lesion) diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy, with complete pregnancy, that consult because of genital bleeding, founding an endofitic lesion by colposcopic exam and which biopsy and pap test reported a scamous cell carcinoma, image diagnostic procedures reveal a 6 month product, that after surgical ending of pregnancy, wa treated by radical hysterectomy. Conclusions: It is important to recognize that in cervical pathology; cervical cancer during pregnancy is a great challenge for the specialist, the diagnostic evaluation that includes biopsies, must be realized in the same way, except from the endocervical canal. The treatment of choice for women is early stages of pregnancy is radical hysterectomy, during the last half of pregnancy it is possible to wait the viability of the product planning the childbirth surgically as soon as possible. (The author)

  16. Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Farrar

    Full Text Available Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM. Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM.We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the two cohorts with data on risk factors and OGTT results were included.Twenty nine published studies with 211,698 women for the SR and a further 14,103 women from two birth cohorts (Born in Bradford and the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy study for the IPD analysis were included. Six studies assessed the screening performance of guidelines; six examined combinations of risk factors; eight evaluated the number of risk factors and nine examined prediction models or scores. Meta-analysis using data from published studies suggests that irrespective of the method used, risk factors do not identify women with GDM well. Using IPD and combining risk factors to produce the highest sensitivities, results in low specificities (and so higher false positives. Strategies that use the risk factors of age (>25 or >30 and BMI (>25 or 30 perform as well as other strategies with additional risk factors included.Risk factor screening methods are poor predictors of which pregnant women will be diagnosed with GDM. A simple

  17. 76 FR 23992 - Meeting To Review and Solicit Input on Tests for Inclusion in the Project 25 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    .../after time-out? Are repeater inbound and outbound packets ``paired'' and timing relationship between the... logistics information for the call. To be considered at the meeting, written comments and input on the...

  18. Minutes of the meeting on establishing release rates and leakage tests for packagings used for the transportation of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1988-12-01

    Detailed discussion for drafting the ISO standard is reported. The standard ANSI N 14.5 is used as a basis questions raised, list of actions decided and agenda of the third meeting of the working group are given

  19. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    care providers should be sensitive to the unique developmental needs of adolescents through all stages of pregnancy and during intrapartum and postpartum care. (III-B) 3. Adolescents have high-risk pregnancies and should be managed accordingly within programs that have the capacity to manage their care. The unique physical risks of adolescent pregnancy should be recognized and the care provided must address these. (II-1A) 4. Fathers and partners should be included as much as possible in pregnancy care and prenatal/infant care education. (III-B) 5. A first-trimester ultrasound is recommended not only for the usual reasons for properly dating the pregnancy, but also for assessing the increased risks of preterm birth. (I-A) 6. Counselling about all available pregnancy outcome options (abortion, adoption, and parenting) should be provided to any adolescent with a confirmed intrauterine gestation. (III-A) 7. Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (II-2A) and bacterial vaginosis (III-B) should be performed routinely upon presentation for pregnancy care and again in the third trimester; STI testing should also be performed postpartum and when needed symptomatically. a. Because pregnant adolescents are inherently at increased risk for preterm labour, preterm birth, and preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes, screening and management of bacterial vaginosis is recommended. (III-B) b. After treatment for a positive test, a test of cure is needed 3 to 4 weeks after completion of treatment. Refer partner for screening and treatment. Take the opportunity to discuss condom use. (III-A) 8. Routine and repeated screening for alcohol use, substance abuse, and violence in pregnancy is recommended because of their increased rates in this population. (II-2A) 9. Routine and repeated screening for and treatment of mood disorders in pregnancy is recommended because of their increased rates in this population. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale administered in each trimester

  20. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  1. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy ... some guidelines I can follow when I begin exercising after pregnancy? Aim to stay active for 20– ...

  2. Trazodone (Desyrel) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects. Can taking trazodone during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications? One small study found no greater chance ... I need to take trazodone throughout my entire pregnancy. Will it cause withdrawal symptoms in my baby? Antidepressant use late ...

  3. Echinacea Preparations and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or liver problems. Can taking echinacea during my pregnancy cause birth defects? There have been two studies looking ... avoided in pregnancy. Can taking echinacea during my pregnancy cause other kinds of problems? There are no studies ...

  4. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  5. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  6. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  9. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  10. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  11. Medicine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Medicine and Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... reporting problems to FDA . Sign Up for a Pregnancy Registry Pregnancy Exposure Registries are research studies that ...

  12. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  13. U.S. EPA Water Technology Innovation Cluster Leaders Meeting - "Successfully Supporting Early-Stage Companies: The Role of Technology Testing" Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this workshop were to: (1) increase the cluster leaders’ level of knowledge regarding past and current water technology testing programs, facilities and requirements; (2) learn from the experiences of technology vendors in getting innovative, commercial-ready product...

  14. Narcolepsy and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms...... of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P ...

  15. Vasculitis and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Leah; Clowse, Megan E B

    2017-05-01

    Vasculitis is more often a disease of women beyond their reproductive years, leaving the challenges of pregnancy management difficult to study. Pregnancy complications, including pregnancy loss and preterm birth, are higher among women with all forms of vasculitis. It seems that controlling the disease before pregnancy may improve the chances of pregnancy success. Many medications used for vasculitis are considered low risk in pregnancy, including prednisone, colchicine, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided in pregnancy. Controlling disease with low-risk medications may allow women with vasculitis to have the pregnancies they desire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in 't Veld, M. M.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation -meetings- by means of a set of

  18. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation - meetings - by means of a set

  19. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  20. Heartburn in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Juan C

    2015-09-08

    Heartburn is a common complaint during pregnancy; the incidence is reported to be between 17% and 45%. We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat heartburn in pregnancy? We searched Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 80 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 59 records were screened for inclusion in the review. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 58 studies and the further review of one full publication. The full article evaluated did not meet our reporting criteria, and thus no new evidence was added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of acid-suppressing drugs, antacids with or without alginates, raising the head of the bed, reducing caffeine intake, reducing intake of fatty foods, and reducing the size and frequency of meals.

  1. The OECD expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate — Towards the development of improved OECD guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühnel, Dana; Nickel, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) an expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate of nanomaterials (NMs) took place in January 2013 in Berlin. At this meeting experts from science, industry and regulatory bodies discussed the applicability of OECD test guidelines (TGs) for chemicals to nanomaterials. The objective was to discuss the current state of the relevant science and provide recommendations to the OECD WPMN on (1) the need for updating current OECD TGs and the need for developing new ones specific to nanomaterials; and (2) guidance needed for the appropriate and valid testing of environmental fate and ecotoxicity endpoints for NMs. Experts at the workshop agreed that the majority of the OECD TG for chemicals were generally applicable for the testing of NM, with the exception of TG 105 (water solubility) and 106 (adsorption-desorption). Additionally, the workshop also highlighted considerations when conducting OECD chemical TG on nanomaterials (e.g., sample preparation, dispersion, analysis, dosimetry and characterisation). These considerations will lead to the future development of proposals for new TG and guidance documents (GDs) to ensure that OECD TG give meaningful, repeatable, and accurate results when used for nanomaterials. This report provides a short overview of topics discussed during the meeting and the main outcomes. A more detailed report of the workshop will become available through the OECD, however, due to the urgency of having OECD TG relevant for nanomaterials, this brief report is being shared with the scientific community through this communication. - Highlights: • OECD test guidelines (TGs) were developed for the testing of conventional chemicals. • Need for discussion on applicability of current TGs to nanomaterials • An expert meeting addressing this issue was held. • The focus was on TGs covering ecotoxicology and environmental fate. • Recommendations for updating current OECD

  2. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    health care and assistance with appropriate addiction care leads to reduced health care costs and decreased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. 1. All pregnant women and women of childbearing age should be screened periodically for alcohol, tobacco, and prescription and illicit drug use. (III-A) 2. When testing for substance use is clinically indicated, urine drug screening is the preferred method. (II-2A) Informed consent should be obtained from the woman before maternal drug toxicology testing is ordered. (III-B) 3. Policies and legal requirements with respect to drug testing of newborns may vary by jurisdiction, and caregivers should be familiar with the regulations in their region. (III-A) 4. Health care providers should employ a flexible approach to the care of women who have substance use problems, and they should encourage the use of all available community resources. (II-2B) 5. Women should be counselled about the risks of periconception, antepartum, and postpartum drug use. (III-B) 6. Smoking cessation counselling should be considered as a first-line intervention for pregnant smokers. (I-A) Nicotine replacement therapy and/or pharmacotherapy can be considered if counselling is not successful. (I-A) 7. Methadone maintenance treatment should be standard of care for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. (II-IA) Other slow-release opioid preparations may be considered if methadone is not available. (II-2B) 8. Opioid detoxification should be reserved for selected women because of the high risk of relapse to opioids. (II-2B) 9. Opiate-dependent women should be informed that neonates exposed to heroin, prescription opioids, methadone, or buprenorphine during pregnancy are monitored closely for symptoms and signs of neonatal withdrawal (neonatal abstinence syndrome). (II-2B) Hospitals providing obstetric care should develop a protocol for assessment and management of neonates exposed to opiates during pregnancy. (III-B) 10. Antenatal planning for

  3. Teenage pregnancy: impact of the integral attention given to the pregnant teenager and adolescent mother as a protective factor for repeat pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Melhado, Amanda; Coates, Verônica; Omar, Hatim A

    2007-02-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the integral attention to the health of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, having follow-up from the Integral Support Program for the Pregnant Teen (ISPPT), with the intention to determine quality of life and prevent repeat pregnancy. A prospective study comprised 85 adolescents attended by the ISPPT between January 2002 and June 2006 who participated in meetings during pregnancy with a multidisciplinary team that provided orientation concerning family planning, self-esteem, pregnancy prevention, motivation to continue education and/or work, and evaluate the postpartum mother-child relationship. The following were analyzed: education level, marital status, contraceptive use, thoughts and attempts at abortion, repeat pregnancy. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee. The Epi-Info v6.0b software was used for data and result evaluation using the means and the chi-squared test. The mean age of the adolescents was 15.7 years, 3.52% had repeat pregnancy within a mean follow-up of 23 months after childbirth, the mean education level was 8.1 years, 30.5% dropped out of school, with 79.4% occurring before pregnancy, 64.6% used no contraceptives, 68.3% were single, and 81.3% had a positive role model. One year after birth, 67.5% studied, 50% worked, 55.1% lived with the partner, 77% correctly used contraceptives, every child lived with their mothers and their vaccinations were up to date. The results demonstrate that the global attention given to the health of adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents is a protective factor for pregnancy relapse and quality of life.

  4. Teenage Pregnancy: Impact of the Integral Attention Given to the Pregnant Teenager and Adolescent Mother as a Protective Factor for Repeat Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the integral attention to the health of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, having follow-up from the Integral Support Program for the Pregnant Teen (ISPPT, with the intention to determine quality of life and prevent repeat pregnancy. A prospective study comprised 85 adolescents attended by the ISPPT between January 2002 and June 2006 who participated in meetings during pregnancy with a multidisciplinary team that provided orientation concerning family planning, self-esteem, pregnancy prevention, motivation to continue education and/or work, and evaluate the postpartum mother-child relationship. The following were analyzed: education level, marital status, contraceptive use, thoughts and attempts at abortion, repeat pregnancy. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee. The Epi-Info v6.0b software was used for data and result evaluation using the means and the chi-squared test. The mean age of the adolescents was 15.7 years, 3.52% had repeat pregnancy within a mean follow-up of 23 months after childbirth, the mean education level was 8.1 years, 30.5% dropped out of school, with 79.4% occurring before pregnancy, 64.6% used no contraceptives, 68.3% were single, and 81.3% had a positive role model. One year after birth, 67.5% studied, 50% worked, 55.1% lived with the partner, 77% correctly used contraceptives, every child lived with their mothers and their vaccinations were up to date. The results demonstrate that the global attention given to the health of adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents is a protective factor for pregnancy relapse and quality of life.

  5. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  6. Progress in design, research and development and testing of safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The meeting covered the following topics: Developments in design of safety-related heat removal components and systems for advanced water cooled reactors; status of test programmes on heat removal components and systems of new designs; range of validity and extrapolation of test results for the qualification of design/licensing computer models and codes for advanced water cooled reactors; future needs and trends in testing of safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors. Tests of heat removal safety systems have been conducted by various groups supporting the design, testing and certification of advanced water cooled reactors. The Technical Committee concluded that the reported test results generally confirm the predicted performance features of the advanced designs. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Progress in design, research and development and testing of safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The meeting covered the following topics: Developments in design of safety-related heat removal components and systems for advanced water cooled reactors; status of test programmes on heat removal components and systems of new designs; range of validity and extrapolation of test results for the qualification of design/licensing computer models and codes for advanced water cooled reactors; future needs and trends in testing of safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors. Tests of heat removal safety systems have been conducted by various groups supporting the design, testing and certification of advanced water cooled reactors. The Technical Committee concluded that the reported test results generally confirm the predicted performance features of the advanced designs. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. 78 FR 22540 - Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    .... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management.../fem/agency_methods.htm . USEPA. 2009. Method Validation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2013-0213; FRL-9803-5] Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar...

  9. 77 FR 485 - Wind Plant Performance-Public Meeting on Modeling and Testing Needs for Complex Air Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind Plant Performance... and on-shore utility-scale wind power plants. DOE is requesting this information to support the development of cost-effective wind power deployment. DATES: The meeting will be held Tuesday, January 17, 2012...

  10. Physiological changes in thyroid function during pregnancy: an approach to the interpretation of thyroid tests = Cambios fisiológicos de la función tiroidea en el embarazo: bases para la interpretación de las pruebas tiroideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Ramírez, Nathalia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of thyroid physiology and its changes through pregnancy is critical to suspect diseases affecting the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and to make a proper interpretation of the tests that measure its function. Alterations in thyroid function tests are common during pregnancy, and it may be difficult to distinguish them from those due to disease. Clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are rare during pregnancy (0.2% to 0.36%, but subclinical forms are more frequent (around 2%. Iodine is essential as substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis, and the requirements vary according to the population and the moment of pregnancy. Infertile couples have five to ten times more thyroid disorders; for that reason they should be studied as to thyroid function when searching for the cause of the infertility. Autoimmunity has been associated with maternal and perinatal complications such as abortion, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis; some studies have shown that their incidence decreases with levothyroxine. This review includes the following aspects: thyroid physiology during pregnancy, thyroid function and fertility, iodine and pregnancy, anti-thyroid antibodies and pregnancy, thyroid function tests during pregnancy, and screening for thyroid disorders in pregnant women.

  11. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  12. MR features of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori; Koyama, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP), in which a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity, is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. EP is usually suspected by a positive pregnancy test and an empty uterus on transvaginal sonography (TVS). Although TVS is the initial modality of choice, it may occasionally fail to demonstrate the implantation site. When TVS findings are indeterminate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide better delineation of the focus of EP owing to its excellent tissue contrast. The key MRI features of EP include gestational sac (GS)-like structures that typically appear as a cystic sac-like structure, frequently associated with surrounding acute hematoma of distinct low intensity on T2-weighted images. In tubal pregnancy, an enhanced tubal wall on postcontrast images may be another diagnostic finding. Ruptured EP is inevitably associated with acute hematoma outside these structures. In intrauterine EP, recognition of the relationship between GS-like structure and the myometrium can aid in differentiating from normal pregnancy. Diagnostic pitfalls include heterotopic pregnancy, decidual changes in endometrial cyst and theca lutein cysts mimicking GS-like structures. Knowledge of a spectrum of clinical and MRI features of EP is essential for establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate management. (orig.)

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiner, Eyal; Mazor-Drey, Efrat; Levy, Amalia

    2009-05-01

    The present study was aimed to test the association between asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy, among patients in whom antibiotic treatment was recommended, and perinatal outcome. Our study was also designed to characterize common bacteria and risk factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and asymptomatic bacteriuria was conducted. Patients with urinary tract infection were excluded from the analysis. Multiple logistic regression model was used to control for confounders. Out of 199,093 deliveries, 2.5% (n = 4890) were in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. E. coli was the most common pathogen associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, representing 78.6% of the cultures with specified growth. Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were more likely to deliver preterm (PTD, 13.3%vs. 7.6%, odd ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval CI 1.7-2.0; P Asymptomatic bacteriuria was independently associated with PTD (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.7; P treatments, hypertensive disorders, recurrent abortions, diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction, polyhydramnion and oligohydramnion, premature rupture of membranes and labour induction, in a multivariable analysis with backwards elimination. Perinatal mortality rates (1.5%vs. 1.4%; P = 0.707) as well as low 5 min Apgar scores (0.8%vs. 0.6%; P = 0.065) were comparable between the groups. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery.

  14. Recurrent pregnancy loss: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hachem H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hady El Hachem,1,2 Vincent Crepaux,3 Pascale May-Panloup,4 Philippe Descamps,3 Guillaume Legendre,3 Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet3 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ovo Clinic, Montréal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Montreal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Angers University Hopsital, Angers, France; 4Department of Reproductive Biology, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France Abstract: Recurrent pregnancy loss is an important reproductive health issue, affecting 2%–5% of couples. Common established causes include uterine anomalies, antiphospholipid syndrome, hormonal and metabolic disorders, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Other etiologies have been proposed but are still considered controversial, such as chronic endometritis, inherited thrombophilias, luteal phase deficiency, and high sperm DNA fragmentation levels. Over the years, evidence-based treatments such as surgical correction of uterine anomalies or aspirin and heparin for antiphospholipid syndrome have improved the outcomes for couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. However, almost half of the cases remain unexplained and are empirically treated using progesterone supplementation, anticoagulation, and/or immunomodulatory treatments. Regardless of the cause, the long-term prognosis of couples with recurrent pregnancy loss is good, and most eventually achieve a healthy live birth. However, multiple pregnancy losses can have a significant psychological toll on affected couples, and many efforts are being made to improve treatments and decrease the time needed to achieve a successful pregnancy. This article reviews the established and controversial etiologies, and the recommended therapeutic strategies, with a special focus on unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses and the empiric treatments used nowadays. It also discusses the current role of preimplantation genetic testing in the management of recurrent pregnancy

  15. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in pregnancy? • What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? • Can bleeding be a sign of preterm labor? • ... the hospital. What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? Several problems with the placenta later in pregnancy ...

  16. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication, and application of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). Base technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-08-01

    The international effort to develop new fuel materials and designs which will make it feasible to fuel research and test reactors throughout the world with low-enrichment uranium, instead of high-enrichment uranium, has made significant progress during the past year. This progress has taken place at research centers located in many different countries, and is of crucial interest to reactor operators and licensors whose geographical distribution is even more varied. It is appropriate, therefore, that international meetings be held periodically to foster direct communication among the specialists in this area. To achieve this purpose, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the third of a series which begun in 1978. The papers presented at this meeting were divided into sessions according to relevant subject: status of RERTR program and safety issues; development of new fuel types; testing of new fuel elements; specific reactor applications. These proceedings were edited by various members of the RERTR Program.

  17. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication, and application of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). Base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The international effort to develop new fuel materials and designs which will make it feasible to fuel research and test reactors throughout the world with low-enrichment uranium, instead of high-enrichment uranium, has made significant progress during the past year. This progress has taken place at research centers located in many different countries, and is of crucial interest to reactor operators and licensors whose geographical distribution is even more varied. It is appropriate, therefore, that international meetings be held periodically to foster direct communication among the specialists in this area. To achieve this purpose, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the third of a series which begun in 1978. The papers presented at this meeting were divided into sessions according to relevant subject: status of RERTR program and safety issues; development of new fuel types; testing of new fuel elements; specific reactor applications. These proceedings were edited by various members of the RERTR Program

  18. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical triad of presentation of delayed menses, irregular vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain may not be encountered at all! Overwhelming features of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  19. Rubella Vaccination During Pregnancy Trabzon Turkey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Osmanağaoğlu

    2010-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Although the rubella vaccination does not seem to be risky in early pregnancy, the pregnancy test should be taken to all women who wants to rubella vaccination or all women should be counseled to avoid becoming pregnant for 1 month after vaccination.

  20. Difficulties with diagnosis of malignancies in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Vandecaveye, V.; Han, S. N.; van de Vijver, K. K.; Amant, F.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and staging of cancer during pregnancy may be difficult due to overlap in physical signs, uncertainties on safety and accuracy of diagnostic tests and histopathology in pregnant women. Tumour markers should be used with caution due to pregnancy-induced elevation. Ionizing imaging and

  1. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... treated for another sexually transmitted disease , such as gonorrhea Is pregnant, during the first prenatal visit and ...

  2. IFPA meeting 2010 workshop report I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, C.; Antczak, D.F.; Carvalho, J.

    2011-01-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting. At IFPA Meeting 2010 there were twelve themed workshops, six of which are summarized in this report. 1. The immunology workshop focused on normal and pathological functions of the maternal immune system in pregnancy. 2. The transport wor...

  3. Experience with spent fuel storage at research and test reactors. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting held in Vienna, 5-8 July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Irradiated fuel from research and test reactors has been stored at various facilities for several decades. As these facilities age and approach or exceed their original design lifetimes, there is mounting concern about closure of the fuel cycle and about the integrity of ageing fuels from the materials point of view as well as some concern about the loss of self-protection of the fuels as their activity decays. It is clear that an international effort is necessary to give these problems sufficient exposure and to ensure that work begins on appropriate solutions. To obtain an overall picture of the size and extent of these problems, an Advisory Group Meeting on Storage Experience with Spent Fuel from Research Reactors was convened in Vienna 5-8 July 1993, and attended by twelve participants and three observers representing thirteen different countries. These proceedings contain the country reports presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Development of methodologies for optimization of surveillance testing and maintenance of safety related equipment at NPPs. Report of a research coordination meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first meeting of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Development of Methodologies for Optimization of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs, held at the Agency Headquarters in Vienna, from 16 to 20 December 1996. The purpose of this Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was that all Chief Scientific Investigators of the groups participating in the CRP presented an outline of their proposed research projects. Additionally, the participants discussed the objective, scope, work plan and information channels of the CRP in detail. Based on these presentations and discussions, the entire project plan was updated, completed and included in this report. This report represents a common agreed project work plan for the CRP. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Proceedings of the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists` Meeting on Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing held at Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.E.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney, J.A. [comps.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains 40 papers that were presented at the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists` Meeting Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing held at the Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the week of October 26--29, 1992. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe recent large-scale fracture (brittle and/or ductile) experiments, analyses of these experiments, and comparisons between predictions and experimental results. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to examine the fracture behavior of various materials and structures under conditions relevant to nuclear reactor components and operating environments. The emphasis was on the ability of various fracture models and analysis methods to predict the wide range of experimental data now available. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Experience with spent fuel storage at research and test reactors. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting held in Vienna, 5-8 July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Irradiated fuel from research and test reactors has been stored at various facilities for several decades. As these facilities age and approach or exceed their original design lifetimes, there is mounting concern about closure of the fuel cycle and about the integrity of ageing fuels from the materials point of view as well as some concern about the loss of self-protection of the fuels as their activity decays. It is clear that an international effort is necessary to give these problems sufficient exposure and to ensure that work begins on appropriate solutions. To obtain an overall picture of the size and extent of these problems, an Advisory Group Meeting on Storage Experience with Spent Fuel from Research Reactors was convened in Vienna 5-8 July 1993, and attended by twelve participants and three observers representing thirteen different countries. These proceedings contain the country reports presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  8. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kyabayinze

    Full Text Available Intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined.We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings.The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined.

  9. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen SL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stine Linding Andersen,1,2 Peter Laurberg1,3,† 1Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark †Peter Laurberg passed away on June 20, 2016 Abstract: Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves’ disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs. These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering the risk of fetal hyper- or hypothyroidism. An important aspect in the early pregnancy is that the predominant side effect to the use of ATDs in weeks 6–10 of pregnancy is birth defects that may develop after exposure to available types of ATDs and may be severe. This review focuses on four current perspectives in the management of overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the etiology and incidence of the disease, how the diagnosis is made, the

  10. Automated testing of electro-optical systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 7, 8, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, J.; Richardson, P.I.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on the automated testing of electrooptical systems are presented. Individual topics addressed include: simultaneous automated testing of Thematic Mapper dynamic spatial performance characteristics, results of objective automatic minimum resolvable temperature testing of thermal imagers using a proposed new figure of merit, test and manufacture of three-mirror laboratory telescope, calculation of apparent delta-T errors for band-limited detectors, and automated laser seeker performance evaluation system

  11. Test and evaluation of infrared detectors and arrays; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 27-29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Forney M.

    Papers on the testing and evaluation of IR detectors and arrays are presented, covering topics such as a short wavelength IR test system, pulse height analysis, the use of an expert system for IR detector testing, low-background IR focal plane testing, electron beam testing, high performance silicide Schottky photodiodes, the SDI organization focal plane test program, the absorption cross section of arsenic in silicon, and long wavelength IR hybrids. Other topics include low background radiometric detector measurements, an ultralow background dewar for IR detector characterization studies, a computer assisted mosaic array test station, a configurable detector array test station, automated detector material characterization capabilities, and a test system for mercury cadmium telluride photoconductor arrays. Additional topics include ionization dosimetry measurements inside a dewar for linac electron and californium-252 neutron environments, a radiation test facility using a variable-flux electron beam source, automated visual inspection of IR focal plane arrays, a titanium cryostat for low temperature radiation effects studies, a low dose rate gamma test facility, and the test and evaluation of stability in IR staring focal plane arrays after nonuniformity correction.

  12. Insulin aspart in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2008-01-01

    in insulin requirements during pregnancy necessitate short-acting insulins for postprandial control of hyperglycemia. The fast-acting insulin analogue insulin aspart has been tested in a large, randomized trial of pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes and offers benefits in control of postprandial...... hyperglycemia with a tendency towards fewer episodes of severe hypoglycemia compared with human insulin. Treatment with insulin aspart was associated with a tendency toward fewer fetal losses and preterm deliveries than treatment with human insulin. Insulin aspart could not be detected in the fetal circulation...... and no increase in insulin antibodies was found. Thus, the use of insulin aspart in pregnancy is regarded safe....

  13. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  14. Uptake of Home-Based Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Male Partners of Pregnant Women in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Jennifer; Kinuthia, John; Roxby, Alison C; Krakowiak, Daisy; Osoti, Alfred; Richardson, Barbra A; Gone, Molly Ann; Asila, Victor; Parikh, Saloni; Farquhar, Carey

    2017-09-01

    Few men are tested for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their partner's pregnancy, a high-risk period for HIV and syphilis transmission. Offering home-based rapid testing of syphilis to couples during pregnancy can support prevention efforts to reduce transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We assessed men's uptake of paired (separate tests, single blood draw) point-of-care syphilis and HIV tests within a randomized controlled trial of pregnant women who received clinic or home partner HIV testing. We evaluated acceptance of paired HIV-syphilis testing during pregnancy or at 6 months postpartum, and evaluated whether addition of syphilis testing affected the uptake of HIV testing among men. Of 601 women, we were unable to meet 101 male partners, and 180 tested before syphilis tests were available. Paired syphilis and HIV testing was offered at home to 80 men during pregnancy and to 230 men postpartum. For syphilis, 93% of men agreed to test during pregnancy and 98% agreed postpartum. For paired syphilis and HIV testing, 91% of men tested for both during pregnancy and 96% tested postpartum. Before syphilis test introduction, 96% of men accepted HIV testing, compared with 95% of men who accepted HIV testing when paired testing was offered. Uptake of syphilis and HIV testing was high among male partners offered couple testing at home. Introducing syphilis testing did not adversely affect HIV testing among men. Point-of-care diagnostics outside facilities can increase testing of male partners who rarely accompany women to antenatal clinics.

  15. Results of a pilot study in the U.S. and Vietnam to assess the utility and acceptability of a multi-level pregnancy test (MLPT) for home monitoring of hCG trends after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochet, Tara; Comstock, Ioanna A; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Westphal, Lynn M; Sheldon, Wendy R; Loc, Ly Thai; Blum, Jennifer; Winikoff, Beverly; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-08-22

    To evaluate the utility and acceptability of using multi-level pregnancy tests (MLPTs) at home to monitor hCG trends following assisted reproductive technology (ART). One hundred and four women presenting for ART at either Stanford Medicine Fertility and Reproductive Health Clinic (Stanford, CA) or Hung Vuong Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) participated in this pilot study. Women were asked to perform the MLPT at home, primarily on days when they were also scheduled to receive standard clinic-based serum hCG testing. These tests were administered up to 6 times over the 6-week period following embryo transfer or intrauterine insemination (IUI). Concordance of serial hCG readings for each time point was assessed by comparing trends in urine MLPT results with trends in serum hCG. Stable or increasing hCG level was interpreted as an indication of a progressing pregnancy, while a declining hCG was interpreted as a lack of established or progressing pregnancy. At study end, all participants were asked about the acceptability and convenience of using the MLPT at home for monitoring hCG trends following ART. Data from both urine and serum testing are available for 156 of 179 clinic visits (87.2%). There was high concordance of serial trend results between the two types of tests: among the 156 sets of serum and urine hCG data points, 150 (96.2%) showed a matching trend in hCG pattern and 6 (3.8%) resulted in a discordant trend. Seventy-three percent of women reported being satisfied or very satisfied with using the MLPTs at home. Almost all (96.6%) said that the MLPT was easy or very easy to use. The MLPT offers women and health care providers a client-friendly diagnostic tool to detect very early pregnancy and monitor its progress. This study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01846403 (May 1, 2013), and NCT01919502 (August 5, 2013).

  16. The OECD expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate--towards the development of improved OECD guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Dana; Nickel, Carmen

    2014-02-15

    On behalf of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) an expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate of nanomaterials (NMs) took place in January 2013 in Berlin. At this meeting experts from science, industry and regulatory bodies discussed the applicability of OECD test guidelines (TGs) for chemicals to nanomaterials. The objective was to discuss the current state of the relevant science and provide recommendations to the OECD WPMN on (1) the need for updating current OECD TGs and the need for developing new ones specific to nanomaterials; and (2) guidance needed for the appropriate and valid testing of environmental fate and ecotoxicity endpoints for NMs. Experts at the workshop agreed that the majority of the OECD TG for chemicals were generally applicable for the testing of NM, with the exception of TG 105 (water solubility) and 106 (adsorption-desorption). Additionally, the workshop also highlighted considerations when conducting OECD chemical TG on nanomaterials (e.g., sample preparation, dispersion, analysis, dosimetry and characterisation). These considerations will lead to the future development of proposals for new TG and guidance documents (GDs) to ensure that OECD TG give meaningful, repeatable, and accurate results when used for nanomaterials. This report provides a short overview of topics discussed during the meeting and the main outcomes. A more detailed report of the workshop will become available through the OECD, however, due to the urgency of having OECD TG relevant for nanomaterials, this brief report is being shared with the scientific community through this communication. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Improved evaluations and integral data testing for FENDL. Summary report of the IAEA advisory group meeting held in Garching, Germany, 12 to 16 September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1994-12-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the Engineering and Development Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project and other fusion-related development projects. Within the scope of the FENDL project, the International Atomic Energy Agency performs the task of coordinating the assembling, processing and testing of a comprehensive, fusion-relevant Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library with unrestricted international distribution. The present report contains the summary of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Improved Evaluations and Integral Data Testing for FENDL'', 12-16 September 1994 hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany. The report presents the current status of the FENDL activity and the future work plans in the form of conclusions and recommendations of the four Working Groups of the Advisory Group Meeting on (1) Basic Evaluations towards FENDL/E-2.0 for ITER Design, (2) Experimental and Calculational Benchmarks on Fusion Neutronics for FENDL Validation, (3) Production and Interfacing of FENDL Libraries to ITER Design, and, (4) Activation. (author)

  18. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

  19. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  1. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  4. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  5. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 Last reviewed: November, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  6. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Administration Mother to Baby National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Treating for Two Last reviewed: September, 2017 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  7. Etanercept (Enbrel) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are forming. Can taking etanercept during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications such as preterm delivery? Two studies found ... of age. Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of vomiting and severe diarrhea in ... breastfeeding, including treatment with TNF inhibitors. Your ...

  8. Venlafaxine (Effexor) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause miscarriage. Can taking venlafaxine during my pregnancy cause birth defects in my baby? Studies have looked ... there is no evidence that taking venlafaxine during pregnancy causes changes in the baby’s behavior or intellect. Several ...

  9. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to you. Changes to Expect in Your Body Pregnancy causes lots of physical changes in the body. Here ... your skin is "glowing" when you are pregnant — pregnancy causes an increase in blood volume, which can make ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  13. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that ... prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of ...

  14. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  15. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  17. Primary omental pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildizhan, R.; Kurdoglu, M.; Kolusari, A.; Erten, R.

    2008-01-01

    Omental pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy and can be seen primarily or secondary to a tubal pregnancy. A 25-yeal-old woman presented with abdominal distention with pain and anemia without vaginal bleeding. After a provisional diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, laparotomy was performed. On surgical exploration, the bilateral tubes and ovaries were intact, however, an omental pregnancy was detected as the cause of hemoperitoneum. Partial omentectomy was performed. Although most cases are secondary, presented here is an additional case of primary omental pregnancy at 12 weeks according to Studdiford's criteria. Histological evidence of neovascularization into the supporting tissue confirmed our diagnosis. A primary omental pregnancy should always be considered as a possible explanation for severe hemoperitoneum in ectopic pregnancies presenting with acute abdomen and with intact adnexes on surgical exploration. (author)

  18. Inter-Pregnancy Interval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    1, 2 of the current pregnancy. This definition excludes. 1, 2 miscarriage as a preceding pregnancy event. Often the IPI is .... These include the type of caesarean section, post operative course ... puerperal endometritis, gestational diabetes and.

  19. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  20. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ...

  2. Pregnancy and the kidneys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal disease in pregnancy may cause a feeling of trepidation, even in the ... the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and gives rise to frequency and nocturia ... because the increased body weight in pregnancy does not typically reflect increased ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  4. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy ... birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy ...

  5. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  6. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  7. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Anemia Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  9. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  10. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ... Babies Nacersano Share Your Story OUR CAUSE HEALTH TOPICS RESEARCH & PROFESSIONALS MEDIA GET INVOLVED DONATE Our mission ...

  11. Leptin in diabetic pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, M

    2011-02-01

    Institute of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, RCPI Four Provinces Meeting, Junior Obstetrics & Gynaecology Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Dublin Maternity Hospitals Reports Meeting, Nov 2011

  12. Clinical Neuropathology practice news 1-2014: Pyrosequencing meets clinical and analytical performance criteria for routine testing of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, Matthias; Berghoff, Anna S.; Manzl, Claudia; Filipits, Martin; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Pulverer, Walter; Dieckmann, Karin; Widhalm, Georg; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Hainfellner, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing of the MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma is relevant for clinical decision making and research applications. Two recent and independent phase III therapy trials confirmed a prognostic and predictive value of the MGMT promoter methylation status in elderly glioblastoma patients. Several methods for MGMT promoter methylation testing have been proposed, but seem to be of limited test reliability. Therefore, and also due to feasibility reasons, translation of MGMT methylation testing into routine use has been protracted so far. Pyrosequencing after prior DNA bisulfite modification has emerged as a reliable, accurate, fast and easy-to-use method for MGMT promoter methylation testing in tumor tissues (including formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples). We performed an intra- and inter-laboratory ring trial which demonstrates a high analytical performance of this technique. Thus, pyrosequencing-based assessment of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma meets the criteria of high analytical test performance and can be recommended for clinical application, provided that strict quality control is performed. Our article summarizes clinical indications, practical instructions and open issues for MGMT promoter methylation testing in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing. PMID:24359605

  13. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  14. Hypopituitarism and successful pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xue; Yuan, Qing; Yao, Yanni; Li, Zengyan; Zhang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by the deficiency of one or more of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism patients may present the symptoms of amenorrhea, poor pregnancy potential, infertility, and no production of milk after delivery. Successful pregnancy in hypopituitarism patient is rare because hypopituitarism is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abruption, p...

  15. Proceedings of the international meeting on research and test reactor core conversions from HEU to LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper presented in the following areas of interest: (1) fuel development; (2) post-irradiation examinations; (3) reprocessing; (4) thermite reaction; (5) fuel fabrication; (6) element tests; (7) core tests; (8) criticals; (9) shipping; and (10) reactors and methods

  16. Contraceptive use and pregnancy decision making among women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A K; Goergen, C A; Delaney, J A; Williamson, C; Mundy, L M; Fraser, V J

    1999-12-01

    HIV is a growing epidemic among women in the United States. This study seeks to determine if knowledge of HIV infection and of the benefits of prenatal zidovudine (ZDV) to decrease vertical HIV transmission is related to decisions about pregnancy planning, contraceptive and condom use, and pregnancy termination among noninjection drug using (IDU) women with HIV. Eighty-two HIV-infected women were interviewed about their pregnancy decisions, contraceptive and condom use, and pregnancy outcome. Data was verified by structured chart review where available. Awareness of HIV infection or knowledge of the benefits of prenatal ZDV use did not significantly influence pregnancy planning, contraceptive choice, use of contraception, or consideration of pregnancy termination. Condom use was extremely low (14.6% consistent use), the majority of pregnancies (68.0%) were unplanned, contraceptive use was low (50.9%), and few pregnancies were terminated (6.3%). Women on Medicaid were significantly less likely than women with private or no insurance to terminate their pregnancy (2/20, 10% vs. 3/5, 60%, p = 0.04, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). Most women (70.0%) reported the most important reason for carrying the pregnancy to term was the desire for a child. In conclusion, among women in this non-IDU, Midwestern cohort, knowledge of HIV infection was not associated with decisions to plan a pregnancy, use contraception if not planning pregnancy, or terminate an unplanned pregnancy.

  17. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...

  18. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  19. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.S.; Jatoi, N.; Memon, R.A.; Sachdev, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  20. Hodgkin's disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelc, S.; Szeliga, E.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome and its influence on the effect of the MOPP chemotherapy for 30 patients with Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. During the first 6 months after completing the treatment 305 of pregnancies were interrupted. Pregnancy during complete remission of Hodgkin's disease after combined treatment does not increase the risk of relapse and is not a risk to delivery and foetus. (author)

  1. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  2. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  3. Effect of Pregnancy on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical presentation, autonomic dysfunction, and pregnancy outcomes in parous and nulliparous women with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and in women with POTS before and after pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of women who had at least 1 pregnancy during which time they met criteria for POTS between May 1993 and July 2009. All patients underwent standard autonomic testing. POTS was defined as a heart rate (HR) increase of greater than 30 beats/min on head-up tilt (HUT) with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to determine pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics related to POTS did not differ between parous and nulliparous women except for disease duration (parous, 3.7±2.6; nulliparous, 2.1±2.2; Pchange in HR on HUT: parous, 42.6±12.0 beats/min; nulliparous, 41.3±10.6 beats/min; P=.39). Of 116 total pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported in 9% and maternal complications in 1%. No complication was related to POTS. There was a trend toward modest improvement in autonomic dysfunction before and after pregnancy (change in HR on HUT: before pregnancy, 38.1±22.7 beats/min; after pregnancy, 21.9±14.9 beats/min; P=.07). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of pregnancy on POTS does not appear to be clinically important. However, there does appear to be a trend toward improvement in the short-term postpartum period. Adverse pregnancy events were similar to those seen in the general public and do not present a barrier to women with POTS who want to have children. PMID:20516426

  4. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs). These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering the risk of fetal hyper- or hypothyroidism. An important aspect in the early pregnancy is that the predominant side effect to the use of ATDs in weeks 6-10 of pregnancy is birth defects that may develop after exposure to available types of ATDs and may be severe. This review focuses on four current perspectives in the management of overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the etiology and incidence of the disease, how the diagnosis is made, the consequences of untreated or inadequately treated disease, and finally how to treat overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

  5. Migraine and pregnancy: an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Gianni; Rolando, Sara; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Messina, Paolo; Benedetto, Chiara; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Bonavita, Vincenzo; Bussone, Gennaro

    2013-05-01

    Data in the literature show that migraine tends to improve during pregnancy in most migrainous women. The aim of this Internet survey was to obtain the most likely cross section of the situation in the general population with respect to the presence and course of migraine in pregnancy. All women who participated were asked to answer questions pertaining to their history of pregnancy and headache. One thousand and eighteen women participated in the survey; only 775 met the eligibility criteria for inclusion. One hundred and ninety-five women (25.2 %) reported having had a headache only before pregnancy, 425 (54.8 %) before and during pregnancy, and 155 (20.0 %) only during pregnancy. Women suffering from headache before and/or during pregnancy were much more likely to have headaches with more migrainous features at the ID Migraine Screener test when compared to women whose headache began during pregnancy. "Definite migraines" were 277/620 (44.7 %) and 26/155 (16.8 %), respectively, in the two groups (p < 0.0001). Among the 620 females that suffered from headache before pregnancy, 375 (60.5 %) improved, 195 (31.5 %) showed complete resolution of the disorder, and 180 (29.0 %) had a reduction in headache frequency. Moreover, the multinomial logistic model (with headache pattern as dependent variable) proved fetal presentation as significant (p = 0.0042). Women with "new headache" (No/Yes pattern) had an OR (95 % CI) of 1.9 (1.2-3.0) of breech presentation at delivery versus those with a stable pattern of headache (Yes/Yes). Finally, women with not recent pregnancy stated they suffered from headache less than the women with recent pregnancy.

  6. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves’ disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs). These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering the risk of fetal hyper- or hypothyroidism. An important aspect in the early pregnancy is that the predominant side effect to the use of ATDs in weeks 6–10 of pregnancy is birth defects that may develop after exposure to available types of ATDs and may be severe. This review focuses on four current perspectives in the management of overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the etiology and incidence of the disease, how the diagnosis is made, the consequences of untreated or inadequately treated disease, and finally how to treat overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. PMID:27698567

  7. Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    1990-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical investigations in IR system design, analysis, and modeling are examined in reports and reviews. Topics discussed are modeling second-generation thermal imaging systems, performance improvement of an IR imaging system using subsystem MTF analysis, human recognition of IR images, spatial frequency performance of SPRITE detectors, and optimization of Schottky-barrier IR detectors for solar blindness. IR system testing is also considered, focusing on such problems as tolerancing methodology for an IR optical telescope, system response function approach to minimize IR testing errors, and portable MRTD collimator system for fast in situ testing of FLIRs and other thermal imagers.

  8. Nordic fathers’ willingness to participate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Persson, Eva K.; Stenback, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to illuminate expectant first-time fathers’ experiences of participation during pregnancy in three Nordic countries. Background: Fathers’ participation in pregnancy is associated with improved health for the family as a whole. Research so far has primarily explored...... the unborn child’, ‘Being included in the rites of motherhood,’ ‘Lacking full control’, ‘Compensating for lack of embodiment’ and ‘Adopting an active father role’. ‘Cementing the partnership’ encompassed the subcategories: ‘Strengthening the partner relationship’, ‘Meeting the professionals, ‘Sharing...

  9. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication and application of reduced enrichment fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers presented in the following areas: (1) Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program Status; (2) Fuel Development; (3) Fuel Demonstrations; (4) General Topics; and (5) Specific Reactor Applications

  10. No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Kennedy, V Logan; Poliquin, Vanessa; Dzineku, Frederick; Dean, Nicola L; Margolese, Shari; Symington, Alison; Money, Deborah M; Hamilton, Scot; Conway, Tracey; Khan, Sarah; Yudin, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines. The full search strategy is available upon request. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and through use of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation instrument for the development of clinical guidelines. Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an evidence-based approach for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy, preconception, fertility, and pregnancy planning counselling in the context of HIV infection. These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Disease Committee and the Executive and Council of the SOGC. Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant Planning and Dissemination grant (Funding Reference # 137186), which funded a Development Team meeting in 2016. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  12. Testing a "content meets process" model of depression vulnerability and rumination: Exploring the moderating role of set-shifting deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Roberts, John E

    2016-03-01

    MacCoon and Newman's (2006) "content meets process" model posits that deficits in cognitive control make it difficult to disengage from negative cognitions caused by a negative cognitive style (NCS). The present study examined if the interactive effect of cognitive set-shifting abilities and NCS predicts rumination and past history of depression. Participants were 90 previously depressed individuals and 95 never depressed individuals. We administered three laboratory tasks that assess set-shifting: the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Task, the Emotional Card-Sorting Task, and the Internal Switch Task, and self-report measures of NCS and rumination. Shifting ability in the context of emotional distractors moderated the association between NCS and depressive rumination. Although previously depressed individuals had more NCS and higher trait rumination relative to never depressed individuals, shifting ability did not moderate the association between NCS and depression history. The cross-sectional correlational design cannot address the causal direction of effects. It is also not clear whether findings will generalize beyond college students. NCS was elevated in previously depressed individuals consistent with its theoretical role as trait vulnerability to the disorder. Furthermore, NCS may be particularly likely to trigger rumination among individuals with poor capacity for cognitive control in the context of emotional distraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyskida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma occurs with a frequency estimated at 2-7 per 100 000 pregnant women. Unrecognized, and thus untreated pheochromocytoma is associated with very high (40-50% maternal and fetal mortality. Pheochromocytoma occurs sporadically or as a family trait. Its presence should be suspected in women with paroxysmal or established hypertension, especially before the 20th week of pregnancy, accompanied by headaches and palpitations, and excessive sweating, muscle tremors, vomiting, anxiety, vasomotor disturbances and blurred vision. The variety of clinical presentations and rarity are the cause of not including the disease in differential diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy. Biochemical tests are essential in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, and involving the assessment of methoxycatecholamine urinary excretion. The second step in the diagnostics is magnetic resonance imaging of adrenal glands. Adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice for pheochromocytoma with adrenal location, which depends on the timing of the tumor diagnosis. Conservative treatment for 10-14 days with pharmacological blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors should precede the surgery. Early diagnosis and properly planned treatment of pheochromocytoma significantly reduces the risk to the mother and fetus.

  14. HEMOSTASIOLOGICAL MONITORING DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Medyannikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As gestation progresses, all hemostatic components show changes aimed at compensating for the expenditures associated with fetal development. Activation of the hemostatic system during pregnancy creates a premorbid background for thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Hemostasiological examination is one of the compulsory dispensary management stages for pregnant women. An algorithm for the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated disorders in the hemostatic system is to solve the following problems: to identify the causes of hemocoagulation disorders, to determine the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic disorders, to prevent obstetric complications, and to monitor antithrombotic therapy. Hemostatic monitoring in pregnant women is based on rating and special methods and includes 3 stages: early, extended, and differential.The need for extended hemostatic examination is first determined and the direction of a search for a defective component is concretized in relation of the changes found. Interpretation of laboratory test values in terms of a female medical history and gestational age underlies the timely diagnosis, adequate treatment policy, and effective prevention of gestational complications.

  15. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  16. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  17. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  18. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Pathways and barriers to genetic testing and screening: Molecular genetics meets the high-risk family. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duster, T.

    1998-11-01

    The proliferation of genetic screening and testing is requiring increasing numbers of Americans to integrate genetic knowledge and interventions into their family life and personal experience. This study examines the social processes that occur as families at risk for two of the most common autosomal recessive diseases, sickle cell disease (SC) and cystic fibrosis (CF), encounter genetic testing. Each of these diseases is found primarily in a different ethnic/racial group (CF in Americans of North European descent and SC in Americans of West African descent). This has permitted them to have a certain additional lens on the role of culture in integrating genetic testing into family life and reproductive planning. A third type of genetic disorder, the thalassemias was added to the sample in order to extent the comparative frame and to include other ethnic and racial groups.

  1. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  4. Pregnancy and pregnancy outcome in hepatitis C type 1b.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jabeen, T

    2012-02-03

    A large cohort of rhesus-negative women in Ireland were inadvertently infected with hepatitis C virus following exposure to contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin in 1977-8. This major iatrogenic episode was discovered in 1994. We studied 36 women who had been infected after their first pregnancy, and compared them to an age- and parity-matched control group of rhesus-positive women. The presence of hepatitis C antibody was confirmed in all 36 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by recombinant immunoblot assay, while 26 (72%) of the cohort were HCV-RNA-positive (type 1b) on PCR testing. In the 20 years post-infection, all members of the study group had at least one pregnancy, and mean parity was 3.5. They had a total of 100 pregnancies and 85 of these went to term. There were four premature births, one being a twin pregnancy, and 11 spontaneous miscarriages. One miscarriage occurred in the pregnancy following HCV infection. There were two neonatal deaths due to severe congenital abnormalities in the PCR-positive women. Of the children born to HCV-RNA positive mothers, only one (2.3%) tested positive for the virus. Significant portal fibrosis on liver biopsy was confined to HCV-RNA-positive mothers apart from one single exception in the antibody-positive HCV-RNA-negative group. Comparison with the control group showed no increase in spontaneous miscarriage rate, and no significant difference in obstetric complications; birth weights were similar for the two groups.

  5. 75 FR 30041 - Medicare Program; Public Meeting in Calendar Year 2010 for New Clinical Laboratory Tests Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... specified list of new Clinical Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for clinical laboratory tests in calendar... are codified at 42 CFR part 414, subpart G. A newly created Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code..., Medicare--Hospital Insurance; and Program No. 93.774, Medicare-- Supplementary Medical Insurance Program...

  6. 78 FR 31560 - Medicare Program; Public Meeting in Calendar Year 2013 for New Clinical Laboratory Test Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Daylight Savings Time (EDST). Deadline for Registration of Presenters and Submission of Presentations: All... new test codes for the CY 2014 CLFS. Because of time constraints, presentations must be brief, lasting... there is not enough time for presentations by everyone who is interested in presenting, CMS will gladly...

  7. Adoption of an Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Curriculum: A Case Study in a South Carolina School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…

  8. Psychosomatic disorders of gravida status: false and denied pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, William D; Nicolson, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    The authors review the literature on two dramatic psychosomatic disorders of reproduction and offer a potential classification of pregnancy denial. Information on false and denied pregnancies is summarized by comparing the descriptions, differential diagnoses, epidemiology, patient characteristics, psychological factors, abdominal tone, and neuroendocrinology. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide is reviewed. False and denied pregnancies have fooled women, families, and doctors for centuries as the body obscures her true condition. Improvements in pregnancy testing have decreased reports of false pregnancy. However, recent data suggests 1/475 pregnancies are denied to 20 weeks, and 1/2455 may go undiagnosed to delivery. Factors that may contribute to the unconscious deception include abdominal muscle tone, persistent corpus luteum function, and reduced availability of biogenic amines in false pregnancy, and posture, fetal position, and corpus luteum insufficiency in denied pregnancy. For each condition, there are multiple reports in which the body reveals her true pregnancy status as soon as the woman is convinced of her diagnosis. Forensic literature on denied pregnancy focused on the woman's rejection of motherhood, while psychiatric studies have revealed that trauma and dissociation drive her denial. False pregnancy has firm grounding as a classic psychosomatic disorder. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide has led to misleading forensic data, which obscures the central role of trauma and dissociation. A reappraisal of pregnancy denial confirms it as the somatic inverse of false pregnancy. With that perspective, clinicians can help women understand their pregnancy status to avoid unexpected deliveries with tragic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypersonic ground test capabilities for T and E testing above mach 8 ''a case where S and T meets T and E''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantino, M; Miles, R; Brown, G; Laster, M; Nelson, G

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of hypersonic flight in ground test and evaluation (T and E) facilities is a challenging and formidable task, especially to fully duplicate the flight environment above approximately Mach 8 for most all hypersonic flight systems that have been developed, conceived, or envisioned. Basically, and for many years, the enabling technology to build such a ground test wind tunnel facility has been severely limited in the area of high-temperature, high-strength materials and thermal protection approaches. To circumvent the problems, various approaches have been used, including partial simulation and use of similarity laws and reduced test time. These approaches often are not satisfactory, i.e. operability and durability testing for air-breathing propulsion development and thermal protection development of many flight systems. Thus, there is a strong need for science and technology (S and T) community involvement in technology development to address these problems. This paper discusses a specific case where this need exists and where significant S and T involvement has made and continues to make significant contributions. The case discussed will be an Air Force research program currently underway to develop enabling technologies for a Mach 8-15 hypersonic true temperature wind tunnel with relatively long run time. The research is based on a concept proposed by princeton University using radiant or beamed energy into the supersonic nozzle flow

  10. Test and evaluation of IR detectors and arrays II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Forney M.

    The present conference discusses a radiometric calibration system for IR cameras, a methodology for testing IR focal-plane arrays in simulated nuclear radiation environments, process optimization for Si:As In-bumped focal-plane arrays, precise MTF measurements for focal-plane arrays, and IR focal-plane array crosstalk measurement. Also discussed are an imaging metric for IR focal-plane arrays, optical stimuli for high-volume automated testing of 2D HgCdTe focal-plane arrays, the evaluation of a solid-state photomultiplier focal-plane array for SDI, spectral effects on bulk photoconductors operated at cryogenic temperatures, and a novel technique for measuring the ionizing radiation effects in MOS transistors.

  11. Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs on Pregnancy Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your doctor before getting any vaccination during pregnancy. Also tell your doctor if you became pregnant within 4 weeks of having a vaccine. And if your workplace requires certain vaccines, be sure to let them ...

  12. The Clinical and Ultrasonic Study of Clinically Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy: Laying Emphasis on 15 proven Ectopic Pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Ho; Chung, Yung Sun [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Ectopic preganacies are unsuccessful pregnancies that result from implantation of fertilized ovum occurring in an aberrant area. Aside from an emergency case, the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is very difficult particularly in a case with insidious onset and mild clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis not only reduces the danger, but also simplifies the management of ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been an indispensable diagnostic tool in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the authors' experience, clinical suspected ectopic pregnancy was one of the common indications for performing ultrasonography. Since Kobayashi at al. reported the appearances of ectopic pregnancy utilizing bistable B-scan ultrasonography, the ultrasonic findings of ectopic pregnancy have been reported by many authors. But, its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are still open to controversy. The authors studied 65 cases of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy with Picker 80 L gray scale ultrasonography from Aug. 1982 to June. 1983. There were 29 confirmed cases, of which 15 were proved to have ectopic pregnancy and 14 were proved to have diseases other than ectopic pregnancy by surgical and histopathological study or by laparoscopy and follow up study. 29 confirmed cases were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Among 15 ectopic pregnancies, there were 12 ampullary pregnancies, 2 isthmic pregnancies and 1 interstitial pregnancy. Among 14 cases of no ectopic pregnancy, there were 5 intrauterine pregnancies, 3 myoma uteri, 2 P.I.D., and 1 case of dermoid cyst, cystic teratoma, H-mole and tubal hematoma due to previous tuball ligation, respectively. 2. The age distribution of ectopic pregnancy was from 22 to 41 years. The common clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy were lower abdominal pain (73.3%), vaginal spotting or bleeding (73.3%) and amenorrhea (66.7%). 3. Positive result of urine immunologic pregnancy test was 28.6% in ectopic

  13. The Clinical and Ultrasonic Study of Clinically Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy: Laying Emphasis on 15 proven Ectopic Pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Ho; Chung, Yung Sun

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic preganacies are unsuccessful pregnancies that result from implantation of fertilized ovum occurring in an aberrant area. Aside from an emergency case, the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is very difficult particularly in a case with insidious onset and mild clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis not only reduces the danger, but also simplifies the management of ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been an indispensable diagnostic tool in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the authors' experience, clinical suspected ectopic pregnancy was one of the common indications for performing ultrasonography. Since Kobayashi at al. reported the appearances of ectopic pregnancy utilizing bistable B-scan ultrasonography, the ultrasonic findings of ectopic pregnancy have been reported by many authors. But, its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are still open to controversy. The authors studied 65 cases of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy with Picker 80 L gray scale ultrasonography from Aug. 1982 to June. 1983. There were 29 confirmed cases, of which 15 were proved to have ectopic pregnancy and 14 were proved to have diseases other than ectopic pregnancy by surgical and histopathological study or by laparoscopy and follow up study. 29 confirmed cases were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Among 15 ectopic pregnancies, there were 12 ampullary pregnancies, 2 isthmic pregnancies and 1 interstitial pregnancy. Among 14 cases of no ectopic pregnancy, there were 5 intrauterine pregnancies, 3 myoma uteri, 2 P.I.D., and 1 case of dermoid cyst, cystic teratoma, H-mole and tubal hematoma due to previous tuball ligation, respectively. 2. The age distribution of ectopic pregnancy was from 22 to 41 years. The common clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy were lower abdominal pain (73.3%), vaginal spotting or bleeding (73.3%) and amenorrhea (66.7%). 3. Positive result of urine immunologic pregnancy test was 28.6% in ectopic pregnancy

  14. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  15. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy; Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; Melasma - pregnancy; Prenatal skin changes ... during pregnancy may have other effects on your skin. Some women get brownish or yellowish patches around ...

  16. Analysis of sequential hair segments reflects changes in the metabolome across the trimesters of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delplancke, Thibaut D J; de Seymour, Jamie V; Tong, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The hair metabolome has been recognized as a valuable source of information in pregnancy research, as it provides stable metabolite information that could assist with studying biomarkers or metabolic mechanisms of pregnancy and its complications. We tested the hypothesis that hair segments could...... mellitus (p metabolome during pregnancy, as well as highlight the potential of the maternal hair metabolome to differentiate pregnancy complications from healthy pregnancies....

  17. Lung cancer during pregnancy: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer is relatively low, complicating only 0.02–0.1% of all pregnancies. The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old woman, a light smoker, who was admitted to the hospital at 27 weeks of pregnancy, with respiratory symptoms since second trimester. Chest X-ray showed total left lung opacity with contralateral mediastinal deviation, suggestive of pleural effusion, and the pleural biopsy revealed invasion by lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation test was negative. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to start fetal lung maturation and cesarean section at 29 weeks gestation. The patient received two lines of chemotherapy and bone metastasis radiotherapy, but there was progression of the disease. An EML4-ALK translocation was identified in an additional genetic test. Crizotinib 250 mg BID was started. The patient showed a progression-free survival of 9 months and died 19 months after lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Resumo: A incidência de neoplasia associada à gravidez é relativamente baixa, podendo atingir cerca de 0,02-0,1% de todas as gestações. Os autores descrevem o caso de uma gestante de 36 anos de idade, fumadora, admitida no hospital às 27 semanas de gestação com sintomas respiratórios desde o segundo trimestre. A telerradiografia do tórax mostrou opacidade total do pulmão esquerdo, com desvio contralateral do mediastino, sugestiva de derrame pleural e a biópsia pleural revelou invasão por adenocarcinoma pulmonar. A pesquisa da mutação EGFR foi negativa. Após reunião multidisciplinar, decidiu-se iniciar a maturação pulmonar fetal e cesariana às 29 semanas de gestação. A doente realizou 2 linhas de quimioterapia bem como radioterapia óssea paliativa, verificando-se progressão da doença. A translocação EML4-ALK foi identificada num teste genético adicional. Foi iniciado crizotinib 250 mg 2x dia. A

  18. [Thyroid and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, K A; Lehnert, H

    2018-05-17

    During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy. With reference to the period prior to pregnancy, the article discusses iodide supplementation, preconceptional examination of thyroid gland metabolism and the importance of thyroid gland functional disorders for fertility and fulfilling the desire to have children. With a view to the period during pregnancy, the effect of hypothyroxinemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism as well as the effects of their treatment on the development of the child are explained. Finally, a description is given of what must be paid attention to in the breast-feeding period and in postpartum thyroiditis.

  19. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  20. Pregnancy and Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Chauhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual obscurations are common during pregnancy. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological,pathological or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. While most of the described changes are transient in nature, others extend beyond delivery and may lead to permanent visual impairment. Also, pregnancy can affect vision through systemic disease that are either specific to the pregnancy itself or systemic diseases that occur more frequently in relation to pregnancy. Neuro-ophthalmological disorders should be kept in mind in pregnant women presenting with visual acuity or field loss. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the ocular changes in pregnancy in order to counsel and advice women who currently are, or are planning to become pregnant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 1-13

  1. [Sexuality and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, E; Gayoso, P; Perdiz, C; Doval, J L

    1998-10-15

    We intend to describe the sexual behaviour of pregnancies women. Family Planning Center Nóvoa Santos, of Galician Health Service (SERGAS), of Ourense (SPAIN). 206 pregnancies women that are attended in a obstetric psychoprophylaxis's programme, during two years (January/93-January/95). We analysed the social economic, of reproduction, of medical attention and psycho-sexual variables. We use the PRESTA and SPSS statistics programmes. The average age is 28 years old, is married, has elementary studies and this is the first pregnancy. Her pregnancy is desire and normally developed. Her sexual desire and intercourse frequency is the same (1-2 per week); the intercourse is pleasant and the more habitual position is she over. Some times, the couple has relations without coitus and she practises the masturbation, and she enjoy of this practice. The pregnancies women have different sexual behaviours. They are satisfied with all them. The health' professional should favour the complete enjoy of the sexuality during the pregnancy.

  2. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  3. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Sileny N; Kesic, Vesna I; Van Calsteren, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and....../or cancer, using the membership directories of different professional societies. RESULTS: 142 surveys were eligible for analysis. A median of 2 (range 0-100) patients with cancer in pregnancy were treated per center in 2010. The vast majority of respondents (94%) agreed that management of pregnant patients...... with cancer should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. When cancer is diagnosed in the first or early second trimester of pregnancy, 44% of respondents prefer termination of pregnancy: if the patient wishes to preserve the pregnancy, 77% consider deliberate delay and treatment later in pregnancy. When...

  4. Melanoma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haan, Jorine; Lok, Christianne A; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2017-01-01

    The management of melanoma during pregnancy is challenging as maternal benefits and fetal risks need to be balanced. Here, we present an overview of the incidence, the demographic and clinical characteristics and the treatment modalities used. After analysis of obstetric, fetal and maternal outcome......, recommendations for clinical practice are provided. From the 'International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy' database, pregnant patients with melanoma were identified and analysed. Sixty pregnancies were eligible for analysis. Fifty percent of the patients presented with advanced melanoma during...... pregnancy (14 stage III and 16 stage IV), and 27% were diagnosed with recurrent melanoma. Surgery was the main therapeutic strategy during pregnancy. Only four patients with advanced melanoma were treated during pregnancy with systemic therapy (n=1) or radiotherapy (n=3). Premature delivery was observed...

  5. Subacute Thyroiditis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANAN YILDIZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case of subacute thyroiditis occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy in a 33-years-old pregnant patient. Thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy is a rare condition and occurs in 0.1 to 0.4% of all pregnancies. Graves' Disease and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis constitute the majority of emerging thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Subacute thyroiditis may also cause temporary thyrotoxicosis. Although the majority of the patients recover without treatment, complications in the pregnancy should be considered and each patient must be evaluated individually. As a result, differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy and treatment plan should be done well and subacute thyroiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 1-1

  6. Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwayiwawo Madanitsa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP.This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk] in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher. Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae. The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9% and IPTp-SP (28.8% arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92-1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71-1.20], p = 0.543. The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3

  7. Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hure, Alexis; Young, Anne; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2009-06-01

    To investigate and report the diet quality of young Australian women by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status was defined as pregnant (n 606), trying to conceive (n 454), had a baby in the last 12 months (n 829) and other (n 5597). The Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies was used to calculate diet quality using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) methodology. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. A population-based cohort participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). A nationally representative sample of Australian women, aged 25 to 30 years, who completed Survey 3 of the ALSWH. The 7486 women with biologically plausible energy intake estimates, defined as >4.5 but food group accounted for this small difference. Across all pregnancy categories there were important nutrients that did not meet the current nationally recommended levels of intake, including dietary folate and fibre. Women do not appear to consume a wider variety of nutritious foods when planning to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Many young Australian women are failing to meet key nutrient targets as nationally recommended.

  8. Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 23, 24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    This volume discusses today's thermal imaging systems, modeling of thermal imaging systems, sampling and aliasing, and systems and testing. Individual papers are on single-frame multispectral thermal imagery, measurement of the MTF of IR staring-array imaging systems, IRC-64 infrared focal-plane-array camera, performance and application of serial-scan FLIRs, and nondestructive thermal analysis with portable pyroelectric television camera. Attention is also given to standard night vision thermal modeling parameters, the analysis of a proposed infrared sensor focal plane, spatial aliasing effects in ground vehicle IR imagery, spatial sampling effects of multipixel sensors on the guided-missile system performance, and the perception of unwanted signals in displayed imagery. Other papers are on the assessment of environment-driven infrared intensity components, measurements of optical transfer function of discretely sampled thermal imaging systems, and the status of uncooled infrared imagers.

  9. Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    Topics addressed include MTF characteristics of a Scophony scene projector, design of an athermalized three-field-of-view infrared sensor, a 3D analysis framework and measurement methodology for imaging system noise, effects of phasing on MRT target visibility, a multisensor analysis tool, a computer simulation of stairing-array thermal imagers, and a validated CCD camera model. Also discussed are an end-to-end model for detection performance evaluation against scenario-specific targets, Wiener-matrix image restoration beyond tha sampling passband, thermal signature training for military observers, reporting data for arrays with many elements, determination of FLIR LOS stabilization errors, fixed-pattern-noise cancellation in linear pyro arrays, a SPRITE detector characterization through impulse response testing, sine wave measurements of SPRITE detector MTF.

  10. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    OpenAIRE

    Savasi, V.; Antonazzo, P.; Personeni, C.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  11. Screening and treatment for heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure: inconsistencies among UK early pregnancy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.

  12. Meeting Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joel; Katzman, Jeffrey W

    2017-12-01

    Although meetings are central to organizational work, considerable time devoted to meetings in Academic Health Centers appears to be unproductively spent. The primary purposes of this article are to delineate and describe Meeting Disorders, pathological processes resulting in these inefficient and ineffective scenarios, and Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD), a clinical syndrome. The paper also offers preliminary approaches to remedies. The authors integrate observations made during tens of thousands of hours in administrative meetings in academic medical settings with information in the literature regarding the nature, causes and potential interventions for dysfunctional groups and meetings. Meeting Disorders, resulting from distinct pathologies of leadership and organization, constitute prevalent subgroups of the bureaucrapathologies, pathological conditions caused by dysfunctional bureaucratic processes that generate excesses of wasted time, effort, and other resources. These disorders also generate frustration and demoralization among participants, contributing to professional burnout. Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD) is a subjective condition that develops in individuals who overdose on these experiences and may reflect one manifestation of burnout. Meeting disorders and Meeting Fatigue Disorder occur commonly in bureaucratic life. Resources and potential remedies are available to help ameliorate their more deleterious effects.

  13. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, S; Ciardo, A

    2001-01-01

    Pregnancy is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infection and pregnant women suffering from this pathology are exposed to dangerous risks which may condition maternal wellbeing and fetal prognosis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the common bacterial infection requiring medical treatment in pregnancy. Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is important as approximately 20-40% of these women, if untreated during pregnancy, will develop a symptomatic urinary tract infection.

  14. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  15. Ruptured cornual pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Yasmeen, H.; Noorani, K.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ruptured cornual pregnancy is presented here. The patient presented with history of 30 weeks gestational amenorrhoea and pain in the lower abdomen and epigastrium for the last seven days. Ultrasound revealed a 29 weeks abdominal pregnancy with blood in the pelvic cavity. On laparotomy; there was a ruptured right cornual pregnancy, treated cornual resection and uterine repair. An alive male baby of one kg weight was delivered from the resected cornua of the uterus. (author)

  16. A critical role of hypocretin deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianini, Stefano; Berteotti, Chiara; Lo Martire, Viviana; Silvani, Alessandro; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2014-04-01

    Hypocretin/orexin peptides are known for their role in the control of the wake–sleep cycle and narcolepsy–cataplexy pathophysiology. Recent studies suggested that hypocretin peptides also have a role in pregnancy. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a retrospective analysis on pregnancy complications in two different mouse models of hypocretin deficiency. We recorded 85 pregnancies of mice lacking either hypocretin peptides (knockout) or hypocretin-releasing neurons (transgenic) and their wild-type controls. Pregnancy was associated with unexplained dam death before delivery in 3/15 pregnancies in knockout mice, and in 3/23 pregnancies in transgenic mice. No casualties occurred in wild-type pregnant dams (P hypocretin-deficient mice as a whole). Hypocretin deficiency did not impact either on litter size or the number of weaned pups per litter. These data provide preliminary evidence of a critical role of hypocretin deficiency in pregnancy.

  17. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  18. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Rossella; Ladu, Cristina; Vezzosi, Chiara; Mannelli, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare condition in the general population and is even less common during pregnancy with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome may be difficult during pregnancy because the typical features of the disorder and pregnancy may overlap. However, Cushing's syndrome results in increased fetal and maternal complications, and diagnosis and treatment are critical. This report describes a case of 26-year-old female at the 19th week of pregnancy with symptoms and signs of hypercortisolism, where ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed and treated by robotic laparoscopic adrenalectomy at the 21th week of gestation.

  19. Pregnancy and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Marcia S; Martires, Kathryn; Bieber, Amy Kalowitz; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and from iatrogenic hormones on melanoma is controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. In addition, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas. In spite of these observations, the preponderance of evidence does not support a poorer prognosis for pregnancy-associated melanomas. There is also a lack of evidence that oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy worsens melanoma prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Update on Valvular Heart Disease in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Lucy M; Tsiaras, Sarah V

    2017-09-01

    Valvular heart disease in women of childbearing age poses an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and management in pregnancy can be challenging. Ideally, patients with suspected valvular disease should have preconception counseling by a multidisciplinary team including cardiologists with expertise in pregnancy and a maternal-fetal medicine specialist. Preconception planning should include a cardiac assessment of maternal risk, determination of frequency of surveillance, and a cardiovascular management plan during delivery. Women with valvular heart disease should be followed closely by a cardiologist and monitored for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias. In general, stenotic lesions may become more symptomatic in pregnancy, whereas regurgitant lesions are generally well tolerated. Left-sided valvular lesions have higher complication rates than right-sided lesions. For patients with asymptomatic valvular stenosis, medical management during pregnancy may include beta blockade and/or diuretics. Exercise stress testing prior to pregnancy in sedentary patients can be helpful to unmask symptoms and determine functional capacity. Patients with symptomatic, severe left-sided valvular obstruction have a high maternal risk of cardiovascular events during pregnancy, and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty or surgery is recommended prior to pregnancy. The type of prosthetic valve (mechanical vs bioprosthetic) should be selected after a careful discussion with the patient. Invasive procedures are generally reserved for when medical management fails. The second trimester may be the optimal time for intervention as fetal organogenesis is complete and the cardiac positioning has not been affected by the gravid uterus.

  1. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  2. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  3. Tryptophan metabolism, disposition and utilization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B

    2015-09-17

    Tryptophan (Trp) requirements in pregnancy are several-fold: (1) the need for increased protein synthesis by mother and for fetal growth and development; (2) serotonin (5-HT) for signalling pathways; (3) kynurenic acid (KA) for neuronal protection; (4) quinolinic acid (QA) for NAD(+) synthesis (5) other kynurenines (Ks) for suppressing fetal rejection. These goals could not be achieved if maternal plasma [Trp] is depleted. Although plasma total (free + albumin-bound) Trp is decreased in pregnancy, free Trp is elevated. The above requirements are best expressed in terms of a Trp utilization concept. Briefly, Trp is utilized as follows: (1) In early and mid-pregnancy, emphasis is on increased maternal Trp availability to meet the demand for protein synthesis and fetal development, most probably mediated by maternal liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition by progesterone and oestrogens. (2) In mid- and late pregnancy, Trp availability is maintained and enhanced by the release of albumin-bound Trp by albumin depletion and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) elevation, leading to increased flux of Trp down the K pathway to elevate immunosuppressive Ks. An excessive release of free Trp could undermine pregnancy by abolishing T-cell suppression by Ks. Detailed assessment of parameters of Trp metabolism and disposition and related measures (free and total Trp, albumin, NEFA, K and its metabolites and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in maternal blood and, where appropriate, placental and fetal material) in normal and abnormal pregnancies may establish missing gaps in our knowledge of the Trp status in pregnancy and help identify appropriate intervention strategies. © 2015 Authors.

  4. Outsourcing cytological samples to a referral laboratory for EGFR testing in non-small cell lung cancer: does theory meet practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliar, E; Malapelle, U; Bellevicine, C; de Luca, C; Troncone, G

    2015-10-01

    Guidelines from the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) consider cytology suitable for testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinoma. The guidelines recommend that cytopathologists first discuss the possibility of testing squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) in multidisciplinary meetings. Second, cell blocks should be analysed rather than smear preparations and, third, specimens should be sent to external molecular laboratories within three working days of receiving requests. This study monitored how these recommendations are met in practice. Our laboratory received 596 requests from cytologists from 13 different institutions. For each case, the cytological diagnosis, cytopreparation type, and time between the request and sample mailing were compared with the recommendations. Of the 596 samples, 32 (5.4%) had been reported as SqCC. Three of these (9.4%) showed EGFR mutation. Cytological slides, either ThinPrep(™) (51.2%) or direct smears (43.2%), were more frequently received than cell blocks (5.7%). The mean time between the oncologist's request and specimen dispatching was 5.8 working days. The occurrence of mutations in samples reported as SqCC was higher than expected. This questions the reliability of the original diagnosis, which reinforced the recommendation to evaluate the opportunity for testing non-adenocarcinoma cytology on a case-by-case basis. In spite of CAP/IASLC/AMP recommendations, cell blocks were underutilized for EGFR testing, but cytological slides were suitable for DNA analyses. Significant efforts are needed to avoid delays in outsourcing cytological samples for EGFR testing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    I should like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 25th June 2003 at 11.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 to give a report on the outcome of the June Meetings of Council and its Committees. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the AB Auditorium (Meyrin - bldg. 6), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Luciano Maiani Director General

  6. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Registration Schedule & Program Abstracts 60th ASH Annual Meeting & ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  8. Accumulation of operational history through emulation test to meet proven technology requirement for newly developed I and C technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong Cheol, Shin; Sung Kon, Kang; Han Seong, Son

    2006-01-01

    As new advanced digital I and C technology with potential benefits of higher functionality and better cost effectiveness is available in the market, NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology poses risks to the NPP operators at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. KHNP's past experiences with the new equipment shows many cases of reliability problems. And their consequences include unintended plant trips, lowered acceptance of the new digital technology by the plant I and C maintenance crew, and increased licensing burden in answering for questions from the nuclear regulatory body. Considering the fact that the risk of these failures in the nuclear plant operation is far greater than those in other industry, nuclear power plant operators want proven technology for I and C systems. This paper presents an approach for the emulation of operational history through which a newly developed technology becomes a proven technology. One of the essential elements of this approach is the feedback scheme of running the new equipment in emulated environment, gathering equipment failure, and correcting the design(and test bed). The emulation of environment includes normal and abnormal events of the new equipment such as reconfiguration of control system due to power failure, plant operation including full spectrum of credible scenarios in an NPP. Emulation of I and C equipment execution mode includes normal operation, initialization and termination, abnormal operation, hardware maintenance and maintenance of algorithm/software. Plant specific simulator is used to create complete profile of plant operational conditions that I and C equipment is to experience in the real plant. Virtual operating crew technology is developed to run the simulator scenarios without involvement of actual operators

  9. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should I avoid secondhand smoke during pregnancy? • Are e-cigarettes safe to use during pregnancy? • Why is drinking ... smokers, take steps to avoid secondhand smoke. Are e-cigarettes safe to use during pregnancy? Electronic cigarettes (known ...

  10. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  11. Pregnancy-related anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with visuospatial working memory errors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataja, E-L; Karlsson, L; Huizink, A C; Tolvanen, M; Parsons, C; Nolvi, S; Karlsson, H

    2017-08-15

    Cognitive deficits, especially in memory and concentration, are often reported during pregnancy. Similar cognitive dysfunctions can also occur in depression and anxiety. To date, few studies have investigated the associations between cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. This field is of interest because maternal cognitive functioning, and particularly its higher-order aspects are related to maternal well-being and caregiving behavior, as well as later child development. Pregnant women (N =230), reporting low (n =87), moderate (n =97), or high (n =46) levels of depressive, general anxiety and/or pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms (assessed repeatedly with EPDS, SCL-90/anxiety subscale, PRAQ-R2, respectively) were tested in mid-pregnancy for their cognitive functions. A computerized neuropsychological test battery was used. Pregnant women with high or moderate level of psychiatric symptoms had significantly more errors in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning task than mothers with low symptom level. Depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy and concurrent pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were significant predictors of the performance in the task. General anxiety symptoms were not related to visuospatial working memory. Cognitive functions were evaluated only at one time-point during pregnancy precluding causal conclusions. Maternal depressive symptoms and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were both associated with decrements in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning. Depressive symptoms seem to present more stable relationship with cognitive deficits, while pregnancy-related anxiety was associated only concurrently. Future studies could investigate, how stable these cognitive differences are, and whether they affect maternal ability to deal with demands of pregnancy and later parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Professional Liability Managing Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar ...

  14. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Down syndrome pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; XU Chen-ming; ZHU Yi-min; DONG Min-yue; QIAN Yu-li; JIN Fan; HUANG He-feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) conducted for women who had Down syndrome pregnancy previously. Methods: Trisomy 21 was diagnosed by using fluorescence in site hybridization (FISH) before embryo transfer in two women who had Down syndrome pregnancies. Each received one or two PGD cycles respectively. Results:Case 1: one PGD cycle was conducted, two oocytes were fertilized and biopsied. One embryo is of trisomy 21 and the other of monosomy 21. No embryo was transferred. Case 2: two PGD cycles were conducted, in total, sixteen oocytes were fertilized and biopsied. Four embryos were tested to be normal, six of trisomy 21, and one of monosomy 21. Five had no signal. Four normal embryos were transferred but no pregnancy resulted. Conclusion: For couples who had pregnancies with Down syndrome previously, PGD can be considered, and has been shown to be an effective strategy.

  15. Bilateral Tubal Pregnancy without Known Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinthe Zamané

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation is very rare. The authors report a case diagnosed and taken care of at Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, Ouagadougou. It was a 30-year-old patient with no known pathological history. She had presented at the obstetric emergencies with a state of hypovolemic shock by haemoperitoneum with digestive disorders, pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and a mention of delayed menstruation. The ultrasound coupled with the urinary immunological pregnancy test confirmed the diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy and a bilateral form was suspected. A laparotomy in emergency confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic gestation with a right ampullary unruptured pregnancy and a left isthmic ruptured gestation. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed and counseling was made for the use of medical help of procreation in case of future need of pregnancy.

  16. Anticoagulation in pregnancy complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia are thought to be at increased risk for pregnancy complications, including recurrent pregnancy loss and, depending on the type of thrombophilia, severe preeclampsia. This review discusses the associations between the types of thrombophilia and types of

  17. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...

  18. Acetaminophen use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2008-01-01

    information on acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy. We used the National Hospital Registry to identify 3784 (4.3%) children from the cohort diagnosed with 5847 congenital abnormalities. RESULTS: Children exposed to acetaminophen during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 26,424) did...

  19. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  20. Pemphigus Foliaceus In Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan S G S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 year old female developed pemphigus foliaceus for the first time during her second pregnancy. Ultrasonogram done at the hospital had revealed a single live fetus of 28 weeks. But the pregnancy terminated in premature labour and still birth. Baby apparently did not have any skin lesion but was not available for examination or investigation.

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ...

  2. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment to quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 More information National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Last reviewed: July, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  3. Fluconazole and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small increase of birth defects. Can taking fluconazole cause other pregnancy problems? Studies have not found an increase in ... to suggest that a father’s use of fluconazole causes infertility or birth ... to a pregnancy. For more information, please see the MotherToBaby fact ...

  4. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and anus. If I have HPV, will that cause pregnancy problems? It is unclear. Even though HPV is ... HPV can be passed to a newborn during pregnancy or through the birth canal. Usually this causes no problems for the newborn. In rare cases, ...

  5. Eating right during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 6. West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy and Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Paternal Exposures and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk for birth defects. Can the father’s workplace exposures affect my pregnancy? There have been a number of studies looking ... else could a father’s work exposure affect a pregnancy? Men exposed to ... chemicals in the workplace may carry these agents on their clothes and ...

  7. Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W. J.; Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy are reported, both due to an adrenal adenoma. The association of pregnancy and Cushing's syndrome has up to now been described in 48 patients (including our two cases); Cushing's syndrome was ACTH-independent in 59%, ACTH-dependent in 33%, and of

  8. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  9. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bulletins-Gynecology/Early-Pregnancy-Loss What are common symptoms? Causes and Risks How is it diagnosed? Is there a way to prevent? Related A-Z Topics High-Risk Pregnancy Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Stillbirth NICHD News Spotlights Release: Anti-HIV ...

  10. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ... high blood pressure, not smoking or using street drugs, and always wearing a seatbelt when riding in a car. ... complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  12. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman sh...

  13. Modeling acardiac twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Rosa; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Beek, Johan F.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Acardiac twin pregnancies are a rare but severe complication of monochorionic twinning, where the acardiac twin lacks cardiac function but nevertheless grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the pump twin through a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. Because the

  14. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman...

  15. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  16. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  17. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  18. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  19. Compliance with national recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise during pregnancy is associated with health benefits for both the mother and the fetus, and is therefore recommended in several national guidelines. Only few studies investigate whether these guideline recommendations are met. The aims of this study were 1. To assess...... the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. METHODS...... the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding...

  20. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  1. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  2. Suspected ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Beata E; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2006-02-01

    Women who present with pain and bleeding in the first trimester are at risk for ectopic pregnancy, a life-threatening condition. Conditions that predispose a woman to ectopic pregnancy are damaged fallopian tubes from prior tubal surgery or previous pelvic infection, smoking, and conception using assisted reproduction. Many women without risk factors can develop an ectopic pregnancy. A diagnostic algorithm that includes the use of transvaginal ultrasonography, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations, and, sometimes, uterine curettage can definitively diagnose women at risk in a timely manner. The absence of an intrauterine pregnancy above an established cut point of hCG is consistent with an abnormal pregnancy but does not distinguish a miscarriage from an ectopic pregnancy. When the initial hCG value is low, serial hCG values can be used to determine whether a gestation is potentially viable or spontaneously resolving. The minimal rise in hCG for a viable pregnancy is 53% in 2 days. The minimal decline of a spontaneous abortion is 21-35% in 2 days, depending on the initial level. A rise or fall in serial hCG values that is slower than this is suggestive of an ectopic pregnancy. Women diagnosed with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy are potential candidates for medical management with methotrexate. Intramuscular injection with methotrexate can be used to safely treat an ectopic pregnancy with success rates, tubal patency rates, and future fertility that are similar to those obtained with conservative surgery. Success rates using methotrexate are inversely rated to baseline hCG values and are higher using "multidose" compared with "single-dose" regimens. Surgical treatment may be conservative or definitive and should be attempted in most cases via laparoscopy.

  3. Self-reported periodontal conditions among Dutch women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmakh, V; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2017-11-01

    Women can experience symptoms of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. However, whether clinical signs of gingival inflammation were present already before pregnancy and whether women perceive an alteration in their periodontal health status during pregnancy compared to their periodontal health status before pregnancy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported periodontal conditions in pregnant Dutch women as perceived before and during pregnancy. This cross-sectional survey was performed by asking women visiting two midwifery practices to complete a structured questionnaire. The data, which considered the women's oral hygiene habits, perceived periodontal health status before and during pregnancy and dental visits, were gathered and analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. Most of the respondents (mean age: 29.6 years) brushed their teeth twice a day (72.2%), and 62.0% used interdental cleaning devices. Significant differences in periodontal health before and during pregnancy were perceived. No differences with respect to periodontal disease symptoms between the three trimesters during pregnancy were found. The symptom with the greatest increase was bleeding gums. This was followed by symptoms of painful and swollen gums. Of the 61.5% women who disclosed their plans to become pregnant to their dental care practitioner, 53.9% received information regarding the possibility of alterations in oral health status during pregnancy. Because of the perceived alterations in oral health status during pregnancy, approximately 11% of the women scheduled an additional appointment with their dental care professional for advice. During the pregnancy period, perceived alterations in periodontal health status were reported as compared to the oral health situation before pregnancy. Furthermore, approximately 50% of the women who visited a dental professional and disclosed their (plans) of pregnancy did not receive

  4. Analysis of qualitative data from the investigation study in pregnancy of the ASSIST Version 3.0 (the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Elizabeth D; Ali, Robert L; White, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    to utilise qualitative data from investigation of the screening tool ASSIST Version 3.0 with pregnant women to help determine its appropriateness for this cohort, thus informing potential innovations to enhance the questionnaire׳s utility. pregnant women were co-administered the ASSIST Version 3.0 and three established substance use questionnaires (the T-ACE for alcohol, the Timeline FollowBack for cannabis and the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire for tobacco). antenatal clinics and the antenatal ward of the Women׳s and Children׳s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia. 104 pregnant substance-users. as well as the quantitative date (reported elsewhere), rich qualitative data documenting participants' perspectives and experiences in antenatal care were thematically analysed. Women constantly reported friends and family urging them to stop use. Although care providers also advocated cessation or curtailment of use, this advice was reported as unpredictable, with only some providers strongly attuned to such recommendations. Some women voiced suggestions for the appropriate level of provider advice. While pregnancy was often reported as a motivator for changing substance-using behaviour, others reported continued attachment to use which was clearly linked to dependence. Those who reported successful control of use were in contrast to others who were more pragmatic, sceptical in relation to attributable harms, and disinterested in change. There were limited reports of experiences of discrimination directed to pregnant substance users. However, those instances were clearly linked with subsequent lack of honest discussions with care providers, resulting in an absence of appropriate support. current absence of universal screening for substance use has the potential for less than optimal consequences for both mother and baby. appropriate screening accompanied by honest, non-judgmental dialogue can guide the necessary interventions to achieve better outcomes. The recent

  5. Empowering teenagers to prevent pregnancy: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Christofides, Nicola

    2009-10-01

    Reducing rates of teenage pregnancy is an important part of the agenda of action for meeting most of the Millenium Development Goals. South Africa has important lessons for other countries in this regard as the rate of teenage pregnancy is high but has declined very substantially over the last twenty years. The country experiences waves of moral panic about teenage pregnancy, with assertions that current problems are rooted in accepting or even encouraging the sexual appetites of young people rather than sternly disciplining them. In this paper, we argue that the key to success in teenage pregnancy reduction has been an empowering social policy agenda that has sought to work with young people, making them aware of their rights and the risks of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, family responses and education policy have greatly reduced the potential negative impact of teenage pregnancy on the lives of teenage girls. There is tremendous scope for further progress in reducing teenage pregnancy and we argue that this lies in paying more attention to issues of gender and sexuality, including the terms and conditions under which teenagers have sex. There needs to be critical reflection and engagement with men and boys on issues of masculinity, including their role in child rearing, as well as examination within families of their engagement with supporting pregnancy prevention and responses to pregnancies.

  6. South Africa: Durban’s ante-natal clinic environment and its impact on a woman’s choice to test for HIV during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Eyakuze, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent, counselling and confidentiality are key tenets of a human rights approach to HIV testing. In this article, based on an oral poster presentation at AIDS 2010, Allison K. Groves and Cynthia Eyakuze discuss the results of a study on HIV testing of women in ante-natal clinics in Durban, South Africa and how communication about testing may undermine the practice of obtaining informed consent. PMID:21413627

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: glycemic control during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of twin and singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Sacoto, María Augusta; Barquiel, Beatriz; Hillman, Natalia; Burgos, María Ángeles; Herranz, Lucrecia

    2018-04-20

    To assess the impact of glycemic control in gestational on neonatal weight and metabolic complications of twin and singleton pregnancies. An observational, retrospective study to monitor 120 twin and 240 singleton pregnancies in women with GDM. Maternal glycemic parameters during pregnancy (oral glucose tolerance test results, treatment, insulinization rate, mean HbA1c in the third trimester), and neonatal complications and weight were recorded. A higher infant birth weight ratio (IBWR 1.02±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.12, P<.001) and a lower rate of newborns small for gestational age (severe SGA 2.5% vs. 8.3%, P=.012) were seen after singleton pregnancies as compared to twin pregnancies. The rates of newborns large for gestational age (LGA 12.6% vs. 12.5%, P=.989); macrosomic (6.7% vs. 7.5%, P=.777); or small for gestational age (SGA 6.7% vs. 10.8%, P=.175) were similar in both groups. Neonates from twin pregnancies had a higher risk of hypoglycemia (adjusted OR 4.71; 1.38-16.07, P=.013) and polycythemia (adjusted OR 10.05; 1.82-55.42, P=0.008). A linear relationship was seen between third trimester HbA1c levels and IBWR in singleton (r=.199, P=.003), but not in twin pregnancies (r=0.049, P=0.610). Risk of severe SGA, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia was significantly higher in twin pregnancies of women with GDM. Neonatal weight outcomes and metabolic complications in twin pregnancies of women with GDM were not related to glycemic control. Moreover, in our study population, fasting glucose at diagnosis and mean HbA1c in the third trimester showed a linear relationship with higher birth weights in singleton, but not in twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle Sharon; Otupiri, Easmon; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de Jonge, Ank; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and

  9. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.S.; Otupiri, E.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; de Jonge, J.; Agyemang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal

  10. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  11. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  12. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  13. Anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Malik; Shehata, Mishkat; Hamad, Asma

    2012-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with anaemia in pregnancy and can be more cost-effectively detected by rapid diagnostic test than by microscopy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangila, Junior R; Lufuluabo, Jean; Ibalanky, Axel L; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel A; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-02

    In areas of high malaria transmission, Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is characterized by malaria-related anaemia, placental malaria and does not always result in clinical symptoms. This situation is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection, its relation with anaemia as well as the most cost-effective technique for its diagnosis in healthy pregnant women living in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In a cross-sectional study design, information on socio-demographic characteristics and cost data were collected in healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care consultations. Plasmodium falciparum infection was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was also determined. In total, 332 pregnant women were enrolled. RDT and microscopy data were available for all the blood samples and 166 samples were analysed by PCR. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection using microscopy, RDTs and PCR, were respectively 21.6%, 27.4% and 29.5%. Taking PCR as a reference, RDTs had a sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 94.9% to diagnose asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. The corresponding values for microscopy were 67.3% and 97.4%. The prevalence of anaemia was 61.1% and asymptomatic malaria increased five times the odds (p anaemia. RDTs were more cost-effective compared to microscopy. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 63.47 per microscopy adequately diagnosed case. These alarming results emphasize the need to actively diagnose and treat asymptomatic malaria infection during all antenatal care visits. Moreover, in DRC, malaria and anaemia control efforts should be strengthened by promoting the use of insecticide-treated nets, intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and iron and folic acid supplements.

  15. Genetic Causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jessica M; Silver, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy loss is one of the most common obstetric complications, affecting over 30% of conceptions. A considerable proportion of losses are due to genetic abnormalities. Indeed, over 50% of early pregnancy losses have been associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Most are due to de novo nondisjunctional events but balanced parental translocations are responsible for a small but important percentage of genetic abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. In the past, assessment of genetic abnormalities was limited to karyotype performed on placental or fetal tissue. However, advances in molecular genetic technology now provide rich genetic information about additional genetic causes of and risk factors for pregnancy loss. In addition, the use of preimplantation genetic testing in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization has the potential to decrease the risk of pregnancy loss from genetic abnormalities. To date, efficacy is uncertain but considerable potential remains. This chapter will review what is known about genetic causes of recurrent pregnancy loss with a focus on novel causes and potential treatments. Remaining knowledge gaps will be highlighted.

  16. Study of Contraceptives Used in Unwanted Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Aghababaei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem that affects women, their families, and society. Unintended pregnancy can result from contraceptive failure, non-use or use mistake of contraceptive Methods: This study examined the Frequency and pattern of contraceptive method use in unintended pregnancy women reffering to health and medical center of Hamadan medical science university in Iran. Design and setting: A descriptive study was conducted at health and medical center of Hamadan medical science in Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire in 2006 from a convenience sample of 900 unintended pregnancy women . The survey included measures of demographic variables, type and pattern of contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed by Chi square and t-test using SPSS. Results: Of the 900 participants, 93.9% had used contraceptive methods. The most common contraceptive method use in unintended pregnancy women were oral contraceptive pills 38.1% , natural method 31.9%, condom 19.8%, breastfeeding 4.4%, IUD 3.6%, emergency 1.9% and rhythm 0.4%. The most common problem in contraceptive use were irregular and incorrectly use in hormonal methods and condom users, no control in IUD users and mistake in date calculation in rhythmic users. Conclusion: The majority of participants had used contraceptive methods but have unintended pregnancy. More education is needed in this subject.

  17. Treating Psoriasis During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Rørbye, Christina; Skov, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a well-documented negative effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Psoriasis often occurs in the reproductive years, during which the issue of pregnancy needs to be addressed. The course of psoriasis during pregnancy is unpredictable......, and many patients face the challenge of needing treatment during pregnancy. In this review we provide an overview of the key considerations for managing psoriasis in pregnant women, covering the potential effects of active psoriasis and co-morbid conditions on the health of the mother and fetus, as well...

  18. Fournier gangrene in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rinkita; Arachchi, Asiri; Lee, Peter; Marwan, Kareem

    2015-06-01

    Fournier gangrene is a rare and rapidly progressive necrosis of the perineal and genitourinary region. Although predominantly affecting men, we describe an unusual presentation in pregnancy. A 30-year old primigravid woman in the third trimester of pregnancy presented with a history of low back pain. Subsequently, a diagnosis of perianal sepsis and associated Fournier gangrene was established. The patient underwent an emergency cesarean delivery followed by radical surgical debridement and colostomy. Expedited delivery, timely diagnosis of gangrene, urgent, extensive debridement, and broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage contributed largely to effective management of this rare presentation in pregnancy.

  19. Cushing disease with pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Raju A; Acharya, Shrikrishna V; Bandgar, Tushar R; Menon, Padma S; Shah, Nalini S

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy occurs rarely in patients with Cushing syndrome (CS) due to hypercortisolism. So far, about 150 cases of CS in pregnancy have been reported in the literature. We describe a 22-year-old female who presented in pregnancy with clinical features of CS. She delivered at 34 weeks of gestation and baby had transient adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. Mother underwent transsphenoidal surgery 1 year postpartum and on follow up she is under remission. Neonatal hypoadrenalism should be anticipated in maternal CS.

  20. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy occurring in two to four out of 100 000 pregnancies. It usually develops at the end of the second or third trimester of pregnancy and remits spontaneously 4–6 weeks after delivery. Gestational DI occurrence is related to excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts during pregnancy, which metabolises AVP. Its activity is proportional to the placental weight, explaining the higher vasopressinase activity in third trimester or in multiple pregnancies. Vasopressinase is metabolised by the liver, which most likely explains its higher concentrations in pregnant women with hepatic dysfunction, such acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP syndrome, hepatitis and cirrhosis. Therefore, it is important to assess liver function in patients with gestational DI, and to be aware of the risk of DI in pregnant women with liver disease. Serum and urine osmolality are essential for the diagnosis, but other tests such as serum sodium, glucose, urea, creatinine, liver function may be informative. The water deprivation test is normally not recommended during pregnancy because it may lead to significant dehydration, but a pituitary MRI should be performed at some point to exclude lesions in the hypothalamo-pituitary region. These patients should be monitored for vital signs, fluid balance, body weight, fetal status, renal and liver function, and treated with desmopressin. The recommended doses are similar or slightly higher than those recommended for central DI in non-pregnant women, and should be titrated individually. PMID:26524979