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Sample records for pregnancy students estimate

  1. Unplanned Pregnancy: A Dilemma for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Susan P.

    One of the major decisions college men and women face involves sexual behavior. A large proportion of students often choose to engage in premarital sexual activity and although birth control is usually available, unplanned pregnancy is still a threat. Couples (N=295) participated in a study to examine decision-making by unmarried undergraduate…

  2. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  3. Highlights of Trends in Pregnancies and Pregnancy Rates by Outcome: Estimates for the United States, 1976-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Mosher, William D.; Curtin, Sally C.; Abma, Joyce C.; Henshaw, Stanley

    1999-01-01

    This report presents key findings from a comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. The study incorporates birth, abortion, and fetal loss data to compile national estimates of pregnancy rates according to a variety of characteristics, including age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Data from the National…

  4. Ultrasound estimation of birth weight in twin pregnancy: comparison of biometry algorithms in the STORK multiple pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; D'Antonio, F; Dias, T; Cooper, D; Thilaganathan, B

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were first, to ascertain the accuracy of formulae for ultrasonographic birth-weight estimation in twin compared with singleton pregnancies and second, to assess the accuracy of sonographic examination in the prediction of birth-weight discordance in twin pregnancies. This was a retrospective cohort study including both singleton and twin pregnancies. Routine biometry was recorded and estimated fetal weight (EFW) calculated using 33 different formulae. Only pregnancies that delivered within 48 h of the ultrasound scan were included (4280 singleton and 586 twin fetuses). Differences between the EFW and actual birth weight (ABW) were assessed by percentage error, accuracy in predictions within ± 10% and ± 15% of error and use of the Bland-Altman method. The accuracy of prediction of the different cut-offs of birth-weight discordance in twin pregnancies was also assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC). The overall mean absolute percentage error was ≤ 10% for 25 formulae in singleton pregnancies compared with three formulae in twin pregnancies. The overall predictions within ± 10% and ± 15% of the ABW were 62.2% and 81.5% in singleton and 49.7% and 68.5% in twin pregnancies, respectively. When t e formulae were categorized according to the biometric parameters included, those based on a combination of head, abdomen and femur measurements showed the lowest mean absolute percentage error, in both singleton and twin pregnancies. The predictive accuracy for 25% birth-weight discordance using the Hadlock 2 formula, as assessed by the AUC, was 0.87. Ultrasound estimation of birth weight is less accurate in twin than in singleton pregnancies. Formulae that include a combination of head, abdomen and femur measurements perform best in both singleton and twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  6. A Comparison of Student Skill Knowledge Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Elizabeth; Nugent, Rebecca; Dean, Nema

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental goal of educational research is identifying students' current stage of skill mastery (complete/partial/none). In recent years a number of cognitive diagnosis models have become a popular means of estimating student skill knowledge. However, these models become difficult to estimate as the number of students, items, and skills grows.…

  7. Screening for thyroid disorders in pregnancy with TSH estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthy Thammiah

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Screening all pregnant women with TSH for thyroid dysfunction especially those with previous adverse pregnancy outcome is useful. Early diagnosis and treatment will definitely improve the pregnancy outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1052-1055

  8. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wang

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9% of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge.

  9. The influence of maternal body mass index on fetal weight estimation in twin pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Helen M

    2013-11-08

    Sonographic estimation of fetal weight (EFW) is important in the management of high-risk pregnancies. The possibility that increased maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects EFW assessments in twin pregnancies is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal BMI on the accuracy of EFW assessments in twin gestations prospectively recruited for the ESPRiT (Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted growth in Twins) study.

  10. Estimating time to pregnancy from current durations in a cross-sectional sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Kvist, Kajsa; Hartvig, Helle;

    2002-01-01

    A new design for estimating the distribution of time to pregnancy is proposed and investigated. The design is based on recording current durations in a cross-sectional sample of women, leading to statistical problems similar to estimating renewal time distributions from backward recurrence times...

  11. Estimating time to pregnancy from current durations in a cross-sectional sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Kvist, Kajsa; Hartvig, Helle;

    2002-01-01

    A new design for estimating the distribution of time to pregnancy is proposed and investigated. The design is based on recording current durations in a cross-sectional sample of women, leading to statistical problems similar to estimating renewal time distributions from backward recurrence times....

  12. Updated Estimates of Ectopic Pregnancy among Commercially and Medicaid-Insured Women in the United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guoyu; Patel, Chirag; Hoover, Karen W

    2017-01-01

    To update trends in the rates of ectopic pregnancy, to compare rates of ectopic pregnancy between commercially insured and Medicaid-insured women, and to assess the differences in rates of ectopic pregnancy by different measures of ectopic pregnancy. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2013 using the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Claims Database. We limited the study population to women aged 15 to 44 years with any pregnancy in each year. Pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy were identified by clinical services with diagnostic or procedural codes. Ectopic pregnancy was measured in two ways: diagnosed and treated compared with diagnosed only; pregnancy was measured in two ways: any pregnancy compared with pregnancy with delivery. We did not observe a substantial trend in the rate of ectopic pregnancy from 2002 to 2013. The rate of diagnosed and treated ectopic pregnancy substantially increased by age: 0.29% in women aged 15 to 19 years and 0.89% in women aged 40 to 44 years among the commercially insured population and 0.23% and 0.85% among the Medicaid-insured population, respectively. The rate of ectopic pregnancy also varied by the different methodologies used to estimate rates. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is relatively low and stable for women of reproductive age in the United States. Our findings highlight that it is important to clearly define the numerator and denominator in the measure of ectopic pregnancy rates.

  13. Briefly...Unplanned Pregnancy among College Students and Strategies to Address It

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    As colleges strive to improve student success and completion, helping students delay pregnancy and parenting (or having additional children) means one less factor that can interfere with their college education. However, pregnancy planning and prevention is not something most colleges address, especially at the community college level. There are…

  14. Sexual Orientation and Risk of Pregnancy Among New York City High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L; Walsemann, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We examined associations between sexual orientation and pregnancy risk among sexually experienced New York City high-school students. We analyzed data from 2005, 2007, and 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We excluded students who had never engaged in sexual intercourse, only had same-gender sexual partners, or had missing data on variables of interest, resulting in a final sample of 4892 female and 4811 male students. We employed multivariable logistic regression to examine pregnancy risk by sexual orientation, measured as self-reported sexual identity and gender of sexual partners, with adjustment for demographics and sexual behaviors. We stratified analyses by gender. Overall, 14.3% of female and 10.8% of male students had experienced a pregnancy. Students who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported both male and female sexual partners had higher odds of pregnancy than heterosexual students or students who only had opposite-gender sexual partners. Sexual behaviors accounted for higher odds of pregnancy among female, but only partially accounted for higher odds of pregnancy involvement among male, sexual-minority students. Sexual orientation should be considered in future adolescent pregnancy-prevention efforts, including the design of pregnancy-prevention interventions.

  15. Month-wise estimates of tobacco smoking during pregnancy for the United States, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Anthony, James C

    2015-05-01

    The timing of prenatal exposure to tobacco cigarette smoking can be crucial for the developing fetus. Pushing the field beyond prior pregnancy trimester-focused smoking estimates, we estimated month-specific prevalence proportions for tobacco cigarette smoking among pregnant and non-pregnant women of the United States, with consideration of tobacco dependence (TD) as well. In advance, we posited that pregnancy onset might prompt smoking cessation in early months, before the end of the 1st trimester, and that TD might account for sustained smoking in later months, especially months 8-9, when there are added reasons to quit. Estimates are from the 2002-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health Restricted-Data Analysis System (R-DAS), with large nationally representative samples of US civilians, including 12-44 year old women (n ~ 70,000) stratified by pregnancy status and month of pregnancy, with multi-item assessment of TD as well as recently active smoking. Age was held constant via the Breslow-Day indirect standardization approach, a methodological detail of potential interest to other research teams conducting online R-DAS analyses. Among 12-44 year old women in Month 1 of pregnancy, as well as non-pregnant women, just over one in four was a recently active smoker (26-27 %), and approximately one-half of these smokers qualified as a TD case (52 %). Corresponding estimates for women in Month 3 were 17.6 % and two-thirds, respectively, lending some support for our advance hypotheses. Nonetheless, our a priori TD hypothesis about Months 8-9 seems to be contradicted: an increased concentration of TD among smokers surfaced early in pregnancy. Evidence of a possible ameliorative pregnancy effect on smoking prevalence as well as TD's effect on smoking persistence might be seen quite early in pregnancy. Substitution of a month-specific view for the traditional trimester view sheds new light on how pregnancy might shape smoking behavior before the end of trimester 1

  16. Cardiovascular risk estimation in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term: a longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Wietske; Tamsma, Jouke T; Grootendorst, Diana C; Franx, Arie; van der Post, Joris; van Pampus, Maria G; Bloemenkamp, Kitty Wm; Porath, Martina; Mol, Ben W; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2013-06-04

    Cardiovascular disease is associated with major morbidity and mortality in women in the Western world. Prediction of an individual cardiovascular disease risk in young women is difficult. It is known that women with hypertensive pregnancy complications have an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease in later life and pregnancy might be used as a cardiovascular stress test to identify women who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study we assess the possibility of long term cardiovascular risk prediction in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term. In a longitudinal follow-up study, between June 2008 and November 2010, 300 women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term (HTP cohort) and 94 women with a history of normotensive pregnancies at term (NTP cohort) were included. From the cardiovascular risk status that was known two years after index pregnancy we calculated individual (extrapolated) 10-and 30-year cardiovascular event risks using four different risk prediction models including the Framingham risk score, the SCORE score and the Reynolds risk score. Continuous data were analyzed using the Student's T test and Mann-Whitney U test and categorical data by the Chi-squared test. A poisson regression analysis was performed to calculate the incidence risk ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the different cardiovascular risk estimation categories. After a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, HTP women had significantly higher mean (SD) extrapolated 10-year cardiovascular event risks (HTP 7.2% (3.7); NTP 4.4% (1.9) (pHTP 11% (7.6); NTP 7.3% (3.5) (p<.001, IRR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.5)) as compared to NTP women calculated by the Framingham risk scores. The SCORE score and the Reynolds risk score showed similar significant results. Women with a history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at term have higher predicted (extrapolated) 10-year and 30-year cardiovascular event risks as

  17. Student estimations of peer alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Mcalaney, John; Pischke, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    : This article aims to discuss the link between the Social Norms Approach and the Health Promoting University, and analyse estimations of peer alcohol consumption among European university students. METHODS: A total of 4392 students from universities in six European countries and Turkey were asked to report...... INTERVENTIONS TARGETED AT CORRECTING POSSIBLE MISPERCEPTIONS ABOUT PEER ALCOHOL USE AMONG STUDENTS MAY BE A USEFUL HEALTH PROMOTION TOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF A HEALTH PROMOTING UNIVERSITY:......BACKGROUND: The Social Norms Approach, with its focus on positive behaviour and its consensus orientation, is a health promotion intervention of relevance to the context of a Health Promoting University. In particular, the approach could assist with addressing excessive alcohol consumption. AIM...

  18. Estimating the Attack Rate of Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis during a Large Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Imanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2011, a multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to contaminated cantaloupes raised concerns that many pregnant women might have been exposed to Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis during pregnancy can cause fetal death, premature delivery, and neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Little information is available to guide healthcare providers who care for asymptomatic pregnant women with suspected L. monocytogenes exposure. Methods. We tracked pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases using reportable diseases surveillance and enhanced surveillance for fetal death using vital records and inpatient fetal deaths data in Colorado. We surveyed 1,060 pregnant women about symptoms and exposures. We developed three methods to estimate how many pregnant women in Colorado ate the implicated cantaloupes, and we calculated attack rates. Results. One laboratory-confirmed case of listeriosis was associated with pregnancy. The fetal death rate did not increase significantly compared to preoutbreak periods. Approximately 6,500–12,000 pregnant women in Colorado might have eaten the contaminated cantaloupes, an attack rate of ~1 per 10,000 exposed pregnant women. Conclusions. Despite many exposures, the risk of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was low. Our methods for estimating attack rates may help during future outbreaks and product recalls. Our findings offer relevant considerations for management of asymptomatic pregnant women with possible L. monocytogenes exposure.

  19. Lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among Zambian women: district-level estimates from the 2010 census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, R.; Fossgard Sandøy, I.; Fylkesnes, K.; Janssen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine district differentials in the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females aged 15–49 in Zambia. We used data on household deaths collected in the 2010 census to estimate the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females in Zambia. Using all-ca

  20. Lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among Zambian women: district-level estimates from the 2010 census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, R.; Fossgard Sandøy, I.; Fylkesnes, K.; Janssen, F.

    The aim of this study was to examine district differentials in the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females aged 15–49 in Zambia. We used data on household deaths collected in the 2010 census to estimate the lifetime risk of pregnancy-related death among females in Zambia. Using

  1. [Applying temporally-adjusted land use regression models to estimate ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Xue, F X; Bai, Z P

    2017-03-06

    The impact of maternal air pollution exposure on offspring health has received much attention. Precise and feasible exposure estimation is particularly important for clarifying exposure-response relationships and reducing heterogeneity among studies. Temporally-adjusted land use regression (LUR) models are exposure assessment methods developed in recent years that have the advantage of having high spatial-temporal resolution. Studies on the health effects of outdoor air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been increasingly carried out using this model. In China, research applying LUR models was done mostly at the model construction stage, and findings from related epidemiological studies were rarely reported. In this paper, the sources of heterogeneity and research progress of meta-analysis research on the associations between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. The methods of the characteristics of temporally-adjusted LUR models were introduced. The current epidemiological studies on adverse pregnancy outcomes that applied this model were systematically summarized. Recommendations for the development and application of LUR models in China are presented. This will encourage the implementation of more valid exposure predictions during pregnancy in large-scale epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollution in China.

  2. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  3. The current duration design for estimating the time to pregnancy distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasbarra, Dario; Arjas, Elja; Vehtari, Aki

    2015-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the studies of Niels Keiding and co-authors on estimating the waiting time-to-pregnancy (TTP) distribution, and in particular on using the current duration design in that context. In this design, a cross-sectional sample of women is collected from those who are currently...... attempting to become pregnant, and then by recording from each the time she has been attempting. Our aim here is to study the identifiability and the estimation of the waiting time distribution on the basis of current duration data. The main difficulty in this stems from the fact that very short waiting...

  4. Perceptions of Teen Pregnancy among High School Students in Sweet Home, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tim; Henderson, Jessica; Pedersen, Peggy; Stonecipher, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the perceptions and attitudes about teen pregnancy among high school students in a rural area with high teen pregnancy rates. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with: (1) females in 9th-10th grades; (2) females in 11th-12th grades; (3) males in 9th-10th grades; (4) males in…

  5. Teen pregnancy and abortion among high school students of the urban district of Antananarivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidiniaina Mamy Randriantsarafara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen pregnancy and abortion phenomena take an ever-growing magnitude in poor countries. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health could aggravate these problems. Methods: Across-sectional survey has been conducted in public, private and denominational high schools of the urban district of Antananarivo, Madagascar, on a sample of 248 students during schoolyear 2012-2013. Data was collected during the third quarter of the schoolyear. Results: Good knowledge about pregnancy and abortion was found in 14.5%, 95% CI [10.4% -19.5%] of students. The media represent almost 60% of the sources of information. Access to care is limited in 48% of cases by feeling shame. Nearly 11% would resort to abortion if an unplanned pregnancy happens. Nearly 6.5%, 95% CI [3.6% - 10.3%] had teen pregnancy problems: 9.6% of boys and 4.1% of girls came encountered these and all cases have ended in induced abortion among girls. The students from the denominational schools and the female gender have more knowledge of about sexuality. The level of knowledge does not significantly influence pregnancy. Female students (p = 0.07 are less prone to teen pregnancy, whereas dating a fixed boyfriend (p <10-4, a large sibship (p = 0.03 and parents in consensual union (p = 0.02 encourage its occurrence. Conclusions: Abortion does not actually represent a remedy in case of pregnancy. Nevertheless, prevention of teen pregnancy is suggested. The control strategy should be multidisciplinary and multisectoral, and focused on targeted information. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 240-246

  6. Perceptions of Teen Pregnancy among High School Students in Sweet Home, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tim; Henderson, Jessica; Pedersen, Peggy; Stonecipher, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the perceptions and attitudes about teen pregnancy among high school students in a rural area with high teen pregnancy rates. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with: (1) females in 9th-10th grades; (2) females in 11th-12th grades; (3) males in 9th-10th grades; (4) males in…

  7. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  8. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  9. The Pregnancy Assistance Fund as a Support for Student Parents in Postsecondary Education. Fact Sheet #C398

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Wright, Rhiana

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy and parenting can pose special challenges to students enrolled in secondary and postsecondary education, including issues related to child care, financial aid, transportation, and academic and career planning. In some circumstances, the responsibilities related to pregnancy and parenting can undermine students' ability to pursue and…

  10. Factors influencing decision-making regarding contraception and pregnancy among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Afua Ottie; Cormier, Eileen

    2008-02-01

    The current nursing shortage, now referred to as a 'global crisis', is having a widespread impact on health systems around the world. In view of the international nursing shortage, the retention and matriculation of nursing students who gain entry to nursing programs is a vital facet of nursing education that has broad ramifications. Although enrollment in higher institutions in the United States has increased in the last two decades; graduation rates have not increased at the same rate. Yet the impact of pregnancy on the progression and matriculation of what remains a female dominated nursing student population in her child bearing years has not been adequately addressed. This exploratory study used grounded theory methodology to identify and describe the decision-making processes and coping of African American nursing students who become pregnant. Five interrelated themes emerged from the data. Participants reported inconsistent use of contraceptives but experienced discovery of the pregnancy as highly traumatic. Participants also described the decision to keep the pregnancy as conflict-ridden and difficult as a result of family values and religious beliefs and ultimately driven by maternal support. Maternal and faculty support was central to successful coping and matriculation while in nursing school. With the changing profile of the nursing student, it is important for educational institutions to become more pregnancy friendly in their endeavors to retain and matriculate nursing students.

  11. Effect of novel patient interaction on students' performance of pregnancy options counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddeau, Angela; Nimz, Abigail; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Although options counseling is a fundamental skill for medical providers, previous research has identified gaps in medical school reproductive health education. To determine if a 1-h novel patient interaction (NPI) improves student performance when caring for a standardized patient with an unintended pregnancy. From September 2012 to June 2013 we randomized third-year medical students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine to the standard curriculum plus an NPI, or the standard curriculum only. The NPI consisted of a 1-h small-group session with a patient who discussed her experiences with options counseling and her decision to terminate her pregnancy. Students completed an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the rotation's end, which included options counseling. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving 'excellence' on the OSCE checklist. 'Excellence' was defined as a score ≥90%. Examinations were flagged as 'unsatisfactory encounters' if core competencies were not addressed. OSCE standardized patients and evaluators were blinded to group assignment. In total, 135 students were eligible and randomized: 75 to NPI; 60 to control. During the OSCE, few students achieved 'excellence' (24% NPI vs. 28% control, p=0.57).There were no differences between scores for components of options counseling. More students in the control group 'appeared somewhat uncomfortable' delivering the pregnancy test results (5% NPI vs. 18% control, p=0.006). More than half (54%) of the intervention group and 67% of controls had 'unsatisfactory encounters' (p=0.16), almost exclusively due to omission of adoption. Most students addressed abortion (96% NPI vs. 92% control, p=0.29). A 1-h NPI does not improve medical students' performance of pregnancy options counseling and the option of adoption is routinely omitted. Adoption is clearly an area that needs greater attention when designing comprehensive reproductive health curriculum for medical

  12. Student nurses' lived experiences of caring for women undergoing a termination of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Exley, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and literature - It has been widely recognised in the literature regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP) care that it causes deleterious effects on those caring. Though this has been widely accepted there have been no studies, looking at student nurses lived experience in this area of care. With the increasing advancements in technology and nurses autonomy, day case TOPs are set to increase. With student regularly placed on day surgery units there is a need to explore how...

  13. Time Estimation Abilities of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Baker, Leigh; Garrett, Lori; Yelland, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the time estimation abilities of college students with ADHD on a novel, complex task that approximated academically oriented activities. Method: Totally 20 college students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 20 non-ADHD students. Both groups completed a task, and scores were obtained for time to complete the task, errors…

  14. Simulated estimates of pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus in the US: 1980 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Mayorga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To simulate national estimates of prepregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in non-Hispanic white (NHW and non-Hispanic black (NHB women. METHODS: Prepregnancy diabetes and GDM were estimated as a function of age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI using South Carolina live singleton births from 2004-2008. Diabetes risk was applied to a simulated population. Age, natality and BMI were assigned to women according to race- and age-specific US Census, Natality and National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES data, respectively. RESULTS: From 1980-2008, estimated GDM prevalence increased from 4.11% to 6.80% [2.68% (95% CI 2.58%-2.78%] and from 3.96% to 6.43% [2.47% (95% CI 2.39%-2.55%] in NHW and NHB women, respectively. In NHW women prepregnancy diabetes prevalence increased 0.90% (95% CI 0.85%-0.95% from 0.95% in 1980 to 1.85% in 2008. In NHB women from 1980 through 2008 estimated prepregnancy diabetes prevalence increased 1.51% (95% CI 1.44%-1.57%, from 1.66% to 3.16%. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in diabetes prevalence during pregnancy appear to stem from a higher prevalence of prepregnancy diabetes, but not GDM, in NHB than NHW.

  15. Pregnancy reduces the accuracy of the estimated glomerular filtration rate based on Cockroft-Gault and MDRD formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetje, P.M.; Spaan, J.J.; Kooman, J.P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of pregnancy on the accuracy of 3 commonly used methods to estimate glomerular filtration rate ([GFR] creatinine clearance, the Cockroft-Gault, and modification of diet in renal disease [MDRD] formulas) using the inulin clearance as a reference. DES

  16. Estimated dietary phytoestrogen intake and major food sources among women during the year before pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens may be associated with a variety of different health outcomes, including outcomes related to reproductive health. Recently published data on phytoestrogen content of a wide range of foods provide an opportunity to improve estimation of dietary phytoestrogen intake. Methods Using the recently published data, we estimated intake among a representative sample of 6,584 women of reproductive age from a multi-site, population-based case-control study, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS. The NBDPS uses a shortened version of the Willett food frequency questionnaire to estimate dietary intake during the year before pregnancy. We estimated intake among NBDPS control mothers. Results Lignans contributed 65% of total phytoestrogen intake; isoflavones, 29%; and coumestrol, 5%. Top contributors to total phytoestrogen intake were vegetables (31% and fruit (29%; for isoflavones, dairy (33% and fruit (21%; for lignans, vegetables (40% and fruit (29%; and for coumestans, fruit (55% and dairy (18%. Hispanic women had higher phytoestrogen intake than non-Hispanic white or black women. Associations with maternal age and folic acid-containing supplements were more modest but indicated that older mothers and mothers taking supplements had higher intake. Conclusions The advantage of the approach used for the current analysis lies in its utilization of phytoestrogen values derived from a single laboratory that used state-of-the-art measurement techniques. The database we developed can be applied directly to other studies using food frequency questionnaires, especially the Willett questionnaire. The database, combined with consistent dietary intake assessment, provides an opportunity to improve our ability to understand potential associations of phytoestrogen intake with health outcomes.

  17. Statistical methods for estimating the probability of spontaneous abortion in observational studies--analyzing pregnancies exposed to coumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2008-09-01

    Spontaneous abortion rates are of general interest when investigating pregnancy outcome. In most studies observations are left truncated as pregnant women enter with a delay of several weeks after conception. Apart from spontaneous abortion pregnancy may end in induced abortion or live birth. These outcomes are considered as competing events (risks). Although statistical methods for handling this setting are available since more than 10 years, studies on pregnancy outcome after drug exposure usually report crude rates of spontaneous abortions, ignoring left truncation and competing risks. The authors propose simple methods which remove bias inherent to crude rates. The probability of spontaneous abortion is estimated using an event-history based approach for the subdistribution of competing risks that handles left truncation appropriately. Variance estimation enables the construction of approximate confidence intervals and of a simple test-statistic for comparing rates between different cohorts. The proposed methods are applied to a comparative prospective study on the association of spontaneous abortion and exposure to coumarin derivatives. The naive analysis using crude rates gives substantially different results than those based on the proposed methods, with up to a twofold change. Correctly incorporating left truncation into the analysis may increase the variance of the estimators, relative to an ideal sample where all pregnancies are followed from the time of conception. The consequences of such truncation for study design are discussed. Combining corrections for left truncation and competing risks offers a powerful method for analyzing miscarriage risk.

  18. Impact of timing of sex education on teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: cross-sectional survey of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiogu, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether the time at which sex education was provided had any impact on reported cases of unintended pregnancies. A cross-sectional survey of secondary school students and their teachers was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. The participants were 1,234 students aged 14-17 years and 46 teachers in 5 secondary schools in South Eastern Nigeria. The outcome measures were reported pregnancies within the last 3 years by type of school and class level; class level at the time of receiving sex education at school; and age at the time of receiving sex education at home. In all schools, sex education was provided at all the junior and senior secondary school levels (JSS and SSS, respectively). Overall, reported cases of unintended pregnancies were highest among the junior students. In the private schools, four in ten teachers reported pregnancies among JSS 3 students. Almost four in ten teachers in public schools reported pregnancies among JSS 2 students. Of all the students, about three in ten reported pregnancies among JSS 2 and 3 students respectively. At home, sex education was provided at the mean age of 16 years (SD ± 2.2). All participants cited financial need and marital promise as major predisposing factors. About four in ten students did not use contraceptives during their first sexual experience. This study highlights the need to introduce sex education much earlier, possibly before the JSS levels. At home, sex education may have greater impact if provided before the age of 14 years. Efforts should be made to address the factors predisposing to teenage pregnancy.

  19. Sonographic Estimation of Umbilical Cord Cross-section Area and its Reference Value in Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Khizer Hussain; Prabha, Subhash Lakshmi; Chandrakala, V; Deepak, M

    2017-08-01

    The routine antenatal sonographic investigations of the umbilical cord are limited for assessment of number of umbilical vessels and doppler evaluation of umbilical blood flow. With the advancements of the sonographic techniques it is now possible to have more detailed evaluation of umbilical cord. There exist only few literatures on assessment of umbilical cord cross-sectional area during pregnancy to provide a baseline reference value. To establish the reference intervals of cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord during gestation and to find the correlation of umbilical cord cross-sectional area with the foetal anthropometric measurements. This study was conducted among 214 normal pregnant women who underwent a routine antenatal sonogram during gestational age ranging from 24-39 weeks in the Department of Radiodiagnosis. The umbilical cord cross-sectional area was calculated at a plane immediately close to the umbilical cord insertion to the foetal abdomen. The following foetal parameters were studied: Biparietal Diameters (BPD), Head Circumference (HC), Abdominal Circumference (AC), Femur Length (FL), and Estimated Foetal weight (EFW). The relationship between foetal anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord cross sectional area was assessed using spearman rank correlation. The 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th) and 95(th) percentiles of umbilical cord cross-sectional area were calculated for each gestational groups using polynomial regression analysis. A statistically significant correlation was observed between cross-sectional area of umbilical cord with both gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. The mean age of study population was 25.08±3.5 years and the mean gestational age was 34.42±2.5 weeks. We observed a strong correlation between head circumference and umbilical cord cross-sectional area. The mean umbilical cord cross-section area increases steadily with gestational age for up to 34 weeks and then it declines. Umbilical cord cross

  20. All4You! A Randomized Trial of an HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Alternative School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Robin, Leah E.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed…

  1. High Rates of Pregnancy among Vocational School Students: Results of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Survey in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Kilmarx, Peter H.; van Griensven, Frits; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchi; Uthaiworavit, Wat

    2003-01-01

    Examined prevalence of and factors associated with pregnancy and abortion among vocation school students in northern Thailand. Age, current contraceptive use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual coercion were associated with self or partner pregnancy. High rates of pregnancy and abortion indicate the need for…

  2. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (Ppregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open to maximize lifetime productivity in dairy cows.

  3. ESTIMATION OF INCREASE OF STRESS RESISTANCE AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobysheva O. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By results of the estimation of stress resistance on dynamics of the regulation-adaptive status we can observe, that the autogenic training at the end of one academic year did not cause authentic changes in stress resistance in students with high and low levels of stress resistance. At the same time, it raised stress resistance for persons with a moderate level of stress resistance

  4. New Zealand University students' knowledge of fertility decline in women via natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nathanael; Rosario, Roseanne; Shelling, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Female fertility declines with age. University students are the group of people most likely to postpone parenthood, yet several international studies have shown that they overestimate their fertility. We designed a questionnaire based on a previous study in Israel, where university students were asked to answer questions related to their awareness of fertility decline in spontaneous and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) pregnancies, and methods they considered would prolong their reproductive lifespan. Our study has shown that New Zealand University students overestimated the rates of pregnancy for both spontaneous natural and IVF pregnancies. Students are mainly aware of the availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), but overestimate their effectiveness. Few students mentioned non-medical or well-being initiatives as measures to prolong parenthood. It is important that university students are aware of the rate of fertility decline in women, as although ARTs can be effective at times, they are not a guaranteed solution to an ageing woman's fertility. New Zealand University students, like other cohorts, overestimated the chances of a woman getting pregnant and predicted the fertility decline to occur much later than it does in reality.

  5. Reported estimates of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with and without syphilis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabi Qin

    Full Text Available To estimate probability of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs among women with and without syphilis through a systematic review of published literatures.Chinese and English literatures were searched for studies assessing pregnancy outcomes in the presence of maternal syphilis through August 2013. The prevalence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Fifty-four literatures involving 11398 syphilitic women and 43342 non-syphilitic women were included from 4187 records initially found. Among untreated mothers with syphilis, pooled estimates were 76.8% for all APOs, 36.0% for congenital syphilis, 23.2% for preterm, 23.4% for low birth weight, 26.4% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 14.9% for miscarriage and 16.2% for neonatal deaths. Among syphilitic mother receiving treatment only in the late trimester (>28 weeks, pooled estimates were 64.4% for APOs, 40.6% for congenital syphilis, 17.6% for preterm, 12.4% for low birth weight, and 21.3% for stillbirth or fetal loss. Among syphilitic mothers with high titers (≥1∶8, pooled estimates were 42.8% for all APOs, 25.8% for congenital syphilis, 15.1% for preterm, 9.4% for low birth weight, 14.6% for stillbirth or fetal loss and 16.0% for neonatal deaths. Among non-syphilitic mothers, the pooled estimates were 13.7% for all APOs, 7.2% for preterm birth, 4.5% for low birth weight, 3.7% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 2.3% for miscarriage and 2.0% for neonatal death. Begg's rank correlation test indicated little evidence of publication bias (P>0.10. Substantial heterogeneity was found across studies in the estimates of all adverse outcomes for both women with syphilis (I2 = 93.9%; P<0.0001 and women without syphilis (I2 = 94.8%; P<0.0001.Syphilis continues to be an important cause of substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality, which reminds that policy-makers charged with resource allocation that the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis is a public health priority.

  6. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Real-time Ultrasound Measurements for Hanwoo Cows at Different Ages and Pregnancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of ultrasound measurements for longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, backfat thickness (BFT, and marbling score (MS in Hanwoo cows (N = 3,062 at the ages between 18 and 42 months. Data were collected from 100 Hanwoo breeding farms in Gyeongbuk province, Korea, in 2007 and 2008. The cows were classified into four different age groups, i.e. 18 to 22 months (the first pregnancy period, 23 to 27 (the first parturition, 28 to 32 (the second pregnancy, and 33 to 42 (the second parturition, respectively. For each age group, a multi-trait animal model was used to estimate variance components and heritabilities of the three traits. The averages of LMA, BFT, and MS measurements across the cows of all age groups were 50.1 cm2, 4.62 mm, and 3.04, respectively and heritability estimates were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.08 for the respective traits. However, when the data were analyzed in different age groups, heritability estimates of LMA and BFT were 0.24 and 0.47, respectively, for the cows of 18 to 22 months of age, and 0.21 for MS in the 28 to 32 months old cows. When the cows of all age groups were used, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.43 (0.35, −0.06 (0.34 and 0.21 (0.32 between LMA and BFT, LMA and MS, and BFT and MS, respectively. However, in the cow age group between 28 and 32 (18 and 22 months, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.05 (0.29, −0.15 (0.24 and 0.38 (0.24, for the respective pairs of traits. These results suggest that genetic, environmental, and phenotypic variations differ depending on cow age, such that care must be taken when ultrasound measurements are applied to selection of cows for meat quality.

  7. Estimation of the workload added on the health system due to unwanted pregnancies and Children born of these pregnancies in kohgiloyeh Boyrahmad province 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zebaneh Tabeshfar

    2015-02-01

    Results: An overall 350 unwanted pregnancy cases were identified. Assuming the same unwanted pregnancies in the first half and the second year of 2009 total of 21,140 times the equivalent of 3696 hours of extra work visit were added to the labor working primary health care centers in the city. Conclusion: Unwanted pregnancies resulting in increased staff workload of health centers, and if not provided with sufficient manpower, it may lead to the reduction of maternal and child health care qualities of these centers.

  8. Culturally Responsive Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program for Middle School Students in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477

  9. Abortion, contraceptive use, and adolescent pregnancy among first-year medical students at a major public university in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ortega, Adriana; De La Torre, Guadalupe García; Galván, Fernando; Cravioto, Patricia; Paz, Francisco; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Ellertson, Charlotte; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2003-08-01

    If properly trained, medical students could become future opinion leaders in health policy and could help the public to understand the consequences of unwanted pregnancies and of abortions. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions that had occurred among women who were first-year medical students at a major public university in Mexico City and to compare the experiences of those women with the experiences of the general population of Mexican females aged 15 to 24. In 1998 we administered a cross-sectional survey to all the first-year medical students at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, which is the largest university in Latin America. For this study we analyzed 549 surveys completed by female students. Out of the 549 women, 120 of them (22%) had been sexually active at some point. Among those 120 sexually active students, 100 of them (83%) had used a contraceptive method at some time, and 19 of the 120 (16%) had been pregnant. Of those 19 women who had been pregnant, 10 of them had had an illegal induced abortion (in Mexico, abortions are illegal except under a small number of extenuating circumstances). The reported abortion rate among the female medical students, 2%, was very low in comparison with the 11% rate for women of similar ages in the Mexican general population. The lower incidence of abortion among the female medical students indicates that when young Mexican women have access to medical information and are highly motivated to avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, they can do so.

  10. What is the impact of pregnancy and parenthood on studying medicine? Exploring attitudes and experiences of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadjooi, K; Scott, P; Jones, L

    2012-06-01

    Medical students are often faced with stressors such as high work demands, numerous assessments, placements and career choices. Using the results of a questionnaire we examined medical students' attitudes and choices surrounding the impact of pregnancy and parenthood on studying medicine. Many questionnaire respondents (77.6%) believe that the decision to have a child is influenced by studying medicine; 23% have delayed becoming a parent and 7.5% have chosen not to have children. The four most common factors considered to be barriers for parent/pregnant medical students are lack of time, financial difficulties, the stressful and demanding nature of the course and social factors. Almost 90% of the respondents were not aware of the support available for pregnant students/parents. Specialised, well-publicised and easily accessible support services as well as flexibility in their training programme and clinical placements can ensure full and successful participation of pregnant/parent medical students in learning.

  11. Estimation of the {beta}+ dose to the embryo resulting from {sup 18}F-FDG administration during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LIME, Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Inst Phys, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Nucl Med Serv, F-75475 Paris 10 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Although {sup 18}F-FDG examinations are widely used, data are lacking on the dose to human embryo tissues in cases of exposure in early pregnancy. Although the photon component can easily be estimated from available data on the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-FDG in female organs and from phantom measurements (considering the uterus as the target organ), the intensity of embryo tissue uptake, which is essential for deriving the {beta}+ dose, is not known. We report the case of a patient who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for tumor surveillance and who was later found to have been pregnant at the time of the examination(embryo age, 8 wk). Methods: The patient received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. Imaging started with an unenhanced CT scan 1 h after the injection, followed by PET acquisition. PET images were used to compute the total number of {beta}+ emissions in embryo tissues per unit of injected activity, from standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements corrected for partial-volume effects. A Monte Carlo track structure code was then used to derive the {beta}+ self-dose and the {beta}+ cross-dose from amniotic fluid. The photon and CT doses were added to obtain the final dose received by the embryo. Results: The mean SUV in embryo tissues was 2.7, after correction for the partial-volume effect. The mean corrected SUV of amniotic fluid was 1.1. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the {beta}+ dose to the embryo (self-dose plus cross-dose from amniotic fluid) was 1.8 E-2 mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG. Based on MIRD data for the photon dose to the uterus, the estimated photon dose to the embryo was 1.5 E-2 mGy/MBq. Thus, the specific {sup 18}F-FDG dose to the embryo was 3.3 E-2 mGy/MBq (10.6 mGy in this patient). The CT scan added a further 8.3 mGy. Conclusion: The dose to the embryo is 3.3 E-2 mGy/MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG. The {beta}+ dose contributes 55% of the total dose. This value is higher than previous estimates in late nonhuman-primate pregnancies. (authors)

  12. Estimation of gestational age from measurement of crown-rump length with transvaginal sonography in early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Ju; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Young Hwa [Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    Estimation of gestational age using crown-rump length (CRL) has been considered to be relatively accurate. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the gestational age (GA) and the CRL seen ontransvaginal sonography and to improve the gestational dating creteria. One hundred and ninety five patients with known date of conception, who were pregnant between February 1990 and December 1992, were examined with high resolution transvaginal ultrasonography. There was a linear relationship between the CRL and the GA from the 27th to the 56th day of ovulation. It was defined by equation, as GA=0.97xCRL+42.4 (r=0.95, p<0.0001). Regression values with 95% confidence limit for CRL were +3.9-4.0 days. Comparison of regression lines between the data from the natural cycle group (N=53) and those from the hormonally treated group (N=142) was performed. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (analysis of convariance, p>0.05) In conclusion, trasvaginal sonography was useful in the determination of the GA in the early pregnancy from the 27th day of ovulation up to the 56th day. A new reference chart is provided for the estimation of gestational age according to the CRL

  13. Comparison of 2-D and 3-D estimates of placental volume in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Stevenson, Gordon N; Impey, Lawrence; Collins, Sally L

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound estimation of placental volume (PlaV) between 11 and 13 wk has been proposed as part of a screening test for small-for-gestational-age babies. A semi-automated 3-D technique, validated against the gold standard of manual delineation, has been found at this stage of gestation to predict small-for-gestational-age at term. Recently, when used in the third trimester, an estimate obtained using a 2-D technique was found to correlate with placental weight at delivery. Given its greater simplicity, the 2-D technique might be more useful as part of an early screening test. We investigated if the two techniques produced similar results when used in the first trimester. The correlation between PlaV values calculated by the two different techniques was assessed in 139 first-trimester placentas. The agreement on PlaV and derived "standardized placental volume," a dimensionless index correcting for gestational age, was explored with the Mann-Whitney test and Bland-Altman plots. Placentas were categorized into five different shape subtypes, and a subgroup analysis was performed. Agreement was poor for both PlaV and standardized PlaV (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001), with the 2-D technique yielding larger estimates for both indices compared with the 3-D method. The mean difference in standardized PlaV values between the two methods was 0.007 (95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.009). The best agreement was found for regular rectangle-shaped placentas (p = 0.438 and p = 0.408). The poor correlation between the 2-D and 3-D techniques may result from the heterogeneity of placental morphology at this stage of gestation. In early gestation, the simpler 2-D estimates of PlaV do not correlate strongly with those obtained with the validated 3-D technique.

  14. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  16. Comment Data Mining to Estimate Student Performance Considering Consecutive Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorour, Shaymaa E.; Goda, Kazumasa; Mine, Tsunenori

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine different formats of comment data to predict student performance. Having students write comment data after every lesson can reflect students' learning attitudes, tendencies and learning activities involved with the lesson. In this research, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and Probabilistic Latent Semantic…

  17. Comment Data Mining to Estimate Student Performance Considering Consecutive Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorour, Shaymaa E.; Goda, Kazumasa; Mine, Tsunenori

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine different formats of comment data to predict student performance. Having students write comment data after every lesson can reflect students' learning attitudes, tendencies and learning activities involved with the lesson. In this research, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and Probabilistic Latent Semantic…

  18. Edgeworth expansion of the Studentized product-limit estimator for truncated and censored data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on random left truncated and right censored data we investigate the one-term Edgeworth expansion for the Studentized product-limit estimator, and show that the Edgeworth expansion is close to the exact distribution of the Studentized product-limit estimator with a remainder of o(n-1/2).

  19. Edgeworth expansion of the Studentized product-limit estimator for truncated and censored data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙六全

    2000-01-01

    Based on random left truncated and right censored data we investigate the one-term Edgeworth expansion for the Studentized product-limit estimator, and show that the Edgeworth expan-sion is close to the exact distribution of the Studentized product-limit estimator with a remainder of

  20. Utility of LESA Criteria for Estimating The Number of LESA Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Herbert L.; And Others

    Studies conducted concerning numbers of limited-English-speaking-ability (LESA) students and utility of criteria for estimating this population are discussed. A sample of 287 students in kindergarten through grade three, whose parents had responded to a Language Resource Questionnaire, were selected for study. The teacher of each student was…

  1. Counting Parasites: Using Shrimp to Teach Students about Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, Lindsay; Curran, Mary Carla

    2013-01-01

    Estimation is an important skill that we rely on every day for simple tasks, such as providing food for a dinner party or arriving at an appointment on time. Despite its importance, most people have never been formally taught how to estimate. Estimation can also be a vital tool for scientific inquiry. We have created an activity designed to teach…

  2. Contraceptive Use Among Nonpregnant and Postpartum Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy, and Female High School Students, in the Context of Zika Preparedness - United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of

  3. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Jessica; ter Kuile, Feiko; Cairns, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission has declined substantially in the 21st century, but pregnant women in areas of sustained transmission still require protection to prevent the adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP). A recent call to action has been issued to address the continuing low coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). This call has, however, been questioned by some, in part due to concerns about resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the only drug currently recommended for IPTp. Methods and findings Using an existing mathematical model of MiP, we combined estimates of the changing endemicity of malaria across Africa with maps of SP resistance mutations and current coverage of antenatal access and IPTp with SP (IPTp-SP) across Africa. Using estimates of the relationship between SP resistance mutations and the parasitological efficacy of SP during pregnancy, we estimated the varying impact of IPTp-SP across Africa and the incremental value of enhancing IPTp-SP uptake to match current antenatal care (ANC) coverage. The risks of MiP and malaria-attributable low birthweight (mLBW) in unprotected pregnancies (i.e., those not using insecticide-treated nets [ITNs]) leading to live births fell by 37% (33%–41% 95% credible interval [crI]) and 31% (27%–34% 95% crI), respectively, from 2000 to 2015 across endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these gains are fragile, and coverage is far from optimal. In 2015, 9.5 million (8.3 million–10.4 million 95% crI) of 30.6 million pregnancies in these areas would still have been infected with Plasmodium falciparum without intervention, leading to 750,000 (390,000–1.1 million 95% crI) mLBW deliveries. In all, 6.6 million (5.6 million–7.3 million 95% crI) of these 9.5 million (69.3%) pregnancies at risk of infection (and 53.4% [16.3 million/30.6 million] of all pregnancies) occurred in settings with near-perfect SP curative

  4. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G T Walker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission has declined substantially in the 21st century, but pregnant women in areas of sustained transmission still require protection to prevent the adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP. A recent call to action has been issued to address the continuing low coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp. This call has, however, been questioned by some, in part due to concerns about resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, the only drug currently recommended for IPTp.Using an existing mathematical model of MiP, we combined estimates of the changing endemicity of malaria across Africa with maps of SP resistance mutations and current coverage of antenatal access and IPTp with SP (IPTp-SP across Africa. Using estimates of the relationship between SP resistance mutations and the parasitological efficacy of SP during pregnancy, we estimated the varying impact of IPTp-SP across Africa and the incremental value of enhancing IPTp-SP uptake to match current antenatal care (ANC coverage. The risks of MiP and malaria-attributable low birthweight (mLBW in unprotected pregnancies (i.e., those not using insecticide-treated nets [ITNs] leading to live births fell by 37% (33%-41% 95% credible interval [crI] and 31% (27%-34% 95% crI, respectively, from 2000 to 2015 across endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these gains are fragile, and coverage is far from optimal. In 2015, 9.5 million (8.3 million-10.4 million 95% crI of 30.6 million pregnancies in these areas would still have been infected with Plasmodium falciparum without intervention, leading to 750,000 (390,000-1.1 million 95% crI mLBW deliveries. In all, 6.6 million (5.6 million-7.3 million 95% crI of these 9.5 million (69.3% pregnancies at risk of infection (and 53.4% [16.3 million/30.6 million] of all pregnancies occurred in settings with near-perfect SP curative efficacy (>99% based on the most recent

  5. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patrick G T; Floyd, Jessica; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Cairns, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Malaria transmission has declined substantially in the 21st century, but pregnant women in areas of sustained transmission still require protection to prevent the adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP). A recent call to action has been issued to address the continuing low coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). This call has, however, been questioned by some, in part due to concerns about resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the only drug currently recommended for IPTp. Using an existing mathematical model of MiP, we combined estimates of the changing endemicity of malaria across Africa with maps of SP resistance mutations and current coverage of antenatal access and IPTp with SP (IPTp-SP) across Africa. Using estimates of the relationship between SP resistance mutations and the parasitological efficacy of SP during pregnancy, we estimated the varying impact of IPTp-SP across Africa and the incremental value of enhancing IPTp-SP uptake to match current antenatal care (ANC) coverage. The risks of MiP and malaria-attributable low birthweight (mLBW) in unprotected pregnancies (i.e., those not using insecticide-treated nets [ITNs]) leading to live births fell by 37% (33%-41% 95% credible interval [crI]) and 31% (27%-34% 95% crI), respectively, from 2000 to 2015 across endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these gains are fragile, and coverage is far from optimal. In 2015, 9.5 million (8.3 million-10.4 million 95% crI) of 30.6 million pregnancies in these areas would still have been infected with Plasmodium falciparum without intervention, leading to 750,000 (390,000-1.1 million 95% crI) mLBW deliveries. In all, 6.6 million (5.6 million-7.3 million 95% crI) of these 9.5 million (69.3%) pregnancies at risk of infection (and 53.4% [16.3 million/30.6 million] of all pregnancies) occurred in settings with near-perfect SP curative efficacy (>99%) based on the most recent

  6. Stigma and Attitudes towards Antenatal Depression and Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy in Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…

  7. Stigma and Attitudes towards Antenatal Depression and Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy in Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…

  8. Adolescent Students and Their Experiences of Dealing with Pregnancy: A Mexican Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E.; Campero, Lourdes; Marín, Eréndira; González, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In impoverished communities in Mexico, most adolescent mothers do not attend school; but typically, they become pregnant once they dropped out. Understanding the experiences of adolescents who have had a pregnancy and continue in school is complicated since few manage to do it. The goal of this study is to describe experiences within the family…

  9. The Estimated Effects of Service Learning on Students' Intercultural Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgo, Cindy A.

    2015-01-01

    As the higher education landscape continues to diversify, intercultural effectiveness comes to the forefront among important outcomes for students. Service learning is one programmatic tool that institutions of higher education can use to foster the development of intercultural effectiveness. This study provides evidence that service learning is…

  10. Cardiovascular risk estimation in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term : a longitudinal follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Wietske; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Franx, Arie; van der Post, Joris; van Pampus, Maria G.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Porath, Martina; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is associated with major morbidity and mortality in women in the Western world. Prediction of an individual cardiovascular disease risk in young women is difficult. It is known that women with hypertensive pregnancy complications have an increased risk for developi

  11. Cardiovascular risk estimation in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term : a longitudinal follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Wietske; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Franx, Arie; van der Post, Joris; van Pampus, Maria G.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Porath, Martina; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is associated with major morbidity and mortality in women in the Western world. Prediction of an individual cardiovascular disease risk in young women is difficult. It is known that women with hypertensive pregnancy complications have an increased risk for developi

  12. Details from the Dashboard: Estimated Number of Public Charter Schools & Students, 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2015

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-15 school year, almost 500 new public charter schools opened. An estimated 348,000 additional students were attending public charter schools in the 2014-15 school year compared with the previous school year. With the addition of new charter schools and students, there are now more than 6,700 public charter schools enrolling about…

  13. Student Sorting and Bias in Value-Added Estimation: Selection on Observables and Unobservables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Nonrandom assignment of students to teachers can bias value-added estimates of teachers' causal effects. Rothstein (2008, 2010) shows that typical value-added models indicate large counterfactual effects of fifth-grade teachers on students' fourth-grade learning, indicating that classroom assignments are far from random. This article quantifies…

  14. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  15. Mobile-Device-Supported Problem-Based Computational Estimation Instruction for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Sung, Yao-Ting; Tan, Ning-chun; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Chang, Kuo-En

    2010-01-01

    This study implemented a three-stage problem-based estimation instruction scenario and combined it with mobile technology to provide elementary teachers with an effective e-tool for observing student estimation and leading effective class or group discussions on the selection and assessment of appropriate strategies for solving daily estimation…

  16. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  17. Regression Equations for Stature Estimation among Medical Students of Ghaziabad

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhee Verma, Syed Esam Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Ossification and maturation in the foot occurs earlier than the long bones and therefore, during adolescence height could be more accurately predicted from foot measurement as compared to that from long bones. This study was undertaken to find out the correlation between foot length and height of an individual and to derive regression formulae to estimate the height from the foot length in the study population. Materials & Method: This cross sectional study was cond...

  18. A cross-sectional study of mathematics achievement, estimation skills, and academic self-perception in students of varying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie; van Garderen, Delinda

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated students' mathematics achievement, estimation ability, use of estimation strategies, and academic self-perception. Students with learning disabilities (LD), average achievers, and intellectually gifted students (N = 135) in fourth, sixth, and eighth grade participated in the study. They were assessed to determine their mathematics achievement, ability to estimate discrete quantities, knowledge and use of estimation strategies, and perception of academic competence. The results indicated that the students with LD performed significantly lower than their peers on the math achievement measures, as expected, but viewed themselves to be as academically competent as the average achievers did. Students with LD and average achievers scored significantly lower than gifted students on all estimation measures, but they differed significantly from one another only on the estimation strategy use measure. Interestingly, even gifted students did not seem to have a well-developed understanding of estimation and, like the other students, did poorly on the first estimation measure. The accuracy of their estimates seemed to improve, however, when students were asked open-ended questions about the strategies they used to arrive at their estimates. Although students with LD did not differ from average achievers in their estimation accuracy, they used significantly fewer effective estimation strategies. Implications for instruction are discussed.

  19. Shrinkage of Value-Added Estimates and Characteristics of Students with Hard-to-Predict Achievement Levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariesa Herrmann; Elias Walsh; Eric Isenberg; Alexandra Resch

    2013-01-01

    This working paper investigates how empirical Bayes shrinkage, an approach commonly used in implementing teacher accountability systems, affects the value-added estimates of teachers of students with hard-to-predict achievement levels, such as students who have low prior achievement and receive free lunch. Teachers of these students tend to have less precise value-added estimates than teachers of other types of students. Shrinkage increases their estimates’ precision and reduces the absolut...

  20. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  1. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary school students. a study from Tanga-Tanzania. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal.

  2. Fasting during Pregnancy and Children's Academic Performance. CEE DP 134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Mazumder, Bhashkar; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2012-01-01

    We consider the effects of daytime fasting by pregnant women during the lunar month of Ramadan on their children's test scores at age seven. Using English register data, we find that scores are 0.05 to 0.08 standard deviations lower for Pakistani and Bangladeshi students exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy. These estimates are downward biased to…

  3. HIV testing during pregnancy: use of secondary data to estimate 2006 test coverage and prevalence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological proposal based on secondary data and the main results of the HIV-Sentinel Study among childbearing women, carried out in Brazil during 2006. A probabilistic sample of childbearing women was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 150 health establishments were selected, stratified by municipality size (<50,000; 50,000-399,999; 400,000+. In the second stage, 100-120 women were selected systematically. Data collection was based on HIV-test results registered in pre-natal cards and in hospital records. The analysis focused on coverage of HIV-testing during pregnancy and HIV prevalence rate. Logistic regression models were used to test inequalities in HIV-testing coverage during pregnancy by macro-region of residence, municipality size, race, educational level and age group. The study included 16,158 women. Results were consistent with previous studies based on primary data collection. Among the women receiving pre-natal care with HIV-test results registered in their pre-natal cards, HIV prevalence was 0.41%. Coverage of HIV-testing during pregnancy was 62.3% in the country as a whole, but ranged from 40.6% in the Northeast to 85.8% in the South. Significant differences according to race, educational level and municipality size were also found. The proposed methodology is low-cost, easy to apply, and permits identification of problems in routine service provision, in addition to monitoring compliance with Ministry of Health recommendations for pre-natal care.

  4. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    OpenAIRE

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Margaret A Fischl; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed...

  5. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  6. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. [Self-assessment of nutritinal status in medical students and objective measures of estimating somatic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarczyńska-Jończyk, Halina; Malara, Beata; Woźniak, Joanna; Steplewski, Zygmunt; Jaskólecki, Henryk; Tyrpień, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    Problem of "obesity epidemic" is still very common, but the knowledge about this is limited and it develops very slowly. Probably it even concerns medical students who are in touch with health problems every day and who will watch over society's health in the future. Available literature estimating people's health is mainly connected with negative measures of human health condition. Positive measures are rarely used, although they are simply in use and accessible (including financial accessibility). This kind of measures should be used in widest range to epidemiological investigation of obesity. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of medical student's obesity and to compare declared self-assessment expressed by BMI. In the research 416 III-VI year students of Medical University of Silesia were involved. We used a number of anonymous questionnaires to receive required information. We analyzed objective value of BMI, fat tissue capacity, student's self-assessment and student's satisfaction of their state of nutrition. Statistic analyzes were done using Epi Info v.5.01b program. Distribution of abnormal body weight among students under research was following: underweight--10.3% of the students, overweight--12% and II degree obesity--1.9% of investigated population. Among people with confirmed obesity only 100% of women realized this fact and 44.2% of men found their overweight as normal. Student's satisfaction of state of nutrition independently if it was proper or not, was significantly higher among men. It is necessary to teach students how to properly estimate the state of nutrition.

  8. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: Does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Lyon-Caen, Sarah; Morelli, Xavier; Cracowski, Claire; Pontet, Sabrina; Pin, Isabelle; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Slama, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=-0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=-0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them.

  9. Modeling Student Motivation and Students’ Ability Estimates From a Large-Scale Assessment of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zerpa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When large-scale assessments (LSA do not hold personal stakes for students, students may not put forth their best effort. Low-effort examinee behaviors (e.g., guessing, omitting items result in an underestimate of examinee abilities, which is a concern when using results of LSA to inform educational policy and planning. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between examinee motivation as defined by expectancy-value theory, student effort, and examinee mathematics abilities. A principal components analysis was used to examine the data from Grade 9 students (n = 43,562 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on their attitudes and practices related to mathematics. The results suggested a two-component model where the components were interpreted as task-values in mathematics and student effort. Next, a hierarchical linear model was implemented to examine the relationship between examinee component scores and their estimated ability on a LSA. The results of this study provide evidence that motivation, as defined by the expectancy-value theory and student effort, partially explains student ability estimates and may have implications in the information that get transferred to testing organizations, school boards, and teachers while assessing students’ Grade 9 mathematics learning.

  10. Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access. NBER Working Paper No. 17637

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M.; Swensen, Isaac D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. We first estimate the effect using an RD design but argue that this approach is not well suited to the research question in our setting. Our preferred approach instead exploits the longitudinal nature of the data, identifying the effect by measuring the extent to which a…

  11. Using Shocks to School Enrollment to Estimate the Effect of School Size on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemko, Ilyana

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of the connection between school enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across schools. To address this concern, I utilize school-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the effect of school size on achievement.…

  12. Estimating the Gaze Point of a Student in a Driving Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the research related the “Behaviour Modelling” project at Green Dino, The Netherlands. The goal is to estimate a student’s body pose and focus of attention in “De Nederlandse Rijsimulator” (DNR), which is a fully automated driving simulator. Students follow a curriculum as a pr

  13. Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey for Estimating Burnout in Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Company, José María; Subirats-Roig, Cristian; Flores-Martí, Pau; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as a tool for assessing the prevalence and level of burnout in dental students in Spanish universities. The survey was adapted from English to Spanish. A sample of 533 dental students from 15 Spanish universities and a control group of 188 medical students self-administered the survey online, using the Google Drive service. The test-retest reliability or reproducibility showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.95. The internal consistency of the survey was 0.922. Testing the construct validity showed two components with an eigenvalue greater than 1.5, which explained 51.2% of the total variance. Factor I (36.6% of the variance) comprised the items that estimated emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Factor II (14.6% of the variance) contained the items that estimated personal accomplishment. The cut-off point for the existence of burnout achieved a sensitivity of 92.2%, a specificity of 92.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.96. Comparison of the total dental students sample and the control group of medical students showed significantly higher burnout levels for the dental students (50.3% vs. 40.4%). In this study, the MBI-HSS was found to be viable, valid, and reliable for measuring burnout in dental students. Since the study also found that the dental students suffered from high levels of this syndrome, these results suggest the need for preventive burnout control programs.

  14. Estimate of the attenuation coefficient using a clinical array transducer for the detection of cervical ripening in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labyed, Yassin; Bigelow, Timothy A; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    Premature delivery is the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Currently, premature delivery cannot be prevented and new treatments are difficult to develop due to the inability to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes the active phase of uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The changes in the microstructure of the cervix during cervical ripening suggest that the ultrasonic attenuation should decrease. The objective of this study is to use the reference phantom algorithm to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in the cervix of pregnant human patients. Prior to applying the algorithm to in vivo human data, two homogeneous phantoms with known attenuation coefficients were used to validate the algorithm and to find the length and the width of the region of interest (ROI) that achieves the smallest error in the attenuation coefficient estimates. In the phantom data, we found that the errors in the attenuation coefficients estimates are less than 12% for ROIs that contain 40 wavelengths or more axially and 30 echo lines or more laterally. The reference phantom algorithm was then used to obtain attenuation maps of the echoes from two human pregnant cervices at different gestational ages. It was observed that the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at a more advanced gestational age is smaller than the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at an earlier gestational age which suggests that ultrasonic attenuation decreases with increasing gestational age. We also observed a large variance between the attenuation coefficient estimates in the different regions of the cervix due to the natural variation in tissue micro-structures across the cervix. The preliminary results indicate that the algorithm could potentially provide an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing the risk of premature delivery. Copyright © 2010

  15. Energy metabolism during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Löf, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes information regarding how human energy metabolism is affected by pregnancy, and current estimates of energy requirements during pregnancy are presented. Such estimates can be calculated using either increases in basal metabolic rate (BMR) or increases in total energy expenditure (TEE). The two modes of calculation give similar results for a complete pregnancy but different distributions of energy requirements in the three trimesters. Recent information is presented regarding the effect of pregnancy on BMR, TEE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and physical activity. The validity of energy intake (EI) data recently assessed in well-nourished pregnant women was evaluated using information regarding energy metabolism during pregnancy. The results show that underreporting of EI is common during pregnancy and indicate that additional longitudinal studies, taking the total energy budget during pregnancy into account, are needed to satisfactorily define energy requirements during the three trimesters of gestation.

  16. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients from Longitudinal Group-Randomized Trials of Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…

  17. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Amanda R; Cho, Leslie S

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy represent the second commonest cause of direct maternal death and complicate an estimated 5-10 % of pregnancies. Classification systems aim to separate hypertension similar to that seen outside pregnancy (chronic and gestational hypertension) from the potentially fatal pregnancy-specific conditions. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia represent increasing severities of this disease spectrum. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' 2013 guidelines no longer require proteinuria as a diagnostic criterion, because of its variable appearance in the disease spectrum. The cause involves inadequate cytotrophoblastic invasion of the myometrium, resulting in placental hypoperfusion and diffuse maternal endothelial dysfunction. Changes in angiogenic and antiangiogentic peptide profiles precede the onset of clinical preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia should be closely monitored and receive magnesium sulfate intravenously if severe features, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia occur. Definitive therapy is delivery of the fetus. Hypertension in pregnancy increases future maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders.

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  19. Using School Scholarships to Estimate the Effect of Private Education on the Academic Achievement of Low Income Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private voucher…

  20. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  1. Estimated Costs of Dental Care due to Dental Decay in Mexican High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate the cost of dental care generated by the dental decay prevalence in high school students at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a population of 78,870 high schoolers (conducted between the years 2003 and 2005). The need for dental caries treatment was determined by the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) as it is indicated at the Automated Medical Exam (EMA, acronym in Spanish). The estimation of ...

  2. Comparing estimates of child mortality reduction modelled in LiST with pregnancy history survey data for a community-based NGO project in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Melanie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Methods Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as population coverage data for modelling in LiST. One child survival project fit inclusion criteria. Subsequent searches of the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse and Child Survival Grants databases and interviews of staff from NGOs identified no additional projects. Eight coverage indicators, covering all the project’s technical interventions were modelled in LiST, along with indicator values for most other non-project interventions in LiST, mainly from DHS data from 1997 and 2003. Results The project studied was implemented by World Relief from 1999 to 2003 in Gaza Province, Mozambique. An independent evaluation collecting pregnancy history data estimated that under-five mortality declined 37% and infant mortality 48%. Using project-collected coverage data, LiST produced estimates of 39% and 34% decline, respectively. Conclusions LiST gives reasonably accurate estimates of infant and child mortality decline in an area

  3. Comparing estimates of child mortality reduction modelled in LiST with pregnancy history survey data for a community-based NGO project in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Jim; Prosnitz, Debra; Perry, Henry; Edward, Anbrasi; Morrow, Melanie; Ernst, Pieter; Ryan, Leo

    2011-04-13

    There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as population coverage data for modelling in LiST. One child survival project fit inclusion criteria. Subsequent searches of the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse and Child Survival Grants databases and interviews of staff from NGOs identified no additional projects. Eight coverage indicators, covering all the project's technical interventions were modelled in LiST, along with indicator values for most other non-project interventions in LiST, mainly from DHS data from 1997 and 2003. The project studied was implemented by World Relief from 1999 to 2003 in Gaza Province, Mozambique. An independent evaluation collecting pregnancy history data estimated that under-five mortality declined 37% and infant mortality 48%. Using project-collected coverage data, LiST produced estimates of 39% and 34% decline, respectively. LiST gives reasonably accurate estimates of infant and child mortality decline in an area where a package of community-based interventions was implemented

  4. The unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggory, P

    1977-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a measure of contraceptive failure - either method failure, motivation failure, or contraceptive inaccessibility. Unwanted pregnancies can end in criminal abortion, therapeutic abortion, forced marriage, or illegitimate birth. Figures for these occurrences in Great Britain in 1969 are cited. The figures make no allowance for unsuccessful attempts at self-abortion and unwanted but accepted pregnancies within marriage. It is estimated that approximately 1/4 of all British and American women married more than 10 years have at least 1 unwanted child. Contraception must be provided by the British National Health Service.

  5. CLINICAL FUZZY CONTROLLER IN ESTIMATION OF NONLINEAR FEATURES OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sydorenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The choice of parameters of functional status of organism of pregnant, possibility and value of dynamic diagnostics of weight of preeklampsiya, is in-process examined, on the base of study of indexes of variability rhythm of heart of mother, allowing to get the current estimation of the state of the vegetative nervous system (VNS of organism of pregnant, calculation of dosages of medicines and control of efficiency of the conducted therapy by means of algorithms of fuzzy logic. Formalization of set of entrance variables for managers

  6. When Pregnancy Goes Past Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with postterm pregnancy include the following: • Stillbirth • Macrosomia • Postmaturity syndrome • Meconium in the lungs of the ... fertilization and lasts until the end of pregnancy. Macrosomia: A condition in which a fetus is estimated ...

  7. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  8. Models to estimate the palm surface area of students in a tertiary institution in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Ismaila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to use palm surface area (PSA in ergonomics, burn therapy, thermal physiology, and medicine necessitated the studies on its determination. The purpose of this study was to determine the PSA of students in a tertiary institution in Nigeria, propose a model to obtain the PSA, and use the neural network to reflect the effects of age, height, and weight on PSA. A total of 400 students comprising of 185 male and 215 female students aged between 16- and 25-years old were used for the study. Nonlinear regression analysis on SPSS 16.0 statistical package was used to extract the best fit correlation for Nigerian students with PSA as the dependent variable; and height, weight, and age as independent variables. The neural network on SPSS 16.0 was used to design the multilayer perceptron to predict PSA using age, height, and weight of the students. The estimated values using the models were not statistically different from the obtained values from the study (p = 0.000. The prediction of PSA showed that the neural network can be trained with almost no significant error of the output and that there was a nonlinear relationship between the input and output variables.

  9. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may check for other medical problems, including: Preeclampsia Hyperthyroidism Anemia A molar pregnancy can't continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the molar tissue must be removed. Treatment usually consists of one or more of the ...

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  11. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  12. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... low blood pressure (also caused by blood loss) lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic ...

  13. ESTIMATION OF SPORTS-TECHNICAL READINESS OF STUDENTS OF METHODICAL BRANCH «FOOTBALL» MSUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamonin Andrey Valentinovich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of sports-technical skill in sports occurs on the basis of last achievements of the theory and physical training and sports practice. Development of football isn't possible without search and introduction in training process of optimum pedagogical models of perfection of physical and technical readiness of football players. Such pedagogical models should be applied, as in groups of initial preparation, so at the subsequent grade levels, including in student's football. Modern training process (pedagogical model, should be under construction on objective indicators of physical, technical and special readiness (so-called feedback. However, the estimation of sports-technical readiness at sports schools on football is reduced only to testing of speed, jumps, juggling, dribbling and a shoot for goal. The same criteria are applied and in student's football. Unfortunately, the given control exercises not in a condition to the full to reflect level of physical and technical readiness of the football player. For more objective estimation of special readiness it is necessary to use the test tasks revealing a level of development of coordination abilities of game structure game and competitive activity (game in football. It will allow trainers to have fuller picture of readiness of the football player, in respect of its professional (football skills. As a result coach have possibility to trace level of a condition of the various parties of sports readiness (physical, technical and coordination student's youth engaged in football at each stage of long-term preparation.

  14. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format Exercise During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy? ...

  16. Effects of linguistic complexity and accommodations on estimates of ability for students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Kaye, Alyssa D; Lockhart, L Leland; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2012-06-01

    Many students with learning disabilities (SLD) participate in standardized assessments using test accommodations such as extended time, having the test items read aloud, or taking the test in a separate setting. Yet there are also aspects of the test items themselves, particularly the language demand, which may contribute to the effects of test accommodations. This study entailed an analysis of linguistic complexity (LC) and accommodation use for SLD in grade four on 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading and mathematics items. The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of test item LC on reading and mathematics item difficulties for SLD; (b) the impact of accommodations (presentation, response, setting, or timing) on estimates of student ability, after controlling for LC effects; and (c) the impact of differential facet functioning (DFF), a person-by-item-descriptor interaction, on estimates of student ability, after controlling for LC and accommodations' effects. For both reading and mathematics, the higher an item's LC, the more difficult it was for SLD. After controlling for differences due to accommodations, LC was not a significant predictor of mathematics items' difficulties, but it remained a significant predictor for reading items. There was no effect of accommodations on mathematics item performance, but for reading items, students who received presentation and setting accommodations scored lower than those who did not. No significant LC-by-accommodation interactions were found for either subject area, indicating that the effect of LC did not depend on the type of accommodation received. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Obesity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    Background: The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in obese women of childbearing age. This gives cause for concern because prepregnancy obesity is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The newly established Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has a size that permits......,167), and neonatal mortality in the offspring (n=83,834). Also, the impact of recreational exercise on the risk of preterm birth and obesity-related diseases was considered (n=85,046). Self-reported information about exposures was obtained during pregnancy by means of comprehensive telephone interviews. Pregnancy...... outcomes were obtained from registers and medical records. Cox regression analyses with delayed entry and time-dependent covariates were used to estimate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.Obese women (BMI≥30) faced an increased risk of both late spontaneous abortion and stillbirth compared to normal...

  18. Estimation of iodine nutrition and thyroid function status in late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Development and application of a population-based pregnancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumen, A; George, N I

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a deterministic biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) pregnancy model was developed to evaluate moderate thyroid axis disturbances with and without thyroid-active chemical exposure in a near-term pregnant woman and fetus. In the current study, the existing BBDR model was adapted to include a wider functional range of iodine nutrition, including more severe iodine deficiency conditions, and to incorporate empirically the effects of homeostatic mechanisms. The extended model was further developed into a population-based model and was constructed using a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic framework. In order to characterize total (T4) and free (fT4) thyroxine levels for a given iodine status at the population-level, the distribution of iodine intake for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S was reconstructed using various reverse dosimetry methods and available biomonitoring data. The range of median (mean) iodine intake values resulting from three different methods of reverse dosimetry tested was 196.5-219.9μg of iodine/day (228.2-392.9μg of iodine/day). There was minimal variation in model-predicted maternal serum T4 and ft4 thyroxine levels from use of the three reconstructed distributions of iodine intake; the range of geometric mean for T4 and fT4, was 138-151.7nmol/L and 7.9-8.7pmol/L, respectively. The average value of the ratio of the 97.5th percentile to the 2.5th percentile equaled 3.1 and agreed well with similar estimates from recent observations in third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. In addition, the reconstructed distributions of iodine intake allowed us to estimate nutrient inadequacy for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. via the probability approach. The prevalence of iodine inadequacy for third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. was estimated to be between 21% and 44%. Taken together, the current work provides an improved tool for evaluating iodine nutritional status and the corresponding thyroid function status in

  19. Developing an Efficient Computational Method that Estimates the Ability of Students in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a computational method that can efficiently estimate the ability of students from the log files of a Web-based learning environment capturing their problem solving processes. The computational method developed in this study approximates the posterior distribution of the student's ability obtained from the conventional Bayes…

  20. DIAGNOSTICS AND ESTIMATION OF FORMATION LEVELS OF STUDENTS VISUAL ABILITIES DURING THE ORGANISATION OF RESEARCH WORK ON DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana V. Alieksieieva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostics and estimation ways and methods of visual abilities of students under organization of research work on design while getting the professional art education are considered. The features of approach towards the process of diagnostics of visual abilities of students are determined.

  1. Characteristics of Computational Thinking about the Estimation of the Students in Mathematics Classroom Applying Lesson Study and Open Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promraksa, Siwarak; Sangaroon, Kiat; Inprasitha, Maitree

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study and analyze the characteristics of computational thinking about the estimation of the students in mathematics classroom applying lesson study and open approach. Members of target group included 4th grade students of 2011 academic year of Choomchon Banchonnabot School. The Lesson plan used for data…

  2. Student Sorting and Bias in Value Added Estimation: Selection on Observables and Unobservables. NBER Working Paper No. 14666

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Non-random assignment of students to teachers can bias value added estimates of teachers' causal effects. Rothstein (2008a, b) shows that typical value added models indicate large counter-factual effects of 5th grade teachers on students' 4th grade learning, indicating that classroom assignments are far from random. This paper quantifies the…

  3. Fasting during Pregnancy and Children's Academic Performance. NBER Working Paper No. 17713

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Mazumder, Bhashkar; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of daytime fasting by pregnant women during the lunar month of Ramadan on their children's test scores at age seven. Using English register data, we find that scores are 0.05 to 0.08 standard deviations lower for Pakistani and Bangladeshi students exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy. These estimates are downward biased to…

  4. Fasting during Pregnancy and Children's Academic Performance. NBER Working Paper No. 17713

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Mazumder, Bhashkar; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of daytime fasting by pregnant women during the lunar month of Ramadan on their children's test scores at age seven. Using English register data, we find that scores are 0.05 to 0.08 standard deviations lower for Pakistani and Bangladeshi students exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy. These estimates are downward biased to…

  5. Propensity Score Methods as Alternatives to Value-Added Modeling for the Estimation of Teacher Contributions to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kimberlee Kaye Callister

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for using propensity score-based matching methods to estimate teacher contributions to student learning. Value-added models are increasingly used in teacher accountability systems in the United States in spite of ongoing qualms about the validity of teacher quality estimates resulting from…

  6. Propensity Score Methods as Alternatives to Value-Added Modeling for the Estimation of Teacher Contributions to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kimberlee Kaye Callister

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for using propensity score-based matching methods to estimate teacher contributions to student learning. Value-added models are increasingly used in teacher accountability systems in the United States in spite of ongoing qualms about the validity of teacher quality estimates resulting from…

  7. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites using Brazilian students as a sample population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolim, W D; De V C Penteado, M

    2005-11-01

    In Brazil, there is neither a register of the use of sulphites by the food industry nor is research being undertaken on their dietary exposure to the population. The objective of the work reported here was to estimate the dietary exposure to sulphites in two different groups of high school students, a fee-paying school group and a state school group. The data were collected through a 24-hour dietary recall, which provided estimates of sulphited foods and beverages in the diet. The Maximum Permitted Level (MPL), established by the Brazilian legislation for each of the sulphited food and beverages, was used to measure the dietary exposure to this additive. On this basis none of the students could have exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.70 mg SO2/kg bw/day, with a average dietary exposure of 0.07 mg SO2/kg bw/day (p<0.001), with no significant statistical difference (p=0.643) between fee-paying and state school students. Highly exposed consumers (dietary exposure to more than 50% of the ADI, or either, 0.35 mg SO2/kg bw/day, to the maximum of 0.52 mg SO2/kg bw/dia) represented 4.5% of the researched samples and reached these levels of intake due to a consumption beyond 500 ml/day of industrialized packaged fruit juices, and, in the fee-paying school, for associating its consumption with alcoholic beverages like beer and wine.

  8. Estimation of the state of health of students of the I course of build university attributed to task medical force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova A.Yu.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The different approaches are considered near the estimation of the state of health of students. General description of the state of health and activity of students is resulted on its maintenance. It is marked that different rejections have 30% students in a state of health, disease of temporal or permanent character. The students of the first course of university took part in research. It is set that unsatisfactory physical preparation is observed 43% students, good - at 37,2%, excellent at 20%. On the whole there is a tendency to the decline of motive activity of students of the I course, frequent violations of the mode of sleep and feed. The system of recommendations is developed for employments by a physical culture and sport. It is marked that for maintenance and optimization of resources of organism of students of the I course the correctly organized athletic health work is needed.

  9. The overall impact of testing on medical student learning: quantitative estimation of consequential validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiter, Clarence D; Green, Joseph; Lenoch, Susan; Saiki, Takuya

    2013-10-01

    Given medical education's longstanding emphasis on assessment, it seems prudent to evaluate whether our current research and development focus on testing makes sense. Since any intervention within medical education must ultimately be evaluated based upon its impact on student learning, this report seeks to provide a quantitative accounting of the learning gains attained through educational assessments. To approach this question, we estimate achieved learning within a medical school environment that optimally utilizes educational assessments. We compare this estimate to learning that might be expected in a medical school that employs no educational assessments. Effect sizes are used to estimate testing's total impact on learning by summarizing three effects; the direct effect, the indirect effect, and the selection effect. The literature is far from complete, but the available evidence strongly suggests that each of these effects is large and the net cumulative impact on learning in medical education is over two standard deviations. While additional evidence is required, the current literature shows that testing within medical education makes a strong positive contribution to learning.

  10. Stigma management? The links between enacted stigma and teen pregnancy trends among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Poon, Colleen S.; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to “enacted stigma,” or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in the community. An unexpected health disparity for lesbia n, gay and bisexual youth is their significantly higher risk of teen pregnancy involvement (between two and seven times the rate of their heterosexual peers), especially in light of declining trends in teen pregnancy across North America since the early 1990s. What is behind this higher risk? Is it getting better or worse? Using the province-wide cluster-stratified British Columbia Adolescent Health Surveys from 1992, 1998, and 2003, this paper explores the trends in pregnancy involvement, related sexual behaviours, and exposure to forms of enacted stigma that may help explain this particular health disparity for gay, lesbian and bisexual youth in Canada. PMID:19293941

  11. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachcar, P

    1990-01-01

    The number of adolescent pregnancies brought to term in France has continued to decline while the number of abortions remains stable. Adolescent pregnancies cannot be considered "accidents" either in their social or psychological aspects. Pregnant adolescents carrying to term tend to be more disadvantaged than those seeking abortions. Early pregnancy may be a response to difficult life conditions. Despite appearing to constitute an infraction of a social code, adolescent pregnancy may in fact represent an attempt at social integration through motherhood. Adolescents failing in school, with poor employment prospects and feeling family pressures may view pregnancy as a means of social recognition. But such factors by themselves do not explain pregnancy; the primordial role of psychological factors must be examined. For some adolescents, pregnancy may represent an attempt to understand their own sexual identity as the transformations of puberty unsettle their previous self-images. Or they may be failing to perceive or actively denying the possibility of pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancies may be the result of transgressions of prohibitions. The traditional prohibition of sexual activity has relaxed to the degree that it is being replaced by a new prohibition on adolescent pregnancy and a prescription to use contraception. But contraception deprives an adolescent in search of sexual identity of proof of fertility as well as of the image of spontaneity and naturalness. Use of contraception is in conflict with the questions, doubts, and anxieties of adolescence. For adolescents in a reactivated oedipal stage, heterosexuality is often at the service of incestuous fantasies involving the mother. Abortion and perhaps pregnancy itself may assume the character of a rite of passage into adulthood for some adolescents. The important thing for many is the ability to become pregnant, to be a mother like their own mother.

  12. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  13. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  14. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  15. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  16. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? How ...

  17. Pregnancy and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home About IC Women & IC Pregnancy & IC Pregnancy & IC How Pregnancy Affects IC Unfortunately, there is limited scientific data ... 2009 issue of the ICA Update . Planning Your Pregnancy Planning ahead for your pregnancy will let you: ...

  18. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  19. Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It’s Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Baumler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.

  20. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context.......Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context....

  1. Cognitive Predictors of Calculations and Number Line Estimation with Whole Numbers and Fractions among At-Risk Students

    OpenAIRE

    Namkung, Jessica M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive predictors of calculations and number line estimation with whole numbers and fractions. At-risk 4th-grade students (N = 139) were assessed on 7 domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, processing speed, concept formation, language, attentive behavior, and nonverbal reasoning) and incoming calculation skill at the start of 4th grade. Then, they were assessed on whole-number and fraction calculation and number line estimation measure...

  2. Twin tubal pregnancy: A large unruptured ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Deepti; Agrawal, Nidhi; Arora, Vrinda

    2015-11-01

    Twin ectopic pregnancy is a rare occurrence, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20 000 spontaneous pregnancies. We describe a case of unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy in which the gravid fallopian tube showed no signs of tubal rupture despite marked tubal distension. A 25-year-old woman presented with clinical features suggestive of large right-sided tubal ectopic pregnancy. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was 10 800 IU/mL. Laparotomy revealed markedly distended right fallopian tube. There was no hemoperitoneum. The tube contained twin gestational sacs. The crown-rump length of the embryos was 2 cm. The ectopic gestation was thus unique, in that despite marked tubal distension, the trophoblastic invasion was not significant to cause tubal rupture. There may be a role for medical management based on individual gestational sac size in selected cases of twin tubal pregnancy in which there is no evidence of hemoperitoneum.

  3. Sexuality, pregnancy and midwifery care for women with intellectual disabilities: a pilot study on attitudes of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda K; Binger, Tara E; McKenzie, Christine R; Ramcharan, Paul; Nankervis, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Women with intellectual disability have historically not been provided the opportunity to become mothers. Attitudes held by future professionals will determine the level and quality of support these women are provided. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the attitudes of students from Education, Disability and Midwifery towards the sexuality and parenting of people with an intellectual disability, and to further examine the attitudes held by Midwifery students following a lecture strategy. A questionnaire assessing attitudes towards the sexuality and parenting of people with intellectual disability was implemented and contained the themes of marriage, parenting, sexual intercourse and sterilization. Significant differences were found between student groups on the themes of sterilization and parenting, with further analysis indicating that Disability students held significantly more positive attitudes than the other two groups. Students reported less positive attitudes towards parenting than marriage, sterilization and sexual intercourse. Respondents' age was significantly associated with their attitudes on parenting, indicating that older students held more conservative attitudes towards the ability of people with an intellectual disability to parent. In addition, this research indicated that the attitudes of Midwifery students became more positive following a lecture delivered after the questionnaire.

  4. Successful renal transplantation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hold, Phoebe M; Wong, Christopher F; Dhanda, Raman K; Walkinshaw, Steve A; Bakran, Ali

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about the implications of performing a renal transplant on a patient who is already pregnant. This case study reports a successful outcome of pregnancy, diagnosed coincidentally following renal transplantation at 13 weeks gestation. The recipient was a 23-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease who received a live-related renal transplant from her father. Pregnancy was discovered at routine ultrasound scanning of the renal allograft at 5 days posttransplant and estimated at 13 weeks gestation. She received ciclosporin monotherapy as immunosuppression throughout the pregnancy, and was given valacyclovir as prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Renal function remained stable throughout the pregnancy, which progressed normally, resulting in the vaginal delivery of a healthy, liveborn male infant at 37 weeks gestation. This case study demonstrates that transplantation during pregnancy can have a successful outcome.

  5. Comparison of Pregnancy Stress Between In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer and Spontaneous Pregnancy in Women During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Fen-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Chiao, Chia-Yi; Li, Chi-Rong; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Women who undergo in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) face complicated psychological stress and negative emotions, which may affect health during pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The current literature does not address the question of whether women who become pregnant spontaneously and women who undergo IVF face similar levels of pregnancy stress. This study investigates the differences in pregnancy stress between women with spontaneous pregnancy and women with IVF/ET pregnancy living in central Taiwan during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures, generalized estimated equations model, Wilks' λ, and Bonferroni test was used. Purposive samples of 163 women who had undergone IVF/ET and of 94 women who had undergone spontaneous pregnancy were enrolled as participants. Pregnancy stress was measured using the Chinese version of the self-administered Pregnancy Stress Scale at the 9th, 12th, and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The psychological stress experienced by IVF participants significantly increased with gestational week during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p pregnancy participants. Gestational week was the main factor found to influence stress ratings for "identifying maternal role." "Altering body structure and body function" was the main factor found to influence pregnancy stress (p pregnancy stress during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy (p > .05). The results of this study provide clinical evidence that IVF/ET does not cause more stress for women than spontaneous pregnancy. However, the intensity and trend of stresses differed between these two groups. These findings suggest that nurses should consider method of pregnancy when assessing the risk of stress in expectant mothers for each gestational week and when providing appropriate care and support.

  6. Teenage pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-01-01

    .... Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development...

  7. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Pregnancy Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  8. Denied pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko

    2010-06-01

    Two cases of non-psychotic denied pregnancy are presented and discussed. Following obstetric expertise, the forensic-criminal evaluation should investigate the reported crimes of denied pregnancy associated infanticide or criminal abortion as well as the potential involvement of other persons in these crimes. All this would require close collaboration between obstetricians, psychiatrists and crime investigation experts in the forensic expertise of these criminal offences.

  9. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, H

    2000-10-01

    This article examines trends in teenage pregnancy in Canada, focussing on induced abortions, live births and fetal loss among women aged 15 to 19 in 1997. The data come from the Hospital Morbidity Data Base and the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base at Statistics Canada, and the annual Therapeutic Abortion Survey, conducted by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data on abortions performed on Canadian residents in the United States are from an annual survey of selected states. International data are from the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy rates, abortion rates, live birth rates and fetal loss rates are calculated using population counts of women in the age groups 15 to 17, 18 to 19, and 15 to 19. The percentages of pregnancies that ended in the three outcomes are also calculated for these years. The teenage pregnancy rate declined from 1994 to 1997, reflecting lower teenage birth and fetal loss rates. Through this period the abortion rate remained stable, with the result that slightly more than half of all teenage pregnancies ended in abortion by 1997. Younger teens are more likely to have an abortion than to give birth. The majority of pregnancies among older teens end in a live birth, although the number of live births is decreasing.

  10. Estimating HIV Incidence during Pregnancy and Knowledge of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission with an Ad Hoc Analysis of Potential Cofactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Obinchemti Egbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the incidence of HIV seroconversion during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and ad hoc potential cofactors associated with HIV seroconversion after having an HIV-negative result antenatally. We also studied knowledge of PMTCT among pregnant women in seven health facilities in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon. Method. During the period between September 12 and December 4, 2011, we recruited a cohort of 477 HIV-negative pregnant women by cluster sampling. Data collection was with a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, knowledge of PMTCT, and methods of HIV prevention were obtained from the study population and we did Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT for HIV. Results. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy was 6.8/100 woman-years. Ninety percent of the participants did not use condoms throughout pregnancy but had a good knowledge of PMTCT of HIV. Only 31.9% of participants knew their HIV status before the booking visit and 33% did not know the HIV status of their partners. Conclusion. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion in the Fako Division, Cameroon, was 6.8/100 woman-years. No risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were identified among the study participants because of lack of power to do so.

  11. Current considerations on teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Manfré

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy has acquired significant proportions. It is estimated that 20 to 25% of all pregnant women in Brazil are teenagers. The present study, through an analysis of the current literature, examines the main aspects involving pregnancy during adolescence, along with its consequences on the life of young mothers, their children and social environment. We conclude that the efforts of health care professionals, parents and educators are crucial to increase awareness of adolescent sexuality. The application of this knowledge is a way to prevent teen pregnancy, thus avoiding the harmful effects on young mothers and their children.

  12. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Mehta, C Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R; Golub, Elizabeth T; Fischl, Margaret A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-02-20

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9-27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0-19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant.

  13. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. Methods: We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Results: Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9–27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0–19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Conclusion: Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant. PMID:27902507

  14. YouTube Fridays: Student Led Development of Engineering Estimate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew W.; Vestal, Charles R.; Herring, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important…

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  17. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy A A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  18. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  3. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  4. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  7. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  8. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  9. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  10. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  12. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  13. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  14. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications: Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  17. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise After Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format Exercise After Pregnancy Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are some ...

  18. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  19. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  20. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  2. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  3. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  4. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Cravings during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  8. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  9. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ...

  11. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Gatny; Yasamin Kusunoki; Jennifer Barber

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial number of young women experience pregnancy scares - thinking they might be pregnant, and later discovering that they are not. Although pregnancy scares are distressing events, little is known about who experiences them and whether they are important to our understanding of unintended pregnancy. Objective: We describe the young women who experience pregnancy scares, and examine the link between pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Methods: We us...

  13. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Multicenter study of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in 75 821 pregnancies: results and estimation of the potential impact of individual risk-orientated two-stage first-trimester screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, K H; Spencer, K; Avgidou, K; Faiola, S; Falcon, O

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). In addition, the potential impact of a new individual risk-orientated two-stage approach to first-trimester screening was examined. First-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out in 75 821 singleton pregnancies with live fetuses at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. The detection and false-positive rates for different risk cut-offs were calculated. To examine the potential impact of an individual risk-orientated two-stage approach to first-trimester screening it was assumed that, after first-trimester combined screening, chorionic villus sampling (CVS) would be performed in all patients with a risk estimate of 1 in 100 or more and in none of those with a risk estimate of less than 1 in 1000. Those in the intermediate-risk category, with a risk estimate of between 1 in 101 and 1 in 1000, would have further assessment of risk by first-trimester ultrasound examination to determine presence/absence of the nasal bone, presence/absence of tricuspid regurgitation or normal/abnormal Doppler velocity waveform in the ductus venosus, and CVS would be performed if their adjusted risk became 1 in 100 or more. Fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were successfully measured in all cases. The median maternal age was 31 (range, 13-49) years, the median gestation at screening was 12 (range, 11 + 0 to 13 + 6) weeks and the median fetal crown-rump length was 62 (range, 45-84) mm. Chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 544 pregnancies, including 325 cases of trisomy 21. The estimated risk for trisomy 21 was 1 in 300 or greater in 5.2% of normal pregnancies, in 92.6% of those with trisomy 21, in 88.5% of those with trisomy 18 or 13 and in 85.6% of those with other chromosomal defects. The

  15. Using School Scholarships to Estimate the Effect of Private Education on the Academic Achievement of Low-Income Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in fee-charging private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private…

  16. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić Jelka; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Petrović Đorđe; Grujić Zorica; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Kopitović Vesna; Bjelica Artur

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathol...

  17. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avoid all alcohol and drug use and limit caffeine. Quit smoking, if you smoke. Go for prenatal visits and tests: You will see your provider many times during your pregnancy for prenatal care. The number of visits and types of exams you receive will change, depending on where you ...

  18. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more frequently and are likely to have their babies by cesarean delivery . How can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of ... the result of a recognized disease. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  19. Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-16

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the issue of teen pregnancy and some strategies to address it.  Created: 4/16/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/16/2014.

  20. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  1. Primary obturator foramen pregnancy: a case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jing-xian; LIU Qi; JU Yan; GUAN Qun; WU Yuan-zhe; ZHENG Ning

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized ovum implants on any tissue other than the endometrium, is the most common life-threatening emergency in the first trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 0.25%-1.0% of all pregnancies, and has increased greatly in the last few decades, from 4.5 per 1000 pregnancies in 1970 to an estimated 19.7 per 1000 pregnancies in 1992.1 Generally more than 95% of ectopic gestations are tubal pregnancies; only 1.4% are abdominal pregnancy, of which very rare cases are retroperitoneal pregnancy.

  2. Estimation of changes in C-reactive protein level and pregnancy outcome after nonsurgical supportive periodontal therapy in women affected with periodontitis in a rural set up of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur S Khairnar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Estimation of changes in C-reactive protein (CRP level and pregnancy outcome after nonsurgical supportive periodontal therapy in pregnant women affected with Periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant females with periodontitis were assigned to treatment and control groups. All the details about previous and current pregnancies were obtained. Full-mouth periodontal examination was done at baseline, which included oral hygiene index simplified plaque index, gingival index, and clinical attachment loss. CRP level was also measured from collected blood sample initially at baseline and later after the delivery in both the group. Subjects in the treatment group received nonsurgical periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestational period, and those in the control group did not receive any periodontal therapy during this period. Periodontal therapy included mechanical plaque control instructions and scaling and root planning. Outcome measures assessed were changes in CRP levels, gestational age, and birth weight of the infants. When delivery occurred at 0.05. Conclusion: Nonsurgical supportive periodontal therapy may lower the risk of preterm delivery in females affected with periodontitis by reducing CRP level.

  3. The sensitivity of length of pregnancy using clinical estimate of gestation versus last menstrual period: an example with particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating gestational age is usually based on last menstrual period date (LMP) or clinical estimation (CGA); both approaches introduce error and potential bias. Differences in the two methods of gestational age assignment may lead to misclassification and differences in risk est...

  4. The sensitivity of length of pregnancy using clinical estimate of gestation versus last menstrual period: an example with particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating gestational age is usually based on last menstrual period date (LMP) or clinical estimation (CGA); both approaches introduce error and potential bias. Differences in the two methods of gestational age assignment may lead to misclassification and differences in risk est...

  5. Vertical teaching principles: pregnancy induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Vertical integration of medical disciplines helps medical students to understand a clinical problem in the light of basic sciences. The modules beginning with the pathophysiology of pregnancy induced hypertension and concluded with anesthetic considerations. An elaborate module helps to translate an understanding of pharmaco therapeutics of hypertension in pregnancy. A well-trained medical student can help to reduce maternal mortality due to preeclampsia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1739-1743

  6. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  7. Pregnancy diagnosis, fetal quantification and gender estimation by ultra-sonography in ewes Diagnóstico de gestação, quantificação e sexagem fetal por ultra-sonografia em ovelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Mara Kirsch Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the accuracy of gestation, fetal sexing and quantification diagnoses in ewes. Pregnancy and fetal quantification were diagnosed in 105 ewes at 35 days of pregnancy. For the fetal gender diagnosis sexing diagnose 55 ewes between 49 and 59 days of pregnancy were used. All exams were recorded on DVD for posterior analysis. After birth, lamb sex was recorded to determine fetal sexing precision. Data were analyzed by chisquare (χ2 or Fisher's test, with a significance of 0.05. One hundred percent of pregnancy ultrasound diagnoses were correct. As for the fetal quantification diagnoses, there was an error of 12%. It was possible to diagnose the fetal sex in 87% of the 69 examined fetuses, and 90% of these were estimated correctly. The real-time ultrasound diagnoses were not different from the recorded DVD image diagnoses. Therefore, pregnancy diagnosis accuracy may reach 100%, differing from fetal gender estimation and quantification, which are dependent upon other variables such as fetal gender and examiner experience.O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a acurácia do diagnóstico de gestação, quantificação e sexagem fetal em ovelhas. Foram realizados o diagnóstico de gestação e a quantificação fetal em 105 ovelhas aos 35 dias de gestação. Para o diagnóstico da sexagem fetal foram utilizadas 55 ovelhas com período de gestação entre 49 e 59 dias. As imagens de todos os exames foram gravadas em DVD para permitir posterior análise. Após o nascimento dos cordeiros, os respectivos sexos foram observados para determinar a precisão do exame de sexagem fetal. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste Qui-quadrado (χ2 ou Teste de Fisher, com nível de significância de 5%. Observou-se 100% de acerto no diagnóstico de gestação pela ultra-sonografia. Quanto ao diagnóstico de quantificação fetal, houve 12% de erro. Foi possível diagnosticar o sexo fetal em 87% dos fetos e destes, 90

  8. Study results on estimation of non-specialized physical training university students in Hunan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highlights the results of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness assessment of students specialized universities Chinese province of Hunan. Discovered that the main negative factors that reduce the effectiveness in this area are the following: lack of unified management of the process of introducing national standards of physical fitness assessment of students; shortcomings in the quality and quantity of equipment for evaluation, the low level of mastery of the teaching staff of the methodology and insufficient use the results of monitoring the health of the students in the further education; misallocation of time for testing and evaluation in terms of physical health. Substantiates the importance of the rational organization of the assessment system, outlined the main directions of improving the effectiveness of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness of students.

  9. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  10. Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  11. Flu Vaccine during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  12. Ending a Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  13. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  14. Factors affecting estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity by treadmill test in students of medical emergencies in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max can be used to evaluate the cardio-pulmonary condition and to provide physiological balance between a person and his job. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the maximum aerobic capacity and its associated factors among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 male students of medical emergencies in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2015. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. The participants meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Gerkin treadmill protocol. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis. Findings: Mean maximum aerobic capacity was 1.94±0.27 L/min. The maximum aerobic capacity was associated with weight and height groups. There was significant positive correlation between maximal aerobic capacity and height, weight and body mass index. Conclusion: The Gerkin treadmill test is useful for estimation of the maximum aerobic capacity and the maximum working ability in students of medical emergencies.

  15. Risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opdahl, S; Henningsen, A A; Tiitinen, A

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies conceived following specific assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures different from the risk in spontaneously conceived (SC) pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART pregnancies had a higher risk of hypertensive disorders......, in particular following cryopreservation, with the highest risk seen in twin pregnancies following frozen-thawed cycles. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of hypertensive disorders is higher in ART pregnancies than in SC pregnancies. The increased risk may be partly explained by multiple pregnancies...... twin pregnancies (46 674). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios and risk differences for hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following IVF, ICSI and fresh or frozen-thawed cycles. We also compared fresh and frozen-thawed cycles within mothers who had conceived following both...

  16. Estimated Impact of Contextual Variables on Academic Achievement among Students in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvallo Pontón

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the following article, the effects of diverse variables are analyzed contextually in the educational achievement on a sample of 1,817 students of the sixth grade of elementary school and 1,239 of third year of high school of Baja California, who responded to the National Tests offered by the National Institute for the Evaluation of the Education in 2004. The results observed are consistent with the reported in most of the national and international literature: the women present better performance than the men in reading comprehension, and the men register better performance in math; the students with ages over the ones that correspond to the sixth grade of elementary school or third year of secondary school, present lower performance levels to those of their schoolmates; the students of the morning shift present higher performance levels compared to the evening shift students; and the students of private schools present better results than those of public schools. It was also analyzed, through hierarchical lineal models, the effect of the socioeconomic level of the context of the school and of the professor in the educational achievement. In all the cases, the levels of variance explained turned out to be smaller that the registered in other similar national studies.

  17. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  18. Expert estimation of ways of improvement of organization of motive activity of student young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikeyev D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects are examined by perfection of organization of motive activity of students. Leading specialists - 13 doctors of sciences, 13 candidates of sciences took part in research. Cited data questioning of experts on key questions of this problem. The perspective ways of improvement of organization of motive activity of student young people are set. Specified on the necessity of in-plant training teachers of physical education. Possibilities of creation are rotined fitness of clubs on the base of Institutes of higher with bringing in of money, administrative and other resources of businessmen.

  19. Estimating the Effect of Student Aid on College Enrollment: Evidence from a Government Grant Policy Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher

    In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid scheme...... and a reform of the student aid scheme to identify the effect of direct costs on college enrollment. To allow for heterogeneous responses due to borrowing constraints, we use detailed information on parents' assets. We find that enrollment is less responsive than found in other studies and that the presence...

  20. Hypovolemic shock following induced abortion and spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolghader Pakniyat; Arash Yazdanbakhsh; Ghasem Moshar-mowahed; Fatimah Talebi

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare clinical condition in which intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancies occur at the same time. It is rare, estimated to occur in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The case was a 38-year-old woman with spontaneously conceived heterotopic pregnancy. She was admitted to our center with hypovolemic shock. Focused assessment sonography for trauma examination in emergency department showed large amount of free fluid in peritoneal cavity. She was managed surgical la...

  1. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during the first half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus ... infected, or have had a recent infection. Monitoring Parvovirus B19 Infection during Pregnancy If you are pregnant, ...

  2. Nutrition during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can food poisoning affect my pregnancy? • What is listeriosis and how can it affect my pregnancy? •Glossary ... cooked to a safe internal temperature. What is listeriosis and how can it affect my pregnancy? Listeriosis ...

  3. Rheumatic diseases during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman YAVUZ

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induces immunologic changes that may differentially impact rheumatic disorders. The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary by condition. The systemic rheumatic illnesses commonly complicating pregnancy are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), scleroderma.

  4. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Vaccinations and pregnancy Vaccinations and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? A vaccination is a shot that contains a ...

  5. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  6. Pregnancy test via milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, H.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  7. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America March 16, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  9. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During Pregnancy Print ... both moms and their babies. Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  10. Medicine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Medicine and Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... reporting problems to FDA . Sign Up for a Pregnancy Registry Pregnancy Exposure Registries are research studies that ...

  11. Pregnancy and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Home > Resources > Pregnancy and IBD Go Back Pregnancy and IBD Email Print + Share If you have ... on the developing fetus or newborn. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON WOMEN WITH IBD Women should be well ...

  12. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  13. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  14. Perineal Massage in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    PERINEAL MASSAGE IN PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN PERINEAL MASSAGE IN PREGNANCY What Is My “Perineum”? Your perineum ... research studies. Several studies have found that perineal massage during the last weeks of pregnancy can reduce ...

  15. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrives Trouble Getting Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  16. Antidepressants: Safe during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need to know about antidepressants and pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones were once thought to protect women from depression, but researchers now say this isn't true. In addition, pregnancy can trigger a range of emotions that make ...

  17. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During Pregnancy A ... both moms and their babies. Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  18. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... two cups of coffee a day. What is caffeine? Caffeine is a drug found in things like ...

  19. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to both pregnancy and thyroid disorders. Hyperthyroidism What causes hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is usually caused ... is believed to be an autoimmune condition and causes mild hyperthyroidism that usually lasts 1 to 2 months. Many ...

  20. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Common discomforts of pregnancy Common discomforts of pregnancy E-mail to a friend ... like back ache and being really tired are common and shouldn’t make you worry. For most ...

  1. The Effect of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Restrictions on Teenage Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cintina

    2012-01-01

    I estimate the effect of state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) on teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates using individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from a discrete-time hazard model indicate that a decrease in the MLDA below 21 years increases the probability of pregnancy among black teens and, surprisingly, decreases the probability of pregnancy among Hispanics. Yet, the effect on white women is statistically insignificant. I find evidence of a ...

  2. A Maximum Likelihood Based Offline Estimation of Student Capabilities and Question Difficulties with Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothedath, Shana; Chaporkar, Prasanna; Belur, Madhu N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the computerised adaptive test (CAT) has gained popularity over conventional exams in evaluating student capabilities with desired accuracy. However, the key limitation of CAT is that it requires a large pool of pre-calibrated questions. In the absence of such a pre-calibrated question bank, offline exams with uncalibrated…

  3. High risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that roughly 20% of pregnancies fall into the high risk category, which in turn are responsible for over 80% of perinatal adverse outcome. Modern obstetrics has been very successful in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. It has focused mainly on fetal and neonatal aspects, and on identifying the subgroup of pregnant women that need greater surveillance and care because of clearly identifiable risk factors. The article describes the preconceptional advice, its components and recommendations for its implementation, as well as its role in maternal and perinatal risk assessment. These interventions attempt to reduce the rates of maternal and perinatal mortality.

  4. Lupus Activity in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Clowse, Megan E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by both lupus activity and pregnancy mishaps. The majority of recent studies demonstrate an increase in lupus activity during pregnancy, perhaps exacerbated by hormonal shifts required to maintain pregnancy. Increased lupus activity, in turn, prompts an elevated risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclamspsia. Fortunately, the majority of pregnancies in wo...

  5. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  6. Narcolepsy and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms...... of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P ...

  7. A risk prediction model for the assessment and triage of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in low-resourced settings: the miniPIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk multi-country prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. We developed the miniPIERS risk prediction model to provide a simple, evidence-based tool to identify pregnant women in LMICs at increased risk of death or major hypertensive-related complications.From 1 July 2008 to 31 March 2012, in five LMICs, data were collected prospectively on 2,081 women with any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy admitted to a participating centre. Candidate predictors collected within 24 hours of admission were entered into a step-wise backward elimination logistic regression model to predict a composite adverse maternal outcome within 48 hours of admission. Model internal validation was accomplished by bootstrapping and external validation was completed using data from 1,300 women in the Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk (fullPIERS dataset. Predictive performance was assessed for calibration, discrimination, and stratification capacity. The final miniPIERS model included: parity (nulliparous versus multiparous; gestational age on admission; headache/visual disturbances; chest pain/dyspnoea; vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain; systolic blood pressure; and dipstick proteinuria. The miniPIERS model was well-calibrated and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC of 0.768 (95% CI 0.735-0.801 with an average optimism of 0.037. External validation AUC ROC was 0.713 (95% CI 0.658-0.768. A predicted probability ≥25% to define a positive test classified women with 85.5% accuracy. Limitations of this study include the composite outcome and the broad inclusion criteria of any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. This broad approach was used to optimize model generalizability.The miniPIERS model shows reasonable ability to identify women at increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes associated with the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. It could be

  8. How Do College Students Estimate Their Drinking? Comparing Consumption Patterns among Quantity-Frequency, Graduated Frequency, and Timeline Follow-Back Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburne, John W.; Brown, Janice M.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to compare several commonly used measures of alcohol use among college students in order to appreciate how estimations of college drinking may be affected by the type of assessment tool used. Consumption patterns of 42 college student drinkers were compared using a quantity-frequency measure, a graduated…

  9. 护理专业女生避孕和意外妊娠认知状况%Survey on the knowledge of contraception and unintentional pregnancy among nursing female students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琳; 田玲; 张利; 蒋玉敏; 孙翾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand nursing female students' knowledge on contraception and unintentional pregnancy for the purpose of formulating appropriate contraceptive education strategies. Methods A total of 326 female nursing students of Bengbu Medical College, were employed in the survey. Self-administered questionnaire involving personal information, pregnancy, contraception, emergency contraception knowledge, attitude and practice of unintentional pregnancy were analyzed. Results A-bout 91.72% , 76.07% and 76.38% of the students respectively knew the feature, early signs and early diagnosis of pregnancy well. As for contraceptive knowledge including the best time of conceive in the menstrual cycle, occasional sexual intercourse resulting pregnancy and contraceptive methods, the participants did know little. Only 23. 00% of the samples can calculate sexual rhythm, 13.50% accept contraceptive contraception. 83.74% of the students encountered unwanted pregnancy undergo anxiety a-bout unwanted pregnancy resulting abortion (the risk of abortion 48.77% , abortion complications 34.97% ) and more than half of them will prefer terminating an unwanted pregnancy ( artificial abortion 31.90% , medical abortion 23. 62% ). They usually seek to family (41.72%) or schoolmates (26.07%) after encountered unwanted pregnancy. About 71.47% of the students realize rather psychological harm than unwanted pregnancies resulting in long-term effects such as gynecological inflammation and infertility. Conclusion Continued efforts are needed to develop nursing female students' knowledge on contraception and unintentional pregnancy.%目的 了解护理专业女生避孕知识及对意外妊娠的认知情况,为制定有针对性的避孕教育策略提供依据.方法 采用自编问卷,对蚌埠医学院326名护理专业女生进行问卷调查,内容包括个人信息、对妊娠的认识、避孕知识及紧急事后避孕、对意外妊娠的担心和处理意愿等.结果 在326

  10. Test Administrator's Gender Affects Female and Male Students' Self-Estimated Verbal General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Vormittag, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Effects of test administrator's gender on test takers' self-estimated verbal general knowledge and de facto verbal general knowledge were investigated. Based on three theories previously applied in research dealing with the effects of test administrator's ethnicity, it was expected male and female test takers to show higher scores under female…

  11. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  12. Childhood/Adolescent Pregnancies and Influenza Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gülen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we aimed to review child/adolescent pregnancies in general, and the clinical and epidemiological features including prevention and management of influenza in these patients in our country. World Health Organization (WHO defines the children between 10-19 years as adolescents. In Turkey, the rate of marriage in adolescent children aged between 15-19 years is 9.3%. Of the births, 9% are in ages between 15-19 years and the rate of birth in ages between 15-19 years is 40/1000. The pre-birth health care of child/adolescent pregnancies is inadequate and the birth complications are higher than the normal pregnancies. The influenza infections in child/adolescent pregnancies are not different from the influenza infections in normal pregnancies, however it causes more severe diseases, higher rates of hospitalizations and higher mortality in pregnant women. During the pregnancy, influenza can affect mother, embryo or fetus as well as the newborn baby after the delivery. In pregnancy, the effects of influenza on embryo and fetus have not so far been extensively investigated. Transplasental viral transmission of the influenza is rare however it may cause birth defects. The clinical findings and diagnostic approaches in pregnancy are similar to normal population. Chemoprophylaxis or chemotherapy (oseltamivir or zanamivir can be given to pregnant women when they are indicated for both influenza A or B. Vaccination is the preferred way of preventing influenza in pregnancy. Inactive influenza vaccine is safe and effective in every stage of pregnancy. Vaccination in pregnancy can prevent the mother, the fetus and the newborn baby up to 6 months from the complication of influenza. In Turkey the estimated vaccination rate in pregnancy is very low, which is less than 10%. (The Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2014;1:31-6

  13. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy. Methods 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data. Results Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2 and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]. The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p -1 day-1 were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1 day-1 and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1 day-1 and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1 day-1. Conclusion Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008.

  14. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ090 “Early Pregnancy Loss”). What is an ectopic pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg does not implant ... vaginal bleeding is the only sign of an ectopic pregnancy. Other symptoms may include abdominal, pelvic, or shoulder ...

  15. The Accuracy of Estimating Fetal Weight and Inter-Twin Weight Discordance by Ultrasound in Twin Pregnancies in Women With Increased Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidly, Sawsan; Parrish, Jacqueline; Murphy, Kellie E; Glanc, Phyllis; Maxwell, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Objectifs : Cette étude avait pour objectif de déterminer si la présence d’un IMC maternel prégrossesse accru entraînait une baisse de la précision de l’échographie pour ce qui est de l’estimation du poids fœtal et de la discordance intergémellaire en matière de poids dans le cadre de grossesses gémellaires, par comparaison avec des femmes présentant un IMC normal. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte rétrospective portant sur des femmes qui présentaient un IMC prégrossesse (ou aux débuts de la grossesse) connu, qui ont accouché après 28 semaines de gestation à la suite d’une grossesse gémellaire viable entre 2008 et 2011, et qui ont subi un examen échographique visant l’estimation du poids fœtal dans les deux semaines ayant précédé l’accouchement. Le poids fœtal estimé (PFE) par échographie a été comparé au poids réel de chacun des jumeaux, puis la discordance intergémellaire en matière de poids (définie comme une différence de poids entre les jumeaux de plus de 25 %) a été stratifiée en fonction de l’IMC de la patiente. Nous avons cherché à déterminer si le PFE et la discordance intergémellaire en matière de poids avaient été affectés lorsque l’accouchement était survenu de 8 à 14 jours à la suite de l’échographie, par comparaison avec un accouchement étant survenu dans les sept jours de la tenue de l’échographie. Résultats : Nous avons pu identifier, au total, 300 grossesses gémellaires pour lesquelles l’IMC maternel prégrossesse était connu : 179 femmes présentaient une insuffisance pondérale ou un poids normal (IMC grossesse gémellaire, l’estimation du poids fœtal par échographie semble être plus fiable lorsqu’elle est menée peu avant l’accouchement.

  16. The dermatoses of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Silonie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin changes in pregnancy can be either physiological (hormonal, changes in pre-existing skin diseases or development of new pregnancy specific dermatoses. Pregnancy-specific skin dermatoses include an ill-defined heterogeneous group of pruritic skin eruptions which are seen only in pregnancy. These include atopic eruption of pregnancy, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Atopic eruption of pregnancy is the most common of these disorders. Most skin eruptions resolve postpartum and require only symptomatic treatment. Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with pemphigoid gestationis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy as they carry fetal risk. This article deals with the classification, clinical features and treatment of the specific dermatoses of pregnancy.

  17. Cytokines and the Risk of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Klein, Katharina; Larsen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the association between cytokine levels in twin pregnancies and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, including the effect of progesterone treatment.......To estimate the association between cytokine levels in twin pregnancies and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, including the effect of progesterone treatment....

  18. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mammaro, Alessia; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Pappalardo, Elisa Maria; Militello, Mariapia; Pedata, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: 1) chronic hypertension, 2) preeclampsia-eclampsia, 3) preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and 4) gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy or chronic hyper...

  19. NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Banjari, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The health of the new-born is largely a function of the mother's nutritional, general and reproductive health status. Therefore, pregnancy is considered as a critical window in child’s growth and development. Several characteristics of a woman prior or in early pregnancy, as well as external, environmental factors affect pregnancy outcomes. External factors account for 30% of the pregnancy outcome and infant's birth weight, and mother’s diet during pregnancy is one of the most important ones....

  20. Smoking and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM). In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birt...

  1. Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G.; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students. PMID:20383750

  2. Estimation and attitude toward the health of students of pedagogical specialities in the process of physical education professionally-applied to the orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandoga Y.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Opinion of students is shown in relation to the evaluation of the state of own health and anxiety about him. Attitude of future educators of child's educational establishments toward a health is certain. 116 students of I-IV of courses took part in research. The negative tendency of worsening of the state of health of students is set. There is growth of index of careful attitude toward the health from 20 % to 43,5 %, the index of indifferent relation diminishes from 15 % to 4,3 %. Considerable percent of students (60,8 % untroubled about a health until there will not be problems. It is marked about the necessity of revision of passive position of departments of physical education in relation to the professionally applied physical preparation of students. It is shown that after the second year students have a fall-off of estimation of the health.

  3. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

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    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  4. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  5. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  6. Pruritus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Hagit; Melamed, Nir; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question Some of my pregnant patients complain about pruritus. Are there conditions in pregnancy that present with pruritus that might put the mother or fetus at risk? Answer Although most cases of pruritus can be attributed to itchy dry skin, there are conditions unique to pregnancy that involve pruritus as a leading symptom. These include pemphigoid gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. These conditions are associated with severe pruritus and some might be associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Clinical history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic clues when evaluating pruritus in pregnancy. PMID:24336540

  7. Adolescent pregnancy and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Jessica; Hayon, Ronni; Carlson, Jensena

    2014-09-01

    7% of US teen women became pregnant in 2008, totaling 750,000 pregnancies nationwide. For women ages 15 to 19, 82% of pregnancies are unintended. Adolescents have a disproportionate risk of medical complications in pregnancy. Furthermore, adolescent parents and their infants both tend to suffer poor psychosocial outcomes. Preventing unintended and adolescent pregnancies are key public health objectives for Healthy People 2020. Screening for sexual activity and pregnancy risk should be a routine part of all adolescent visits. Proven reductions in unintended pregnancy in teens are attained by providing access to contraception at no cost and promoting the most-effective methods.

  8. SUDEP and epilepsy-related mortality in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edey, Stephan; Moran, Nicholas; Nashef, Lina

    2014-07-01

    Although data are limited, research in 2004 estimated a 10-fold increase in mortality in pregnancy in the United Kingdom in women with epilepsy (WWE) compared to women without epilepsy. We highlight epilepsy mortality in pregnancy based on the 2011 report of the United Kingdom Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, relating its findings to previous reports and epilepsy-rates in pregnancy. Among 2,291,493 maternities (2006-2008), we estimated 0.6% or 13,978 were in WWE. Fourteen deaths were epilepsy-related, of which 11 (79%) were sudden and unexpected (SUDEP). Nine occurred during pregnancy and five were postpartum. Nine (64%) were in women taking lamotrigine, seven as monotherapy. We estimated that 1:1,000 women died from epilepsy (mostly SUDEP) during or shortly after pregnancy. Epilepsy-related mortality is a significant risk in pregnancy. Antiepileptic drug-related factors may be relevant. The high proportion of women taking lamotrigine may reflect United Kingdom prescribing practice. Recent observations from the European and International Registry of Antiepileptic Drugs and Pregnancy (EURAP), whereby women on lamotrigine, the levels of which significantly decrease in pregnancy, had more difficulties with epilepsy control, argue against this being the sole explanation. Given the potential risks, every attempt should be made to prevent seizures, particularly convulsive, during pregnancy and postpartum. This, we believe, includes being proactive in maintaining lamotrigine levels during pregnancy.

  9. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  10. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  11. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take antibiotics during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M. ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/antibiotics-and-pregnancy/ ...

  12. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2016-03-11

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2-11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0-14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those

  14. The hidden truths of the belly: the uncertainties of pregnancy in early modern Europe. (Society for the Social History of Medicine Student Prize Essay 1999, runner-up.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClive, Cathy

    2002-08-01

    For early modern men and women and their medical practitioners, the experience and understanding of pregnancy was primarily uncertain. This uncertainty extended to the whole process of pregnancy--from the moment of conception to delivery, the detection and bearing of a 'true fruit' was doubtful. This 'uncertainty' was heightened by the fact that both body and language could conceal the truth. The woman herself was frequently uncertain and could be mistaken in her interpretation of the condition of her belly. This ambiguity is expressed in the vague and faltering language used to describe such experiences. Women's bodies were believed to conceal the truth more readily than their male counterparts. Equally a woman's physical narrative was more likely to be distrusted. Tensions surrounding the appropriate nature of women's 'knowledge' of such hidden 'secrets' also affected the ways in which women and their practitioners described the 'truths' of the belly. This article traces the ambiguities faced by women and their midwives/accoucheurs through three areas of pregnancy: quickening, false conceptions, and the threat of miscarriage. The much-neglected source of medical texts and observations is drawn upon, alongside letters and diaries and judicial material.

  15. OBSTETRICS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL OUTCOME OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is defined as pregnancies which occur in a female below the age of 20 i.e. when the pregnancy ends. A female can become pregnant as early as two weeks before menarche, although rare, but usually occurs after menarche. In healthy, well - nourished girls, menarche normally takes place around the ages 12 or 13. A number of personal and social factors are responsible for the onset of biological fertility in a teenage. Teenage pregnanc y rates vary between countries because of differences in socio - economic status, traditional culture of early marriage, besides levels of sexual activity, general sex education provided and access to affordable contraceptive options. Worldwide, teenage preg nancy rates range from 143 per 1000 in some sub - Saharan African countries to 2.9 per 1000 in South Korea. ( 1(2 The World Health Organization estimates that the risk of death following pregnancy is twice as great for women between 15 and 19 years than for those between the ages of 20 and 24. The maternal mortality rate can be up to five times higher for girls aged between 10 and 14 than for women of about twenty years of age. Illegal abortion also holds many risks for teenage girls in areas such as sub - Saha ran Africa (3 In our country teenage marriages does take place and pregnancy usually occur after marriage, despite a law against early marriage. Teenage pregnancy is considered to be high - risk due to many reasons because during this period a woman is physio logically and psychologically as well not mature. Their body itself is in growing stage. So to support the growth of the foetus exposes them to additional challenges. Complications of pregnancy result in the deaths of an estimated 70,000 teen girls in deve loping countries each year. Complications they develop can be grouped into medical, obstetrical, psychological and social. This chapter will highlight obstetrical, psychological and social impact of the teenage pregnancy

  16. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  19. Fluconazole and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluconazole and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to fluconazole may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, Petronella G.; Lameijer, Heleen; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy is associated with considerable risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Our systematic review of the literature on the use of targeted treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension during pregnancy indicates a considerable decrease of mortality since a

  1. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  6. Cravings during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crave. Don’t buy a whole bag of chocolate candy. Just buy one or two pieces. Plan ... baby is born. Last reviewed: October, 2012 Pregnancy Nutrition, weight & fitness Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' Before ...

  7. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  8. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geenes, Victoria; Williamson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder characterized by maternal pruritus in the third trimester, raised serum bile acids and increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Anemia Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  11. Gynecologic oncology in pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amant, F.; Calsteren, K Van; Vergote, I.; Ottevanger, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this review current knowledge on prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gynaecological malignancies during pregnancy is discussed. After a general overview of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy during pregnancy, tumor specific diagnosis and treatment options are described for breas

  12. Getting Ready for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boss about changing job duties before and during pregnancy. Lower your stress. High levels of stress can cause problems during pregnancy, so find ways to manage stress before you get pregnant. Being active, eating healthy ...

  13. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... inspired by stories from the families at the heart of our mission or share your own story ...

  14. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the ... and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your ...

  15. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. ... pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect ...

  16. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  18. Familiy Planning and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Storage Pool Deficiencies Home About Bleeding Disorders Family planning and pregnancy Carriers should receive genetic counselling about ... Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  19. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be a sign of a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. Contact the health care provider right away. During ... Cervical polyp or growth Early labor (bloody show) Ectopic pregnancy Infection of the cervix Trauma to the cervix ...

  20. Ectopic pregnancy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ectopic pregnancy is one in which the fertilized egg implants in tissue outside of the uterus and the placenta ... common site is within a Fallopian tube, however, ectopic pregnancies can occur in the ovary, the abdomen, and ...

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy. It is rarely passed from mother to baby during delivery (6). Hepatitis B poses the greatest risk in ... pregnancy. It is rarely passed from mother to baby during delivery (6). Hepatitis B poses the greatest risk in ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  5. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moderate aerobic activity, like walking fast, dancing, or swimming. Do aerobic activity for at least 10 minutes at a time. Get more information about exercise during pregnancy: Stay Active During Pregnancy: Quick tips Health Tips ...

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... From Puerto Rico Meet our National Ambassador for 2017 Read and share stories Become inspired by stories ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  9. Sertraline (Zoloft) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertraline (Zoloft®) and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to sertraline may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share E. coli and Pregnancy Thursday, 20 November 2014 In ... pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Donate Sign Up For E-Newsletter Full Name * Email Address * Enter The Code: ...

  11. Diphenhydramine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few reports of withdrawal symptoms in infants whose mothers took diphenhydramine daily throughout pregnancy. Is there anyone who should avoid taking diphenhydramine during pregnancy? A single human report and animal data have suggested that ...

  12. High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications High-Risk Pregnancy: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A high-risk pregnancy refers to anything that puts the ...

  13. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search Our ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  14. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  16. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trips to the bathroom. Increased heart rate. Your heart rate increases during pregnancy to pump more blood. This may make it harder to sleep. Shortness of breath. At first, pregnancy hormones can ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  19. Benzodiazepines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to benzodiazepines may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Lund, Claus Otto; Ottesen, Bent;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility after salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical University Center, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen. POPULATION: Two hundred and seventy-six women undergoing salpingectomy or tubotomy for their first ectopic...... pregnancy between January 1992 and January 1999 and who actively attempted to conceive were followed for a minimum of 18 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study combined with questionnaire to compare reproductive outcome following salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Cumulative probabilities...... of pregnancy for each group were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and compared by Cox regression analysis to control for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrauterine pregnancy rates and recurrence rates of ectopic pregnancy after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The cumulative...

  1. Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Lund, Claus Otto; Ottesen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility after salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical University Center, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen. POPULATION: Two hundred and seventy-six women undergoing salpingectomy or tubotomy for their first ectopic...... pregnancy between January 1992 and January 1999 and who actively attempted to conceive were followed for a minimum of 18 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study combined with questionnaire to compare reproductive outcome following salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Cumulative probabilities...... of pregnancy for each group were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and compared by Cox regression analysis to control for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrauterine pregnancy rates and recurrence rates of ectopic pregnancy after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The cumulative...

  2. [Dopplerometry at prolonged pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salii-Prenichi, L; Milchev, N; Markova, D; Apiosjan, Zh

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged pregnancy, associated with low amniotic fluid is a reason for the increase of fetal mortality and morbidity. There is no a define test at prolonged pregnancy which can determine which pregnancy are at a risk for adverse outcome and complications. Dopplerometry as a noninvasive method for examination of blood circulation, and especially a. cerebri media and a. umbilicalis can be used for the prediction of the outcome of prolonged pregnancy.

  3. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2016-01-01

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease...

  4. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points: - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  5. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anouk de Bruyn; Yves Jacquemyn; Kristof Kinget; François Eyskens

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, su...

  6. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  7. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can trigger abuse during pregnancy? For many families, pregnancy can bring about feelings of stress, which is normal. But it's not okay for your partner to react violently to stress. Some partners become abusive during pregnancy because they feel: Upset because this was an ...

  8. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider can help you find ways to reduce stress so it doesn’t affect your pregnancy. During pregnancy Go to all of your prenatal ... be harmful to your baby and reduce your stress . Last reviewed: April, 2016 ... complications Other Complications & Loss topics ') document.write(' Pregnancy ...

  9. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  10. Leukemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firas, Al Sabty; Demeckova, E; Mistrik, M

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy complicated with leukemia is rare. Validated data, out of which conclusions may be drawn regarding the management of pregnancy with leukemia are sparse. We report 5 cases of leukemia diagnosed during pregnancy with an overview of published literature (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  11. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  12. [Behavior of serum alkaline during pregnancy. II. Pathological pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, K H; Nabel, H J; Kyank, H; Neumayer, E; Dässler, C G; Töwe, J

    1976-01-01

    832 estimations of heat stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) and of heat alkaline phosphatase (HLAP) were carried out simultaneously in late pregnant women at 25th to the 42nd weeks of pregnancy. 147 of them delivered children with normal birth-weight. All these women suffered from pre-eclampsia, hypertension or any kind of superimposed pre-eclampsia. 110 other pregnant women with or without symptoms of pre-eclampsia gave birth to small for dates babies. In addition, the values of these patients were compared with 372 estimations of the same enzymes carried out in 120 patients with normal pregnancy and outcome of normal weighted children. The site of the values of every group showed no typical correlation to the course and outcome of their pregnancy. Regarding four special criterions it was possible to give a good prediction by serial determinations for the weight of the newborn in 80 per cent of the cases. A correlation between the urinary excretion of total oestrogens as well as HLAP and the values of HSAP was to be found only in some groups of patients.

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Hur, Junguk; Cho, Eun-Hee; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Lee, Kyung Won

    2017-04-01

    There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. The study included 631 pregnant American women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional examinations from 2003 to 2012. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. The cut-offs of index to assess the inflammatory properties of diet, was estimated based on a one-day 24-h recall. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were performed to estimate beta coefficients and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) on the association of pre-pregnancy BMI categories with the DII and CRP concentrations during pregnancy. After controlling for variables including: race/ethnicity, family poverty income ratio, education, marital status, month in pregnancy, and smoking status during pregnancy; women who were obese before pregnancy (n = 136) had increased odds for being in the highest tertile of the DII and CRP concentrations compared to women with normal weight (AORs 2.40, 95% CIs 1.01-5.71; AORs 24.84, 95% CIs 6.19-99.67, respectively). These findings suggest that women with pre-pregnancy obesity had greater odds of reporting higher DII and having elevated CRP. In conclusion, high pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of pro-inflammatory diet and elevated CRP levels during pregnancy in the USA.

  14. Postpartum depression among women with unintended pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Nunes de Oliveira Brito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum depression. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study conducted with 1,121 pregnant aged 18 to 49 years, who attended the prenatal program devised by the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between July 2005 and December 2006. We interviewed 1,121 women during pregnancy and 1,057 after childbirth. Unintended pregnancy was evaluated during the first interview and postpartum depression symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale. The crude and adjusted odds ratios for the studied association were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The frequency for unintended pregnancy was 60.2%; 25.9% presented postpartum depression symptoms. Those who had unintended pregnancies had a higher likelihood of presenting this symptoms, even after adjusting for confounding variables (OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.09;2.01. When the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 variable was included, the association decreased, however, remained statistically significant (OR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.03;1.97. CONCLUSIONS Unintended pregnancy showed association with subsequent postpartum depressive symptoms. This suggests that high values in Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale may result from unintended pregnancy.

  15. Status of Lipid Profile in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Parchwani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy greatly increases demand for metabolic fuels that are needed for growth and development of the fetus and its support structures. The total gestation related energy cost has been estimated at approximately 83000 kcal. The major change in energy expenditure and in the accumulation of fat occurs at different times during pregnancy. In the current study a serial study of serum lipids was performed in a group of women throughout gestation and six weeks post partum while they were having their usual diet and unrestricted daily activity. The control group consisted of non pregnant healthy women of child bearing age. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. All lipid fractions underwent a gradual and persistent rise throughout pregnancy with the exception of HDL-C i.e. a progressive rise was observed in serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum VLDL and LDL-C as pregnancy advances, while serum HDL-C showed a biphasic pattern, as initial rise and then decline in later third of pregnancy. However, during early pregnancy the values of all lipid fractions do not differ significantly from those for normal non pregnant controls. No significant difference was observed in vegetarian and non-vegetarian group in any of the lipid fractions in different trimester of pregnancy—so diet had no significant influence on lipid synthesis during pregnancy. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(1.000: 10-12

  16. Swedish teenager perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits--a focus group study among 17-year-old female high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja

    2005-10-01

    Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.

  17. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  18. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  19. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-09-06

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy.

  20. Anemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Kari M; Ingardia, Charles J; Borgida, Adam F

    2013-06-01

    Hemodynamic changes occur in pregnancy to prepare for expected blood loss at delivery. Physiologic anemia occurs in pregnancy because plasma volume increases more quickly than red cell mass. Anemia is most commonly classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic. Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 75% of all anemias in pregnancy. Oral iron supplementation is the recommended treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Parenteral iron and erythropoietin can also be used in severe or refractory cases. Outcomes and treatments for other forms of inherited and acquired anemias in pregnancy vary by disease, and include nutritional supplementation, corticosteroids, supportive transfusions, and splenectomy.

  1. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  2. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-09-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  4. Listening to youth: teen perspectives on pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, K A; Amare, Y; Strunk, N; Horst, L

    2000-04-01

    To ascertain views of public high school students on preventing teen pregnancy. The authors hypothesized that students at varying risk for pregnancy (e.g., abstinent, consistent contraceptors, inconsistent contraceptors) would have differing views which would have implications for future pregnancy prevention programming. A 75-question anonymous survey designed for this study was administered in six Boston high schools. The sample consisted of 49% females and 51% males in 10th and 11th grades from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. One thousand surveys were received and analyzed using Chi-square tests to assess statistically significant differences in student responses. Sixty-three percent of the students had had sexual intercourse: 72% of males and 54% of females. Of these, 35% were consistent contraceptors and 65% were inconsistent. Students believed that having more information on pregnancy and birth control (52%), education about relationships (33%), parental communication (32%), improved contraceptive access (31%), and education about parenting realities (30%) would prevent teen pregnancy. Abstinent teens were more likely (58%) to say that information on pregnancy and birth control was important (pteens were more likely (40%) to identify greater access to birth control (p Teens using contraception were also more likely to be having frequent conversations with parents (49%) (pTeens report that having more information from parents, school, and health arenas can prevent pregnancy. Abstinent, consistent contraceptors, and inconsistent contraceptors have different preferences regarding strategies. This information has important implications for educational content and policy discussions.

  5. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, Erling; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair...... was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. RESULTS: In total, 20,714 pregnant women were...... included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery...

  6. [Prolactinoma: from quest of pregnancy to delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatfouta, I; Delotte, J; Mialon, O; Isnard, V; Bongain, A

    2013-06-01

    Prolactinoma is the most frequent hormone-secreting pituitary tumor (100 for million patients) and a major cause of both female and male reproductive function disorders. Physician, gynecologist, urologist and sexologist can face this situation during their career. As part of the fertility restoration, treatment gives very satisfactory results. With adequate management, most women are expected to achieve successful pregnancies. The natural history of these tumors during pregnancy depends on their size with a risk of a clinically relevant estimate between 5 to 30 %. Their management is complex, requiring finding balance between effects of pregnancy on tumor growth and potential risks of overtreatment on fetal development. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of prolactinoma on woman before, during and after pregnancy, and to evaluate the medical and surgical alternatives regarding the actual literature.

  7. Probiotics and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; Callaway, Leonie K; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2015-01-01

    Complications of pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mother and baby in the short and long term. The gut microbiome has been identified as a key factor for maintaining health outside of pregnancy and could contribute to pregnancy complications. In addition, the vaginal and the recently revealed placental microbiome are altered in pregnancy and may play a role in pregnancy complications. Probiotic supplementation could help to regulate the unbalanced microflora composition observed in obesity and diabetes. Here, the impact of probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and infancy is reviewed. There are indications for a protective role in preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, vaginal infections, maternal and infant weight gain and allergic diseases. Large, well-designed randomised controlled clinical trials along with metagenomic analysis are needed to establish the role of probiotics in adverse pregnancy and infancy outcomes.

  8. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted.

  9. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes.

  10. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  11. Pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorenze, Lilian Mathias; Branco, Letícia Guedes; Cerqueira, Luiza Fiszon; Vasques, Wellington Batista; Salles, Simone de Abreu Neves; Vilar, Enoi Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It occcurs primarily during pregnancy, usually with spontaneous resolution postpartum. It is characterized by a benign dermatosis, with papular and pustular follicular lesions that first appear on the torso and occasionally spread throughout the body. We report the case of a patient in the 27th week of pregnancy, with a two-month evolution of pruritic and papular erythematous lesions on her lower back. Differential diagnosis includes other pregnancy-specific dermatoses: gestational pemphigoid, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), prurigo of pregnancy, and (PUPPP) and prurigo of pregancy. Histopathological tests showed changes consistent with pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. This case is relevant due to its rare nature and its clinical and histopathological characteristics.

  12. Endocrinology in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential developmental factors, and Graves' disease (GD) may severely complicate a pregnancy. This review describes how pregnancy changes the risk of developing GD, how early pregnancy by several mechanisms leads to considerable changes in the results of the thyroid function...... tests used to diagnose hyperthyroidism, and how these changes may complicate the diagnosing of GD. Standard therapy of GD in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs. However, new studies have shown considerable risk of birth defects if these drugs are used in specific weeks of early pregnancy, and this should...... be taken into consideration when planning therapy and control of women who may in the future become pregnant. Early pregnancy is a period of major focus in GD, where pregnancy should be diagnosed as soon as possible, and where important and instant change in therapy may be warranted. Such change may...

  13. Effect observations of psychological nursing during perioperative period in unintended pregnancy college students%高校学生意外妊娠人工流产术围术期心理护理的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史红健; 王小菊; 陈红; 罗尧岳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the psychological nursing measures on unintended pregnancy college students during the perioperative abortion and its impact on their psychology state.Methods:Eighty cases of college students who had abortion surgery were chosen and were randomly divided into experimental group and control group.The experimental group was treated with basic nursing and psychological nursing and the control group was treated with basic nursing.Self rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)and Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to evaluate anxiety and depression of two groups one hour before and eight days after the interven-tion.Results:The SDS,SAS scores in observation group were lower than that in control group after the inter-vention,and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion:College students with unintended pregnancy had anxiety and depression in the perioperative period.Specific psychological nursing could improve the impact effect of the students.%[目的]探讨对意外妊娠高校学生在人工流产术围术期进行心理护理的方法及其对心理状态的影响。[方法]将80例接受人工流产的意外妊娠高校学生随机分为观察组与对照组,对照组行常规基础护理,观察组在基础护理基础上给予相应的心理护理。于人工流产术前1 h 和术后第8天采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)分别对两组学生干预前后的焦虑和抑郁情况进行评估和对比。[结果]观察组学生干预后 SDS、SAS 评分低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。[结论]意外妊娠高校学生在人工流产术围术期均存在不同程度的焦虑和抑郁,针对性的心理护理能改善这类人群的心理状态。

  14. Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is recognized as the commonest serious neurological disorder in the world. Women with epilepsy (WWE experience several gender-related physical and social problems. They constitute high obstetric risk because of reduced fertility, risk of seizures during pregnancy, and complications of pregnancy. Hormonal and other factors can alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AED during pregnancy and puerperium. Antenatal exposure to AEDs, particularly at higher dosage and in polytherapy, increases the risk of fetal malformation. Recent reports raise the possibility of selective developmental language deficits and neurocognitive deficits with antenatal exposure to AEDs. There are concerns regarding the effect of traces of AEDs that pass to the infant during breast-feeding. The pre conception management is the cornerstone for epilepsy care in WWE. A careful reappraisal of each case should ascertain the diagnosis, the need for continued AED therapy, selection of appropriate AEDs, optimization of the dosage, and prescription of folic acid. During pregnancy, the fetal status needs to be monitored with estimation of serum a-feto-protein and ultrasound screening for malformations. The dosage of AEDs can be adjusted according to clinical requirement and blood levels of AEDs. Several institutions recommend oral vitamin K toward the end of pregnancy when enzyme-inducing AEDs are prescribed because the latter may potentially predispose the new born to hemorrhagic disease, but recent reports indicate that such a risk is practically negligible. WWE who are using enzyme-inducing AEDs (phenobarbitone, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine need to know that these AEDs may lead to failure of oral contraception.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Best Practices for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…

  16. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    AMONG FEMALE STUDENT NURSES IN CALABAR, NIGERIA ... influence sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among young women. Methods – A ... sexuality, knowledge and use of modern ... unwanted pregnancy is by abortion 9. ... being young adults, majority aged 15- ..... cultural attitudes and the judgmental.

  17. A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Shen, Yue-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ru; Fang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured.

  18. Nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J E; Carlson, M

    2000-03-01

    Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted.

  19. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  20. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trisomy 21 risk estimation in first trimester pregnancies can be performed by a combined test based on ultrasound measurement of fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal plasma concentrations of free ß human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGß) and pregnancy-associated plasma...

  1. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trisomy 21 risk estimation in first trimester pregnancies can be performed by a combined test based on ultrasound measurement of fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal plasma concentrations of free β human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and pregnancy-associated plasma...

  2. Utilização de modelos matemáticos para estimar a retenção de minerais em cabras durante a gestação Utilization of mathematic models to estimate the minerals retention during the pregnancy of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a retenção de elementos minerais durante a gestação de cabras com um ou dois fetos, utilizando-se diferentes modelos matemáticos. A estimativa de retenção foi baseada na diferença entre o total de cada mineral depositado no feto, útero, membranas, fluídos fetais e glândula mamária dos animais nas diferentes etapas da gestação e o total de cada mineral armazenado nas cabras vazias, utilizando-se os modelos de predição: ln Y = A - B e -C X ; Y = A e B X e ln Y = A + Bx + Cx², em que x = tempo de gestação. Comparando-se a estimativa com os valores reais obtidos, verificou-se que o modelo proposto ln = A+Bx+Cx², explicou com coerência e precisão o comportamento biológico da retenção de minerais durante todas as fases da gestação.This work was carried out with the purpose to evaluate the minerals retention during the pregnancy of goats with one or two foetus. The estimate of retention was based in the difference between the total of each mineral stored in the foetus, uterus, membranes, fetals fluids and mammary gland of animals in the differents stages of pregnancy and the total of each mineral stored in the empty goats, using the model of prediction: ln Y = A - B e -C X ; Y = A e B X and ln Y = A+Bx+Cx2, where x = time of pregnancy. The comparison of the estimative with the real values obtained show that the suggest model explained with coherence and precision the biological behavior of minerals retention during all pregnancy.

  3. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis.

  4. Dermatological Diseases Associated with Pregnancy: Pemphigoid Gestationis, Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy, Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy, and Atopic Eruption of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Sävervall; Freja Lærke Sand; Simon Francis Thomsen

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoses unique to pregnancy are important to recognize for the clinician as they carry considerable morbidity for pregnant mothers and in some instances constitute a risk to the fetus. These diseases include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical importance, and management of the dermatoses of pregnancy.

  5. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasi, Valeria; Antonazzo, Patrizio; Personeni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  6. Dermatological Diseases Associated with Pregnancy: Pemphigoid Gestationis, Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy, Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy, and Atopic Eruption of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sävervall, Christine; Sand, Freja Lærke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoses unique to pregnancy are important to recognize for the clinician as they carry considerable morbidity for pregnant mothers and in some instances constitute a risk to the fetus. These diseases include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical importance, and management of the dermatoses of pregnancy. PMID:26609305

  7. Dermatological Diseases Associated with Pregnancy: Pemphigoid Gestationis, Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy, Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy, and Atopic Eruption of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Sävervall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoses unique to pregnancy are important to recognize for the clinician as they carry considerable morbidity for pregnant mothers and in some instances constitute a risk to the fetus. These diseases include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical importance, and management of the dermatoses of pregnancy.

  8. Dermatological Diseases Associated with Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävervall, Christine; Sand, Freja Lærke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoses unique to pregnancy are important to recognize for the clinician as they carry considerable morbidity for pregnant mothers and in some instances constitute a risk to the fetus. These diseases include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis...... of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical importance, and management of the dermatoses of pregnancy....

  9. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  11. Melanoma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haan, Jorine; Lok, Christianne A; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2017-01-01

    The management of melanoma during pregnancy is challenging as maternal benefits and fetal risks need to be balanced. Here, we present an overview of the incidence, the demographic and clinical characteristics and the treatment modalities used. After analysis of obstetric, fetal and maternal outcome......, recommendations for clinical practice are provided. From the 'International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy' database, pregnant patients with melanoma were identified and analysed. Sixty pregnancies were eligible for analysis. Fifty percent of the patients presented with advanced melanoma during...... pregnancy (14 stage III and 16 stage IV), and 27% were diagnosed with recurrent melanoma. Surgery was the main therapeutic strategy during pregnancy. Only four patients with advanced melanoma were treated during pregnancy with systemic therapy (n=1) or radiotherapy (n=3). Premature delivery was observed...

  12. Pregnancy and Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Chauhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual obscurations are common during pregnancy. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological,pathological or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. While most of the described changes are transient in nature, others extend beyond delivery and may lead to permanent visual impairment. Also, pregnancy can affect vision through systemic disease that are either specific to the pregnancy itself or systemic diseases that occur more frequently in relation to pregnancy. Neuro-ophthalmological disorders should be kept in mind in pregnant women presenting with visual acuity or field loss. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the ocular changes in pregnancy in order to counsel and advice women who currently are, or are planning to become pregnant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 1-13

  13. [Pregnancy in Gaucher disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Quessar, A; Jeddaoui, Z; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. The association with pregnancy exposes the worsening of the disease and complications of pregnancy and puerperium. We report a case of pregnancy in a woman of 35 years, suffering from Gaucher disease type 1. Pregnancy had a favorable outcome. Complications occurred. They were kept under control. The outcome was favorable. The authors discuss the evolution of the disease during pregnancy and management of complications. They can occur during pregnancy, post-partum and breastfeeding. Support begins with preconception consultation. It involves finding and correcting the biological problems and deficiencies, and management of complications. Genetic counseling is important, it helps prevent inbreeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Students with Non-Proficient Information Seeking Skills Greatly Over-Estimate Their Abilities. A Review of: Gross, Melissa, and Don Latham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study is an investigation of the relationship between students’ self-assessment of their information literacy skills and their actual skill level, as well as an analysis of whether library anxiety is related to information skill attainment. Design – Quantitative research design (Information Literacy Test (ILT, Library Anxiety Scale (LAS, pre and post surveys.Setting – Florida State University, United States.Subjects – Students, incoming freshmen.Methods – Information literacy skills were measured using the Information Literacy Test (ILT, presenting subjects with 65 multiple choice items designed around four of the five ACRL information literacy standards, in which students were expectedto: 1 determine the nature and extent of the information needed; 2 access needed information effectively and efficiently; 3 evaluate information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his/her knowledge base system; 4 understand many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally. The ILT categorized participant scores as non-proficient(Main Results – The main aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that students who test non-proficient on an information literacy test tend to overestimate their competency to a higher degree than proficient and advanced students. In the pre- and post-surveys, the students were asked to estimate their performance onthe ILT in terms of the expected percentage of questions they would answer correctly, the number of questions they expected to answer correctly, and how their performance on the ILT would compare toothers taking the test (in percentage. The results of the study show that all students overestimate their abilities, both in terms of performance and relative performance, in the pre-survey. The estimated percentage correct answers for the whole group was 75%, but

  15. Hypovolemic shock following induced abortion and spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolghader Pakniyat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare clinical condition in which intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancies occur at the same time. It is rare, estimated to occur in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The case was a 38-year-old woman with spontaneously conceived heterotopic pregnancy. She was admitted to our center with hypovolemic shock. Focused assessment sonography for trauma examination in emergency department showed large amount of free fluid in peritoneal cavity. She was managed surgical laparotomy. Considering spontaneous pregnancies, physician should be aware of the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy in all reproductive age women, especially those with history of recent abortion. It can occur without any predisposing risk factors. Patients should be informed about possible side effects of nonprescription medicines, and also the health care centers must be safe peaceful environment for them without severe legal consequences.

  16. Hypovolemic shock following induced abortion and spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakniyat, Abdolghader; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Moshar-Mowahed, Ghasem; Talebi, Fatimah

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare clinical condition in which intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancies occur at the same time. It is rare, estimated to occur in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The case was a 38-year-old woman with spontaneously conceived heterotopic pregnancy. She was admitted to our center with hypovolemic shock. Focused assessment sonography for trauma examination in emergency department showed large amount of free fluid in peritoneal cavity. She was managed surgical laparotomy. Considering spontaneous pregnancies, physician should be aware of the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy in all reproductive age women, especially those with history of recent abortion. It can occur without any predisposing risk factors. Patients should be informed about possible side effects of nonprescription medicines, and also the health care centers must be safe peaceful environment for them without severe legal consequences.

  17. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  18. [Rheumatic diseases in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märker-Hermann, E; Bauer, H; Gromnica-Ihle, E

    2008-11-01

    Rheumatic diseases can influence the reproduction, the course of pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The inflammatory rheumatic disease itself can be modulated in its activity in terms of amelioration or exacerbation of the rheumatic symptoms. The associations between rheumatic diseases and pregnancy will be illustrated with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus as examples. Antirheumatic drug therapy during pregnancy and the breast feeding period has to be adapted critically.

  19. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  20. Hypertension and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Teresa M; Moskovitz, Joshua B

    2012-11-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is increasing in prevalence and incidence and its treatment becoming more commonplace. Associated complications of pregnancy, including end-organ damage, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and postpartum eclampsia, are leading sources of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, requiring an emergency physician to become proficient with their identification and treatment. This article reviews hypertension in pregnancy as it relates to outcomes, with special emphasis on preeclampsia, eclampsia, and postpartum eclampsia.

  1. Treating Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Dietmar; Homuth, Volker; Dechend, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is present in about 10 % of all pregnancies. The frequency of chronic hypertension and that of gestational hypertension is increasing. The management of pregnant women with hypertension remains a significant, but controversial, public health problem. Although treatment of hypertension in pregnancy has shown to reduce maternal target organ damage, considerable debate remains concerning treatment. We review current evidence regarding treatment goals, the ideal treatment starting time, and which drugs are available for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  2. Impact of Increased Academic Intensity on Transfer Rates: An Application of Matching Estimators to Student-Unit Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of increased academic intensity on transfer rates from community colleges to 4-year institutions has been estimated only from observational data, with the possibility of selection bias. This study uses matching estimators to overcome possible selection bias and estimate the causal impact of increased academic intensity on transfer…

  3. Pregnancy and Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattah, Andrea G; Garovic, Vesna D

    2015-09-01

    The management of lupus nephritis in pregnancy presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for providers. Pregnancy creates a series of physiologic changes in the immune system and kidney that may result in an increased risk of disease flare and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, such as preeclampsia, fetal loss, and preterm delivery. Conception should be delayed until disease is in remission to ensure the best pregnancy outcomes. Maternal disease activity and fetal well-being should be monitored closely by an interdisciplinary team, including obstetricians, rheumatologists, and nephrologists throughout pregnancy. Careful attention must be paid to the dosing and potential teratogenicity of medications.

  4. Pregnancy and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Marcia S; Martires, Kathryn; Bieber, Amy Kalowitz; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and from iatrogenic hormones on melanoma is controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. In addition, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas. In spite of these observations, the preponderance of evidence does not support a poorer prognosis for pregnancy-associated melanomas. There is also a lack of evidence that oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy worsens melanoma prognosis.

  5. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases vary by condition. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) typically are modified by pregnancy. For example, RA symptoms often improve in pregnant ...

  6. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Catherine; Geenes, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most common pregnancy-specific liver disease that typically presents in the third trimester. The clinical features are maternal pruritus in the absence of a rash and deranged liver function tests, including raised serum bile acids. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, including spontaneous preterm delivery, meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, and stillbirth. It is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has a lasting influence on both maternal and fetal health. We review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of this intriguing condition.

  7. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  8. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Amanda C; Massey, E Wayne

    2012-08-01

    Preexisting and coincident neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy are challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of disease and the limited data in the literature. Many questions arise regarding the effect of disease on the pregnancy, delivery, and newborn in addition to the effect of pregnancy on the course of disease. Each disorder has particular considerations and possible complications. An interdisciplinary team of physicians is essential. This article discusses the most recent literature on neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy including acquired root, plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions; acquired and inherited neuropathies and myopathies; disorders of the neuromuscular junction; and motor neuron diseases.

  9. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  10. Hypertensive Emergencies in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Chen, Courtney; Seligman, Neil S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing. The etiology and pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hypertension decreases the incidence of severe hypertension, but it does not impact rates of preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Several antihypertensive medications are commonly used in pregnancy, although there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Severe hypertension should be treated immediately to prevent maternal end-organ damage. Appropriate antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum management is important in caring for patients with hypertensive disorders.

  11. Epidemiology of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: prevalence, severity, determinants, and the importance of race/ethnicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Rey, Evelyne; Ferreira, Ema; Morin, Caroline; Bérard, Anick

    2009-01-01

    ... the multidimensional associations. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Estimate the prevalence and the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy during the 1st and the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, and 2...

  12. Analysis and estimation of readiness of students of province of Khebey bor taking the state standards of physical preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Likhua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of self-appraisal of the personal readiness of students of the unspecialized higher educational establishments of province of Khebey are presented. In research is used the information of the questionnaire of 1000 students of five higher educational establishments. The criteria of keeping up readiness of students are formed, the cross-correlation links of criteria are set, revealed is the intercommunication between the personal and public activity of students which influences on their readiness for taking standards.

  13. Drug treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Catherine M; Garovic, Vesna D

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders represent major causes of pregnancy-related maternal mortality worldwide. Similar to the non-pregnant population, hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy and is estimated to occur in about 6-8 % of pregnancies. A recent report highlighted hypertensive disorders as one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the USA, accounting for 579 (12.3 %) of the 4,693 maternal deaths that occurred between 1998 and 2005. In low-income and middle-income countries, preeclampsia and its convulsive form, eclampsia, are associated with 10-15 % of direct maternal deaths. The optimal timing and choice of therapy for hypertensive pregnancy disorders involves carefully weighing the risk-versus-benefit ratio for each individual patient, with an overall goal of improving maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the recommendations from different treatment guidelines and outlined some newer perspectives on management. We aim to provide a clinically oriented guide to the drug treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  14. Is swimming during pregnancy a safe exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Mette; Kogevinas, Manolis; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-03-01

    Exercise in pregnancy is recommended in many countries, and swimming is considered by many to be an ideal activity for pregnant women. Disinfection by-products in swimming pool water may, however, be associated with adverse effects on various reproductive outcomes. We examined the association between swimming in pregnancy and preterm and postterm birth, fetal growth measures, small-for-gestational-age, and congenital malformations. We used self-reported exercise data (swimming, bicycling, or no exercise) that were prospectively collected twice during pregnancy for 74,486 singleton pregnancies. Recruitment to The Danish National Birth Cohort took place 1996-2002. Using Cox, linear and logistic regression analyses, depending on the outcome, we compared swimmers with physically inactive pregnant women; to separate a possible swimming effect from an effect of exercise, bicyclists were included as an additional comparison group. Risk estimates were similar for swimmers and bicyclists, including those who swam throughout pregnancy and those who swam more than 1.5 hours per week. Compared with nonexercisers, women who swam in early/mid-pregnancy had a slightly reduced risk of giving birth preterm (hazard ratio = 0.80 [95% confidence interval = 0.72-0.88]) or giving birth to a child with congenital malformations (odds ratio = 0.89 [0.80-0.98]). These data do not indicate that swimming in pool water is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes.

  15. Ectopic Pregnancy in Uncommon Implantation Sites: Intramural Pregnancy and Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wang; Fan Yu; Li-Qin Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is commonly located in the fallopian tube. Nevertheless, two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy, intramural pregnancy and rudimentary horn pregnancy, seriously threaten maternal life. The diagnosis and treatment of these unusual implantation sites present a clinical challenge. In this study, we illustrated the two unusual types of ectopic pregnancy and summarized the current data regarding diagnosis and optimal treatment from our experience.

  16. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yael Baumfeld; Reli Herskovitz; Zehavi Bar Niv; Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia; Adi Y. Weintraub

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications...

  17. Depression During and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet ePublications Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet (PDF, 260 ...

  18. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs The ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the flu)? ...

  19. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  20. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs A Partner's Guide ... May 2016 PDF Format A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Pregnancy Why is it important to be supportive ...

  1. Hemodynamic Profiling in Complicated Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Cornette (Jérôme)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn order to permit a successful pregnancy outcome, the cardiovascular system must undergo substantial changes. This thesis addresses the hemodynamics in several pregnancy complications. A general overview of normal hemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy is provided . Several techniques of

  2. Thyroid Diseases and Treatment in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aktaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of thyroid disease in pregnancy is important for gestational maternal health, obstetric outcome and, subsequent development of child. Pregnancy has pro­found effects on the regulation of thyroid function, and on thyroidal functional disorders, that need to be recognized, carefully evaluated and correctly managed. In women with normal thyroid function there is an increase in thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 production and inhibition of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy,. In the pregnant woman, elevated thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB and concomitant increases in total T4 and T3 levels plateau at 12-14 weeks of pregnancy, and free T4 measurements slowly decrease. The most frequent thyroid disorder in pregnancy is maternal hy­pothyroidism. It is associated with fetal loss, placental abruptions, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Hyperthyroidism dur­ing pregnancy is relatively uncommon, with a prevalence estimated to range between 0.1% and 1%. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves disease, as this etiology accounts for 85% of clinical hyperthyroid­ism in pregnancy. Another cause of hyperthyroidism is hyperemesis gravidarum. This is common and requires differentiation from Graves disease. There has been much discussion and many publications on the optimal management of pregnant women who are hyperthyroid or hypothyroid. Despite the lack of consensus organiza­tions, which are based on analyses, support screening in all pregnant women in the first trimester for thyroid disease. In this article, we provide information about the current approaches of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 120-124

  3. Preventing Unplanned Pregnancy and Completing College: An Evaluation of Online Lessons. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonishak, Jill; Connolly, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy published free online lessons that help students take action to prevent unplanned pregnancy and complete their education. From the fall of 2012 to the spring of 2014, approximately 2,800 students took the online lessons and participated in pre- and post-lesson evaluation surveys at four…

  4. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation.

  5. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  6. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Signs of ... to decide if they’re right for you. If you’re older than 35, ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Some of these ... side Enlarged liver High blood pressure Swelling in ...

  8. Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal liver function tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies, with many potential causes, including coincidental liver disease (most commonly viral hepatitis or gallstones and underlying chronic liver disease. Pruritus in pregnancy is common, affecting 23% of pregnancies, of which a small proportion will have obstetric cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a cholestatic disorder characterized by pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4-1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19­60%, meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%, fetal bradycardia (14%, fetal distress (22-41%, and fetal loss (0.4-4.1%, particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels >40 μmol/L. Important ICP-induced changes in serum profiles of amidated bile acids were observed, involving both a marked increase in cholic acid concentration and a shift towards a higher proportion of taurine-conjugated species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (10-20 mg/kg/d is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 37-38th week when lung maturity has been established.

  9. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  10. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worker or psychologist to help you cope with stress, worry, and the extra demands of pregnancy You are the most important member of the ... to see your dietitian every few months during pregnancy as your dietary needs ... relieve stress, strengthen your heart and bones, improve muscle strength, ...

  11. Asthma and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk for birth defects over that background risk. This information should not take the place of medical care ... RL, Murphy VE. 2015. Maternal complications and the management of asthma in pregnancy. Womens Health (Lond Engl);11(2):183-91. ... "When I called MotherToBaby looking for information on medication to use during pregnancy, I was ...

  12. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk for birth defects over that background risk. This information should not take the place of medical care ... 81(11):999-1003. Yonkers KA et al. Management of bipolar disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psych 161:608-20. ... "When I called MotherToBaby looking for information on medication to use during pregnancy, I was ...

  13. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman...

  14. Pregnancy issues in scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Merav; Langevitz, Pnina

    2012-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a systemic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease affecting the skin and viscera, manifesting pathologically with microvascular lesions, perivascular infiltration by mononuclear cells and increased deposition of extracellular collagen. The rarity of the disease as well as its propensity to appear in the early 1940s, explain the low frequency of concurrent scleroderma and pregnancy. However, the marked female excess, as well as the trend for increasing maternal age due to social change and assisted reproductive technologies, renders heightened significance to issues of fertility, pregnancy course and pregnancy outcomes. In the past, scleroderma patients were thought to be at high risk for poor fetal and maternal outcome, but more current retrospective studies show that despite an increased frequency of prematurity and small for gestational age infants, overall maternal and neonatal survival is good. Hence, at present, with close monitoring and appropriate therapy most scleroderma patients can sustain a successful pregnancy. Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and low dose steroids as well as judicious use of intravenous immunoglobulins is permitted. Renal crisis remains the most dreaded complication of a scleroderma pregnancy and necessitates prompt institution of ACE inhibitor therapy despite its potential teratogenicity. In order minimize the risk for renal crisis, pregnancies should be avoided in rapidly progressive diffuse disease as such patients are at a greater risk for developing serious cardiopulmonary and renal problems early in the disease. This review shall focus on the bi-directional effects of scleroderma on fertility and pregnancy as well as on the management of pregnancy and delivery in the scleroderma patient.

  15. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  16. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Planning for Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... it’s time to nurture and love yourself by planning and preparing your body for pregnancy. Follow some ...

  17. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, Petronella G.; Lameijer, Heleen; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy is associated with considerable risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Our systematic review of the literature on the use of targeted treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension during pregnancy indicates a considerable decrease of mortality since a pre

  18. [Hypertension during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E.R.; Johansen, M.; Kamper, A.L.;

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...... and disadvantages of different classes of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy and lactation are described Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  19. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. shortness of breath: The increase of pregnancy hormones will cause you to breathe in more deeply. ... to pains in your legs or back. During pregnancy, the body also makes a hormone called relaxin, which helps prepare it for childbirth. ...

  20. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman...

  1. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  2. Ciprofloxacin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections. It is part of a group of antibiotics called “quinolones or fluoroquinolones.” Is there an increased chance for miscarriage if ... al. 1998. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to fluoroquinolones: a ... G, et al. 2006. Antibiotic use in pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 107( ...

  3. Recurrent Gliosarcoma in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gliosarcoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system and it constitutes about 1 to 8% of all malignant gliomas. In this report we are presenting a recurrent gliosarcoma case during a pregnancy in a 30-year-old woman. This is the first report presenting gliosarcoma in the pregnancy.

  4. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  5. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear on the skin during pregnancy? • What are stretch marks? • Is acne common during pregnancy? • How can I ... runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes in nail ...

  6. Teen pregnancy and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Literature review. In 2006, the birth rate among 15- to 17-year-old non-Hispanic Blacks (36.1 per 1000) was more than three times as high, and the birth rate among Hispanics (47.9 per 1000) was more than four times as high as the birth rate among non-Hispanic Whites (11.8 per 1000). Compared with women who delay childbearing until age 30, teen mothers' education is estimated to be approximately 2 years shorter. Teen mothers are 10-12% less likely to complete high school and have 14-29% lower odds of attending college. School-based programs have the potential to help teens acquire the knowledge and skills needed to postpone sex, practice safer sex, avoid unintended pregnancy, and if pregnant, to complete high school and pursue postsecondary education. Most students in US middle and high schools receive some kind of sex education. Federal policies and legislation have increased use of the abstinence-only-until-marriage approach, which is disappointing considering the lack of evidence that this approach is effective. Nonmarital teen births are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on educational attainment, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Teen pregnancy exerts an important influence on educational attainment among urban minority youth. Decisions about what will be taught should be informed by empirical data documenting the effectiveness of alternative approaches. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  7. Venous thromboembolism and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella D’Uva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Maristella D’Uva1, Pierpaolo Di Micco2, Ida Strina1, Giuseppe De Placido1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Human Reproduction, “Federico II” University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Buonconsiglio Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: In recent decades, the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL has been studied extensively. Although the first studies were focused only on the association between thrombophilia and RPL, subsequent studies underlined also a potential role of antithrombotic treatment to prevent vascular complication such as venous thromboembolism (VTE during pregnancy. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered also for pregnant subjects carriers of molecular thrombophilia or that previously experienced VTE, in order to prevent VTE during pregnancy, while antithrombotic treatment for VTE should be performed during all pregnant periods.Keywords: thrombophilia, venous thromboembolism, recurrent pregnancy loss, factor V Leiden

  8. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Sileny N; Kesic, Vesna I; Van Calsteren, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and....../or cancer, using the membership directories of different professional societies. RESULTS: 142 surveys were eligible for analysis. A median of 2 (range 0-100) patients with cancer in pregnancy were treated per center in 2010. The vast majority of respondents (94%) agreed that management of pregnant patients......% of respondents. Univariate logistic regression analysis found a trend that non-academic hospitals prefer termination of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]=0.68; 95% CI, 0.28-1.63; P=0.39), and also no treatment during pregnancy (OR=0.70; 95% CI, 0.33-1.50; P=0.36). CONCLUSION: Termination of pregnancy, delay of maternal...

  9. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  10. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development...... of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management...... involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs). These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering...

  11. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  12. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Hee [CHA General Hospital of Seoul, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  13. The study of serum calcium and serum magnesium in pregnancy induced hypertension and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath Pairu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia along with its complications is one of the major causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Association of calcium and magnesium with pregnancy induced hypertension is known since decades. Evidence of decreased serum calcium and decreased serum magnesium has been observed in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension and has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. Methods: The present study was undertaken in 100 pregnant women. Data for the study was collected from 50 normotensive pregnant women with more than 20 weeks of gestational age (control group and 50 pregnancy induced hypertension patients (study group attending for the antenatal care in department of obstetrics and gynaecology in Vanivilas hospital, Bowring and Lady Curzon hospital attached to Bangalore medical college and research institute. Cases and controls were matched. Serum calcium and serum magnesium levels were estimated by spectrophotometry method. Results: The mean serum calcium is significantly lower in pregnancy induced hypertension group (8.15 +/- 0.37 mg/dl compared to normal pregnancy (9.16 +/- 0.82 mg/dl. The mean serum magnesium is lower in pregnancy induced hypertension group (1.78 +/- 0.70 mEq/L than normal pregnancy (2.08 +/- 0.46 mEq/L which is moderately significant. Conclusions: The serum calcium and serum magnesium levels are decreased in pregnancy induced hypertension patients compared to normotensive normal pregnant women, suggesting the possible role of calcium and magnesium in etiopathophysiology of pregnancy induced hypertension. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 30-34

  14. Why Do Adolescents Overestimate Their Peers' Smoking Prevalence? Correlates of Prevalence Estimates among California 8th-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2002-01-01

    Used data from a statewide sample of 5,870 eighth graders in California to examine the correlates of smoking prevalence estimates. Best friends' smoking accounted for the largest proportion of the variance in prevalence estimates. Smoking by peers may give adolescents the impression that smoking is more normative and prevalent than it actually is.…

  15. Diagnosis, antenatal surveillance and management of prolonged pregnancy: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, S G; Marilli, I; Rapisarda, A M; Iapichino, V; Stancanelli, F; Cianci, A

    2015-08-01

    Prolonged pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that extends beyond 42 weeks of gestation (294 days) from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. An accurate estimation of the 'natural' incidence of prolonged pregnancy would require meticulous early pregnancy dating. The use of ultrasound to establish gestational age reduces the number of pregnancies that are classified as prolonged. Prolonged pregnancy is associated with an increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in pregnancies which appear to be otherwise low risk. Postterm births are easily preventable by intervening to deliver with the use of induction of labor. Thus, this potentially problematic condition deserves further attention and careful consideration. The focus of this article is to review and challenge some current concepts surrounding the diagnosis and management of prolonged pregnancy. We outline how to identify those women with prolonged pregnancy and which is the appropriate moment to start monitoring the fetal wellbeing. Finally we address the question of benefits and hazards of induction of labor strategies.

  16. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H

    1977-08-01

    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  17. Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs on Pregnancy Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here a few tips to help keep household chemicals use safe during your pregnancy: Talk to your doctor about ... whitened and others say that the procedures are safe. The concern is mostly about the chemicals used in teeth whitening products that could be ...

  18. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  19. Pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince-Askan, Hilal; Dolhain, Radboud J E M

    2015-01-01

    Fertility is impaired in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is related to disease activity and the use of certain medication. During pregnancy, disease activity usually improves, but less than previously thought. Especially in women with high disease activity, the pregnancy outcome is also impaired. All of this underscores the importance of strict control of disease activity in RA patients who wish to conceive. Management of RA disease activity during pregnancy might be a challenge as the treatment options are limited. Evidence is accumulating that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers can be safely used during pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester and the beginning of the second trimester. Far less is known about the problems faced by male RA patients who wish to conceive, in terms of not only fertility and pregnancy outcome but also the safety of medication. In this paper, the fertility issues in patients with RA, the pregnancy-associated improvement of RA, the pregnancy outcomes, including the long-term effects on the offspring, and treatment options, including those during lactation and for male patients wishing to conceive, will be reviewed.

  20. Malaria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Subrata Lall; Mukhopadhay, Sima; Ganguly, Rajendra Prasad

    2010-08-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a recognised risk factor for maternal and foetal complications and it is endemic in certain areas of our country. Pregnancy also enhances the severity of malaria particularly with P falciparum infestation. The outcome of effects of malaria in pregnancy on the mother and foetus is studied here. This is a prospective observational study conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of RG Kar Medical College during the period from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. Forty pregnant women with malaria in pregnancy were studied. Another 40 non- pregnant women during the same period were served as control. The maternal complications were compared with the controls and the outcome of pregnancy was studied. There was statistically significant (p renal failure, hepatic failure, hypoglycaemia, hypotension and death in the pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women. P falciparum infection was also more during pregnancy. There was also increased incidence of abqrtion, preterm labour, intra-uterine growth restriction and intra-uterine foetal death. Treatment with antimalarial drugs particularly in cerebral malaria does not give good results as there were 12 maternal deaths in this series. Every attempt should be made to prevent malaria during pregnancy by various measures as it is associated with high maternal morbidity and mortality and adversely affects the neonatal outcome.

  1. Pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vishal R; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Annil; Khajuria, Vijay; Kumar, Ajay

    2006-08-01

    Pregnancy in most cases, is associated with remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but a quarter of patients continue to have active disease or even worsening of the disease and most patients who improve, relapse in the postpartum period. The pathophysiology of this improvement in disease activity during pregnancy remains unknown, but hormonal, cell-mediated immunological and humoral immunological changes during pregnancy, have been proposed responsible for this. Most of the pregnant women with RA have an uneventful course, with no significant complications. In general, no significant increase in maternal or fetal morbidity seems to be attributable to RA. Patients with RA do not have decreased fertility. A majority of patients with RA may go in remission and anti-rheumatic treatment may not be required as soon as women become pregnant. But other patients who continue with the disease activity require treatment. The preferred disease-modifying agents during pregnancy are sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. Azathioprine and cyclosporine can be used if the benefits outweigh the risks. Paracetamol and low dose prednisone are preferred and considered safe, both for mother and fetus. Methotrexate and lefunomide are contraindicated and must be prophylactically withdrawn before a planned pregnancy. Biologics generally should be stopped when pregnancy is discovered. An overall rational approach is highly warranted to treat RA during pregnancy.

  2. Smoking and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Behrakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM. In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birth weight (LBW, perinatal mortality, premature birth and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. As these children grow up they present a variety of health problems, including respiratory illness, behaviour disturbances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and high arterial blood pressure. LBW is also associated with an increased incidence of health problems in the neonatal period. Effects have been documented of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the future fertility of male infants and the occurrence of congenital abnormalities, and a connection has been reported between daily maternal smoking in early pregnancy and infantile autism. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:153-167.

  3. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestman, Jorge H

    2012-10-01

    Successful outcome in pregnancy hyperthyroidism depends on the cause, interpretation of laboratory tests, and careful use of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Planning of a pregnancy in a woman with active or past history of Graves' hyperthyroidism is mandatory in order to avoid complications. Fetal health may be affected by three factors: poor control of maternal hyperthyroidism, titer of maternal TRAb, and inappropriate use of ATD. Careful assessment of thyroid function through pregnancy and evaluation of fetal development by ultrasonography is the cornerstone for a successful outcome. In a subgroup of women previously treated with ablation therapy, those whose serum TSRAb titers remained elevated, are at risk of having a fetus/neonate with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Use of ATD during lactation is well tolerated, if recommended guidelines are followed. Women during their childbearing age with active Graves' hyperthyroidism should plan their pregnancy. Causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy include Graves' disease or autonomous adenoma, and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis as a consequence of excessive production of human chroionic gonadotropin by the placenta. Careful interpretation of thyroid function tests and frequent adjustment of ATD is of utmost importance in the outcome of pregnancy. Graves' hyperthyroidism may relapse early in pregnancy or at the end of the first year postpartum.

  4. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  5. Pre-pregnancy transabdominal cerclage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    abortions, none in second trimester abortions or deliveries, and six were on-going pregnancies. In the remaining 37 pregnancies the fetal salvage rate was 100%, and cesarean section was performed after 34 weeks (mean 36+5 weeks) in 36 (97%) pregnancies. One woman had three successful pregnancies following...

  6. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); E. Koppelaar (Elin); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending th

  7. Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Hamdela

    Full Text Available Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residing in Hossana, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods was carried out in Hossana from April 02 to 15, 2011. 385 pregnant married women randomly selected from the census were included for the quantitative data and took in-depth interviews for the qualitative. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Out of the total pregnancies, 131 (34% were unintended and 254 (66% were reported to be intended. A history of previous unintended pregnancy, the husband not wanting to limit family size, a desire for at least two children, the number of pregnancy 3–4 and parity of 5 and above were factors significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. With over one third of pregnancies unintended, having a previous unintended pregnancy, the number of previous pregnancies, and husbands’ disagreement over family size, and the desired number of children are factors that reproductive health programs should aim to focus on to reduce unintended pregnancy.

  8. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  9. Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Madhuri Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Scar ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and has been increasingly diagnosed all over the world. This is a life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of embryo within the myometrium and fibrous tissues in a previous scar on the uterus, especially following caesarean section. With the increasing rate of caesarean section, there is a substantial increase in this condition with better understanding of this disease. The early and accurate diagnosis with timely management can prevent pregnancy complications such as haemorrhage, uterine rupture and can preserve fertility.

  10. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Okpere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10, 000 maternal deaths and to at least 200, 000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor or aetiologic factor in pregnancy complications including anaemia, spontaneous abortion, prematurity and stillbirths. Pregnancy results in increased incidence and severity of malaria. Cerebral malaria, acute renal failure and severe anaemia, rare complications in adults living in malaria endemic areas, may complicate malaria in pregnancy. Research implicate reduced maternal immunity from increased steroid levels in pregnancy, increased attractiveness of pregnant women to mosquito bites and increased adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to Chondroitin sulphate A expressed in the placentae. This is worse in the first and second pregnancies. With infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV], the effects of malaria in pregnancy are even worse. Over the decades, there have been concerted worldwide collaborative efforts, spearheaded by the World Health Organization [WHO] and including governments and allied agencies to tackle the scourge of malaria in pregnancy. The main thrusts of such efforts have been: to increase the use of insecticide treated mosquito bed nets [ITN]; intermittent preventive treatment of malaria [IPT]; and adequate case treatment of acute malaria attacks in pregnancy. While for IPT, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine [SP] combination has been proven to be of benefit in preventing acute and latent malaria in pregnancy and its associated complications, the WHO has introduced the use of Artemisinin-Combination Therapy [ACT] for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy, the need to confirm malaria before treatment and the enforcement of completion of therapy once started. The Roll Back

  11. [Rheumatic diseases during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Betz, R

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondylitis ankylosans and systemic lupus erythematosus, is improving continuously. This has lead to an increasing number of young patients with a wish to have children. Greater insight into the course of rheumatic diseases during pregnancy and post partum has enabled optimized support for women with rheumatic diseases wishing to have children. To ensure a favorable outcome, pregnancy should be started during a period of disease stability and should be monitored closely. A careful assessment of possible risks and the justified use of antirheumatic drugs before, during and after pregnancy are key issues for success.

  12. Progestogens and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler AE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon the intensive research by E. Diczfalusy and his scholars with the concept of the “feto-placental-unit”, the development of diagnostic procedures by hormone measurements in pregnancy, therapeutic and preventive effects of the use of progestogens (progesterone, dydrogesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate were developed and are at present to be further evaluated in order to be used for prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders such as threatened miscarriage, recurrent (habitual miscarriage, preterm labor and preeclampsia (hypertension in pregnancy.

  13. [Diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E.R.; Rasmussen, K.L.; Laugesen, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    (62%) women with type 1 and three (17%) with type 2 diabetes at the first examination. In 26 (34%) retinopathy progressed; four women developed proliferations, three macular oedema and three reduction of visual acuity >/=0.2 on Snellen's chart in at least one eye. HbA1c in early pregnancy was the only...... among women with high HbA1c values in early pregnancy. A few women developed proliferations, macular oedema and reduction of visual acuity. Development of sight-threatening alterations during pregnancy remains a clinical problem Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/8...

  14. Treating Psoriasis During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Rørbye, Christina; Skov, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a well-documented negative effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Psoriasis often occurs in the reproductive years, during which the issue of pregnancy needs to be addressed. The course of psoriasis during pregnancy is unpredictable......, and many patients face the challenge of needing treatment during pregnancy. In this review we provide an overview of the key considerations for managing psoriasis in pregnant women, covering the potential effects of active psoriasis and co-morbid conditions on the health of the mother and fetus, as well...

  15. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Caren G; Seely, Ellen W

    2011-12-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Preeclampsia, in particular, is associated with substantial risk to both the mother and the fetus. Several risk factors have been recognized to predict risk for preeclampsia. However, at present no biomarkers have sufficient discriminatory ability to be useful in clinical practice, and no effective preventive strategies have yet been identified. Commonly used medications for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy include methyldopa and labetalol. Blood pressure thresholds for initiating antihypertensive therapy are higher than outside of pregnancy. Women with prior preeclampsia are at increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease.

  16. Anorexia nervosa during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon

    2003-01-01

    QUESTION: A 22-year-old patient in my clinic was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) 7 years ago. She is now married and planning her first pregnancy. She is still underweight. What should she expect during pregnancy, and are there any implications for her unborn baby? ANSWER: Women with AN are at higher risk of complications during pregnancy, mainly because of low body weight. Apgar scores and birth weights of infants born to mothers with AN have been found to be significantly lower than th...

  17. The unplanned teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ross

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys conducted in the Durban area of Natal showed that 18 per cent of all pregnancies occurred amongst teenagers with the incidence amongst the various population groups varying bëtween Whites 14 per cent, Indians 17 per cent, Coloureds and Blacks 20 per cent. This compares with a world-wide teenage pregnancy rate of 10-15 per cent. Amongst primigravid pregnancies 33 per cent Indians and 53 per cent of Africans were found to be 18 years of age or less.

  18. [Urolithiasis and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O

    2008-12-01

    Diagnosis of urolithiasis during pregnancy is a common condition not more frequent than in non pregnant women. Ultrasonography will be the main tool of diagnosis. If sonography fails, ionizing radiation will be used only if MRI is not available. One must take care of the mother and the foetus because preterm delivery is increased in case of lithiasis during pregnancy. Conservative treatment is favoured taking care of specific contraindications of medical therapy related to pregnancy. In case of complications, drainage of the urinary system by retrograde or antegrade approach will be considered. Endoscopic treatment is realized only in case of failure of drainage or in the post-partum with etiologic investigations.

  19. Contraception and unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, N E

    1984-01-01

    An overview of research findings in the US on the psychological and social variables associated with unwanted pregnancy and on the consequences of unwanted pregnancy was provided. Studies which examined personality differences between women and adolescent females who practicaed effective contraception and thesse who experienced unwanted pregnancy consistently found that the latter group, compared to the former group, had lower self-esteem, were more passive, tended to engage in more risk taking behavior, and were less achievement and future oriented. Several studies found that those who experienced unwanted pregnancies were often poorly informed about sex and contraception. Sex education, however, did not always lead to an increase in the knowledge and use of contraception. Sex education was unable to overcome the effects of male and female sexual socialization processes in which adolescents were inculcated with a double sex standard and females with a sense of guilt concerning the use of contraception. Numerous studies showed that unperceived or denied motives played a role in the occurence of unwanted pregnancies. Unwanted pregnancies were associated with loss, and these pregnancies probably represented an attempt to replace the loss of a loved person. Women who were in conflict about their work and mothering roles, and women who did not want to work but felt pressured to do so, frequently had inappropriate pregnancies. Teenagers who were not interested in school or in future careers often had unwanted pregnancies. These pregnancies probably represented an attempt to establish a social identity. W.B. Miller identified 8 stages in the reproductive life span when unwanted pregnancies were most likely to occur. These stages were 1) the initial stage of adolescence when the individual may not be fully aware of her fertility, 2) the 1st 6 months following the initiation of sexual activity, 3) at the beginning of a new relationship, 4) during the initial stage of

  20. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  1. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Santema, Job; Koppelaar, Elin; Wallenburg, Henk

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending the antenatal clinic and booked before a gestational age of 24 weeks was matched for maternal age, parity, and gestational age at delivery with a singleton pregnancy delivered in the same year. Prima...

  2. Psycho-Pedagogical Research of Emotional and Estimative Mental States of Students Who Are Prone to Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, Alexey N.; Gruzkova, Svetlana U.; Sharafiev, Eduard S.; Cheverikina, Elena A.; Muhametzyanova, Larisa Yu.; Kamaleeva, Alsu R.; Gilmeeva, Rimma Kh.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is conditioned by the fact that one of the negative factors, which prevent favorable socialization and successful personal-professional development of students, is the tendency of youth to be prone to addiction the formation of which is affected by various mental states. The paper is aimed to explore the…

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preeclampsia Preeclampsia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... even if you’re feeling fine. What is preeclampsia? Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after ...

  4. Listeriosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria Infection (Listeriosis) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... her background risk. This sheet talks about whether listeriosis may increase the risk for birth defects above ...

  5. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... few days or weeks. This is called bed rest. Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  8. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Vaccines and Pregnancy Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to vaccines may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  9. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-19

    May 19, 2011 ... disorders (invasive mole, placental site trophoblastic tumor ... Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. ... closed cervix and positive cervical excitation tenderness.

  10. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loretta I. Winters; Paul C. Winters

    2012-01-01

    .... No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy...

  11. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn.

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  13. [Liver transplantation and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, A-C; Homer, L

    2010-11-01

    Management during their sexual life of patients with a liver transplantation is a more or less common situation depending centers. Based on literature review, a focus on management of recipient women was conducted, from contraception to pregnancy, describing the complications related to the status of transplant recipient, but also those that may be related to immunosuppressive agents. If fertility and access to contraception are only slightly modified by graft, complications related to graft or immunosuppressive drugs can affect the pregnancy. On the maternal side, hypertension and preeclampsia are more common, as well as renal dysfunction, iatrogenic diabetes and bacterial or viral infections, acute rejection and graft loss do not appear to be influenced by pregnancy. The fetus is also exposed to risks such as induced prematurity and IUGR. Pregnancy in recipients of hepatic grafts therefore requires joint follow-up by transplant specialist and perinatologist, which leads in most cases to successful outcome for mother and child.

  14. Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoxetine (Prozac®) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to fluoxetine may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ... PO Box 70620, Washington, DC 20024-9998 Copyright 2017. All rights reserved. Use of this Web site ...

  16. Pregnancy and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take Steps Team Challenge spin4 crohn’s & colitis cures Camp Oasis Become a Member Volunteer Sponsor Our Research ... toxic effects on the developing fetus or newborn. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON WOMEN WITH IBD Women should ...

  17. Pregnancy and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayed, M; Gordon, C

    2007-11-01

    Pregnancy is an issue that should be discussed with all patients with rheumatic diseases who are in the reproductive age group. Infertility is rarely due to the disease but can be associated with cyclophosphamide therapy. Most rheumatic diseases that are well controlled prior to pregnancy do not deteriorate in pregnancy, providing that the patient continues with appropriate disease-modifying therapy. Some patients with inflammatory arthritis go in to remission during pregnancy. Patients with renal involvement may be at increased risk of disease flare. This needs to be distinguished from pre-eclampsia. Intrauterine growth restriction is more likely in patients with active systemic disease, hypertension, a history of thrombosis and renal involvement. Premature delivery may need to be planned to reduce the risks of stillbirth and can be associated with a variety of neonatal complications. Post-partum flare is common in all the rheumatic diseases.

  18. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share E. coli and Pregnancy Thursday, 20 November 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to E. coli may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  19. Paternal Exposures and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a delay in getting his partner pregnant or infertility. Do paternal exposures before or at the time ... and shoes into the home. This may cause direct exposure to their partners before or during pregnancy. ...

  20. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by getting a preconception checkup , staying at a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured ... We help moms have full-term pregnancies and healthy babies. If something goes wrong, we offer information ...

  2. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... highest pregnancy rates have been reported when the egg and sperm join together within 4 to 6 hours of ... EVALUATING YOUR CERVICAL FLUID Cervical fluid protects the sperm ... to release an egg. There are clear differences in how it looks ...

  3. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  5. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  6. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is very little known about long term effects on children exposed to bupropion during pregnancy. One study has suggested an association between prenatal exposure to bupropion and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There are many factors that contribute to ...

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html( ...

  8. Endoscopy in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'mahony, Seamus

    2012-02-03

    Endoscopy is rarely required during pregnancy. The potential risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include foetal hypoxia due to sedative drugs and exposure to radiation. There is no evidence that endoscopy precipitates premature labour, and studies in this area have concluded that endoscopy during pregnancy is generally safe. There should be a strong indication for the procedure, which should be deferred whenever possible to the second trimester. Procedures should be performed without any sedation, or with the lowest dose of sedative medication. Radiation exposure should be kept to a minimum. Support should be obtained from specialists in obstetrics and anaesthesia. Indications for endoscopy during pregnancy are as follows: (1) gastroscopy: upper gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia, uncontrolled nausea\\/vomiting; (2) sigmoidoscopy\\/colonoscopy: rectal bleeding, diarrhoea; and (3) ERCP: choledocholithiasis, biliary pancreatitis. Sedative drugs, such as midazolam appear to be safe if used carefully. Radiation exposure during ERCP can be kept well below the danger level for teratogenicity.

  9. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  10. Medical problems in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bhaskar; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy. This includes prepregnancy measures such as counselling and optimisation of medical therapy, as well as multidisciplinary management throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute and chronic illness is of clear benefit, and most drugs and many radiological investigations may be used in pregnancy.

  11. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rise in blood pressure in late pregnancy thyroid storm—a sudden, severe worsening of symptoms miscarriage premature ... rarely Because thyroid hormones are crucial to fetal brain and nervous system development, uncontrolled hypothyroidism—especially during ...

  12. Stillbirth in diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2011-01-01

    women. There is thus a need for new strategies for improving glycaemic control to near-normal levels throughout pregnancy and for preventing and treating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Antenatal surveillance tests including ultrasound examinations of the foetal growth rate, kick counting and non......Pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes is associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stillbirth accounts for the majority of cases with perinatal death. Intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, foetal hypoxia and congenital malformations may be contributing factors......, but more than 50% of stillbirths are unexplained. Majority of stillbirths are characterised by suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy. Foetal hypoxia and cardiac dysfunction secondary to poor glycaemic control are probably the most important pathogenic factors in stillbirths among pregnant diabetic...

  13. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about your pregnancy or baby's health. Go Stay in touch Connect with us to hear how you ... Shop Get involved Advocate Give Volunteer Send Ecard In your neighborhood Find an Event Ask a question? ...

  14. Hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guglielmo Borgia; Maria Aurora Carleo; Giovanni Battista Gaeta; Ivan Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 350 million individuals worldwide.Management of HBV infection in pregnancy is difficult because of several peculiar and somewhat controversial aspects.The aim of the present review is to provide a tool that may help physicians to correctly manage HBV infection in pregnancy.This review focuses on (1) the effect of pregnancy on HBV infection and of HBV infection on pregnancy; (2) the potential viral transmission from mother to newborn despite at-birth prophylaxis with immunoglobulin and vaccine; (3) possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission through antiviral drugs,the type of antiviral drug to use considering their efficacy and potential teratogenic effect,and the timing of their administration and discontinuation; and (4) the evidence for the use of elective caesarean section vs vaginal delivery and the possibility of breastfeeding.

  15. Depression and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  16. Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo Fernández, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    Association of hyperthyroidism and pregnancy is not an unusual event, and has an impact on both the mother and fetus. After delivery, it may also affect the newborn and the nursing mother. Clinical management of this situation is quite different from that required by non-pregnant hyperthyroid women and poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This review addresses aspects related to the unique characteristics of biochemical assessment of thyroid function in pregnancy, the potential causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, and the clinical and therapeutic approach in each case. Special attention is paid to pregnancy complicated with Graves' disease and its different the maternal, fetal, neonatal, and postnatal consequences. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neuroinfections and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, V A; Koniaeva, V V

    1985-01-01

    The course of neuroinfections (both acute and chronic) associated with pregnancy was studied in a series of 156 women. The patients were divided into two groups. Out of the 36 women comprising the first group who fell ill during gestation, 12 had a fulminant course of the disease with five lethal cases, 24 women had a subacute course and pregnancy progressed to a normal delivery. The second group included 120 patients who conceived in the presence of the residual manifestations of the previous cerebral arachnoiditis, arachnoencephalitis, encephalitis and diencephalitis. The authors describe the clinical course of the residual forms of neuroinfections in relation to pregnancy, parturition and puerperium and offer recommendations on the obstetrical management of pregnancy complicated by neuroinfections.

  18. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  19. Pregnancy and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control long-term health problems like asthma, diabetes, depression, or seizures. Also, some women have a pregnancy problem that needs treatment with medicine. These problems might include severe nausea and vomiting, ...

  20. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...